WorldWideScience

Sample records for aureus con fenotipo

  1. Fenotipo de asma en obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos-Sánchez Bautista de la cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad y el asma son enfermedades prevalentes a nivel mundial y el aumento de la prevalencia de ambas, constituye un reto en salud pública. Diversos estudios sugieren una asociación en la obesidad y el asma. El objetivo de los autores fue realizar una revisión de la literatura de la evidencia que permita describir el fenotipo de asma en Obesidad. Los estudios sugieren un fenotipo de asma asociado a la obesidad, caracterizado por antecedentes de bajo peso al nacer, inactividad física en la infancia y en los adultos con incremento del IMC con el consecuente establecimiento del sobrepeso u obesidad, incrementando el riesgo de asma incidente y alterando el control clínico del Asma prevalente, reduciendo la respuesta a los esteroides y con respuesta estable a los antileucotrienos.

  2. Evaluación de la eficacia de una intervención para pacientes con EPOC basada en sus fenotipos

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaleno Vidal, Emma

    2015-01-01

    La Enfermedad Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) es una patología de alta prevalencia y morbimortalidad. Estos enfermos necesitan de cuidados múltiples y se ven afectados por aspectos bio-psico-sociales. Dado que las características son diversas dependiendo del fenotipo diagnosticado, se debe realizar un abordaje individualizado. La modificación de hábitos como deshabituación tabáquica, fomento del ejercicio físico y respiratorio, cuidados higiénico-dietéticos, buena adherencia terapéutica y disminuc...

  3. Respuesta terapéutica de pacientes con malaria por plasmodium falciparum a los antimaláricos y fenotipo y genotipo del citocromo p450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Cuesta González

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    En la evaluación de la eficacia a los antimaláricos, la falta
    de concordancia entre el fenotipo observado In vivo en el paciente (respuesta exitosa, falla e In vitro en el parásito (sensible, resistente, sugiere que factores como el metabolismo del medicamento en el hospedero pueden cumplir un papel
    determinante. El metabolismo de varios antimaláricos es
    realizado por el complejo citocromo P-450 (CYP450 en el
    hígado (1 y su actividad es vulnerable a la inhibición y a la
    inducción por: el estado nutricional, el genotipo enzimático y la
    administración concomitante de otros medicamentos (2. La
    amodiaquina (AQ es metabolizada al compuesto activo Ndesetilamodiaquina por el CYP2C8 y la mefloquina (MQ es
    metabolizada a carboximefloquina (su forma de excreción, por
    el CYP3A4; la inhibición del CYP450 puede convertir un metabolismo rápido en lento llevando a concentraciones
    inefectivas del medicamento, mientras que la inducción puede
    acelerar la conversión a su metabolito y favorecer la excreción
    rápida del mismo.

     

     

  4. Estudio del proceso de sensibilidad colateral en células leucémicas murinas y humanas con fenotipo de resistencia a múltiples fármacos (MDR).

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Fernández, David

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La adquisición del fenotipo de resistencia a múltiples fármacos (MDR) en células tumorales las convierte en resistentes a fármacos antineoplásicos y es una de las principales causas del fracaso de la quimioterapia en algunos tumores. La expresión de glicoproteína P (MDR-1, P-gp, ABCB1) contribuye a esta resistencia expulsando los fármacos o regulando la muerte celular programada. Por otro lado, la sobreexpresión de miembros anti-apoptóticos de la familia Bcl-2 observada en tumor...

  5. Cromosoma 9 en Anillo. Correlación Cariotipo - Fenotipo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaralis Arrieta García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un escolar de 9 años que es remitido a la consulta de Genética Clínica por presentar dismorfia facial, retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor y malformaciones congénitas urogenitales. El estudio citogenético reveló defecto estructural con fórmula 46, XY(r 9. Este rearreglo estructural es infrecuente y se desconoce su prevalencia. En el reporte se realiza la correlación fenotipo¿cariotipo y se describe la evolución del paciente. No se encontraron reportes anteriores descritos en el país.

  6. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  7. Un caso de grupo sanguíneo raro: fenotipo p A rare blood group: p phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. De La Vega Elena; Åsa Hellberg; Sofía Bonetti; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Sergio Chialina; Miguel A. Raillon; Mario A. Pivetta; Edita A. Solis; Olsson, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    Un individuo con un fenotipo eritrocitario raro carece de uno o varios antígenos presentes en la mayor parte de la población de pertenencia. Cuando presenta el anticuerpo correspondiente, se pueden producir complicaciones perinatales, transfusionales y/o transplantológicas. Se presenta el caso de una embarazada aloinmunizada derivada a nuestro servicio en la semana 12 de su tercera gesta para su evaluación y seguimiento. El diagnóstico inmunohematológico le asignó el excepcional fenotipo "p" ...

  8. Relación entre quimerismo xx/xy y el fenotipo pseudohermafrodita masculino en porcinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinartz E. Mónica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La causa genética del pseudohermafroditismo no está bien dilucidada, sin embargo se han reportado distintos casos de pseudohermafroditas masculinos los cuales en la mayoría de los casos se han tratado de explicar por efectos hormonales sobre las gónadas en formación durante el desarrollo embrionario. Además se ha explorado poco la relación de este fenotipo con la constitución genómica de los organismos que presentan la disfunción sexual. En el presente trabajo se encontró una fuerte relación entre el quimerismo cromosómico XX/XY y el fenotipo pseudohermafrodita masculino exhibido por dos ejemplares de porcinos Landrace X Largewhite similar a lo encontrado en freemartinismo de bovinos.

  9. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene and relation to phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis Polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10 y su relación con los diferentes fenotipos de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Mendoza

    2006-02-01

    polimorfismos de la IL-10 se correlacionan con las características fenotípicas de la CU. En este trabajo se estudia la relación entre estos polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10 y las diferentes características fenotípicas de la CU. Material y métodos: se estudió una cohorte de 215 pacientes españoles no emparentados que son atendidos habitualmente en la consulta de un único centro hospitalario. Todos los pacientes fueron rigurosamente fenotipados y seguidos clínicamente durante al menos 3 años (tiempo medio de seguimiento 11,8 años. El fenotipaje se realizó antes de conocer el genotipo de los pacientes. El genotipaje se realizó según las técnicas habituales de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados: se incluyeron 129 (60% hombres y 89 (40% mujeres. La edad media en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 38 años, rango (8-83. La extensión de la CU fue colitis izquierda en 127 (59,1% pacientes y extensa en 88 (40,9%. Ninguna de la svariables fenotípicas estudiadas se asoció con la presencia o ausencia de los polimorfismos (microsatélite IL10G14 y homocigoto para el alelo -1082G relacionados con la susceptibilidad a sufrir CU. Conclusiones: en la población española del área de Madrid, los pacientes con CU que son portadores del microsatélite IL10G14 y/o homocigotos -1082G del gen promotor de la IL-10 no se correlacionan con ninguna característica fenotípica de la enfermedad.

  10. Deleciones en el gen de la distrofina en 62 familias colombianas: correlación genotipo-fenotipo para la distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia T. Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La correlación genotipo-fenotipo se estableció mediante el análisis de deleciones del gen de la distrofina en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker (DMD/DMB. OBJETIVOS: Establecer la correlación entre el genotipo molecular y el fenotipo clínico de los pacientes. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 62 afectados mediante amplificaciones por PCR múltiplex de 18 exones ubicados en los dos puntos proclives dentro del gen. RESULTADOS: En la población analizada, 19 pacientes mostraron deleción en el gen de la distrofina con los 18 exones estudiados, esto corresponde a 31% de hombres afectados con deleción. CONCLUSIONES: Teniendo en cuenta la hipótesis del corrimiento del marco de lectura traduccional (CMLT y la mutación observada en los afectados, se pudo determinar que las mutaciones out frame, resultan en pacientes con el fenotipo severo o distrofia muscular de Duchenne y las mutaciones in frame, resultan en pacientes con el fenotipo leve o distrofia muscular de Becker. Se pudo predecir un cuadro clínico de DMD o DMB en 79% de los casos, lo cual permite utilizar este sistema diagnóstico como una herramienta importante para ayudarle a los neurólogos en la valoración clínica de los pacientes en los cuales se encuentra deleciones.

  11. Detección mediante el Sistema DIRAMIC de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM y comparación con otros métodos utilizado en la práctica clínica

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    Ángela Mariana Zayas-Tamayo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La detección temprana de infecciones estafilocócicas resistentes a la meticilina en pacientes hospitalizados es de vital importancia para reducir la tasa de morbilidad, mo rtalidad y costos hospitalarios. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el sistema automatizado DIRAMIC para la detección de aislados clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM y la comparación con otros métodos de detección: el método de difusión con el disco de oxacilina (1 μg se utilizó como método de referencia de acuerdo con las guías del Instituto de Estándares para Laboratorios Clínicos (CLSI, siglas en inglés el crecimiento en medio agar cromogénico selectivo (Oxacillin Resistent Screening Agar Base, ORSAB, aglutinación en látex para detectar la presencia de la proteína (PBP2a y la determinación de la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de la cefoxitina por el método E - test. Se analizaron 113 cepas de Staphylococcus spp aisladas de muestras clínicas procedentes de cuatro hospitales de la provincia de La Habana, durante un periodo de un año. Para comparar los métodos de detección, se determinó la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo así c omo la eficiencia. De las cepas, 100 fueron identificadas como Staphylococcus aureus ; según métodos bioquímicos. Se presentaron 76 cepas fenotipo SARM (76 % y 24 fueron sensibles a meticilina (SASM (24 %, mediante los métodos de crecimiento en medio agar cromogénico selectivo (ORSAB, difusión por disco y aglutinación en látex. El método E - test permitió detectar 69 cepas de SARM (69 % y 31 (31 % SASM. El Sistema DIRAMIC detectó 75 SARM (75 % y 25 (25 % SASM utilizando el disco de oxacilina (1 μg con una sensibilidad del 98 % y especificidad del 100 % y con el disco de cefoxitina (30 μg ocho cepas SARM (8 % y 92 (92 % SASM con una sensibilidad del 10 % y especificidad del 100 %, en comparación con el 100 % de sensibilidad

  12. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Bueno Angulo Marta Lucía

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la poca información ecológica, taxonómica o genética sobre las ardillas colombianas, existen problemas
    sistemáticos aun no resueltos (Emmons LH, 1990, lo cual dificulta la reubicación y/o liberación de ejemplares sin procedencia, provenientes del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre. Estudios cariológicos sirven para detectar variaciones intra e interespecíficas por lo que en este trabajo se busco detectar diferencias cariotípicas entre varios fenotipos Sciurus granatensis. La diferenciación genética en conservación, puede ser una herramienta
    útil en la toma de decisiones en los procesos de liberación de ejemplares capturados, dado que la introducción
    de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales, procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping®. Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42, con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81, por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro

  13. Relación entre el fenotipo PROP, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura, la grasa corporal total y el consumo dietario

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    Nina del Rocío Martínez-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenotipo de degustación PROP (6-n-propiltiuoraucilo ha sido propuesto como un indicador del índice de masa corporal, de adiposidad y del consumo dietario. La relación entre estas variables es contradictoria. Diversos estudios no han encontrado correlación entre el fenotipo PROP, los indicadores corporales y el consumo energético. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la relación entre el estatus PROP, el índice de masa corporal (IMC, la circunferencia de cintura (CC, la grasa corporal total (GC y el consumo de alimentos. El estatus PROP fue determinado utilizando dos escalas: una categórica de nueve puntos y una general de magnitud etiquetada. Los hábitos dietarios de los participantes fueron registrados en línea durante 35 días. La clasificación por fenotipo PROP varió según la escala. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre degustadores y no degustadores PROP, con ambas escalas, en índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, grasa corporal total, ingesta energética y de macronutrientes. El fenotipo PROP no fue factor indicativo del peso corporal, de adiposidad ni de consumo dietario en jóvenes adultos.

  14. El síndrome del cromosoma X Frágil: fenotipo conductual y dificultades de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, María; Cuesta Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se describe el fenotipo conductual de las personas con el Síndrome X Frágil y las repercusiones que tiene en el ámbito educativo. Este síndrome se caracteriza por problemas de integración sensorial, déficits cognitivos (razonamiento verbal, habilidades abstractas/visuales y cuantitativas, memoria a corto plazo, procesamiento secuencial, atención y procesos ejecutivos), trastornos del lenguaje (fonético-fonológicos, semánticos, morfosintácticos y pragmáticos) y de la comunicac...

  15. Acercamiento al método de clonación para obtener el fenotipo de un sensor de fenol

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Amador; William Pineda

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo presenta el estado de la investigación que debe llevar a la clonación artificial de un sensor que mida el índice de viscosidad de fenol en la plantade ECOPETROL en Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se presenta un diagrama de flujo que muestra las etapas generales que los investigadores plantean para cumplir el objetivo y la metodología de construcción del fenotipo del sensor utilizando la teoría de la posibilidad, aplicada por primera vez en los Algoritmos Genéticos con fine...

  16. Acercamiento al método de clonación para obtener el fenotipo de un sensor de fenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Amador

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el estado de la investigación que debe llevar a la clonación artificial de un sensor que mida el índice de viscosidad de fenol en la plantade ECOPETROL en Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se presenta un diagrama de flujo que muestra las etapas generales que los investigadores plantean para cumplir el objetivo y la metodología de construcción del fenotipo del sensor utilizando la teoría de la posibilidad, aplicada por primera vez en los Algoritmos Genéticos con fines de clonación.

  17. Correlación fenotipo neuroanatómico y neurocognitivo en el síndrome de Williams

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    Cristiana Vasconcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Williams (SW es un trastorno genético del neurodesarrollo que se caracteriza por una arquitectura de disociación cognitiva, en la cual importantes déficits de cognición visuo-espacial contrastan con un lenguaje relativamente preservado, buen reconocimiento de caras y buenas habilidades auditivas de memoria a corto plazo. Esta disociación cognitiva ha sido propuesta también para caracterizar la estructura cerebral en el SW. En este estudio, analizamos el fenotipo neurocognitivo y estructural en un grupo con SW y con desarrollo típico. Concretamente, analizamos la relación entre volumetría cerebral de sustancia blanca, sustancia gris y áreas de interés específico (circunvolución temporal superior e hipocampo con el funcionamiento neurocognitivo. Los resultados de este estudio muestran diferencias entre el SW y el grupo control, con respecto al tipo de correlaciones encontradas. Estas diferencias en el patrón de asociación entre variables cerebrales y cognitivas sugieren patrones alterados de desarrollo en el SW.

  18. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  19. Análisis genético y molecular del fenotipo carS en Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ortiz, Luis Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Esta Tesis se plantea dos objetivos principales: 1. Investigar el fenotipo carS mediante el análisis de sus efectos sobre la producción de metabolitos secundarios y sobre el transcriptoma. Para ello se emplearán varios mutantes de fenotipo similar, gener

  20. Doble aneuploidía en un niño Colombiano: síndrome de Down–Klinefelter, con fenotipo de síndrome de Down = Double aneuploidy in a Colombian child: Down-Klinefelter syndrome with Down syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La ocurrencia de una doble aneuploidía en una misma persona es un evento relativamente raro. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete meses de edad, de padres no consanguíneos con características clínicas de síndrome de Down y cariotipo 48XXY.

  1. Deleção 22q11.2 em pacientes com defeito cardíaco conotruncal e fenótipo da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2 Deleción 22q11.2 en pacientes con defecto cardiaco conotruncal y fenotipo del síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2 22q11.2 deletion in patients with conotruncal heart defect and del22q syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintia Iole Nogueira Belangero

    2009-04-01

    índrome de la delación 22q11.2. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron a 29 pacientes por medio de citogenética clásica, por hibridación in situ fluorescente (FISH y también por técnicas moleculares. RESULTADOS: El análisis citogenético por medio de bandeo G reveló cariotipo normal en todos los pacientes, con excepción de uno, que presentó cariotipo 47,XX,+idic(22(q11.2. Con la utilización de técnicas moleculares, se observó la deleción en el 25% de los pacientes, todos portadores del fenotipo del síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2. En ningún de los casos, la deleción se heredó de los padres. La frecuencia de la deleción 22q11.2 en el grupo de pacientes portadores del espectro clínico de este síndrome resultó mayor que en el grupo de pacientes con cardiopatía conotruncal aislada. CONCLUSIÓN: La investigación de la presencia de deleción y su correlación con los datos clínicos de los pacientes pueden auxiliar los pacientes y sus familias a tener un mejor aconsejamiento genético, así como un seguimiento clínico más adecuado.BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most frequent human microdeletion syndrome. The phenotype is highly variable, being characterized by conotruncal heart defect, facial dysmorphisms, velopharyngeal insufficiency, learning difficulties and mental retardation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of deletion 22q11.2 in a Brazilian sample of individuals with isolated conotruncal heart defect and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome phenotype. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients were studied by classical cytogenetics, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and by molecular techniques. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis by G-banding revealed a normal karyotype in all patients except one who presented a 47,XX,+idic(22(q11.2 karyotype. Using molecular techniques, a deletion was observed in 25% of the patients, all exhibiting a 22q11.2 deletion syndrome phenotype. In none of the cases the deletion was inherited from

  2. Estudio de los efectos de la reducción de la expresión de Dyrk1A, mediante interferencia de RNA, sobre el fenotipo motor del model transgénico TgDyrk1A. Implantación de kis receptores glutamatérgicos de tipo NMDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Abalia, Jon

    2008-01-01

    DYRK1A es uno de los principales genes candidatos que podrían explicar algunos de los defectos neurológicos asociados al fenotipo Síndrome de Down (SD); desde el retraso mental, rasgo común a todos los individuos con SD hasta los déficits motores, también muy frecuentes entre la población con SD. Con el fin de validar la implicación de DYRK1A en el fenotipo SD se ha desarrollado una estrategia de terapia génica basada en la reducción de la expresión del gen mediante interferencia del RNA, en ...

  3. Un caso de grupo sanguíneo raro: fenotipo p A rare blood group: p phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. De La Vega Elena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un individuo con un fenotipo eritrocitario raro carece de uno o varios antígenos presentes en la mayor parte de la población de pertenencia. Cuando presenta el anticuerpo correspondiente, se pueden producir complicaciones perinatales, transfusionales y/o transplantológicas. Se presenta el caso de una embarazada aloinmunizada derivada a nuestro servicio en la semana 12 de su tercera gesta para su evaluación y seguimiento. El diagnóstico inmunohematológico le asignó el excepcional fenotipo "p" (aproximadamente 1/200 000 individuos, asociado con una mayor tasa de abortos espontáneos y a reacciones transfusionales graves cuando se transfunden unidades incompatibles. El estudio del gen A4GALT demostró la presencia de la mutación c.752C > T en doble dosis. Esta mutación lleva a un cambio de una prolina por una leucina en el residuo 251 de la 4-α-galactosiltransferasa. Por parto inducido por sufrimiento fetal, nace a las 36 semanas una bebé con prueba de antiglobulina (Coombs directa negativa, eluido reactivo, con ictericia que requirió luminoterapia. Una semana después el neonato fue externado sin secuelas aparentes. Posteriormente, a raíz de una cirugía inminente y la improbabilidad de encontrar sangre compatible, se elaboró un plan para cubrir las posibles demandas. Este caso pone en evidencia la necesidad de contar a nivel nacional con un laboratorio de referencia de inmunohematología y un banco de sangre de grupos raros, que permita resolver con celeridad situaciones que requieran transfundir a estos individuos.A rare blood group is usually defined as the absence of a high prevalence antigen or the absence of several antigens within a single blood group system. These individuals may develop clinically significant red cell antibodies to the high incidence red cell antigens they lack. A 33-year-old alloimmunized woman was referred to our center at the 12th week of her third pregnancy for evaluation and follow up. The laboratory

  4. Revisión e interpretación de la relación genotipo-fenotipo para la molécula de RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar-Sarmiento Iván

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad que tiene el RNA para plegarse hacia una estructura de mínimo de energía libre, autorreplicarse y cumplir funciones catalíticas, utilizando la información registrada en su secuencia de nucleótidos, ha permitido que sea tomada como un modelo ideal en las relaciones
    genotipo-fenotipo, a nivel molecular. Los experimentos in vitro o diseño de moléculas, se ocupan de la exploración del espacio de secuencias en busca de moléculas con actividad catalítica sin tener en cuenta la estructura que la realiza; mientras que la evolución in silico se ha ocupado
    en establecer propiedades robustas de la relación entre el espacio de secuencias y el espacio de formas, involucrando dinámica evolutiva de poblaciones de RNA e incorporando a las formas (fenotipos en los procesos evolutivos. Este documento pretende mostrar que la molécula de RNA es una entidad autónoma con capacidad de adquirir información de su entorno para optimizar
    una forma y una función; mediante el uso de la metáfora del Demonio de Maxwell o Sistema Recolector y Usuario de Información (IGUS que utiliza las Teorías de Información de Shannon y de Algorítmica de la Información de Chaitin como una aproximación a la actividad “demoníaca”. Una revisión conceptual entre los resultados de los experimentos in vitro e in silico es indispensable para entender mejor la relación secuencia-forma-entorno y sus efectos a escala ontogenética y evolutiva.

  5. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lozano C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entre 4 y 15 años. El 50% tenía diagnóstico previo de asma sin uso regular de corticoesteroides inhalados en dos tercios. Hospitalizaciones previas por asma en el 40%. La etiología de la exacerbación fue identificada en el 52% siendo los agentes más frecuentes Rhinovirus, Metapneumovius, VRS y Mycoplasma pneumoniae. El perfil inflamatorio fue determinado en 33 niños: eosinofílico en 36% y eosinoflico/neutroflico en 64%. Comentario: El asma severa con exacerbaciones graves sería un fenotipo cuyos aspectos destacados en esta cohorte serían: niños con hospitalizaciones previas, falta de tratamiento profiláctico, infección viral como desencadenante frecuente, patrón inflamatorio combinado del esputo y rinitis atópica.Background: The magnitude of response to treatment of asthma exacerbations is variable and a significant proportion of them need hospitalization. Objectives: to define the profile of children that were hospitalized for severe asthma and the possible indicators and determinants of their poor responsiveness. Methods: a prospective study in 60 children 4 years or more of age with a search of the ethiology of the exacerbation and a study of the inflammatory profile in sputum. Results: 60 children between 4 and 15 years. 50% had a previous diagnosis of asthma without regular use of inhaled corticosteroids in two thirds. 40% had previous admissions for asthma. Etiology of the exacerbation was identified in 52% with Rhinovirus, human

  6. Estudio preliminar de las relaciones entre los espacios de secuencias, de formas y de tareas en proteínas: hacia una comprensión de los flujos informativos entre el genotipo y el fenotipo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Ortiz Guillermo Andrés

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available El problema del plegamiento de proteínas y la interacción de éstas con el medio circundante, se aborda por medio de un seguimiento de relaciones entre los espacios de secuencias, formas y tareas en proteínas. La definición de un espacio de metatareas permite enmarcar de manera global la consecución de un fenotipo proteico a partir del código digital. Las características de la metatarea son comparables a las de una red de escala libre, el nacimiento de una nueva función se da en mayor medida por los cambios modulares en la red que por la deriva mutacional en el espacio de secuencias. Cuando se parte de la hipótesis de que las proteínas pueden actuar como un ente cognitivo (IGUS, la metatarea puede entenderse como una red autoorganizante que a su vez hace lecturas del medio para configurar un fenotipo dado.

  7. Valor del hemograma en el seguimiento clínico del paciente con neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica por staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Fernández, Ana

    2013-01-01

    La infección por s. Aureus supone un problema de salud pública sobre todo desde la aparición de cepas SARM. La NAV es una de las patologías más frecuentes en el paciente crítico ingresado en UCI, siendo el S. Eureus uno de los principales microorganismos causantes de NAV. Se esta´n estudiando numerosos marcadores que permiten predecir la evolución en pacientes con infecciones graves. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo donde se evaluan las subpoblaciones leucocitadas sobre la mortalidad en p...

  8. Acercamiento a una perspectiva biosemiótica sobre la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La etología ha recurrido a la psicología comparada y la genética para entender el comportamiento animal, sin
    embargo para poder contribuir a la teoría evolutiva debe enmarcarse dentro de una perspectiva biosemiótica.
    Este trabajo es un intento de interpretar la conducta animal en conjunción con las teorías “clásicas” -Niko
    Tinbergen y Konrad Lorenz-, la teoría de sistemas en desarrollo (TDS y la psicología comparada, para mostrar
    que la conducta es el agente por excelencia de la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos. La perspectiva
    biosemiótica es compatible enteramente con la TSD e integra a todas las anteriores, genética, psicología, etología clásica. Una visión integrada, considera que la información presente en el ADN requiere de las dinámicas
    catalíticas celulares para poder ser leída e interpretada; convirtiéndose en la base de la organización fenotípica
    en la que convergen un conjunto de jerarquías autorreferentes que regulan, modulan y coordinan la expresión genética a lo largo de la ontogenia del individuo. La selección orgánica de Baldwin define la relación con el
    entorno y esta fundamentada en ajustes a nivel fisiológico-anatómico en acople con los sistemas metabólicos
    celulares. Estos niveles fenotípicos median las relaciones organismo-entorno a través del comportamiento, el
    cual hace que la información del medio ambiente se reciba, codifique e interprete para definir las acciones correspondientes que la devuelven al entorno. Estos procesos son indispensables para el mantenimiento de los organismos individuales que cooperan en la formación y selección de paisajes asimilativos/interpretativos
    (paisajes de Umwelt y asimilación genética, asegurando determinadas líneas de variación para las generaciones
    subsiguientes. En consecuencia, los organismos son codificadores y usuarios de información, a la vez
    que son capaces de

  9. Genes relacionados con el rendimiento físico

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve Lanao, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    El rendimiento humano es el producto de múltiples factores, siendo la herencia un aspecto muy importante. Una de las vías de estudio utiliza hermanos gemelos, atribuyendo las diferencias de fenotipos a factores ambientales. De forma similar aunque con muestras mayores se estudian semejanzas familiares en factores compartidos a nivel genético y ambiental. Con los avances en el estudio del genoma, lo que se intenta es descomponer la influencia que tiene un gen determinado en una función concret...

  10. Análisis de la inestabilidad de microsatélites mediante el marcador BAT-26 en una muestra de pacientes del Hospital Universitario de Santander con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico o colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Cárdenas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vía de inestabilidad de microsatélites se ha encontrado sobre todo en cánceres de vías digestivas, de los cuales 90% de los casos pertenecen a pacientes con cáncer hereditario y 15% con cáncer esporádico. De ella se deriva un fenotipo denominado de inestabilidad de microsatélites (IMI+ o fenotipo de error de la replicación (RER+ que induce a la acumulación de mutaciones en tasas más elevadas a las normales. Objetivos: Identificar la presencia del fenotipo IMI+ en los pacientes analizados y evaluar su relación con la diferenciación histopatológica del tumor porque en conjunto han sido asociados con un mejor pronóstico y una mejor respuesta al tratamiento dado. Metodología: Se extrajo ADN de las muestras de sangre (células normales y las biopsias de tumor (células tumorales de los 23 pacientes que se pudieron incluir para el estudio y mediante la amplificación por PCR y posterior electroforesis capilar; se tipificó el microsatélite mononucleotídico BAT-26, empleado por su sensibilidad para descubrir el fenotipo IMI+. Finalmente se hizo una correlación estadística según la presencia (IMI+ o ausencia (IMI- del fenotipo, con los hallazgos histopatológicos utilizando la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, 4 (17% presentaron IMI+: 3 de ellos con cáncer colorrectal (2 casos posiblemente con cáncer hereditario y uno con cáncer gástrico. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre el fenotipo IMI+ con el diagnostico patológico, la edad, el sexo y la diferenciación histopatológica del tumor. Conclusión: Se encontró el fenotipo IMI+ en 17% de los casos, sin asociación con el grado de diferenciación histopatológica del tumor, posiblemente por el reducido número de muestras tipificadas, por lo cual es indispensable revisar los métodos de fijación, parafinación y almacenamiento de tejidos, pues las técnicas actuales dificultan la digestión de la proteinaza k y la PCR.

  11. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Diaz R.; Gustavo Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus) microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con c...

  12. El síndrome de Kallmann. Correlación fenotipo-genotípica.

    OpenAIRE

    García Piñero, Alfonso José

    2015-01-01

    El Síndrome de Kallmann (SK) es una enfermedad genética del desarrollo, que asocia un hipogonadismo hipogonadotrópico (HH) congénito con pérdida total (anosmia) o parcial (hiposmia) del olfato. La alteración olfativa es secundaria a la aplasia o hipoplasia de las estructuras olfatorias (bulbos, tractos y surcos cerebrales olfatorios). El HH se debe a la deficiencia en la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas hipotalámica (GnRH) como resultado del fallo en la migración de las neuronas productor...

  13. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  15. VARIACIÓN CARIOLÓGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ARANGO

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels’ fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  16. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacón Marcos Nicolás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels' fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  18. Validez de los criterios DSM-IV según respuesta de los padres en el diagnóstico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Villalobos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Objetivos: Estudiar la validez para el diagnóstico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH, de cada uno de los ítems DSM-IV y buscar un modelo reducido de ítems que ayude a detectar casos de niños con TDAH. Sujetos y método. Se utilizan los datos de un estudio epidemiológico sobre TDAH con una muestra de 1095 casos. El 6.6% son TDAH. Casos de TDAH definidos según ADHD RS-IV y criterios clínicos DSM-IV. Controles definidos por exclusión. Resultados. El modelo de regresión logística que mejor predice el fenotipo inatento está compuesto por los ítems del ADHD RS-IV (versión padres 1, 3, 9, 15 y 17 (Se: 96.7%, Es: 81.5%; el fenotipo hiperactivo/impulsivo por los ítems 2, 4, 10, 12, 14 y 16 (Se: 96.6%, Es: 81% y el fenotipo combinado por los ítems 9, 10, 12, 14 y 15 (Se: 100 %, Es: 82.6%. Existe una reducción del 66% de los ítems en el fenotipo combinado. Conclusiones. Es posible reducir la lista de síntomas de TDAH con unos niveles de validez adecuados y determinados ítems parecen tener mayor capacidad para determinar decisiones diagnósticas

  19. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...... patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p...% of patients with S. aureus IE (p =0.05). In conclusion, CoNS IE was associated with a long diagnostic delay and high in-hospital mortality, whereas post-discharge prognosis was better in this group of patients compared to patients with IE due to S. aureus....

  20. Aspectos metodológicos de la identificación de genes relacionados con el lenguaje : cuestiones concernientes a la definición del fenotipo

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Burraco, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    La caracterización neurobiológica del lenguaje y la determinación de la etiología de los diferentes trastornos de carácter hereditario resultantes de su disfunción pasan necesariamente por la identificación (y la caracterización estructural y funcional) de los genes que intervienen en la regulación del desarrollo (y el funcionamiento) del sustrato neuronal del primero y cuya mutación constituye un factor causal significativo, o de riesgo, en la aparición de los segundos. Para e...

  1. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Lozano C; Leticia Yáñez P; Michelangelo Lapadula A; Carlos Fernández C; Alex Alcántara P; Pilar Rodríguez G; Felipe Burgos F; Dolores Zúñiga P; Mónica Lafourcade R

    2012-01-01

    La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entr...

  2. Acercamiento a una perspectiva biosemiótica sobre la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio; Fierro Toscano Yusleni

    2007-01-01

    La etología ha recurrido a la psicología comparada y la genética para entender el comportamiento animal, sin
    embargo para poder contribuir a la teoría evolutiva debe enmarcarse dentro de una perspectiva biosemiótica.
    Este trabajo es un intento de interpretar la conducta animal en conjunción con las teorías “clásicas” -Niko
    Tinbergen y Konrad Lorenz-, la teoría de sistemas en desarrollo (TDS) y la psicología comparada, para mostrar
    que la co...

  3. Comparison of the BD Phoenix System with the Cefoxitin Disk Diffusion Test for Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mencacci, Antonella; Montecarlo, Ines; Gonfia, Francesca; Moretti, Amedeo; Cardaccia, Angela; Farinelli, Senia; Pagliochini, Maria Rita; Giuliani, Angela; Basileo, Michela; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Bistoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The BD Phoenix system was compared to the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin (meticillin) resistance in 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus and 1,121 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) clinical isolates. The sensitivity for Phoenix was 100%. The specificities were 99.86% for S. aureus and 88.4% for CoNS.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S....... aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...

  5. VARIANTE TRICOLEUCÉMICA DE CÉLULAS B, CON RESTRICCIÓN ISOTÍPICA KAPPA Y AFECTACIÓN DÉRMICA.

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González; Carmen Alonso-San Pablo; Montserrat Pérez; Dr. Ernesto Moro-Rodríguez,; Inmaculada de Prada-Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Resumen: Se presenta un caso inusual de una variante de leucemia de células peludas en una mujer de 75 años de edad que debutó con una infiltración dérmica de 15 meses de evolución con lesiones violáceas que se desarrollaron de forma progresiva en ambas mamas hasta ocasionar la deformidad de la areola. Se realizó una biopsia de la lesión cuntánea que se complementó con un estudio ultraestructural. Los marcadores inmunológicos en sangre periférica determinaron un fenotipo de células B con rest...

  6. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav. Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja proveniente de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas

    2014-06-01

    Se determinó que la desinfección con 2,5% de Ca(ClO2 fue la mejor para el establecimiento in vitro; el mejor medio de cultivo para la micropropagación del material fue el M1, compuesto por sales MS(1962 al 100%, sacarosa al 3%, phytagel® 1,8g/L, 0,5mg/L de AG3, 0,25mg/L de BAP y 2,0 mg/L de PaCa, el cual presentó el mejor balance entre el número promedio de brotación/explante y el número promedio de entrenudos/explante, sin formación excesiva de callo, mientras que el medio de cultivo E5, constituido por sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 6,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento y el medio de cultivo E6, que incluía las sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 8,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento, mostraron el periodo más corto para la formación de raíces, el mayor número promedio de raíces y la mayor longitud promedio de raíz y tallo.

  7. Síndrome de Williams-Beuren. Enfoque diagnóstico a través del fenotipo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angelina Lacruz-Rengel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen (español El síndrome de Williams-Beuren es un trastorno genético del desarrollo neurológico que incluye diferentes manifestaciones clínicas como retardo en el crecimiento e intelectual, cardiopatía congénita y rasgo facial distintivo. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características clínicas que conducen a su diagnóstico, conocer su evolución fenotípica y las medidas terapéuticas adecuadas. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, tipo serie de casos, en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Williams-Beuren, evaluados en el Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, durante enero de 2000 a junio de 2014. El principal motivo de consulta fue la presencia de dismorfía facial y cardiopatía congénita, en la totalidad de los casos. La estenosis de la arteria pulmonar bilateral fue el tipo de cardiopatía congénita más frecuente en 4/7 pacientes. El síndrome de Williams-Beuren es una entidad genética que muestra un amplio espectro de características clínicas. Conocer todos estos hallazgos permite realizar el diagnóstico, ofrecer una adecuada atención médica, psicoterapéutica y educativa que permite mejorar su calidad de vida, sobrevida e inserción a la sociedad Abstract (english Williams-Beuren syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that includes different clinical manifestations as growth retardation and intellectual, congenital heart disease and distinctive facial features. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features that leading to their diagnosis, know their phenotypic evolution and provide appropriate treatment. A retrospective, descriptive case series study, which included all patients with a diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome, evaluated in the Autonomous Institute University Hospital of Los Andes, from January 2000 to June 2014 was performed. The main complaint was the presence of facial dysmorphic and

  8. La comunicación expresiva en niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra GRAZONA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo centrada en niños con multidiscapacidad que se comunican a través de canales no visuales y no verbales. A partir de la pregunta central respecto a: ¿Cómo dan a conocer el contenido de sus mensajes los niños con multidiscapacidad que no poseen lenguaje verbal?, implementamos un estudio con dos fases complementarias y de convergencia metodológica. La primera, amparada en el paradigma positivista, en la que realizamos un acercamiento objetivo a la realidad y por medio de la operacionalización de los conceptos teóricos. en la segunda fase, profundizamos a través de la Metodología de estudio de Caso (9 en total y con un anclaje en el paradigma fenomenológico-interpretativo. El objetivo perseguido fue: Conocer las formas comunicativas de niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal, por ello privilegiamos el análisis en profundidad a partir de la utilización de diferentes técnicas que permitieron el acercamiento a los niños en ambientes naturales y triangular la información para proporcionar fiabilidad y validez. Las mencionadas etapas permitieron obtener un conocimiento holístico de las formas comunicativas idiosincráticas utilizadas por los niños con multidiscapacidad, que, a modo de bisagra, constituyen su fenotipo comunicativo.

  9. Estudio de la función telomérica y de moléculas relacionadas con invasión en tumores gástricos con y sin inestabilidad en microsatélites

    OpenAIRE

    Pascua García, Irene

    2015-01-01

    El cáncer de estómago es uno de los tipos tumorales con mayor incidencia a nivel mundial, y el tercero en número de muertes por cáncer. A nivel molecular, las principales vías carcinogénicas implicadas en el desarrollo del cáncer gástrico, la vía supresora y la vía del fenotipo mutador, dan lugar al desarrollo de tumores con distintas características clínicopatológicas que confieren un pronóstico clínico diferente a los pacientes afectados. Nuestro estudio fue realizado en una población de ...

  10. Análisis numérico sobre esfuerzos y áreas de contacto en una PTR Scorpio II® Stryker®. Base para el diseño de PTR personalizada al fenotipo Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez-Martínez

    2013-06-01

    acuerdo con el fenotipo mexicano.Palabras clave: simulación numérica; desgaste; presión de contacto; inserto femoral; plato tibial.Abstract: The Wear of UHMWPE inserts continues affecting the longevity of total knee replacements (TKR together with septic loosening, constitute the two main causes of prosthesis failure. Bearing this in mind, it is necessary to find appropriate solutions to avoid excessive wear and even the rupture of polyethylene inserts. In this work a study was carried out by means of numeric simulation of a Scorpio II® Stryker® TKR, which was removed due to wearing of the UHMWPE insert in the Hospital 1° de Octubre of ISSSTE in Mexico city. Hypotheses of Bartel et al. (1995 and Chillag et al. (1991 were used to validate the numerical method applied, proving that wear of polyethylene can decrease using thicker tibial inserts, which reduces contact pressures. The analyses of this work carried out by means of  FEM employing inserts of thicknesses of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm, putting quasi-static axial loads on the articulation with no degree of flexion and loads equivalent to 1.33 times the bodyweight of a subject of 75 kg (736 N, proved under regular walking conditions drew  similar results to those reported by Bei et al. (2004 and Deen et al. (2006. After validating the method, a model of study case of TKR in FEM was developed and the points of effort and contact areas of UHMWPE were identified. Thus, important information was obtained to modify the design, as well as to produce a prosthesis of optimal geometrical conformity in both, the coronal and the sagital planes of the femoral and UHMWPE inserts, complying with the requirements of the Mexican phenotype.Key words: Numerical simulation; wear; contact pressure; femoral insert; tibial tray; UHMWPE;  geometrical conformity

  11. Modelo computacional para la identificación de endofenotipos en pacientes con artritis reumatoide utilizando información del antígeno leucocitario humano HLA clase II

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Muñoz, Luis Antonio

    2014-01-01

    La Artritis Reumatoide es una enfermedad autoinmune que afecta del 0.4% al 1% de la población humana y existen marcadores genéticos implicados en esta enfermedad. Se han utilizado varios modelos de inteligencia computacional para la clasificación e identificación de endofenotipos (relación entre fenotipo y marcadores genéticos) en pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y controles sanos a partir de información genética, principalmente el HLA DRB1 (Antígeno Leucocitario Humano), así como la teoría ...

  12. Biomarcadores de la inflamación en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Efecto del control glucémico y del fenotipo de las LDL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinagre Torres, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen las complicaciones más prevalentes en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y son las que se asocian con mayor morbi-mortalidad. Los mecanismos responsables del desarrollo acelerado de arteriosclerosis en los pacientes con DM2 no se conocen con precisión, pero tanto la dislipemia aterogénica y la inflamación de bajo grado características de esta población, están implicados. La información sobre la relación del grado de control glucémico...

  13. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  14. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  15. Staphylococcus aureus triggered reactive arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siam, A R; M. Hammoudeh

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report two patients who developed reactive arthritis in association with Staphylococcus aureus infection. METHODS--A review of the case notes of two patients. RESULTS--Two adult female patients have developed sterile arthritis in association with Staph aureus infection. The first patient has had two episodes of arthritis; the first followed olecranon bursitis, the second followed infection of a central venous catheter used for dialysis. The second patient developed sterile arth...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

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    James Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.

  17. Correlación fenotipo-genotipo de variantes génicas en síndrome metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Antolí Royo, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La importancia del Síndrome Metabólico viene dada por el aumento del riesgo cardiovascular que genera, con un aumento de la mortalidad, y por su alta prevalencia. Esto ha llevado a investigar diferentes factores genéticos que puedan estar implicados en la resistencia insulínica y la obesidad. Nuestro objetivo ha sido encontrar una asociación entre determinados polimorfismos genéticos, como son la IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, PPAR-γ y TNF-α, y su relación con el Síndrome Metabólico (según l...

  18. Acquisition of high-level mupirocin resistance in CoNS following nasal decolonization with mupirocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, David J; Vogely, H Charles; Severs, Tim T; Troelstra, Annet; Kusters, Johannes G; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between mupirocin use and plasmid-based high-level resistance development mediated through mupA in CoNS has not been quantified. We determined acquisition of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and CoNS in surgery patients treated peri-operatively with mupirocin

  19. Mild Staphylococcus aureus skin infection improves the course of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and ev

  20. Host-adaptive evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Bethan Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry and bovine and ovine mastitis, which are a large economic burden on the broiler chicken and dairy farming industries. The population structure of S. aureus associated with humans has been well studied. However, despite the prevalence of S. aureus infections in ...

  1. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  2. Prevention of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ S. aureus colonizes the skin and mucosae of a proportion of the human population. Carriers of S. aureus are at increased risk of developing infections with this pathogen. The aim of this thesis was to add to the prevention of healthcare associated S. aureus infections.

  3. VARIANTE TRICOLEUCÉMICA DE CÉLULAS B, CON RESTRICCIÓN ISOTÍPICA KAPPA Y AFECTACIÓN DÉRMICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presenta un caso inusual de una variante de leucemia de células peludas en una mujer de 75 años de edad que debutó con una infiltración dérmica de 15 meses de evolución con lesiones violáceas que se desarrollaron de forma progresiva en ambas mamas hasta ocasionar la deformidad de la areola. Se realizó una biopsia de la lesión cuntánea que se complementó con un estudio ultraestructural. Los marcadores inmunológicos en sangre periférica determinaron un fenotipo de células B con restricción istópica kappa. Instaurado el tratamiento con interferón alfa2b las lesiones cutáneas regresaron a las tres semana en su totalidad aunque persistió la afectación sistémica falleciendo con enfermedad activa a los 5 meses del diagnóstico.

  4. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  5. Disferlinopatía: cuantificación clínica evolutiva y correlación fenotipo-genotipo

    OpenAIRE

    Paradas López, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    La disferlina es una proteína que se descubrió en 1998, sin embargo los cuadros clínicos determinados por un déficit de disferlina se comenzaron a describir a finales de los años 60. Al ser una enfermedad relativamente reciente existen pocas descripciones de series amplias de pacientes con el diagnóstico confirmado mediante el estudio inmunohistoquímico y genético. Respecto a las características evolutivas clínicas y radiológicas en las disferlinopatías, lo que se conoce hasta el momento se b...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  8. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  9. Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus in north of Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Marwan Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study was conducted to update the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among human clinical S.aureus isolates recovered from Northern Palestine,to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin-Resistant S.aureus (VRSA)and vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VISA)and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these clinical isolates.Methods:The in vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 204 non-duplicate S.aureus isolates from clinical samples in North of Palestine were determined by the disk-diffusion method.These samples were isolated between June 2006 and December 2007.The minimum inhibitory con-centration (MIC)of vancomycin for 115 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)strains was carried out using the agar dilution method.Results:One hundred and fifteen (56.4 %)of these isolates were MRSA and ac-cording to their antibiotic profile these are multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more non-β-lactam antibiotics). Ninety nine (43.6 %)isolates were methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA),forty four of MSSA isolates (44.4 %) were multidrug resistant,while forty five (45.6 %)were non multidrug resistant.Our results showed that the most common resistance (95.6 %)was to penicillin.Two strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin-intermediate resistant,had MIC of 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL and these vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VI-SA)are resistant to all antibiotics tested.Conclusion:According to our information this is the first study report about VISA in Palestine.

  10. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  11. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  12. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  13. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  14. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Leonardo da Cunha; Joaquim César Teixeira Fernandes; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; Adriana Rhoden; Elsio Wunder Jr.; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  17. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  18. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  2. Identificación de mutaciones y diagnóstico molecular de portadoras en familias mexicanas con distrofia muscular Duchenne/Becker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canizales

    2008-01-01

    Discusión o Conclusión: El porcentaje de eliminaciones genéticas en los pacientes estudiados fue menor al reportado en otras poblaciones. Un estudio con un mayor número de individuos permitirá saber sí esta baja frecuencia es característica de nuestra población. El uso de estudios de ligamiento genético y de RT-PCR aumenta la posibilidad de definir el estado portador en mujeres pertenecientes a familias con DMD/BMD y así poder ofrecerles un adecuado consejo genético. Este es el primer trabajo realizado en México, donde se usó el RT-PCR como herramienta diagnóstica en esta distrofia, se identificó por primera vez, a nivel molecular, un paciente con Síndrome de genes continuos y se demostró un empalme alternativo en un paciente con esta miopatía para explicar su fenotipo.

  3. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  4. Portadores nasofaríngeos de Neisseria meningitidis en trabajadores con riesgo ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los portadores de Neisseria meningitidis constituyen la principal fuente de infección y transmisión de la enfermedad meningocócica. Conocer su prevalencia, las características de las cepas aisladas y los factores de riesgos asociados con el estado de portador, aportan datos valiosos al control y vigilancia epidemiológica de esta entidad clínica. Para cumplimentar los objetivos propuestos se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo de portadores de N. meningitidis en 112 trabajadores de un centro de producción de biofarmacéuticos de La Habana, con edades comprendidas entre 18_60 años. Previo a su realización se cumplió con las exigencias bioéticas requeridas para este tipo de estudio. A todos se les realizó un exudado nasofaríngeo y una encuesta, donde se indagó sobre factores de riesgo (edad, sexo, hacinamiento, hábito de fumar, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, amigdalectomía y antecedentes de infección respiratoria que favorecen la condición del portador. La identificación de las cepas de N. meningitidis se realizó según métodos convencionales, la clasificación de los serogrupos se hizo por aglutinación en láminas portaobjetos con antisueros comerciales y para la identificación de los serotipos y subtipos se empleó un ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA de células enteras con anticuerpos monoclonales. Se detectó un 8% de portadores de N. meningitidis con predominio del serogrupo B (77,8% y el fenotipo más frecuente fue el B:4:P1.4 (33,3%. Al analizar el estado de portador y su asociación con los factores de riesgo, la edad (p = 0,05 y el sexo (p = 0,013 mostraron diferencias significativas. Se demostró la posibilidad del riesgo ocupacional en aquellos individuos que por su profesión están en contacto con microorganismos patógenos

  5. Dietary Habits of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus L.) in the Eastern Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Bošković; Marcela Šperanda; Tihomir Florijančić; Nikica Šprem; Siniša Ozimec; Dražen Degmečić; Dinko Jelkić

    2013-01-01

    In the past fifteen years, a considerable increase in size of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population has been recorded in the eastern part of Croatia. Dietary habits have been determined in the period 2008-2011 by analysing the content of 238 stomachs. Golden jackal is typical omnivorous and opportunistic forager which consumes easiest accessible food, according to season and habitat, primary animal food, such as carcasses, rodents and meat waste. Parts of big game animals were found con...

  6. Evaluación del perfil genómico de la plataforma de investigación basada en PAM50 y miRNAs en el cáncer de mama en mujeres jóvenes (< 35 años): Correlación con parámetros clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    El cáncer de mama de mujeres jóvenes (≤ 35 años) se ha evidenciado más agresivo que el de mujeres mayores, y con peor pronóstico a corto/largo plazo. Sin embargo, si el cáncer de mama en jóvenes es una entidad biológica distinta o simplemente un reflejo de un mayor porcentaje de casos con fenotipos agresivos es actualmente un motivo de controversia. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar si esta mayor agresividad se debe a la activación de vías genéticas diferentes en los tumores de muje...

  7. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects we

  8. The cell surface proteome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a wide spread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of life-threatening diseases. To obtain a better understanding of the global mechanisms for pathogenesis and to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions, the S. aureus proteom

  9. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  10. “Meningitis por Staphylococcus aureus”. Estudio comparativo entre Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos Añón, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    La meningitis por S.aureus (MSA) es una infección infrecuente cuya incidencia está aumentando por las cepas SAMR (MSAMR). Publicamos un estudio multicéntrico, tipo caso-control que incluyó 86 M-SAMR y 134 M-SAMS. El estudio comparativo no detectó diferencias en la patologia basal ni en la clínica; aunque M-MRSA fue con más frecuencia neuroquirúrgica y polimicrobiana y cursó con alteración mental; mientras que la respuesta inflamatoria y la bacteriemia fueron menos frecuen...

  11. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    . The localization of blaZ was determined by Southern blotting in 108 isolates. Results: All penicillin-resistant strains carried blaZ and showed a similar organization of blaR1 and blaZ. The blaZ gene was localized to a plasmid in only 16 of the resistant strains. Sixty-nine sequences representing 105 isolates......Objectives: To elucidate the diversity and evolutionary history of plasmid- and chromosomally-located blaZ, to detect indications of frequent exchange of blaZ between human and bovine staphylococci and to estimate the frequency of transfer of blaZ between coagulase-negative staphylococci (Co......NS) and Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. Methods: blaZ was detected in 143 strains of penicillin-resistant S. aureus and CoNS from five Danish cattle herds (n = 25/23), random CoNS isolates from Denmark (n = 37), a collection of S. aureus from six different countries (n = 52), humans in Denmark (n = 3) and beta...

  12. Deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa en un paciente con síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Cammarata Scalisi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Down, es una alteración genética que ocurre cuando un individuo exhibe todo o una parte específica adicional del cromosoma 21 y es la entidad más frecuentemente asociada a retardo mental. La deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, es el defecto enzimático más común en humanos y presenta patrón de herencia ligado al cromosoma X recesivo. Se debe a la mutación del gen G6PD, el cual causa diversos fenotipos bioquímicos y clínicos. Reportamos un caso de lactante menor masculino, evaluado en la Unidad de Genética Médica de la Universidad de Los Andes, con el diagnóstico de deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa con doble mutación A376G y G202A y síndrome de Down con estudio citogenético 47, XY, +21. Palabras clave:Síndrome de Down; deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa; G6PD; A37G6; G202A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with Down syndrome Abstract Down syndrome, is a genetic disorder that occurring when an individual exhibits all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21 and the most common entity associated mental retardation. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, is the most common human enzyme defect and has a X-linked recessive inheritance. Due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. We reported a case of child male, evaluated in the Unit of Medical Genetics of the University of The Andes, with diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with double mutation A376G and G202A and Down syndrome with cytogenetic study 47, XY, + 21.

  13. Presentación atípica de piomiositis tropical difusa de psoas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ray Ticse; Weymar Melgarejo; Alfredo Fuentes-Dávila; Jesús Ortíz; Jaime Zegarra

    2012-01-01

    La piomiositis tropical difusa primaria es una enfermedad de presentación infrecuente en nuestro medio, con pocos casos asociados a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, adquirido en la comunidad (MRSA-AC). Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, con tratamiento irregular para diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de diez días de evolución, con dolor lumbar irradiado a miembro inferior izquierdo, fiebre y flexión forzada de la cadera derecha por...

  14. Cuidados con el anciano con tos productiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa de Moura, María Lucia

    2005-01-01

    A partir de las informaciones y con la motivación para hacer un estudio dirigido a los cuidados con el anciano, sigue la necesidad del desarrollo de acciones pertinentes para la práctica de cuidar, o sea, la asistencia de enfermería prestada directamente al anciano, principalmente a aquellos que llegan a la unidad de salud quejándose de tos. El objeto de este estudio es la asistencia de enfermería basándome en las cuestiones que rodean la percepción del enfermero y cómo el...

  15. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Harrison, Ewan M; Fisher, Elizabeth A; Graham, Elizabeth M; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  16. Presentación atípica de piomiositis tropical difusa de psoas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Ticse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La piomiositis tropical difusa primaria es una enfermedad de presentación infrecuente en nuestro medio, con pocos casos asociados a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, adquirido en la comunidad (MRSA-AC. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, con tratamiento irregular para diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de diez días de evolución, con dolor lumbar irradiado a miembro inferior izquierdo, fiebre y flexión forzada de la cadera derecha por dolor a la movilización. El diagnóstico de piomiositis difusa de ambos psoas se realizó con resonancia magnética. Del cultivo de una colección paravertebral posterior se aisló Staphylococcus aureus resistente a oxacilina, penicilina y dicloxacilina.Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to communityacquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated.

  17. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  18. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  19. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  20. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  1. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

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    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  2. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

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    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  3. Mupirocin resistance in nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers of a tertiary care rural hospital

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    Dardi Charan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A is a topical antimicrobial agent with excellent antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal activity. A nasal formulation is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for eradicating nasal carriage in adult patients as well as in health care personnel. Resistance to mupirocin has already been reported worldwide. The increasing prevalence of mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS species could be an important threat to the future use of mupirocin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Thus, this study was carried out to find the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion and to determine the rates of high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 healthcare workers (HCWs (doctor, nursing staff, housekeeping staff were randomly selected. S. aureus and CoNS isolates were tested for mupirocin resistance by the disk diffusion method using 5 μg and 200 μg mupirocin discs. MRSA isolates were tested for antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Out of 140 nasal swabs collected from HCWs, S. aureus was isolated in 38 (27.14%, and CoNS was isolated in 73 (52.14%. MRSA was isolated in 20 (14.28% and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS in 34 (24.29%. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and MSCoNS isolates were 100% sensitive to mupirocin, but two isolates from MRSA (1.43% and five from MRCoNS (3.57% were mupirocin resistant. Conclusion: The presence of mupirocin resistance in MRSA and MRCoNS is a cause for concern. It could be limited by regular surveillance and effective infection control initiatives so to inform health care facilities to guide therapeutic and prophylactic use of mupirocin.

  4. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  5. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Cunha Leonardo da; Fernandes Joaquim César Teixeira; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Rhoden Adriana; Wunder Jr. Elsio; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...... Europe, we analysed 147 S. aureus t437 isolates from 11 European countries collected over a period of 11 years using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and MLST. Additionally 16 S. aureus t437 isolates from healthy carriers and patients from China were...

  7. Kill the Killers: terapia con células Natural Killer en pacientes pediátricos con cáncer refractario Kill the Killers: Natural Killer cells therapy against paediatric refractory solid tumours

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    J. Valentín Quiroga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el momento actual, los tumores sólidos refractarios al tratamiento convencional constituyen la principal causa de muerte en la edad pediátrica. Por tanto, es necesario desarrollar y consolidar nuevos tratamientos. Las células Natural Killer (NK constituyen la primera línea de defensa del sistema inmune frente al desarrollo de células tumorales. Planteamos una nueva estrategia de terapia celular antitumoral en niños con cánceres refractarios, inmunoterapia con células NK estimuladas con interleucina 15 (IL-15. Pacientes y Métodos: En 22 pacientes pediátricos con tumores sólidos refractarios y en controles sanos determinamos mediante citometría de flujo multiparamétrica y fluorescencia resuelta en el tiempo, el fenotipo y la actividad citotóxica de las células NK, respectivamente. En ratones inmunodeficientes desarrollamos un modelo de neuroblastoma metastático muy agresivo y terapia de rescate con células Natural Killer estimuladas con IL-15. Resultados: Los pacientes pediátricos con cáncer refractario tienen un mayor porcentaje de células NK bright y una menor actividad citotóxica. La estimulación con IL-15 mejora la citotoxicidad in vitro y disminuye la carga tumoral in vivo. Conclusiones: Las células NK estimuladas con IL-15 constituyen una prometedora estrategia antitumoral.Introduction: Refractory solid tumours lead children deaths. To change this statement, new treatments should be developed. Natural Killer cells constitute the first line of defence against tumour cells. We propose a new strategy for antitumor cell therapy in children with refractory solid malignancies: IL-15 stimulated NK cells. Patients and methods: 22 paediatric patients suffering refractory solid tumours participate in this study. We compare NK cell subsets and K562 cytotoxicity in patients and sex-age pair's healthy controls. We use multiparametric flow and time-resolved fluorescent, respectively. In immunocompromised mice we

  8. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, TIMOTHY JAMES

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that...

  9. Transmissible mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Noble, W. C.; Cookson, B

    1989-01-01

    The spread of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus with high level resistance to mupirocin is described. The resistance proved to be easily transferred to other S. aureus strains by filter mating experiments and on the skin of mice. No plasmid band corresponding to the resistance could be demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis or by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation but cleavage of 'chromosomal' DNA from resistant recipients showed bright bands of DNA absent from sensitive controls.

  10. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis

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    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.

  11. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923

    OpenAIRE

    Todd J. Treangen; Maybank, Rosslyn A.; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F.; Karaolis, David K. R.; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Rosovitz, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid.

  14. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  15. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

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    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  16. Methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers and medical devices

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    Angela Breves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Cross-contamination by Staphylococcus aureus among patients, professionals and medical supplies in health facilities is a constant concern, leading many researchers to study the prevalence of this pathogen in asymptomatic carriers. Objective: We investigated the colonization and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. on surfaces of medical articles and in professionals from two basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine samples resulted in 49 isolates which underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of coa, mecA and femA genes. Results: According to the phenotypes, the isolates were identified as S. aureus (n = 35, 71.42% and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS (n = 14, 28.57%. Among these 14 isolates, 42.85% were methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS. Among the 35 S. aureus, 31.42% were methicillin resistant (MRSA, and 2.8% were vancomycin resistant, characterized as VRSA. Sixty-eight percent were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA. Genes coa, femA and mecA were amplified from 75.51%, 71.42% and 30.61% of the isolates, respectively. After amplification of the mecA gene, 20.41% were characterized as MRSA, and 10.20% as MRCoNS. The vancomycin-resistant strain was characterized as VRSA after detection of the vanB gene. Conclusion: Our results show a higher frequency of MSSA and MRCoNS among S. aureus and CoNS respectively, colonizing devices and health professionals. However, the already described transfer of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec from MRCoNS to MSSA may alter these results, increasing the frequency of MRSA strains.

  17. Estudio fenotípico comparativo de consorcios microbianos con actividad quitinolítica de sedimentos marinos y rizósfera

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    Débora Alvarado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron 4 muestras de sedimentos tanto del fondo como de la orilla de la playa «Marbella», Callao y 4 muestras de tierra agrícola a nivel de rizósfera obtenidas de un viñedo de la localidad de «Grocio Prado» en la Provincia de Chincha, Ica. Se determinó la densidad poblacional de microorganismos heterotróficos con actividad quitinolítica presentes en estos ambientes, y se describió sus principales características fenotípicas. Para la cuantificación de las poblaciones se empleó el método del Número Más Probable (NMP. Los tubos con crecimiento positivo fueron sembrados en placas con Agar Quitina Granulada y Agar Quitina Coloidal que fueron incubadas a temperatura ambiental hasta por dos semanas. Con las colonias desarrolladas se realizaron las pruebas de Oxidación/Fermentación de Glucosa, Oxidasa, Catalasa, motilidad, presencia de flagelo, capacidad tintoreal al GRAM, producción de esporas y actividad quitinolítica semicuantitativa. Se elaboraron fenogramas con el programa NTSYS v.1,7. La mayor densidad de bacterias quitinolíticas fue encontrada en la rizósfera alcanzando niveles ³1,6 x 105 en tanto que en sedimentos marinos la densidad osciló entre 2,2 x 102 a 1,6 x 104 NMP/g. Luego del análisis de agrupamiento de los fenotipos mostrados por los consorcios estudiados, se encontró que presentaban características distintivas, exhibiendo ambas una gran diversidad fenotípica.

  18. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research. PMID:27482738

  19. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  20. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  1. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  2. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  3. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  4. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  5. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  6. Funcionando con la computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Eduardo; Astiz, Mercedes; Medina, Perla; Montero, Y.; Oliver, María; Rocerau, M. Cristina; Valdez, Guillermo; Vecino, María; Vilanova, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la descripción y resultados de la segunda etapa de una experiencia planteada con el objetivo de indagar la manera en que los alumnos determinan e interpretan funciones que explican situaciones problemáticas valiéndose de una nueva forma de trabajo en el aula: la utilización de la computadora como herramienta y un programa asistente matemático. La primera etapa consistió en el desarrollo de un taller optativo con alumnos de entre 14 y 15 años de edad del Colegio Dr....

  7. en pacientes con obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcia María Alvarado Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de una intervención psicológica en pacientes con obesidad. Se utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con un grupo de estudio y un grupo control. Después de la intervención, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la reducción de peso entre los grupos. Asimismo, hubo un incremento significativo en la autoestima del grupo estudiado.

  8. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  9. Acción Bactericida del Jugo de Limón Sobre el Staphylococcus Aureus Rosenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obregón Botero. Rafael

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este experimento fue el determinar la influencia que pudiera tener el jugo de limón común (citrus limonia Osbeck sobre el Staphylococcus; aureus Rosenbach. Esta bacteria se encuentra con frecuencia en la piel y el pelo del hombre y de los animales, también en el pus y con frecuencia asociados a muchas otras causantes de abcesos, forúnculos, nacidos, etc. Ocasionalmente pueden causar osteomielitis y endocarditis. En individuos tuberculosos las infecciones causadas por esta bacteria pueden ocasionar la muerte.

  10. Acción bactericida del jugo de limón sobre el staphylococcus aureus rosenbach

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón Botero Rafael

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de este experimento fue el determinar la influencia que pudiera tener el jugo de limón común (citrus limonia Osbeck sobre el Staphylococcus; aureus Rosenbach. Esta bacteria se encuentra con frecuencia en la piel y el pelo del hombre y de los animales, también en el pus y con frecuencia asociados a muchas otras causantes de abcesos, forúnculos, nacidos, etc. Ocasionalmente pueden causar osteomielitis y endocarditis. En individuos tuberculosos las infecciones causadas por esta bacteri...

  11. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall be prepared from toxoided broth cultures of selected toxogenic strains...

  12. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S; Lance B Price

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  15. Common R-plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis during a nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M. L.; Wong, E. S.; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isol...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  19. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. M. Parnaby; G. O'Dwyer; H. A. Monsey; M. S. Shafi

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe point prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and -resistant) carriage by inpatients on acute elderly care wards was estimated. The relationship to body site and to previous admissions to hospital or other institutions was determined. Fifty-five patie

  20. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  1. Una metodología para evaluar el comportamiento de interacción genotipo-intrambiente con fines de selección en cabras lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. López

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocida la universalidad del componente de interacción genotipo ambiente en el modelo fenotípico, el cual incluye otros dos componentes: el genotipo con sus efectos aditivos, dominantes y epistáticos, y el componente ambiental con sus efectos permanentes y temporales; se hace evidente que la selección de individuos en un ambiente dado no garantiza que manifiesten el mismo comportamiento cuando el ambiente es diferente. Con los resultados de investigaciones preliminares efectuadas por los autores, se propone una metodología basada en el modelo de regresión lineal, capaz de medir los efectos de interacción genotipo-intrambiente (ambientes fisiológicos de la curva de lactación para su evaluación con fines de selección del comportamiento diferencial que manifiestan los genotipos ante diversas condiciones ambientales. Se utilizan los registros mensuales de la producción láctea anual de 14 cabras «Saanen» en su primera lactación y se compara el comportamiento de interacción genotipo ambiente entre ellas. Los valores α y β de cada recta (cabra, fueron estimados considerando la producción mensual de cada cabra (fenotipo como la variable dependiente y los efectos ecológicos estandarizados como la variable independiente. Se graficaron y proyectaron las rectas de regresión de cada cabra a ± dos desviaciones estándar de los efectos ecológicos en el eje de las abscisas, se comparan los coeficientes β mediante pruebas de hipótesis «t»; poniéndose de manifiesto los efectos de interacción genotipo ambiente entre cabras al demostrarse que las pendientes de las rectas son diferentes. En esta metodología los valores de β cercanos a cero indican que los genotipos son estables

  2. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  3. Sensibilidad y resistencia en el antibiograma del Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes del Hospital Clinico Viedma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Favio Lazo Arispe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud, ya que conlleva la utilización de fármacos más complejos y muy poco accesibles. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es conocer la sensibilidad y resistencia de Staphylococus aureus a los antibióticos, en pacientes que asistieron a Emergencias del Hospital Clínico Viedma. Mediante la realización de un estudio de tipo descriptivo-prospectivo-transversal; se tomó muestras por conveniencia no probabilística de pacientes con heridas infectadas y quemaduras sobre infectadas que asistieron a Emergencias del Hospital Clínico Viedma. Se encontró que el Staphylococcus aureus demostró una sensibilidad del 100% a la vancomicina, siendo este fármaco de mayor utilidad, pero este microorganismo demostró una mayor resistencia a la amoxicilina y oxacilina siendo estos fármacos de menor utilidad. Stafilococcus aureus presenta día a día mayor resistencia a antibióticos comúnmente usados para su tratamiento, presentando sensibilidad a fármacos que antes no se usaban en su tratamiento.

  4. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  7. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  8. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  9. Lectura con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  10. El OLEOZON® sobre la viabilidad, la permeabilidad celular y la ultraestructura de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Curtiellas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo de acción de los aceites vegetales ozonizados sobre los microorganismos no está aún establecido. Dada la naturaleza oxidante de sus principales componentes es posible que ocurran daños en los lípidos insaturados y las proteínas que presentan grupos sulfhidrilos de los microorganismos. No existen evidencias que demuestren los posibles efectos causados por aceites vegetales ozonizados sobre la membrana celular bacteriana, la que constituye uno de los sitios primarios de ataque de numerosos agentes antimicrobianos de elevado poder oxidante. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del OLEOZON sobre la cepa Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, en cuanto a la viabilidad, la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática y posibles variaciones de su ultraestructura. A los 1, 3, 10 y 30 min de exposición al OLEOZON, se realizó un estudio de susceptibilidad de los cultivos y se determinó el contenido de iones K+ liberados al medio por las células bacterianas, como criterio de alteración de la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática. Se realizaron exámenes por Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión a muestras expuestas al OLEOZON® durante 30 min y 24 h para evaluar los posibles cambios ultraestructurales. El OLEOZON® presentó un marcado efecto bactericida sobre la cepa de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, que se manifestó en una disminución de la viabilidad de más del 90 % desde el primer minuto de contacto. El OLEOZON® modificó la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática de Staphylococcus aureus, al detectarse la pérdida del contenido intracelular de iones K+ con posterioridad a la afectación de la viabilidad celular. Este medicamento alteró la ultraestructura de las células de Staphylococcus aureus, al provocar la reducción del contenido citoplasmático, aunque no afectó la integridad de la envoltura celular bacteriana. Los cambios encontrados en la viabilidad, la viabilidad, la permeabilidad celular y la

  11. Detección de mutaciones en los genes PAX3 y MITF en pacientes colombianos con Síndrome Waardenburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattig MC.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Identificar las mutaciones en los genes PAX3 y MITF, responsables del Síndrome de Waardenburg en Colombia, determinar su frecuencia y establecer la correlación genotipo-fenotipo.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus en quemaduras: estudio de incidencia, tendencia y pronóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Urquijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo de los últimos 10 años, en la Unidad de quemados del Hospital Universitario "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Santa Clara, en Villa Clara, Cuba, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento del aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus en heridas por quemaduras de pacientes ingresados. Se realizó con 1065 muestras tomadas por método cualitativo de hisopado, entre enero del 2002 y diciembre del 2011. Las variables utilizadas fueron: mes y año de realización, resultado del aislamiento, grupo de microorganismos y especies aisladas, series temporales y tasa pronóstico. Staphylococcus aureus resultó ser el microorganismos Gram positivo mas frecuentemente aislado (68,3%, representando entre el 7 y el 31,8% de las muestras realizadas cada año, con tasas de incidencias oscilando entre el 6,3 y 37,2 por cada 100 pacientes ingresados. Las tasas de incidencia mensuales se mantuvieron predominantemente en zonas de alerta y de seguridad durante los años 2011 y también en el seguimiento en 2012, sin que se produjeran picos epidémicos, mostrando una ligera tendencia al decremento con respecto al comportamiento de los 3 últimos años. Comprobamos después que la tasa de aislamiento para el siguiente año, 2012 fue de 9,5 por cada 100 ingresos, dentro de los límites del intervalo pronosticado según los estudios recogidos hasta 2011 (0 y 46,7 por cada 100 ingresos.

  13. Cementos con cenizas volantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  14. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the superbug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Giuseppe; Leone, Sebastiano; Lauria, Francesco N; Nicastri, Emanuele; Wenzel, Richard P

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have emerged as serious pathogens in the nosocomial and community setting. Hospitalization costs associated with MRSA infections are substantially greater than those associated with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infections, and MRSA has wider economic effects that involve indirect costs to the patient and to society. In addition, there is some evidence suggesting that MRSA infections increase morbidity and the risk of mortality. Glycopeptides are the backbone antibiotics for the treatment of MRSA infections. However, several recent reports have highlighted the limitations of vancomycin, and its role in the management of serious infections is now being reconsidered. Several new antimicrobials demonstrate in vitro activity against MRSA and other Gram-positive bacteria. Data from large surveys indicate that linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline are almost universally active against MRSA. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, costs, outcome, and therapeutic options for the management of MRSA infections. PMID:20851011

  16. Situación de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en el Hospital de Navarra (2000-2002 State of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Hospital of Navarre (2000-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Navascués

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido conocer la prevalencia y características que presentan los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina aislados en nuestro Servicio de Microbiología. Material y métodos. El estudio se desarrolló de forma retrospectiva abarcando los años 2000, 2001 y 2002. Se analizó el origen de la infección (nosocomial o extrahospitalaria, servicio de origen en caso de ser nosocomial, localización anatómica de la muestra y patrón de sensibilidad antibiótica. Resultados. Los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina constituyeron el 7,88% de los Staphylococcus aureus aislados en nuestro servicio. Menos de la mitad de las cepas (44,87% tuvieron un origen nosocomial y se aislaron con mayor frecuencia en los exudados de heridas. En cuanto al patrón de resistencia, hubo un 50% de resistencia a eritromicina, un 43,60% a clindamicina y un 21,79% a mupirocina. Conclusiones. La prevalencia y el patrón de resistencia in vitro de los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina obtenidos en nuestro hospital es menor a la publicada en otras áreas de España.Background. The aim of the present paper was to determine the prevalence and characteristics shown by isolations of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, isolated in our Microbiology Service. Methods. Retrospective study, covering the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. Analysis was made of the origin of the infection (nosocomial or non-nosocomial, the unit of origin in the event of nosocomial origin, anatomical localisation of the sample, and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Results. The isolations of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 7.88% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Less than half of the strains (44.87% had a nosocomial origin and were most often isolated in the exudates of wounds. With respect to the pattern of resistance, there was some 50% of resistance to

  17. Funciones con Microsoft Excel

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Dalia Imelda; Estrada, Ana Luisa; Hernández, Brenda Amalia

    2009-01-01

    En este documento se presenta el desarrollo de algunas actividades que se trabajaron con estudiantes de primer semestre de la Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit; utilizando la hoja de cálculo Excel en el tema de visualización de funciones, para la materia de lenguaje y pensamiento matemático. Ya que la tecnología ha adquirido un papel muy importante en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje, nos ofrece un medio para que el estudiante explore, analice, verifique y desarrolle habilidades que se serán út...

  18. Creo con mis dedos

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Aniceto, Monta??a

    2015-01-01

    Las artes pl??sticas son muy importantes para los ni??os/as sobre todo para Educaci??n Infantil ya que promueven la creatividad mediante diferentes recursos y t??cnicas lo que favorece su motivaci??n en las competencias desde la edad temprana hasta la adolescencia. Es la primera forma que tiene el ni??o/a de expresarse en el mundo (a trav??s de los garabatos), de comunicarse, compartir sus emociones con los dem??s, creando su propio lenguaje que evolucionar?? hacia el lenguaje oral y escri...

  19. Mayonesa con quitosano

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffrey, María Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El quitosano es un polímero natural que se obtiene a partir de la quitina, la cual forma parte de la estructura de soporte de numerosos organismos vivos, tales como artrópodos (crustáceos e insectos), moluscos y hongos. Presenta propiedades aplicables en los alimentos, como estabilizante, emulsificante, y quelante. No puede ser digerido por los seres humanos por lo cual está considerado como una fibra dietética con un contenido calórico cero. Objetivos: Evaluar...

  20. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

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    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  1. Conversando con... BENEDETTA TAGLIABUE

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Ana; Cabanes, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Esta entrevista se realiza en el marco del XIII Congreso Internacional de Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica realizado en la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Valencia los días 27 al 30 de Mayo de 2010.Benedetta Tagliabue es, en la actualidad, una de las arquitectas con mayor prestigio en el panorama internacional. El Pabellón de España para la Expo de Shanghai 2010, es una de sus últimas obras más representativas, en el que se acentúa y desarrolla un conjunto de características arqui...

  2. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Hyun Mun; Sung-Bae Kim; Ryong Kong; Jang-Gi Choi; Youn-Chul Kim; Dong-Won Shin; Ok-Hwa Kang; Dong-Yeul Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA ...

  3. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christopher F; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-05-05

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  4. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp.

  5. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp. PMID:25687923

  6. Whole-Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain LCT-SA112

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Yanhong; Wan, Daiwei; Fang, Xiangqun; Li, Tianzhi; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang; Wang, Yajuan; Zhao, Jiao; Liu, Changting

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause staphylococcal infections, which are very common in clinical medicine. Here we report the genome sequence of S. aureus strain LCT-SA112, which was isolated from S. aureus subsp. aureus CGMCC 1.230.

  7. con la cosecha mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar los indicadores de eficiencia y calidad durante la cosecha mecanizada del café, constituyen un tema de gran actualidad a nivel internacional. La determinación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los frutos y del sistema frutopedúnculo, es una etapa indispensable durante las investigaciones relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este producto. En este trabajo se brindan los resultados sobre la determinación de un grupo de propiedades dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo de coffea arabica variedad Catuai en diferentes estadios de maduración, relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este cultivo.Así mismo se determina el momento flector requerido para la ruptura de la unión fruto pedúnculo. Durante la investigación se emplearon técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales, así como de extensometría eléctrica. Como resultado de la medición de las diferentes propiedades se apreciaron diferencias sustanciales en las características dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas de los frutos maduros y verdes, así como en el momento requerido para el desprendimiento de los frutos y en las formas en que se produce el desprendimiento.

  8. SAMMD: Staphylococcus aureus Microarray Meta-Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasri Mohamed O

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen, causing a wide variety of diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe life threatening infections. S. aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Its ability to resist multiple antibiotics poses a growing public health problem. In order to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis of S. aureus, several global expression profiles have been developed. These transcriptional profiles included regulatory mutants of S. aureus and growth of wild type under different growth conditions. The abundance of these profiles has generated a large amount of data without a uniform annotation system to comprehensively examine them. We report the development of the Staphylococcus aureus Microarray meta-database (SAMMD which includes data from all the published transcriptional profiles. SAMMD is a web-accessible database that helps users to perform a variety of analysis against and within the existing transcriptional profiles. Description SAMMD is a relational database that uses MySQL as the back end and PHP/JavaScript/DHTML as the front end. The database is normalized and consists of five tables, which holds information about gene annotations, regulated gene lists, experimental details, references, and other details. SAMMD data is collected from the peer-reviewed published articles. Data extraction and conversion was done using perl scripts while data entry was done through phpMyAdmin tool. The database is accessible via a web interface that contains several features such as a simple search by ORF ID, gene name, gene product name, advanced search using gene lists, comparing among datasets, browsing, downloading, statistics, and help. The database is licensed under General Public License (GPL. Conclusion SAMMD is hosted and available at http://www.bioinformatics.org/sammd/. Currently there are over 9500 entries for regulated genes, from 67 microarray

  9. Antibody responses in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, G; Colque-Navarro, P.; Gustafsson, E.; Andersson, R.; Möllby, R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Correlation between antibody response and clinical outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has yielded conflicting results. Immunization schedules have failed in clinical trials. Is the humoral response toward S. aureus of protective nature? A prospective study was performed in patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections during the period 2003?2005. The antibody levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and one month later (n?=?96, n?=?7...

  10. Mapping the Distribution of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M.; van den Wijngaard, Cees C.; Brian G Spratt; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W.; ,

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people. Although S. aureus usually coexists peacefully with its human carriers, it is also an important disease-causing organism or pathogen. If it enters the body through a cut or during a surgical procedure, S. aureus can cause minor infections such as pimples and boils or more serious, life-threatening infections such as blood poisoning and pneumonia. Minor S. aureu...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus atsparumas antibiotikams ir fagotipų paplitimas

    OpenAIRE

    Kareivienė, Violeta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Sinkutė, Gintarė; Liegiūtė, Sigutė; Gailienė, Greta

    2006-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains, their prevalence, and resistance of different phage groups to antibiotics. Materials and methods. A total of 294 Staphylococcus aureus strains in Kaunas hospitals were obtained; they were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined. We used the method of routine dilution to test 17 antibiotics against the isolates. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus to studied antibio...

  12. Threat of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus to health in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Shamshul; Nepal, Hari Prasad; Gautam, Rajendra; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Shrestha, Sony; Upadhyay, Goma; Acharya, Anju; Chapagain, Moti Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism from the different clinical samples in hospital. The emergence and dissemination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and growing resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is making treatment of infections due to this organism increasingly difficult. Methods This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples, rates of MRSA and full antibio...

  13. Polimorfismos en los genes CYP11α y CYP17 y etiología del hiperandrogenismo en pacientes con poliquistosis ovárica Polymorphism in CYP11alpha and CYP17 genes and the etiology of hyperandrogenism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Pérez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de poliquistosis ovárica (PCOS es un desorden endocrino-metabólico de naturaleza multifactorial, con una marcada predisposición genética, que afecta al 6% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se caracteriza por la presencia de hiperandrogenismo, oligo-anovulación y ovarios poliquísticos. Entre los genes candidatos se encuentran aquellos que codifican para enzimas que actúan en la síntesis de andrógenos. Dos de los genes candidatos son el CYP17 y el CYP11alfa que codifican para la 17alfa hidroxilasa (P45017alfa y para el P450scc (colesterol side chain cleavage respectivamente. Los polimorfismos en estos genes están asociados al desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las frecuencias alélicas de los polimorfismos de los dos genes mencionados en población con PCOS, compararla con población normal y analizar la relación de cada variante alélica con el fenotipo hiperandrogénico correspondiente. Se analizaron 65 pacientes y 58 controles sanos en los que se determinaron niveles de testosterona y frecuencia de polimorfismos en los genes mencionados. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa cuando se asoció el grupo de mayor nivel de androgenemia con la presencia del genotipo A2/A2 del gen CYP17, y se hallaron mayores niveles de andrógenos circulantes en las pacientes con PCOS portadoras del alelo 216- del gen CYP11alfa. Nuestros resultados sugieren que ambos alelos juegan un rol menor en el desarrollo de PCOS y podrían ser considerados como potenciales marcadores de riesgo genético para el desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico.The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous multifactorial endocrine metabolic disorder with genetic predisposition affecting 6% of women in the reproductive age. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Several genes have been postulated as responsible for the

  14. Modelo de estudio de dos informativas familias colombianas con Síndrome de Usher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo ML.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Establecer y evaluar un modelo de abordaje para el estudio del Síndrome de Usher, que abarca el diagnóstico clínico de los pacientes, establecimiento y confirmación del subtipo mediante estudios moleculares y posterior correlación genotipo-fenotipo.

  15. Modelo de estudio de dos informativas familias colombianas con síndrome de usher

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo ML.; González C; Gelvez N.

    2011-01-01

    Establecer y evaluar un modelo de abordaje para el estudio del Síndrome de Usher, que abarca el diagnóstico clínico de los pacientes, establecimiento y confirmación del subtipo mediante estudios moleculares y posterior correlación genotipo-fenotipo.

  16. Entrevista con Juan Marichal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Marichal nació en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, en 1922, en el seno de una familia ligada al partido republicano insular. Muy joven, en 1935, se trasladó a Madrid, ciudad en la que vive el estallido de la guerra civil. En 1937, pasa a Valencia y luego a Barcelona; tras su exilio en 1938, prosigue sus estudios secundarios en un liceo de París, concluyéndolos en Casablanca. En 1941 emigra a México, formándose en la UNAM: fue alumno de los exiliados José Gaos y Joaquín Xirau así como del mexicano Edmundo O 'Gorman. Luego, becado en Princeton desde 1946, lo fue de América Castro, donde preparó una tesis sobre Feijoo. Apoyado en las vastas perspectivas de sus maestros, fue orientándose hada nuestra historia intelectual, desde el siglo XV hasta hoy. Su carrera profesional se ha desarrollado en los Estados Unidos (coincidiendo con Amado Alonso y con Ferrater Mora: ha sido profesor de estudios hispánicos en la Universidad de Harvard, desde 1948 hasta 1988, año en que se jubiló voluntariamente como numerario (aunque había permanecido en el Bryn Mawr College, entre 1953 y 1957. A este trabajo se suman, con todo, sus conferencias en América Latina y en España. Ha colaborado en las revistas más importantes, en este campo, de México, Nueva York, Puerto Rico, La Habana, Buenos Aires o París así como de las españolas, desde los sesenta. Juan Marichal -hoy, miembro de la Junta Directiva de los Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, director del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y asociado al Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset-, reside en España desde otoño de 1989: se considera a sí mismo «voluntario en Madrid», como había dicho Alfonso Reyes en su estancia madrileña (1914-1924.

  17. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Aloe Vera terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, drg.Sp,Pros

    2011-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian , maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Aloe Vera dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus, dan kadar hambat minimal ekstrak Aloe Vera adalah pada konsentrasi 25%.

  18. Marcadores fenotípicos de atenuación en cepas de virus Junín recuperadas de individuos vacunados con la cepa Junín Candid#1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S. Gamboa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Hemorrágica Argentina es una enfermedad producida por el virus Junín. Para la prevención de esta enfermedad se obtuvo una vacuna efectiva denominada Candid#1. Durante un ensayo clínico realizado en el INEVH, dos cepas de virus Junín fueron aisladas de sangre periférica de dos voluntarios mediante co-cultivo de células mononucleares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar las características fenotípicas de atenuación de esas dos cepas recuperadas de humanos con las de la vacuna Candid#1 utilizando los indicadores de atenuación desarrollados por Contigiani y Sabattini en 1977. A tal fin se midieron los índices de letalidad, infección y protección en cobayos y ratones de diferentes edades. Las tres cepas investigadas resultaron letales para ratones recién nacidos pero no para ratones de 10 a 12 días, ratones adultos ni cobayos, aun a la más baja dilución inoculada. Los cobayos inoculados con las cepas recuperadas de humanos y con la cepa Candid#1 no presentaron síntomas de enfermedad y mostraron estar protegidos cuando fueron desafiados con una cepa patógena. Los índices de infección y de protección hallados indican que estas cepas poseen elevada capacidad infectante y protectora en las especies animales aquí estudiadas. Estos resultados demuestran que las cepas de virus Junín aisladas de voluntarios inmunizados con Candid#1 mantienen el mismo fenotipo atenuado de la vacuna Candid#1 después de un pasaje por humanos.

  19. Caracterización molecular de Staphylococcus aureus de origen nosocomial por Electroforesis de Enzimas Multilocus (MLEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Zulma

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 41 aislamientos se Staphylococcus aureus tomados a pacientes y personal de la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI del Hospital San Juan de Dios, en el periodo comprendido entre septiembre de 1998 y septiembre de 1999 por medio del método de caracterización de Electroforesis de Enzimas Multilocus(MLEE. Se establecieron las relaciones genéticas entre los individuos, así como influencia del perfil de resistencia, el biotipo y el periodo de recolección. La evidencia experimental sugirió que la estructura de la población analizada encaja en el modelo clonal descrito previamente para las poblaciones de Staphylococcus aureus, coincidiendo con la prevalencia de un pequeño número de clones durante el periodo de recolección. 

  20. EVALUATION OF MACROLIDE RESISTANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF RESISTANT GENES IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BETWEEN, 2010 – 2013; A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD REZA HAVASIAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Staphylococci aureus and Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are a major source of infections associated with indwelling medical devices. Macrolide antimicrobial agents are widely used across the world to protect against bacterial infection. Methods: This is a systematic review study valuating all pubmed, science direct, Scopus and Google scholar articles about the Evaluation of macrolide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus between 2010 – 2013 using analytical statistical analysis. Data were collected and the related information extracted and put in statistical package and analyzed. Results: According the result of this study prevalence of macrolide resistant in some of region was more than other region and it caused by different conditions. The most common genes in macrolide resistant was erm(A but could not be found in regulatory region of the isolates. Conclusion: We should try to reduce the resistant to antimicrobial drug by set the healthy plane and reduce using of antimicrobial drug.

  1. Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Colina Pérez; Mauricio Jalón

    2008-01-01

    Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933), de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. Éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó,...

  2. Entrevista con Georges Duby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Duby, heredero de dos grandes historiadores como Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre, es uno de los más importantes medievalistas europeos. Fue, y sigue siendo, un motor de la importante reforma en la historia producida desde los sesenta. En sus primeros trabajos se acusa la recepción de las ideas económicas y geográficas de la mejor historiografía. Su riguroso estudio sobre la base material de la Edad Media, le permitirá luego irrumpir en la historia de las mentalidades, analizando, como decía Febvre, el utillaje mental (vocabulario, sintaxis, lugares comunes, cuadros lógicos, etc. del Medioevo. Así, el ejemplo de Mauss y LéviStrauss le anima a trabajar sobre el matrimonio, la sexualidad y ciertos sistemas del pensamiento: el primero, con su defensa de los hechos sociales totales, y el segundo, que buscaba las dimensiones simbólicas de lo social, le impulsan a trabajar sobre la ideología entendida no como mero reflejo de la situación material sino como «proyecto de acción sobre lo vivido». A su obra individual, atenta a los impulsos culturales más vivos, se suma su empuje decisivo en la realización de proyectos colectivos como la Historia de la vida privada o la Historia de las mujeres. Prácticamente, han sido traducidos todos sus libros al castellano, y han podido verse en España asimismo varios de sus programas televisivos (ha sido presidente de la SEPT, cadena de televisión cultural fundada en 1985. La amplitud de sus intereses intelectuales, transmitidos en su obra con un lenguaje a la vez muy claro y bellamente elaborado, se hace palpable también en este diálogo.

  3. VISA/VRSA (Vancomycin-Intermediate/Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to vancomycin and other antimicrobial agents. What is Staphylococcus aureus? Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the ... control personnel. Investigation and Control of Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) [PDF - 300 KB] - This document is ...

  4. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  5. Molecular study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and associated personnel in Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaser; Hamadeh; Tarazi; Ahmed; Mahmoud; Almajali; Mustafa; Mohammad; Kheer; Ababneh; Humam; Shawket; Ahmed; Adnan; Saleem; Jaran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, genetic relatedness, and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus)(MRSA) isolated from household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs, compared to isolates from their associated personnel.Methods: MRSA was isolated from 250 nasal swabs(150 swabs from dogs and 100 swabs from humans). PCR assays were used to detect the presence of both the nuc and mec A genes,which con firmed the identity of S. aureus isolates and the presence of methicillin resistance,respectively. Disk diffusion was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents along with an E-test that determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates from dogs to those from associated and unassociated personnel.Results: The prevalence of S. aureus in dogs and humans was 12.7% and 10.0%respectively, while the prevalence of MRSA isolates in dogs and humans was 5.3% and5.0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA isolates in household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs was 7.8%, 4.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. MRSA isolates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of multi-resistance against three or more antimicrobial agents than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus(MSSA). Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against all MRSA isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a strong association between dog MRSA isolates and MRSA isolates from strongly associated personnel.Conclusions: MRSA is prevalent in house dogs, as well as in dog rearing centers and among their strongly associated personnel. A strong association was found between the MRSA isolates from dogs and those from humans who are in close contact. In addition,MRSA isolates showed a high rate of multi-resistance compared to MSSA isolates.

  6. Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en infecciones de piel y partes blandas en pacientes ambulatorios Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in skin and soft tissue infections, in ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bermejo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR en pacientes ambulatorios con infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPyPB. Los datos epidemiológicos locales disponibles son limitados. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de consultantes con IPyPB en la División Infectología del Hospital General de Agudos Juan A. Fernández, en el período 01/10/2009 a 31/01/2011. Fueron 130; edad mediana 36 años (RIC 25.9-43.5; hombres 61.5%. El 46.9% era HIV+. Cien cultivos (76.9%, de 100 pacientes, resultaron positivos: 83 S. aureus, 8 Streptococcus spp. y 9 con otros microorganismos. De los S. aureus aislados, 62 (74.7% fueron resistentes a oxacilina, 12 (14.4% a clindamicina, 14 (16.9% a eritromicina, 5 (6% a ciprofloxacina, presentando en algunos casos más de una resistencia. Todos fueron sensibles a rifampicina y minociclina, y 98.8% (82 a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. El 83.8% (52 de los pacientes con SAMR tenían algún factor de riesgo (FR, sin diferencias con los pacientes con otros aislamientos. La presentación clínica más frecuente de IPyPB / SAMR fue forunculosis: 56.4 (35/62 vs. 28.9% (11/38 en infecciones por otros microorganismos (p = 0.013. La resistencia a oxacilina fue similar entre pacientes HIV+ y negativos (79.1 vs. 70%, p = 0.179 (34/43 vs. 28/40. Concluimos que en la población estudiada se encontró una alta prevalencia de SAMR, independientemente de la serología para HIV o la presencia de FR. Las opciones de tratamiento empírico para este microorganismo son minociclina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol.An increased prevalence of community-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI has been recently reported. Epidemiological data in Argentina is limited. Our objectives were to evaluate etiological agents, clinical presentation, risk factors and evolution of SSTI in ambulatory patients, in a

  7. Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a single-center experience over 15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqual Barretti

    Full Text Available Peritonitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD, which is associated with poor outcome and high PD failure rates. We reviewed the records of 62 S. aureus peritonitis episodes that occurred between 1996 and 2010 in the dialysis unit of a single university hospital and evaluated the host and bacterial factors influencing peritonitis outcome. Peritonitis incidence was calculated for three subsequent 5-year periods and compared using a Poisson regression model. The production of biofilm, enzymes, and toxins was evaluated. Oxacillin resistance was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentration and presence of the mecA gene. Logistic regression was used for the analysis of demographic, clinical, and microbiological factors influencing peritonitis outcome. Resolution and death rates were compared with 117 contemporary coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS episodes. The incidence of S. aureus peritonitis declined significantly over time from 0.13 in 1996-2000 to 0.04 episodes/patient/year in 2006-2010 (p = 0.03. The oxacillin resistance rate was 11.3%. Toxin and enzyme production was expressive, except for enterotoxin D. Biofilm production was positive in 88.7% of strains. The presence of the mecA gene was associated with a higher frequency of fever and abdominal pain. The logistic regression model showed that diabetes mellitus (p = 0.009 and β-hemolysin production (p = 0.006 were independent predictors of non-resolution of infection. The probability of resolution was higher among patients aged 41 to 60 years than among those >60 years (p = 0.02. A trend to higher death rate was observed for S. aureus episodes (9.7% compared to CoNS episodes (2.5%, (p = 0.08, whereas resolution rates were similar. Despite the decline in incidence, S. aureus peritonitis remains a serious complication of PD that is associated with a high death rate. The outcome of this infection is negatively

  8. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  11. Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus : live-in and let die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraunholz, Martin; Sinha, Bhanu

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses a plethora of virulence factors to accommodate a diversity of niches in its human host. Aside from the classical manifestations of S. aureus-induced diseases, the pathogen also invades and survives within mammalian host cells. The survival strategies of the pathogen are as

  12. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors. PMID:27427591

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A;

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  14. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  15. Effect of Mupirocin on Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bulanda; M. Gruszka; B. Heczko

    1989-01-01

    textabstractMupirocin eliminates nasal carriage of staphylococcal aureus among medical and surgical personnel for periode varying from several weeks upto one year. In persons recolonized after therapy densites of S. aureus population in nares were much lower than in the same persons before therapy.

  16. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to lysostaphin.

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, M M; Huber, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and eleven isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from patients at the Olin E. Teague Veterans Center from March 1983 to April 1987 were as susceptible to lysis by lysostaphin as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus controls were.

  17. Mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kono, M; Sasatsu, M; O'Hara, K; Shiomi, Y.; HAYASAKA, T.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance to some cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus strains was investigated with high-pressure liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Drug inactivation by penicillinase was found to be the main mechanism of resistance to cefazolin, cephaloridine, and cephalothin in S. aureus.

  18. Activity of and Resistance to Moxifloxacin in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, Dilek; Zhang, Xiamei; Hooper, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Moxifloxacin has enhanced potency against Staphylococcus aureus, lower propensity to select for resistant mutants, and higher bactericidal activity against highly resistant strains than ciprofloxacin. Despite similar activity against purified S. aureus topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, it selects for topoisomerase IV mutants, making topoisomerase IV the preferred target in vivo.

  19. Changing Trends in Resistance Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kali, Arunava; Stephen, Selvaraj; Umadevi, Sivaraman; Kumar, Shailesh; Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Srirangaraj, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multidrug resistance, an aggressive course, increased mortality and morbidity in both community and health care facilities. Monitoring of newly emerging and prevalent Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains for their resistance patterns to conventional as well as novel drugs, are essential for infection control.

  20. Pneumonia and new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, Fabien; Tristan, Anne; François, Bruno; Etienne, Jerome; Delage-Corre, Manuella; Martin, Christian; Liassine, Nadia; Wannet, Wim; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentin leukocidin gene is a newly described disease entity. We report a new fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. An S. aureus strain with an agr1 allele and of a new sequence type 377 was recovered, representing a ne

  1. Immunoglobulin Fc receptors in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus do not confer resistance to Phagocytosis in an in vitro assay Los receptores Fc para inmunoglobulinas en cepas clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus no confieren resistencia a la fagocitosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito VEGA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus binds Immunoglobulin G (IgG on its external surface due to the presence of specific receptors for the Fc domain of this immunoglobulin. This mechanism represents a kind of camouflage against phagocytic cells. In order to confirm that possibility an in vitro evaluation of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes polymorpho-nuclear (PMN against strains of Staphylococcus aureus was done, comparing 18 strains isolated from clinical samples and 16 from healthy individuals. The presence of Fc receptors was evaluated by haemagglutination (HA with erythrocytes group A after incubation of the strains with IgG anti blood group A. Phagocytosis of S. aureus was carried out by mixing live bacteria with a suspension of human PMN and incubating at 37 °C for 1 h; survivors were counted as colony forming units by plating. The strains from clinical specimens showed higher HA than those from healthy individuals (p = 0.01; but the former were killed more efficiently than the latter (80-90% and 40%, respectively. It is may be possible that S. aureus showed different behavior in vivo, where could express other virulence factors to prevent the action of phagocytes.Staphylococcus aureus liga inmunoglobulinas G (IgG a su superficie externa debido a la presencia de receptores para el dominio Fc de esas inmunoglobulinas. Este mecanismo representa una clase de camuflage contra células fagocíticas. Para confirmar tal posibilidad se realizó una evaluación in vitro de la actividad fagocítica de leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMN contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, comparando 18 cepas aisladas de casos clínicos y 16 de individuos sanos. La presencia de receptores fue evaluada por hemaglutinación (HA con eritrocitos grupo A luego que las cepas fueron incubadas con IgG anti grupo sanguíneo A. La fagocitosis de S. aureus fue realizada mezclando células vivas con una suspensión de PMN e incubada a 37 °C por una hora; las bacterias sobrevivientes

  2. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... inserted surgically, one in a. carotis communis and one in v. jugularis externa. All pigs received 106 CFU/kg body weight S. aureus through the arterial catheter. Bacteria were either suspended in isotonic saline infused at constant flow for 60 minutes (two pigs) or given as a bolus injection of autologoue...

  3. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  4. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  5. Where does a Staphylococcus aureus vaccine stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, V G; Proctor, R A

    2014-05-01

    In this review, we examine the current status of Staphylococcus aureus vaccine development and the prospects for future vaccines. Examination of the clinical trials to date show that murine models have not predicted success in humans for active or passive immunization. A key factor in the failure to develop a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections comes from our relatively limited knowledge of human protective immunity. More recent reports on the elements of the human immune response to staphylococci are analysed. In addition, there is some controversy concerning the role of antibodies for protecting humans, and these data are reviewed. From a review of the current state of understanding of staphylococcal immunity, a working model is proposed. Some new work has provided some initial candidate biomarker(s) to predict outcomes of invasive infections and to predict the efficacy of antibiotic therapy in humans. We conclude by looking to the future through the perspective of lessons gleaned from the clinical vaccine trials. PMID:24476315

  6. Alteraciones óseas asociadas con Diabetes mellitus: mecanismos patogénicos y estrategias de tratamiento con alendronato

    OpenAIRE

    Chuguransky, Sara Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos generales: Investigar las alteraciones óseas que se desarrollan en un modelo murino de diabetes leve. Investigar el efecto de los AGEs sobre células progenitoras de médula ósea (CPMO) en cultivo, así como el rol del alendronato sobre dichos efectos. Objetivos específicos: 1. Analizar el efecto de AGEs y alendronato sobre la diferenciación de CPMO al fenotipo osteoblástico, adipogénico y condrogénico en cultivo. 2. Investigar la capacidad de diferenciación osteogénica, ad...

  7. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Buah Putih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Dari Abses Dan Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29213™)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Jojor

    2016-01-01

    Daun jambu biji mengandung senyawa aktif seperti tanin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, saponin yang mempunyai efek antibakteri. Mekanisme tanin sebagai antibakteri dengan mengkerutkan dinding sel dan membran sel, inaktivasi enzim, inaktivasi fungsi materi genetik bakteri. Flavonoid merusak sel bakteri, denaturasi protein, inaktivasi enzim dan menyebabkan lisis. Triterpenoid dan saponin menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dengan cara merusak struktur membran sel. Staphylococcus aureus adala...

  8. Entrevista con Alberto Tenenti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran especialista en historia moderna, Alberto Tenenti nació en Viareggio, en 1924. Tras realizar estudios superiores en Italia, trabajó en el Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique varios años, asesorado por Lucien Febvre. Ha dirigido el Archivo del Estado de Brescia; y, más tarde, ha enseñado en París, desde una cátedra en la École Pratique des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (VI Sección, alIado de Braudel. Su Il senso della morte e l'amore della vita nel Rinascimento, de 1957, es una obra maestra sobre los orígenes de la sensibilidad moderna: sin olvidar el naciente vitalismo, estudia el desarrollo de dos motivos, el del ars moriendi, que tiene su evolución propia desde 1350 hasta su difusión impresa, y el de lo macabro, que refleja la crisis de conciencia del siglo XV y adquiere «unas dimensiones desconocidas y verdaderamente anormales». En este libro sobre un problema clave como la muerte, apela de modo notable a la iconografía: Tenenti ha recordado que la cultura tradicional, eclesiástica sobre todo, percibió un mayor peligro en la capacidad de reflexión autónoma y de crítica de los hombres de letras, que en las renovaciones radicales de los artistas. Numerosos trabajos de conjunto realizados por él han perseguido una historia global: Los fundamentos del mundo moderno; Florencia en la época de los Medicis; La formación del mundo moderno; El Renacimiento; el primero de ellos estaba firmado con un historiador de su misma generación, R. Romano, estudioso de las relaciones comerciales en la época moderna en Europa y en la América española. Tenenti ha publicado monografías (Venezia e i corsari, 1961, colecciones de artículos (Credence, ideologie, libertinismi tra medioevo ed eta moderna, 1978; Stato: un'idea, una logica. Dal comune italiano all'assolutismo francese, 1987 y editado a clásicos como Il libri della famiglia de L. B. Alberti, 1969. Es también especialista en temas económicos, como el del

  9. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  10. Entrevista con Bernard Vincent.

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    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en París (1941, Bernard Vincent es un historiador de renombre en Europa y América del Sur. Consiguió su agregación universitaria en 1966, y desde sus inicios se centró en la Historia Moderna, particularmente en grupos marginales de la España de los siglos XVI-XVII. Ha residido en nuestro país muchos años. Vincent fue miembro de la sección científica de la Casa de Velázquez inicialmente (1968-1971, algo más tarde director de estudios (1977-1978, y a continuación secretario general (1978-1982 de dicha institución. Asimismo ha encabezado el programa de cooperación francoespañol en ciencias sociales (1993-1996. Por otra parte, ha enseñado en la Universidad de París VII, en varias etapas de su vida; pero, sobre todo, ha pertenecido siempre a centros superiores de investigación: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (1976-1978, y a la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, en donde ha sido director de estudios desde 1988 –era doctor de Estado ya en 1986–, y luego responsable de la Sección de Historia, desde 1996 hasta hoy. Sus colaboraciones con las universidades y centros investigadores españoles han sido constantes hasta el presente. Por añadidura, ha sido miembro del Consejo Nacional de las Universidades en Francia, en lo relativo a la historia moderna y contemporánea (1987-1988, 1992-1995, y es desde hace años miembro de la madrileña Academia de la Historia.

  11. Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en infecciones de piel y partes blandas en pacientes ambulatorios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bermejo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR en pacientes ambulatorios con infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPyPB. Los datos epidemiológicos locales disponibles son limitados. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de consultantes con IPyPB en la División Infectología del Hospital General de Agudos Juan A. Fernández, en el período 01/10/2009 a 31/01/2011. Fueron 130; edad mediana 36 años (RIC 25.9-43.5; hombres 61.5%. El 46.9% era HIV+. Cien cultivos (76.9%, de 100 pacientes, resultaron positivos: 83 S. aureus, 8 Streptococcus spp. y 9 con otros microorganismos. De los S. aureus aislados, 62 (74.7% fueron resistentes a oxacilina, 12 (14.4% a clindamicina, 14 (16.9% a eritromicina, 5 (6% a ciprofloxacina, presentando en algunos casos más de una resistencia. Todos fueron sensibles a rifampicina y minociclina, y 98.8% (82 a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. El 83.8% (52 de los pacientes con SAMR tenían algún factor de riesgo (FR, sin diferencias con los pacientes con otros aislamientos. La presentación clínica más frecuente de IPyPB / SAMR fue forunculosis: 56.4 (35/62 vs. 28.9% (11/38 en infecciones por otros microorganismos (p = 0.013. La resistencia a oxacilina fue similar entre pacientes HIV+ y negativos (79.1 vs. 70%, p = 0.179 (34/43 vs. 28/40. Concluimos que en la población estudiada se encontró una alta prevalencia de SAMR, independientemente de la serología para HIV o la presencia de FR. Las opciones de tratamiento empírico para este microorganismo son minociclina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol.

  12. Calentamiento global con Scratch y escuelas eficientes con Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Ainzua Cemborain, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo final de máster está formado por dos proyectos con metodología de aprendizaje basado en proyectos (ABP). El primero de ellos se realiza en la asignatura de Tecnología y en coordinación con la asignatura de Ciencias Naturales, y el segundo únicamente para Tecnología. En la primera parte del proyecto se analiza la metodología ABP utilizada y se compara con la tradicional. Posteriormente se estudian las tres herramientas utilizadas en este proyecto como son; Scratch, Scratch for...

  13. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  14. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

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    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño, Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar, Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes, pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones, Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados, Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones, No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  15. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño: Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes: pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones: Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones: No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  16. con el aborto provocado

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    José Luis Redondo Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas de células diploides humanas (WI-38, MRC-5 tienen un origen éticamente objetable, dado que dichas células proceden de abortos provocados. Entre ellas destacan vacunas empleadas contra rubéola, sarampión, parotiditis, rabia, poliomielitis, viruela, hepatitis A, varicela y herpes zóster. Actualmente se encuentran en desarrollo otras vacunas cultivadas en células (293, PER.C6 transformadas mediante virus, procedentes de abortos. Entre ellas hay vacunas contra la gripe, virus respiratorio sincitial, parainfl uenza, HIV, virus del Nilo Occidental, virus Ébola, Marburg y Lassa, hepatitis B y C, glosopeda, encefalitis japonesa, dengue, tuberculosis, carbunco, peste, tétanos y paludismo. También con igual origen se trabaja en la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y otras proteínas, terapia génica y genómica. Existe la tecnología necesaria para producir todo lo descrito sin recurrir a abortos provocados. Debe indicarse en los prospectos de vacunas y otros productos el origen de las células empleadas. Debe facilitarse el acceso a las vacunas existentes no cultivadas en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la investigación de opciones en aquellos casos en los que no exista una vacuna no originada en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y de otras proteínas, así como la terapia génica y la genómica sin recurrir a células procedentes de abortos provocados. No sería consecuente rechazar productos obtenidos a partir de células troncales embrionarias y aceptar los originados en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Se debe evitar que la biotecnología basada en el aborto provocado invada todos los terrenos de la medicina.

  17. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  18. Indole and 7-benzyloxyindole attenuate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Hyun Seob; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Jung-Ae; Banskota, Suhrid; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2013-05-01

    Human pathogens can readily develop drug resistance due to the long-term use of antibiotics that mostly inhibit bacterial growth. Unlike antibiotics, antivirulence compounds diminish bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability and thus, may not lead to drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major agent of nosocomial infections and produces diverse virulence factors, such as the yellow carotenoid staphyloxanthin, which promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the host immune system. To identify novel antivirulence compounds, bacterial signal indole present in animal gut and diverse indole derivatives were investigated with respect to reducing staphyloxanthin production and the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Treatment with indole or its derivative 7-benzyloxyindole (7BOI) caused S. aureus to become colorless and inhibited its hemolytic ability without affecting bacterial growth. As a result, S. aureus was more easily killed by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and by human whole blood in the presence of indole or 7BOI. In addition, 7BOI attenuated S. aureus virulence in an in vivo model of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is readily infected and killed by S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that both indole and 7BOI repressed the expressions of several virulence genes such as α-hemolysin gene hla, enterotoxin seb, and the protease genes splA and sspA and modulated the expressions of the important regulatory genes agrA and sarA. These findings show that indole derivatives are potential candidates for use in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection. PMID:23318836

  19. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbraith, J.C.; Valiquette, G.; Kennedy, K.J.;

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...... episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence...... of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did...

  20. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  1. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Colivet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  2. Identification of the ClpX Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne;

    Staphyloccous aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections ranging from superficial wound infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Essential for S. aureus virulence is a large number of cell-surface-associated proteins and secreted...... we show here that almost 400 genes (15%) are influenced by the clpX deletion. Furthermore, ClpX not only regulates many virulence factors, but rather serves as a global regulator of central functions for S. aureus lifestyle and pathogenicity....

  3. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

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    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  4. Perfil fenotípico e genotípico de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de estudantes de enfermagem, 2008 Perfil fenotípico y genotípico del Staphylococcus aureus aislados de estudiantes de enfermería, 2008 Phenotypic and genotypic profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in nursing students, 2008

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    Suelen Teixeira Faria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de carreamento nasal, perfil fenotípico e genotípico de S. aureus isolados de estudantes de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com população composta por 101 alunos, cursando as três primeiras séries do curso de graduação em Enfermagem no ano de 2008. S. aureus foi isolado de material biológico obtido dos vestíbulos nasais através de swab. A susceptibilidade à oxacilina e vancomicina foi determinada pelo teste de concentração inibitória mínima. A presença do gene MecA foi determinada pelo teste de reação em cadeia da polimerase. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se 90,1% de positividade para S. aureus. A frequência de resistência à oxacilina foi de 9,8% e todas as amostras foram sensíveis à vancomicina. A oito amostras resistentes À oxacilina apresentaram o gene MecA. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência foi elevada. A resistência à oxacilna foi expressiva e todas as amostras foram sensíveis à vancomicina. As amostras resistentes à oxacilina carreavam o gene MecA.OBJETIVO: Verificar la prevalencia de transporte nasal, perfil fenotípico y genotípico de S. aureus aislados de estudiantes de enfermería. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con población compuesta por 101 alumnos, cursando las tres primeras series del Pregrado en Enfermería en el año 2008. El S. aureus fue aislado del material biológico obtenido de los vestíbulos nasales a través de swab. La susceptibilidad a la oxacilina y vancomicina fue determinada por el test de concentración inhibitoria mínima. La presencia del gen MecA fue determinada por el test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. RESULTADOS: Se verificó el 90,1% de positividad para el S. aureus. La frecuencia de resistencia a la oxacilina fue de 9,8% y todas las muestras fueron sensibles a la vancomicina. Las ocho muestras resistentes a la oxacilina presentaron el gen MecA. CONCLUSION: La prevalencia fue elevada. La resistencia a la oxacilina fue expresiva y todas

  5. Endocarditis infecciosa asociada con dispositivos electrónicos implantables intracardíacos. Nuestra experiencia

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    Fabián Salmo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónLa endocarditis infecciosa es una patología con una morbimortalidad elevada. En esta comunicación se presentan 17 casos de endocarditis infecciosa (EI asociada con dispositivos electrónicos implantables (DEI, que representaron el 6% de las endocarditis entre 1992 y 2005.ObjetivoAnalizar las características clínicas, evolutivas y anatomopatológicas de un subgrupo de pacientes con EI portadores de DEI.Material y métodosDe un total de 263 pacientes con EI admitidos en nuestra institución entre 1992 y 2005, se analizaron 17 con EI asociada con DEI.Las EI asociadas con DEI se clasificaron en: 1 temprana, la ocurrida dentro de los 12 meses del posquirúrgico, y 2 tardía, la producida luego de ese lapso. En todos los pacientes se obtuvieron muestras para hemocultivos, se efectuó el cultivo de todo material extraído durante la cirugía y se realizaron ecocardiogramas por vía transtorácica (ETT y transesofágica (ETE.ResultadosDe los 17 pacientes, 13 (73% eran hombres; la edad promedio fue de 60 años y el tiempo entre el implante y el diagnóstico fue de 344 días. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron fiebre y bacteriemia; el germen predominante fue Staphylococcus aureus en el 70% de los casos. En todos se extrajo el sistema. La mortalidad fue del 17%.ConclusionesLa EI asociada con el DEI, que debe sospecharse siempre en ausencia de otro foco infeccioso, constituye un subgrupo que con diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz tiene una mortalidad menor que la global descripta. Al igual que para la EI sin DEI, los hemocultivos y la ecocardiografía son los pilares para el diagnóstico.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskey Curtis J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized that S. aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on patients' skin and nearby environmental surfaces. Methods Selected inpatients were cultured weekly for S. aureus from stool, nares, skin (groin and axilla, and environmental surfaces (bed rail and bedside table. Investigator's hands were cultured after contacting the patients' skin and the environmental surfaces. Results Of 71 subjects, 32 (45.1% had negative nares and stool cultures, 23 (32.4% had positive nares and stool cultures, 13 (18.3% were nares carriers only, and 3 (4.2% were stool carriers only. Of the 39 patients with S. aureus carriage, 30 (76.9% had methicillin-resistant isolates. In comparison to nares colonization only, nares and intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures (41% versus 77%; p = 0.001 and trends toward increased environmental contamination (45% versus 62%; p = 0.188 and acquisition on investigator's hands (36% versus 60%; p = 0.057. Patients with negative nares and stool cultures had low frequency of S. aureus on skin and the environment (4.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion We found that hospitalized patients with S. aureus nares and/or stool carriage frequently had S. aureus on their skin and on nearby environmental surfaces. S. aureus intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures, which could potentially facilitate staphylococcal infections and nosocomial transmission.

  8. Simple method for correct enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, J.; Cohn, M. T.; Petersen, A.;

    2016-01-01

    culture. When grown in such liquid cultures, the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is characterized by its aggregation of single cells into clusters of variable size. Here, we show that aggregation during growth in the laboratory standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) is common among clinical...... and laboratory S. aureus isolates and that aggregation may introduce significant bias when applying standard enumeration methods on S. aureus growing in laboratory batch cultures. We provide a simple and efficient sonication procedure, which can be applied prior to optical density measurements to give...... an accurate estimate of cellular numbers in liquid cultures of S. aureus regardless of the aggregation level of the given strain. We further show that the sonication procedure is applicable for accurate determination of cell numbers using agar plate counting of aggregating strains....

  9. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  10. Rapid, Culture-Free Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Elliot L.; Flenker, Katie S.; Clark, Karen C.; Miguel, Jeff; Ince, Dilek; Winokur, Patricia; Ford, Bradley; McNamara, James O.

    2016-01-01

    S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB take at least a day, and often longer. Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending. In this proof-of-concept study, we describe an inexpensive assay that detects SAB via the detection of micrococcal nuclease (an enzyme secreted by S. aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. 16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB, which is expected to substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity that result from this condition. PMID:27305148

  11. con mala calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

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    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  13. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa†

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Vincent H.; Kabbara, Samer; Vo, Giao; Schilling, Amy N.; Coyle, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are often used to treat severe infections with gram-positive organisms. Previous studies have shown concentration-dependent killing by aminoglycosides of gram-negative bacteria, but limited data are available for gram-positive bacteria. We compared the in vitro pharmacodynamics of gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five S. aureus strains were examined (ATCC 29213 and four clinical isolates). Time-kill studies (TKS) in duplicate (baseline inocu...

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI KITOSAN TERHADAP BAKTERI S.aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiyah Kurniasih; Dwi Kartika

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan is the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin. Chitosan is biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic. Chitosan is polycationic in acidic media and give antibacterial activity. In this paper, antibacterial activity of chitosan have been studied. Chitosan had been isolated from white shrimp. Antibacterial activity of chitosan solutions was examined against S. aureus The result showed that antimicrobial effect on S. aureus was strengthened as the choitosan concentrate decreased.

  15. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  16. Role of Monocytes in Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Veltrop, Marcel H. A. M.; Bancsi, Maurice J. L. M. F.; Bertina, Rogier M.; Thompson, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis (BE), the clotting system plays a cardinal role in the formation and maintenance of the endocardial vegetations. The extrinsic pathway is involved in the activation of the coagulation pathway with tissue factor (TF) as the key protein. Staphylococcus aureus is a frequently isolated bacterium from patients with BE. We therefore investigated whether S. aureus can induce TF activity (TFA) on fibrin-adherent monocytes, used as an in vitro model of BE....

  17. Vancomycin Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus among Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    S Saadat; K Solhjoo; A. Kazemi; Erfanian, S. (MSc); Ashrafian, F. (MSc)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vancomycin is used for treatment of methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA) infections; therefore, resistance to this antibiotic is increasing. We aimed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of vancomycin resistant S. Areas (VRSA) strains isolated from clinical samples. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 S. Aureus isolates collected from hospitals in Shiraz during six months, 2012, were identified by biochemical, microbiolo...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Tertiary Structure from Carbon-13 Spin Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Shasad; Singh, Manmilan; Kim, Sung Joon; Schaefer,Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The cell-wall peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus is a heterogeneous, highly cross-linked polymer of unknown tertiary structure. We have partially characterized this structure by measuring spin diffusion from 13C labels in pentaglycyl cross-linking segments to natural-abundance 13C in the surrounding intact cell walls. The measurements were performed using a version of centerband-only detection of exchange (CODEX). The cell walls were isolated from S. aureus grown in media containing [1-13...

  20. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Couto; Leonard Amaral; José Melo-Cristino; Miguel Viveiros; Cláudia Palma; Elisabete Junqueira; Costa, Sofia S.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide inform...

  1. Methicillin resistance & inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Soumyadeep Ghosh; Mandira Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with inducible clindamycin resistance (iCR) are resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin on routine testing and inducible clindamycin resistance can only be identified by D-test. This study was aimed to detect methicillin resistance and iCR among S. aureus isolates, effectiveness of some commonly used antibiotics and correlation between methicillin resistance and iCR. Methods: The present cro...

  2. Detection and characterization of mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, D A; Zarins, L T; Schaberg, D R; Bradley, S. F.; Terpenning, M S; Kauffman, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated over 18 months; 12 exhibited low-level resistance, while two showed high-level resistance. Highly mupirocin-resistant strains contained a large plasmid which transferred mupirocin resistance to other S. aureus strains and to Staphylococcus epidermidis. This plasmid and pAM899-1, a self-transferable gentamicin resistance plasmid, have molecular and biologic similarities.

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yu-Chuan; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Ma, David H. K.; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Chi; Chen, Shin-Yi; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is an important public health issue. This observational study aimed to characterize clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility, and genotypes of ocular infections caused by MRSA based on the clinical and molecular definitions of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) strains. Fifty-nine patients with culture-proven S aureus ocular infection were enrolled from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011 at Chang...

  4. Encuentro con el tiempo: Adagio con variaciones de Alfredo Aracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinando analíticamente la obra sinfónica Adagio con variaciones de Aracil, estudiaremos los principales componentes para concluir con una evaluación de los mismos. A través de la cronología de la obra de Aracil175, observamos la importancia que adquiere en su trayectoria la memoria; su pensamiento va siempre unido a ésta. Uno de sus recursos principales es la cita; es Adagio con variaciones donde claramente observaremos la memoria lejana e inmediata al tiempo: Wagner es el punto de referencia al pasado, Wolf impulsa hacia el presente, y, Aracil advierte el devenir en cada una de sus variaciones.

  5. Detoxification of toxins by bacillithiol in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Gerald L; Fahey, Robert C; Rawat, Mamta

    2012-04-01

    Bacillithiol (BSH), an α-anomeric glycoside of l-cysteinyl-d-glucosaminyl-l-malate, is a major low-molecular-mass thiol found in bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Deinococcus radiodurans. Like other low-molecular-mass thiols such as glutathione and mycothiol, BSH is likely to be involved in protection against environmental toxins including thiol-reactive antibiotics. We report here a BSH-dependent detoxification mechanism in S. aureus. When S. aureus Newman strain was treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, the cellular BSH was converted to the fluorescent S-conjugate BS-bimane. A bacillithiol conjugate amidase activity acted upon the BS-bimane to produce Cys-bimane, which was then acetylated by an N-acetyltransferase to generate N-acetyl-Cys-bimane, a mercapturic acid. An S. aureus mutant lacking BSH did not produce mercapturic acid when treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, confirming the involvement of bacillithiol. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus Newman with rifamycin, the parent compound of the first-line anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin, indicated that this thiol-reactive antibiotic is also detoxified in a BSH-dependent manner, since mercapturic acids of rifamycin were observed in the culture medium. These data indicate that toxins and thiol-reactive antibiotics are detoxified to less potent mercapturic acids in a BSH-dependent manner and then exported out of the cell in S. aureus.

  6. Exploring the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus in its natural niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Medina, Eva; Oxley, Andrew Pa; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and commensal, where the human nose is the predominant reservoir. To better understand its behavior in this environmental niche, RNA was extracted from the anterior nares of three documented S. aureus carriers and the metatranscriptome analyzed by RNAseq. In addition, the in vivo transcriptomes were compared to previously published transcriptomes of two in vitro grown S. aureus strains. None of the in vitro conditions, even growth in medium resembling the anterior nares environment, mimicked in vivo conditions. Survival in the nose was strongly controlled by the limitation of iron and evident by the expression of iron acquisition systems. S. aureus populations in different individuals clearly experience different environmental stresses, which they attempt to overcome by the expression of compatible solute biosynthetic pathways, changes in their cell wall composition and synthesis of general stress proteins. Moreover, the expression of adhesins was also important for colonization of the anterior nares. However, different S. aureus strains also showed different in vivo behavior. The assessment of general in vivo expression patterns and commonalities between different S. aureus strains will in the future result in new knowledge based strategies for controlling colonization. PMID:27641137

  7. Resistance to Antimicrobials Mediated by Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Couto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mediated by efflux has been recognized in Staphylococcus aureus in the last few decades, although its clinical relevance has only been recognized recently. The existence of only a few studies on the individual and overall contribution of efflux to resistance phenotypes associated with the need of well-established methods to assess efflux activity in clinical isolates contributes greatly to the lack of solid knowledge of this mechanism in S. aureus. This study aims to provide information on approaches useful to the assessment and characterization of efflux activity, as well as contributing to our understanding of the role of efflux to phenotypes of antibiotic resistance and biocide tolerance in S. aureus clinical isolates. The results described show that efflux is an important contributor to fluoroquinolone resistance in S. aureus and suggest it as a major mechanism in the early stages of resistance development. We also show that efflux plays an important role on the reduced susceptibility to biocides in S. aureus, strengthening the importance of this long neglected resistance mechanism to the persistence and proliferation of antibiotic/biocide-resistant S. aureus in the hospital environment.

  8. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  10. Entrevista con Hans Robert Jauss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El importante teórico y crítico literario alemán nació en 1921. Tras el largo paréntesis de la segunda guerra mundial, Jauss realizará sus estudios superiores, a partir de 1948, en Heidelberg, licenciándose en filología románica. Se doctora pronto con una tesis, publicada en 1955, sobre el tiempo y el recuerdo en la obra capital de Marcel Proust, En busca del tiempo perdido, y se habilita en 1957 con un trabajo sobre la epopeya animal en la Edad Media. A continuación, escribe un conjunto de estudios sobre la alegoría, y codirige con el gran especialista Erich Kohler una monumental historia de la literatura medieval, campo al que ha dedicado otros artículos, a la par que proseguía sus investigaciones iniciales.

  11. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  12. Mutation of neuronal channels of sodium and chloride associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (gefs+ Mutaciones de los canales neuronales de sodio y cloro asociadas a epilepsia generalizada con convulsiones febriles plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+ is a frequent entity characterized by generalized seizures with a wide phenotypic variety; the age of onset is 3 months and it persists beyond 6 years. Seizures may or may not be induced by fever. The disease has shown an autosomic dominant trait, incomplete penetrance and association with mutations on the genes that encode voltage-dependent sodium channels and the chloride neuronal channels on the central nervous system. The wide spectrum GEFS+ phenotype has been related with others entities such as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI and Intractable Childhood Epilepsy with Frequent Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures (ICEGTC; they have mutations in common with GEFS+ according to several recently published articles. This review compiles up to date information about EGCF+ with the aim of giving the reader a knowledge of this entity and of its association with mutations that participate in its pathogenesis. La Epilepsia Generalizada Con Convulsiones Febriles Plus (EGCF+, es una entidad relativamente común. Se caracteriza por convulsiones de tipo generalizado con una gran variabilidad fenotípica; se presenta desde los 3 meses de edad y persiste más allá de los 6 años; las convulsiones pueden ser precipitadas por fiebre pero se presentan también sin ella. La enfermedad se ha asociado a herencia autosómica dominante con penetrancia incompleta, en la que intervienen mutaciones de los genes que codifican los canales iónicos de sodio dependientes del voltaje y de los canales iónicos de cloro en las neuronas del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC. El amplio fenotipo de la EGCF+ se ha encontrado en asociación con otras entidades como la Epilepsia Mioclónica Severa del Lactante (EMSL y la Epilepsia Generalizada Tónico-Clónica Intratable de la Infancia (EGTCII, las cuales han presentado mutaciones comunes con las de la EGCF+, según informes recientemente publicados. Esta revisi

  13. Carlstad Comic Con : En fallstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Fors, Marcus Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study of Carlstad Comic Con 2011 and 2012.The purpose is to study the event in relation to a project management and a local culture policy perspective. This in order to analyze the organization of a popular culture event and see how such a local event may benefit Karlstad as a city. Besides studying the organization of Carlstad Comic Con and its outcomes I am sketching a short cultural history of popular culture media and its context within recent year’s globalization.The study...

  14. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  15. Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Postoperative Wounds of Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smritikana Biswas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus sp., gram positive pyogenic bacteria located on skin, nose etc, secretes toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome, abscess, food poisoning and other infectious diseases. This study was carried out to identify and characterize the type of Staphylococcus sp. bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus in the pus from postoperative wounds of hospitalized patients. From pus samples collected from twenty-four patients from Kharagpur Hospital, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, twenty-eight bacterial isolates were obtained. Among them twenty-five (89.2% were appeared with golden yellow colonies which is usually formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-three (82.14% of the bacterial isolates were Gram positive. Among them twenty isolates (86.9% were further confirmed to be Staphylococcus aureus by their ability to produce Catalase enzyme (positive in Catalase test and Coagulase enzyme (positive in Coagulase Test. Eighteen (90.00% of these Staphylococcus aureus were found to liquefy gelatin (Gelatin hydrolysis test, were able to hydrolyze urea (Urea hydrolysis test and were also l positive in Mannitol Fermentation Test. But there was no growth found of these isolates on MacConkey Agar, while sixteen isolates (80.00% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to penicillin (50µg/ml. Moreover eighteen (90.00% Staphylococcus aureus isolates were able to elaborate Hemolysin (Hemolysis test on Blood Agar media. Hence the bacterial isolates obtained from pus of postoperative wounds were predominantly pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. So it can be concluded that careful treatment and postoperative measures to be taken to avoid serious health problem that may often be life threatening.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  18. Juegos con monedas y palillos

    OpenAIRE

    Cobarro, Trinidad

    1993-01-01

    Es frecuente entre nosotros, los que nos dedicamos a la enseñanza de las matemáticas por muy grande que sea nuestro amor por la materia y el deseo de comunicación, nos encontrarnos con un problema: ¿cómo mantener interesados a los alumnos?

  19. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  20. Outbreaks associated to bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp in premature neonates in a university hospital from Brazil Surtos associados a infecções sanguíneas por Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus spp coagulase-negativa em neonatos prematuros em um hospital universitário do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are among the most important nosocomial pathogens in patients from neonatal intensive care units, mainly in bloodstream infections. The main objective of this study is to determine the occurrence of nosocomial infections by these microorganisms using two surveillance systems (Laboratorial Surveillance and National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System and to determine the most important risk factors during a two-year period (2001-2002. Two outbreaks by both methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA (1.5% and methicillin resistant CoNS (MRCoNS (1.0% were observed, from January to February/02 and August to September/02. Endemic incidence rates of 3.77% and 5.16% of S. aureus and CoNS, respectively were detected. Risk factors included age or = 7 days and utilization of polietilene central vascular catheter (CVC through vein dissection (phlebotomy, but none of these independent factors were confirmed by the multivariate analysis. However, oxacillin resistant CoNS prevailed (66.0% in the epidemic episodes. Molecular analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed the polyclonal nature of S. aureus isolates. In conclusion, two outbreaks were identified of mixed etiology by MSSA and MRCoNS associated to the lack of an adequate material (central venous catheter for neonates, related invasive procedure. The outbreaks were controlled with the substitution of polietilene CVC for peripherally inserted central catheter.Staphylococcus aureus e Estafilococos coagulase-negativa (ECN estão entre os patógenos hospitalares mais importantes em pacientes de unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal, principalmente em infecções da corrente sanguínea. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de infecções hospitalares por estes microrganismos usando dois sistemas de vigilância (laboratorial e "National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance" - NNIS e determinar os fatores de

  1. La atención a los padres con hijos con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia María Pernas Pico

    2011-01-01

    Los padres que tienen hijos con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE) necesitan al igual que sus hijos de la intervención del maestro de Audición y Lenguaje con el objetivo primordial de mejorar la comunicación y el lenguaje de los niños. Se pretende en este artículo dar un abanico de posibilidades de cómo se puede intervenir con los padres desde las escuelas: con largas horas de reuniones, con formación, con talleres, con actividades y juegos, con libretas viajeras, con pequeñas pautas, et...

  2. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  3. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  5. Crystal Violet and XTT Assays on Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenbo; Liang, Yanrui; Lin, Shiqi; Chen, Dingqiang; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Deng, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus) is a common food-borne pathogenic microorganism. Biofilm formation remains the major obstruction for bacterial elimination. The study aims at providing a basis for determining S. aureus biofilm formation. 257 clinical samples of S. aureus isolates were identified by routine analysis and multiplex PCR detection and found to contain 227 MRSA, 16 MSSA, 11 MRCNS, and 3 MSCNS strains. Two assays for quantification of S. aureus biofilm formation, the crystal violet (CV) assay and the XTT (tetrazolium salt reduction) assay, were optimized, evaluated, and further compared. In CV assay, most isolates formed weak biofilm 74.3 %), while the rest formed moderate biofilm (23.3 %) or strong biofilm (2.3 %). However, most isolates in XTT assay showed weak metabolic activity (77.0 %), while the rest showed moderate metabolic activity (17.9 %) or high metabolic activity (5.1 %). In this study, we found a distinct strain-to-strain dissimilarity in terms of both biomass formation and metabolic activity, and it was concluded from this study that two assays were mutual complementation rather than being comparison. PMID:27324342

  6. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zunita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 50 samples from 8 stable horses. They are positive in the catalase and coagulase tests. Upon testing the cultures with SLIDEX test kit all formed agglutination within a few seconds, confirming they are of S. aureus. When cultured onto MSA, all isolates formed yellow colonies. However, none of the isolates produced blue colonies on ORSAB indicating that there were no MRSA among the S. aureus. There were 13 isolates which were multiresistant. Eleven are resistant to eight out of ten antibiotics tested. All these isolates were found to originate from stable G. One isolate is resistant to 5 antibiotics while another one isolate is resistant to 3 antibiotics. The rest of the isolates are not multiresistant to the antibiotics tested. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(6.000: 165-167

  7. Contribution of coagulases towards Staphylococcus aureus disease and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice G Cheng

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus seeds abscesses in host tissues to replicate at the center of these lesions, protected from host immune cells via a pseudocapsule. Using histochemical staining, we identified prothrombin and fibrin within abscesses and pseudocapsules. S. aureus secretes two clotting factors, coagulase (Coa and von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp. We report here that Coa and vWbp together are required for the formation of abscesses. Coa and vWbp promote the non-proteolytic activation of prothrombin and cleavage of fibrinogen, reactions that are inhibited with specific antibody against each of these molecules. Coa and vWbp specific antibodies confer protection against abscess formation and S. aureus lethal bacteremia, suggesting that coagulases function as protective antigens for a staphylococcal vaccine.

  8. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  10. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Sin-Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.

  11. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  12. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  13. The Significance of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Wenzel (Richard); T. M. Perl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus infections are associated with considerable morbidity and, in certain situations, mortality. The association between the nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent infection has been comprehensively established in a variety of clinical settings, in particular, patie

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Isha; Chakrapani, Harinath; Chopra, Sidharth

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 29213 is one of the most commonly used strains in drug discovery research and for quality control. We report the completed draft genome sequence for the strain.

  15. Literatura con mayúsculas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerrillo, P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un acercamiento alconcepto de la Literatura Infantil y Juvenil a travésde una breve visión diacrítica desde sus orígeneshasta nuestros días, subrayando los usos particularesmás característicos de esta literatura en cadaépoca (didáctico, doctrinal, proselitista…. Ademásde señalar sus coincidencias con la Literatura engeneral, se pone también de relieve sus particularidadesy características específicas, en lo que noes sino un nuevo intento de delimitar la caracterizaciónde la LIJ (contenidos, temática, estructuraliteraria, forma, ediciones… y reivindicar estaLiteratura con mayúsculas.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible.

  17. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  18. Alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Pérez, Luis

    1995-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es delimitar el concepto de alumno con necesidades educativas especiales y determinar como se tiene que abordar su educación en el marco del proyecto educativo de centro. Además se pretende establecer un modelo operativo para consignar las adaptaciones curriculares que sea preciso adoptar en función de las orientaciones establecidas en la evaluación previa

  19. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; Amini, M; AR Shahverdi; Pourmand MR; Yousefi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  20. Investigation of the bactericidal effects of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin on Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    HOŞGÖR-LİMONCU, Mine; ERMERTCAN, Şafak; COŞAR, Güner

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the correlation between the bactericidal activity of vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) on Staphylococcus aureus isolates and their minimal inhibition concentrations. The in-vitro susceptibilities of the 99 S. aureus isolates to vancomycin and Q/D were investigated by agar dilution. Thirty methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 30 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) vancomycin and Q/D susceptible isolates were involved in time-kill stu...

  1. Daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomycin-intermediate, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Yu; Dale, Suzanne E; Deborah Yamamura; Vida Stankus; Christine Lee

    2012-01-01

    Due to the emergence of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced vancomycin susceptibility, newer antibiotics, including daptomycin, have been used to treat methicillin-resistant S aureus infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is approved to treat S aureus bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis, and reports of S aureus with reduced susceptibility to daptomycin are infrequent. To our knowledge, the present report describes the first Canadian case of daptomycin-nonsusceptible, vancomyci...

  2. In Vivo Activity of Ceftobiprole in Murine Skin Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Jeffrey; Hilliard, Jamese J.; Abbanat, Darren; Zhang, Wenyan; Melton, John L.; Santoro, Colleen M.; Flamm, Robert K.; Bush, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Ceftobiprole, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (P. Hebeisen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:825-836, 2001), was evaluated in a subcutaneous skin infection model with Staphylococcus aureus Smith OC 4172 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]), S. aureus OC 8525 (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa OC 4351 (having an inducible AmpC β-lactamase), and P. aeruginosa OC 4354 (overproducing AmpC β-lactamase). In the MSSA an...

  3. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  4. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  5. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  6. Brain infection following experimental Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Iburg, Tine Moesgaard; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sepsis is a major problem in humans and both the incidence and mortality is increasing. Multiple microabcesses can be found in the brain of septic patients. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sepsis and brain abscesses. S. aureus is also a frequent cause...... pigs were kept as controls. The pigs were euthanized in groups of four at either 6, 12, 24 or 48 h post infection. The brain was collected from all the animals and examined histologically. Results: All the inoculated pigs developed sepsis and 7 out of 12 animals had microabscesses in the prosencephalon...

  7. Mechanism of bacteriophage conversion of lipase activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C Y; Iandolo, J J

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus PS54 harbors two temperate bacteriophages and manifests no lipase activity on egg yolk agar. Curing of one of the resident prophages (L54a) restores lipase activity. To study the mechanism of bacteriophage conversion, the prophage was cured, and the gene encoding lipase activity was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli on a 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment of the chromosome. The fragment was subcloned into a shuttle vector and subsequently transformed into S. aureus and Bacil...

  8. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manipal...... using disc diffusion test by cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) disc, further confirmation was done by detection of mecA gene using PCR. ResultsOut of 400 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 139 (34.75%) were found to be MRSA. Among the MRSA isolates, 74 (53.2%) were from inpatient departments, 58 (41...

  9. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  10. CHARACTERISATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM SHINGLES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine R. et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Even after treating Shingles patients with antiviral drugs, they are found to suffer from secondary bacterial infections. With this background as a guide, we undertook an investigation to isolate the bacterial pathogens from the pus of Shingles patients. Among the isolates obtained during the one year study period, Staphylococcus aureus sp. was found to be multi drug resistant and hence it was chosen for the study. The antibiogram pattern of the methicillin resistant S. aureus was obtained, since this could serve as a tool for suggesting useful drugs.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  13. Estudio clínico, citogenético y molecular en pacientes con el síndrome de Russell- Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Russel Silver (SRS fue descrito independientemente por Silver y colaboradores en 1953 (1 y por Russell en 1954 (2. Silver hizo énfasis en la asimetría esquelética como característica del trastorno. Russel observó que esta característica era variable en los pacientes que examinó. El diagnóstico clínico incluye un severo retraso en el crecimiento pre y postnatal, características dismórficas incluyendo cara triangular, frente amplia, mandíbula pequeña y comisuras
    labiales hacia abajo (3,4.
    Recientes descubrimientos de disomía uniparental materna
    (DUPm del cromosoma 7 en el 10% de los pacientes con SRS,
    sugieren la presencia de genes impronta en este cromosoma, cuya mutación es responsable del fenotipo de SRS (5.
    Genes comprometidos: varios genes impronta (PEG1/MEST,
    gamama2- COP, y GBR10 localizados en el cromosoma 7. En pacientes con SRS se han identificado duplicaciones en la región 7p13-p11.2 de origen materno que rodean el gen GBR10. Recientemente, pacientes SRS con DUP de la región 7q31-qter únicamente, han reforzado la evidencia que PG1/MEST o genes adyacentes son críticos.
    Pruebas moleculares: solamente el 10% de los casos clínicos
    presentan un mecanismo de alteración de la impronta (UDPm 7; este análisis de microsatélites requiere las muestras de los padres. Luego de que los genes críticos han sido mapeados, las deleciones y los puntos de mutación pueden identificarse en pacientes que no presentan DUP (6.
    La incidencia de SRS no se conoce y puede estar subestimada.

  14. Estudio del perfil de anticuerpos contra Helicobacter pylori producidos por pacientes con diferentes patologías gastroduodenales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinel Clara

    2004-12-01

    una parte, los pacientes con G, GA y C relacionados con el reconocimiento frecuente de los antígenos VacA y el antígeno de 90 kDa, y por otra parte, los pacientes con UD y MI, asociados con el antígeno de 70 kDa. Estos resultados muestran que la respuesta hacia los antígenos de Helicobacter pylori, además de resultar específica y variada, actúa como un indicador de la patología desarrollada luego de la infección, distinguiendo los dos procesos excluyentes de formación de úlcera y cáncer. Al determinar la respuesta específica dada por cada subclase de IgG, se observó que los antígenos eran reconocidos
    especialmente por la IgG2, con menor frecuencia por la IgG1 e IgG3, y minoritariamente por la IgG4. Este tipo de proporción (IgG2>IgG1 manifiesta una mayor activación de los linfocitos T ayudadores de fenotipo Th1 que resulta inapropiada pues perpetúa la inflamación
    inducida por la bacteria y que puede dar origen al desarrollo de enfermedades gastrointetinales más severas. Por otra parte, se determinó que según su papel en el reconocimiento antigénico
    de la bacteria, las subclases de IgG pueden separarse en dos grupos diferentes: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 y por otro lado la IgG4 , asociado con una variedad de antígenos en cada patología. Esta diferenciación sugiere que mientras las subclases IgG1 e IgG2 representan la mayor respuesta
    en el reconocimiento de la bacteria, la subclase IgG4 por ser minoritaria, resulta específica y podría ser usada en el estudio de la respuesta hacia la bacteria en cada patología. Adicionalmente, la estrecha relación encontrada en el reconocimiento del antígeno de 82 kDa por parte
    de la subclase 1 en los pacientes con gastritis atrófica y adenocarcinoma gástrico, indica que la presencia de anticuerpos hacia esta proteína podría ser usada como un marcador de cáncer, mientras que el estudio del reconocimiento de los demás antígenos principales (70 kDa, 90 kDA y VacA puede convertirse en una

  15. The population structure of Staphylococcus Aureus among general practice patients from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.A.; Deurenberg, R.H.; Driessen, C.; Sebastian, S.; Nijs, S.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal carri

  16. Nosocomial Infections and Drug Susceptibility Patterns in Methicillin Sensitive and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nitish Kumar; Garg, Raina; Baliga, Shrikala; Bhat K., Gopalkrishna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics. The drug susceptibility pattern of Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) may vary.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Strains That are Hypersusceptible to Resistance Gene Transfer from Enterococci▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Julia M.-L.; Lindsay, Jodi A

    2007-01-01

    We identified naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus mutants of the restriction modification pathway SauI, including bovine lineage ST151. In a model of vancomycin resistance transfer from Enterococcus faecalis, ST151 isolates are 500 times more susceptible than human S. aureus isolates. The eradication of “hyperrecipient” strains may reduce the evolution of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

  18. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis.

  19. Genome Sequences of Four Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Taponen, Suvi; Koort, Joanna; Paulin, Lars; Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Palva, Airi

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative agent of mastitis in dairy cows. The pathogenicity of S. aureus may vary; it is able to cause severe clinical mastitis, but most often it is associated with chronic subclinical mastitis. Here, we present the genome assemblies of four S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis. PMID:25908141

  20. Estudio del comportamiento de diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus frente a los cementos de obturación de conductos radiculares

    OpenAIRE

    Pumarola Suñé, José; Berástegui, Esther; Canalda Sahli, Carlos; Brau Aguadé, Esteban

    1991-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el comportamiento de 120 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus frente a siete cementos selladores: Traitement Spad, Endométhasonc, N2 Universal, AH26 con plata, Diaket-A, Tubli Sea! y Sealapex. La prueba de susceptibilidad microbiana empleada ha sido el test de difusión en agar utilizando como medio de cultivo el agar de Muelle r-Tlinton. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran un comportamiento significativamente diferente de las diversas cepas probadas. En conse...

  1. Epidemiología de la resistencia a meticilina en cepas de "Staphylococcus aureus" aisladas en hospitales españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Borraz Ordás, María Carmen

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El "Staphylococcus aureus" resistente a meticilina (SARM) es un patógeno de gran importancia para la Salud Pública tanto a nivel hospitalario como en la comunidad. Presenta una rápida diseminación por todo el mundo y crea resistencias a los diferentes antibióticos con gran facilidad. En España se describió por primera vez a finales de 1970 y su frecuencia hasta nuestros días ha seguido un curso ascendente en el que se han producido cambios epidemiológicos y moleculares destacabl...

  2. Density-functional calculations of Con+,Con, Con- (n≤5) clusters%Con+,Con,Con -(n≤5)团簇的密度泛函理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 陈楚; 张军

    2011-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of Con+ ,Con,Con- (n≤5) clusters had been investigated using spin-polarized DFT calculations. The ground-state structures of Con+ ,Con,Con- (n≤5) clusters evoluted from one-dimension to three dimensional configurations. The total magnetic moment showed monotonic increase with size up to 5, which alternated with odd and even numbers. The interaction strengths between Con+-1(n≤5) cluster and Co atom were much more stronger. The electronic affinities (EA)and ionization potential (IP)also had been discussed in this work.%本文采用基于自旋极化的密度泛函理论系统研究了Con+,Con,Con- (n≤5)团簇的几何结构和电子结构特性.随尺寸的递增,Con,Con± (n≤5)团簇的基态几何结构由一维演变为三维的几何构型.总磁矩随尺寸的增加线性递增,并呈现奇偶交替的现象,从Con,Con±(n≤5)团簇系统中分离一个Co原子带正电的团簇体系需要的能量相对较大.本文对体系的电子亲和能(EA)以及离化势(IP)也进行了讨论.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  4. Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip; Rossen, John W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present st

  5. Strain Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus Using Superantigen Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Shuo-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs). Due to the importance of staphylococcal infections, reliable methods for the discrimination of strains of this species are important. Such data may allow us to trace the infection origins and be used for epidemiological study. For strain discrimination, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), etc., could be used. Recently, toxin gene profiles, which can be used for the elucidation of the genetic and pathogenic relatedness between strains, also have been used to improve the strain discrimination. For S. aureus, as more SAg genes were discovered, the SAg profiles become more useful for the strain discrimination of S. aureus. In this chapter, a method for the discrimination of S. aureus strains using superantigen profiles will be described in detail.

  6. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  7. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: no apocalypse now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, F W; Kitzis, M D

    2003-08-01

    The number of reports concerning vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is much higher than the number of true resistant strains or unexpected clinical failures. Many confounding factors, including inadequate serum levels, severely ill patients, foreign devices or undrained abscesses, are more likely to be responsible for the clinical failures than resistance to vancomycin. PMID:14616695

  8. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Trépanier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA during their training. The occupational risk of this specific population is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data regarding MRSA colonization among health care professionals in Quebec.

  9. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  10. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by C-8-Methoxy Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Jian-Ying; Xu, Chen; Dong, Yuzhi; Zhou, Jianfeng; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones were more lethal than C-8-bromine, C-8-ethoxy, and C-8-H derivatives for Staphylococcus aureus, especially when topoisomerase IV was resistant. The methoxy group also increased lethality against wild-type cells when protein synthesis was inhibited. These properties encourage refinement of C-8-methoxy fluoroquinolones to kill staphylococci.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship.

  12. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals. PMID:24908537

  13. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  14. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  15. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy;

    2015-01-01

    agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  16. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  17. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  18. Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Using...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship. PMID:26137787

  20. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  1. Natural Population Dynamics and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Melles (Damian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, from relatively mild skin infections such as folliculitis and furunculosis to life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, deep abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis

  2. THE STUDY OF RESISTENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS TO ANTIMICROBIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarchuk GG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the research work the results of the study of resistance forming to antibiotics, antiseptics and decametoxine composition with modified polysaccharides in S.aureus strains are presented. The development of resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides is shown. Slow forming of resistance to decasan and decametoxine composition with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose was determined.

  3. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C. J.; Christophersen, L. J.; Trøstrup, H.;

    2015-01-01

    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin...

  4. New insights into molecular typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) remains a significant problem causing infections in both hospital and community settings. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) continues to evolve and pose a great challenge through outbreaks and pandemic spread. Humans are no longer the only and the most important reservoir of

  5. Expression and inducibility in Staphylococcus aureus of the mecA gene, which encodes a methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, K; Nonoguchi, R; Matsuhashi, M; Konno, M

    1989-01-01

    A beta-lactam-sensitive strain of Staphylococcus aureus could be converted to methicillin resistance by the introduction of a plasmid carrying the 4.3-kilobase HindIII chromosomal DNA fragment which encoded the mecA gene from a methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Transformant cells produced methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein constitutively, and additional insertion of an inducible penicillinase plasmid caused production of the pencillin-binding protein to become ...

  6. Risk factors of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care staff in a teaching hospital in central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Humaidan, Ohoud S.; El-kersh, Talat A; Al-Akeel, Raid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate possible risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage associated with various health troubles among healthcare workers (HCWs) at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Method: This prospective study was conducted between May 2012 and January 2013 in KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected from HCWs. Identification was carried out based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase an...

  7. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  8. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  9. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  10. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Silva; Radcliff, Fiona J; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Fraser, John D; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ) which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization. PMID:24023720

  11. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  12. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.

  13. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling F Brown

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI. These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  14. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aisling F; Murphy, Alison G; Lalor, Stephen J; Leech, John M; O'Keeffe, Kate M; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O'Halloran, Dara P; Lacey, Keenan A; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P; van Wamel, Willem J; Foster, Timothy J; Geoghegan, Joan A; Lavelle, Ed C; Rogers, Thomas R; McLoughlin, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  15. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  16. RASGOS DE PERSONALIDAD EN PACIENTES CON OBESIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Bravo Del Toro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analizó los rasgos de personalidad con mayor incidencia en una población mexicana con obesidad. Se distinguieron los rasgos que intervienen en el funcionamiento diario de los sujetos. La muestra estuvo conformada por 60 pacientes: 31 hombres y 29 mujeres, con edades de 30 a 40 años, casados, con nivel educativo básico y que acudían a consulta médica en un centro de diagnóstico clínico, con antecedentes de obesidad. Se utilizó el perfil-inventario de la personalidad de Gordon, según el cual se comprobó que los pacientes con obesidad tienden a mostrar rasgos de personalidad por debajo de la norma. Los análisis demostraron relaciones significativas entre la gente obesa y cada uno de los rasgos de personalidad con menor prevalencia que mide la escala.

  17. Fenotipo atípico de Vibrio ordalii, bacteria altamente patogénica aislada desde salmón del Atlántico cultivado en las costas marinas del sur de Chile Atypical phenotype of Vibrio ordalii, a highly pathogenic bacteria isolated from Atlantic salmon reared on the marine coast of southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bohle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante invierno y primavera de 2003, salmones del Atlántico cultivados en las costas marinas del sur de Chile fueron afectados por brotes de una enfermedad. El análisis patológico reveló la presencia de lesiones en piel, úlceras hemorrágicas, mientras que los signos internos incluyeron pericarditis, peritonitis y focos necróticos múltiples en el hígado. En todos los casos, los cultivos bacterianos puros fueron aislados de las lesiones externas y órganos internos. La bacteriología convencional mostró como sospechoso a Vibrio sp como causante de la enfermedad. La identificación final de la bacteria fue llevada a cabo por análisis filogenético por la comparación de la secuencia casi total del gen que codifica el RNAr 16s. Este análisis reveló que las bacterias sospechosas pertenecen al grupo de los V. ordalii. Fenotípicamente, estas bacterias mostraron diferencias morfológicas, fisiológicas, bioquímicas, enzimáticas y antigénicas a los V. ordalii de referencia. Por esta razón, las cepas de campo podrían ser consideradas como un biotipo o fenotipo atípico de V. ordalii, aunque para ello es necesario más estudios comparativos entre los genomas completos de estas bacterias.During the winter and spring of 2003, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar reared a sea farms along the marine coast of southern Chile, were affected by outbreaks of disease. The pathological analysis of the affected fish were characterized by the presence of skin lesions, haemorrhaging ulcers and mortality, while the internal signs included pericarditis, peritonitis, multiple necrotic foci in the liver and signs of systemic septicaemia. In all cases, pure cultures of bacteria were isolated from the lesions and internal organs. The isolated bacteria were characterized by means of conventional bacteriological identification assays, and a Vibrio sp. was suspected to be the agent of the disease. The final identification of the bacterial isolates was made after

  18. Inhibiting platelets aggregation could aggravate the acute infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Gao, Yaping; Dong, Jie; Mu, Chunhua; Lu, Qiang; Shao, Ningsheng; Yang, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Several fibrinogen binding proteins (Fibs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most Fibs can promote the aggregation of platelets during infection, but the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) is an exception. It is reported that Efb can specifically bind fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of platelet with its N terminal. However, the biological significance of platelet aggregation inhibition in the infection caused by S. aureus is unclear until now. Here, we demonstrated that the persistence and aggregation of platelets were important for killing S. aureus in whole blood. It was found that the N terminal of Efb (EfbN) and platelets inhibitors could increase the survival of S. aureus in whole blood. The study in vivo also showed that EfbN and platelets inhibitors could reduce the killing of S. aureus and increase the lethality rate of S. aureus in the acute infection mouse model.

  19. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    -acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen in intensive care units and a common cause of nosocomial infections, resulting in a high degree of morbidity......Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that at times turns into a serious bacterial pathogen causing life-threatening infections. For the delicate control of virulence, S. aureus employs the agr quorum-sensing system that, via the intracellular effector molecule RNAIII, regulates virulence gene...... increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly...

  20. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk Using Real-time Fluorescence Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a kind of worldwide food-borne pathogen. Recently, S. aureus has gained considerable attention because of the increasing alimentary toxicosis incidence. In this study, a Real-Time fluorescence Loop-Mediated isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP was developed to detect S. aureus rapidly. The heat-stable nuclease (nuc gene of S. aureus, the target sequence, was selected to design four special primers. A rapid detection method for S. aureus was initially established under optimum reaction conditions. The assay, performed for 40 min at 61°C, did not show cross reactivity with other bacterial species. The specificity and sensitivity of RT-LAMP for detecting S. aureus were 100% and 8.0 CFU/mL, respectively. Results indicated that RT-LAMP was a potential field-usable molecular tool for detecting S. aureus This method can be an alternative to conventional LAMP in clinical applications and operational programs.

  1. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Negrín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio terapéutico junto con el control de peso, en caso de sobrepeso u obesidad, constituyen el núcleo central del tratamiento. Los autocuidados individuales y por los familiares son fundamentales en el control del día a día del paciente. El uso de terapias físicas, ayudas técnicas (bastón, etc. y de fármacos tipo analgésicos simples, opioides y antiinflamatorios tiene evidencias demostradas en el control del dolor, mejora la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida del paciente y una clara recomendación de uso en el tratamiento de la artrosis. La cirugía conservadora y la de reemplazo articular se indican en los casos en los que no se logran los objetivos terapéuticos en casos concretos.

  2. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  3. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS......: Consecutive patients with LNVIE, enrolled between January 2000 and September 2006, in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis were identified. Subjects without S aureus IE were matched to those with S aureus IE by the propensity of having S aureus. Survival differences were determined using log...

  4. Patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislados clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alvarez Varela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia antimicrobiana de 695 aislamientos clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de infecciones de las vías respiratorias superiores, lesiones en piel, secreciones de heridas, exudados conjuntivales, óticos y sistema genitourinario de pacientes atendidos en consulta externa de cinco hospitales pediátricos, ubicados en diferentes ciudades y regiones de Cuba durante el período enero de 2002 a diciembre de 2004. Los datos fueron obtenidos por el Sistema DIRAMIC y procesados por el sistema de programas para la confección de Mapas Microbianos, versión 6.0. Los antibióticos probados fueron: penicilina G, oxacilina, cefazolina, gentamicina, amicacina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, ciprofloxacina y sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim. Los aislados fueron clasificados sobre la base de su resistencia a la oxacilina. De ellos, 118 (17,0 % fueron resistentes al fármaco (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente, SAMR y 577 (83,0 % sensibles (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina sensible, SAMS. Se observó un incremento significativo de las cepas SAMR en el período y de la resistencia dentro de este grupo al resto de los antibióticos probados, aunque más del 50 % de los aislados conservan la susceptibilidad a macrólidos, aminoglucósidos y quinolonas. Por su parte, los porcentajes de resistencia de las cepas sensibles fueron bajos y muy similares en los tres años para la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados, con excepción de eritromicina y ciprofloxacina, para los que se observaron incrementos en el año 2004. Los resultados revelaron que en Cuba los Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a oxacilina aún no son un problema. Pero la aparición de este germen en la comunidad en una frecuencia cercana al 20 %, hace necesario mantener la vigilancia de este fenómeno, lo cual permitirá tomar a tiempo las medidas pertinentes para evitar sus consecuencias negativas.

  5. Un tema con muchas variaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Kepowics Malinowska

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de ética y valores como uno de los ejes principales de la formación de la identidad de los futuros profesionistas. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación realizada con metodología cualitativa, para conocer la relación entre los valores explícitos en el proyecto universitario y los valores en los estudiantes al culminar su carrera en la Universidad. Entre las principales conclusiones, cabe destacar la heterogeneidad de los valores vividos a través de las prácticas curriculares, una discrepancia significativa entre ellos y los valores declarados en los proyectos y, por consecuencia, una diferencia entre los valores deseables y los asumidos como compromiso personal. Predomina la ética de la conveniencia y hay poca conciencia de la profesión, entendida como un servicio de calidad para la sociedad.

  6. Fare astronomia con piccoli telescopi

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Non sono necessariamente richiesti strumenti mastodontici per produrre risultati scientificamente validi nel campo dell’astronomia. Anche l’astrofilo dotato di un piccolo telescopio, con un diametro di soli 8-9 cm, può contribuire alla scienza del cielo realizzando utili osservazioni del Sole, della Luna, dei pianeti, delle comete, degli asteroidi, delle stelle doppie o variabili, delle nebulose e degli ammassi stellari. Il manuale di M.K. Gainer spiega quale sia la dotazione minima (un piccolo telescopio, un computer, una semplice fotocamera digitale), come utilizzarla, e quali siano le tecniche appropriate da adottare nelle osservazioni. Offre inoltre schemi per interpretare e ridurre i dati raccolti, nonché schede da compilare e da spedire ai centri di raccolta internazionali. Questo libro è il passaporto grazie al quale l’astrofilo può entrare a pieno titolo nel mondo affascinante della scienza astronomica.

  7. Community-onset Staphylococcus aureus Surveillance Programme annual report, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daly, Denise A; Pearson, Julie C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter J; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Robinson, James O; Turnidge, John D

    2014-03-01

    In 2012, the Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance (AGAR) conducted a community-onset period-prevalence survey of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital outpatients and general practice patients including nursing homes, long term care facilities and hospice patients. Day surgery and dialysis patients were excluded. Twenty-nine medical microbiology laboratories from all state and mainland territories participated. Isolates were tested by Vitek2® (AST-P612 card). Results were compared with previous AGAR community surveys. Nationally, the proportion of S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) increased significantly from 11.5% in 2000 to 17.9% in 2012 (P<0.0001). Resistance to the non-ß-lactam antimicrobials varied between regions. No resistance was detected to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Resistance in methicillin susceptible S. aureus was rare apart from erythromycin (12.8%) and was absent for vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid and daptomycin. The proportion of S. aureus characterised as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) was 5.1%. Three HA-MRSA clones were characterised, with 72.9% and 26.4% of HA-MRSA classified as ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15) and ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA) respectively. Multi-clonal community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) accounted for 12.5% of all S. aureus. Regional variation in resistance in MRSA was primarily due to the differential distribution of the 2 major HA-MRSA clones; ST239-III [3A] (Aus-2/3 EMRSA), which is resistant to multiple non-ß-lactam antimicrobials, and ST22-IV [2B] (EMRSA-15), which is resistant to ciprofloxacin and typically erythromycin. Although the majority of CA-MRSA were non-multi-resistant, a significant expansion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) positive CA-MRSA clones has occurred nationally. The mean age of patients (31.7 years, 95% CI 28.9-34.5) with a PVL positive CA-MRSA infection was significantly lower (P<0.0001), than the mean age of patients with a PVL

  8. Population Genomics of Reduced Vancomycin Susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Kraft, Colleen S; Jordan, I King

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) is an emerging health care threat. Genome-based comparative methods hold great promise to uncover the genetic basis of the VISA phenotype, which remains obscure. S. aureus isolates were collected from a single individual that presented with recurrent staphylococcal bacteremia at three time points, and the isolates showed successively reduced levels of vancomycin susceptibility. A population genomic approach was taken to compare patient S. aureus isolates with decreasing vancomycin susceptibility across the three time points. To do this, patient isolates were sequenced to high coverage (~500×), and sequence reads were used to model site-specific allelic variation within and between isolate populations. Population genetic methods were then applied to evaluate the overall levels of variation across the three time points and to identify individual variants that show anomalous levels of allelic change between populations. A successive reduction in the overall levels of population genomic variation was observed across the three time points, consistent with a population bottleneck resulting from antibiotic treatment. Despite this overall reduction in variation, a number of individual mutations were swept to high frequency in the VISA population. These mutations were implicated as potentially involved in the VISA phenotype and interrogated with respect to their functional roles. This approach allowed us to identify a number of mutations previously implicated in VISA along with allelic changes within a novel class of genes, encoding LPXTG motif-containing cell-wall-anchoring proteins, which shed light on a novel mechanistic aspect of vancomycin resistance. IMPORTANCE The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens are two of the gravest threats to public health facing the world today. We report the development and application of a novel population genomic

  9. La atención a los padres con hijos con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia María Pernas Pico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los padres que tienen hijos con necesidades educativas especiales (NEE necesitan al igual que sus hijos de la intervención del maestro de Audición y Lenguaje con el objetivo primordial de mejorar la comunicación y el lenguaje de los niños. Se pretende en este artículo dar un abanico de posibilidades de cómo se puede intervenir con los padres desde las escuelas: con largas horas de reuniones, con formación, con talleres, con actividades y juegos, con libretas viajeras, con pequeñas pautas, etc... Siempre desde la empatía y la profesionalidad que debe transmitir el maestro de Audición y Lenguaje. Cambiando la preocupación de los padres por su ocupación.

  10. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Ejaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S. aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration. Results: Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus

  11. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahat Ejaz; Usman A Ashfaq; Sobia Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S.aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk) were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S.aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration.Results:Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo) exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus.

  12. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria

  13. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D. den; Bijnen, E.M. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossens, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria

  14. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  15. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  16. Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinnevey, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878\\/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.

  17. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Suárez; Mabel C. Ospina; Sandra A. Arias; González, María E

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicen...

  18. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival.

  19. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  20. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival. PMID:26748534

  1. Estudio de actinomicetos marinos aislados de la costa central del Perú y su actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus Meticilina Resistentes y Enterococcus faecalis Vancomicina Resistentes Study of marine actinomycetes isolated from the central coast of Peru and their antibacterial activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el potencial antimicrobiano de actinomicetos marinos frente a cepas S. aureus meticilino-resistentes (MRSA y E. faecalis vancomicina-resistentes (VRE. Materiales y métodos. En dos medios de cultivo se sembraron 29 cepas de actinomicetos aislados de sedimento marino. Se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria mediante pruebas de antagonismo in vitro para MRSA y VRE. Se procesó los extractos orgánicos de tres actinomicetos seleccionados para determinar la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI del compuesto activo. Resultados. La mayoría de los actinomicetos aislados correspondieron a un grupo homogéneo de blanco-grisáceos (62% con buen nivel de crecimiento en agar marino. Los porcentajes inhibitorios fueron superiores a 85% para ambos patógenos con halos de inhibición mayores a 69 y 78 mm de diámetro para MRSA y VRE respectivamente. Los extractos diclorometánicos de tres de los actinomicetos aislados (I-400A, B1-T61, M10-77 mostraron gran potencial inhibitorio de ambos patógenos, siendo M10-77 la cepa de actinomiceto de mayor actividad antibiótica frente a S. aureus ATCC 43300 resistente a meticilina y E. faecalis ATCC 51299 resistente a vancomicina con una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI de 7,9 y 31,7 μg/ mL respectivamente. El análisis filogenético de la cepa M10- 77 presenta un 99% de similaridad con la especie marina Streptomyces erythrogriseus. Conclusiones. El sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú es fuente promisorio de cepas de actinomicetos con gran capacidad de producir compuestos bioactivos capaces de inhibir patógenos tipificados como multidrogo-resistentes tales como S. aureus meticilino resistentes y E. faecalis vancomicina resistentes.Objectives. To determine the antimicrobial potential of marine actinomycetes against drug-resistant pathogens represented by strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE. Materials and

  2. Depresion en pacientes con alteraciones del tiroides

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Radanovic-Grguric´; Pavo Filakovic´; Jelena Barkic´; Nikola Mandic´; Ivan Karner; Juraj Smoje

    2003-01-01

    Nuestro estudio fue realizado en un grupo de 53 mujeres con disfunción tiroidea y 28 mujeres con depresión mayor. Empleamos la Escala de la Depresión de Hamilton, la Escala de Autoevaluación de la Depresión de Zung y la Escala sobre la Impresión Clínica Global. Los resultados del estudio demuestran que la mayoría de los pacientes con disfunción tiroidea se mostraron clínicamente significativos en cuanto al trastorno depresivo. Los episodios depresivos son más frecuentes en pacientes con hipot...

  3. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vimalraj, P. G.; Latchumikanthan, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were iden...

  4. Acral lick dermatitis in a jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Nyska, A

    1998-06-01

    Acral lick dermatitis was diagnosed in a 6-mo-old female jackal (Canis aureus) that was born and housed in a zoological garden in Hafez-Haim, Israel. Other dermatologic diseases were ruled out. Although the lesions were presumed to be psychogenic in origin, they resolved with topical therapy using an ointment containing benzocaine, neomycin sulfate, and hydrocortisone acetate. No recurrence has been observed. PMID:9732044

  5. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  6. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  7. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B.N.; Deepak, D.; Rawat, A. K. S.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and charact...

  8. Quinupristin/dalfopristin in Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Da Mota Sergio E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The intravitreal injection of antibiotics remains the mainstay of therapy for postoperative endophthalmitis. Bacterial resistance, however, is still a pitfall in achieving an adequate response to treatment. Quinupristin/dalfopristin might be a feasible therapeutic option in these cases. Case presentation A 55-year-old Hispanic man had endophthalmitis secondary to Staphylococcus aureus in his right eye and was treated with intravitreal 0.4 mg/0.1 ml quinupristin/dalfopris...

  9. Determination of aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by DNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickgiesser, N; Kreiswirth, B N

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for identification of the genes conferring aminoglycoside resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by dot-blot and Southern blot techniques. As radioactive probes, fragments of plasmids pAT48, pUBH2, and pH13, carrying the genes for an aminocyclitol-3'-phosphotransferase, an aminocyclitol-4'-adenylyltransferase, and an aminocyclitol-2''-phosphotransferase-aminocyclitol-6'-acetyltransferase, respectively, were used.

  10. Personal Hygiene and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002–2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygien...

  11. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump.

  12. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Bhone Myint Kyaw; Shuchi arora; Chu Sing Lim

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination ...

  13. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo, S.; Donos, N.; Spratt, D.; Bozec, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for max...

  14. Coated vesicle isolation by immunoadsorption on Staphylococcus aureus cells

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Porcine brain coated vesicles were isolated from crude fractions of tissue homogenates by affinity separation using anticlathrin-coated STaphylococcus aureus (Staph A) cells as a solid-phase immunoadsorbent. The specificity of the immunoadsorption was monitored by SDS PAGE analysis and by competitive ELISA assays. SDS PAGE of the material immunoadsorbed from a fraction of porcine bran smooth microsomes showed a selective enrichment in a 180,000 mol wt protein. In an ELISA assay, this protein ...

  15. Caracterización, por RAPD-PCR, de aislados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtenidos de pacientes con fibrosis quística RAPD-PCR characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains obtained from cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Ortiz-Herrera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a las cepas de P aeruginosa aisladas de lavados broncoalveolares de pacientes con fibrosis quística a lo largo de un periodo de tres años. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, de seguimiento de una población de pacientes con fibrosis quística. Se utilizó la técnica de la amplificación del ADN empleando PCR con bajas condiciones de especificidad (Random amplified polymorphic DNA, RAPD-PCR para la amplificación del ADN de cepas de P aeruginosa aisladas de lavados broncoalveolares de cinco pacientes con fibrosis quística, provenientes del Servicio de Neumología y Cirugía del Tórax del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría de la Ciudad de México, en el periodo de junio de 1996 a junio de 2002; se establecieron los patrones de amplificación de cada aislamiento, lo que permitió la identificación precisa de todas las cepas aisladas y el estudio de la epidemiología de P aeruginosa en los pacientes seleccionados con dicha enfermedad. RESULTADOS: Se definieron 18 patrones de amplificación del ADN que permitieron identificar a cada cepa de P aeruginosa aislada en las diferentes muestras de lavado broncoalveolar; no se encontró relación entre el fenotipo de P aeruginosa (mucoide o no mucoide y el genotipo de cada aislamiento, ya que cepas con fenotipos distintos mostraron patrones de amplificación semejantes; en nuestros pacientes se identificaron cepas con patrones de amplificación distintos a partir de una misma muestra, lo que sugiere la presencia de infecciones simultáneas por más de una cepa de P aeruginosa; se demostró que dos hermanos con la enfermedad compartían cepas con genotipos semejantes, lo que sugiere una contaminación cruzada entre ambos, y se demostró el aislamiento de cepas de P aeruginosa con genotipos semejantes a lo largo de los periodos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: La identificación mediante la caracterización genotípica de las cepas de P aeruginosa aisladas de los pacientes con

  16. Analysis of Cell Wall Teichoic Acids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, Gonçalo; Vaz, Filipa; Henriques, Gabriela; Pinho, Mariana G; Filipe, Sérgio R

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial cells are surrounded by a surface composed mainly of peptidoglycan (PGN), a glycopolymer responsible for ensuring the bacterial shape and a telltale molecule that betrays the presence of bacteria to the host immune system. In Staphylococcus aureus, as in most gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan is concealed by covalently linked molecules of wall teichoic acids (WTA)-phosphate rich molecules made of glycerol and ribitol phosphates which may be tailored by different amino acids and sugars.In order to analyze and compare the composition of WTA produced by different S. aureus strains, we describe methods to: (1) quantify the total amount of WTA present at the bacterial cell surface, through the determination of the inorganic phosphate present in phosphodiester linkages of WTA; (2) identify which sugar constituents are present in the assembled WTA molecules, by detecting the monosaccharides, released by acid hydrolysis, through an high-performance anion exchange chromatography analysis coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and (3) compare the polymerization degree of WTA found at the cell surface of different S. aureus strains, through their different migration in a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). PMID:27311674

  17. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections.

  18. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  19. Synthetic peptide inhibitors of DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    of clinically important pathogens and is essential for bacterial proliferation. The bacterial replication apparatus fulfill the requirements for a good drug target. The replisome of S. aureus consists of 5 different subunits (2, PolC2, 4, δ and δ`) who’s organization depends on multiple protein......-protein interactions. Centrally in the replisome is the -clamp where to multiple proteins binds through a conserved motif. We have identified the protein-protein interactions in the replisome of S. aureus by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system. A reverse bacterial two-hybrid system (R-BTH) based on Pyr......N (), DnaB and DnaX (). Three peptides identified as inhibitors of DnaN have been purified. Two of these peptides inhibited growth as well as DNA replication in S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the peptides was approximately 50 g/ml. Overexpression of DnaN reduced the inhibitory...

  20. Novel antibiotics for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsen, Knut

    2009-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment of infections owing to S. aureus have become increasingly challenging as the pathogen has acquired a broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In particular, emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) progressed to a global health threat. The glycopeptides antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin have remained as the drugs of last resort for more than 20 years. Fortunately, in addition to the glycopeptides, several novel antibiotics including linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin and ceftobiprole acting against MRSA have been recently introduced into clinical practice broadening therapeutic options. Although the arsenal of antistaphylococcal drugs has filled up in recent years, the rate of MRSA infection continues to be high in most countries. This demands an ongoing search for new antibacterials and lead compounds as well as development of alternative therapies and faster diagnostics to ensure effective anti-staphylococcal therapy in the future. PMID:22112259

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Regulatory RNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeau, Valérie; Cady, Anne; Revest, Matthieu; Rostan, Octavie; Sassi, Mohamed; Tattevin, Pierre; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Felden, Brice

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal bacterium and pathogen. Identifying biomarkers for the transition from colonization to disease caused by this organism would be useful. Several S. aureus small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate virulence. We investigated presence and expression of 8 sRNAs in 83 S. aureus strains from 42 patients with sepsis or septic shock and 41 asymptomatic colonized carriers. Small pathogenicity island sRNAs sprB and sprC were clade specific. Six sRNAs had variable expression not correlated with clinical status. Expression of RNAIII was lower in strains from septic shock patients than in strains from colonized patients. When RNAIII was associated with expression of sprD, colonizing strains could be discriminated from strains in patients with bloodstream infections, including patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolates associated with colonization might have sRNAs with target expression different from those of disease isolates. Monitoring expression of RNAIII and sprD could help determine severity of bloodstream infections. PMID:27224202

  2. Modulation of Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with Coumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Aquino de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic and commercial coumarins were investigated for their antibacterial and adjuvant properties with antibiotic agents against norfloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus as based on efflux mechanisms. The coumarins and certain commercial antibiotics had their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations determined by broth microdilution assay against resistant S. aureus strains which overexpress efflux pump proteins. For evaluation of the modulatory activity, the antibiotics MICs were determined in the presence of the coumarin derivatives at subinhibitory concentration. Although the coumarins did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 128 µg/mL, they did modulate the antibiotics activities. Various coumarins, especially the alkylated derivatives in combination with antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, modulated antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC for tetracycline and norfloxacin by 2 to 8 times. Polar Surface Area (PSA studies were performed and the fact that the presence of apolar groups is an important factor for the modulatory activity of coumarins was corroborated. Docking on the Penicillin-Binding Protein from MRSA identified that 18 is a potential ligand presenting low Ebinding. The results indicate that coumarin derivatives modulated antibiotic resistance and may be used as potential antibiotic adjuvants, acting by bacterial efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus.

  3. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennison L. Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1 whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone and (2 whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n=3,927 and were not screened (n=1,751 for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (p=0.04. Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58 and MRSA (AUC = 0.62. These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA.

  4. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dunya Zituni; Heidi Schu tt-Gerowitt; Marion Kopp; Martin Kro nke; Klaus Addicks; Christian Hoffmann; Martin Hellmich; Franz Faber; Wilhelm Niedermeier

    2014-01-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V?m21. Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli.

  5. Dispersal of Bap-mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilm by proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Shukla, Sudhir; Rao, Toleti Subba

    2013-02-01

    The dominant role of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development prompted us to investigate Bap as a potential target for proteinase-mediated biofilm dispersion. Biofilm assay in microtitre plates showed that proteinase K hampered the early adhesion of cells as well as biofilm development. Proteinase K treatment of 24- and 48-h-old biofilms showed enhanced dispersion of bap-positive S. aureus biofilm; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-negative S. aureus biofilm. When antibiotics were used in combination with proteinase K, significant enhancement in antibiotic action was noticed against bap-positive S. aureus biofilm. This study establishes that antibiotics in combination with proteinase K can be used for controlling S. aureus biofilms in whose development Bap surface protein has a major role. We propose that Bap protein could be a potential target for therapeutic control of S. aureus infections (for example, bovine mastitis).

  6. Use of mupirocin-chlorhexidine treatment to prevent Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, X; Slekovec, C; Talon, D

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation of: Bode LGM, Kluytmans JAJW, Wertheim HFL et al.: Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 9-17 (2010). Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen responsible for surgical-site infections and nasal carriage is a major risk factor for subsequent infection with this bacteria. Mupirocin is considered to be the topical antibacterial agent of choice for eradication of nasal S. aureus. The paper by Bode et al. provides strong evidence that the combination of a rapid identification of a S. aureus nasal carrier, mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate soap, significantly reduces the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infection by nearly 60%. In conclusion, mupirocin nasal ointment use in S. aureus carriers before surgery has numerous advantages with few side effects. PMID:20441543

  7. Be alert to the alterations in the biological characteristics in heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus in many cases appears to be associated with characteristic changes. These changes may have pitfall of identifying S. aureus by automated testing methods like Vitek 32. In this study, we retested 24 heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus haemolyticus (h-VISH collected in 2008-2010 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology by conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA reversion test and electron microscopic examination were also used. Six isolates of 24 h-VISH possessed nuc, coa, and 16S rRNA genes, and could be reversed into S. aureus. It suggested that biochemical and morphological changes in hVISA and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA should be considered, and the detection of S. aureus, especially reduced vancomycin susceptibility isolates, requires more attention and different techniques.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus, thermostable nuclease and staphylococcal enterotoxins in raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, M; Bautista, L; Medina, M; Gaya, P

    1988-07-01

    Growth and survival of two enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus were studied during manufacture and ripening of eight batches of raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese. Only 2-3 generations of Staph. aureus occurred in the vat and during pressing. The death rate of Staph. aureus (mean decrease in log cfu/g/week of ripening) from day 1 to day 60 was 0.421 in cheese made with 1% Streptococcus lactis starter and 0.404 in cheese made without starter. Thermostable nuclease was produced in the vat by growing Staph. aureus cells; it was inactivated by rennet during the first 24 h and synthesized again by surviving cells of Staph. aureus from day 1 to day 60. Staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C and D were not detected in any batches of cheese, even though Staph. aureus counts exceeded 10(7) cfu/g. PMID:3209513

  9. The role of staphylothrombin-mediated fibrin deposition in catheter-related Staphylococcus aureus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanassche, Thomas; Peetermans, Marijke; Van Aelst, Lucas N L; Peetermans, Willy E; Verhaegen, Jan; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Verhamme, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a frequent cause of catheter-related infections. S. aureus secretes the coagulases staphylocoagulase and von Willebrand factor-binding protein, both of which form a staphylothrombin complex upon binding to prothrombin. Although fibrinogen and fibrin facilitate the adhesion of S. aureus to catheters, the contribution of staphylothrombin-mediated fibrin has not been examined. In this study, we use a S. aureus mutant lacking both coagulases (Δcoa/vwb) and dabigatran, a pharmacological inhibitor of both staphylothrombin and thrombin, to address this question. Genetic absence or chemical inhibition of pathogen-driven coagulation reduced both fibrin deposition and the retention of S. aureus on catheters in vitro. In a mouse model of jugular vein catheter infection, dabigatran reduced bacterial load on jugular vein catheters, as well as metastatic kidney infection. Importantly, inhibition of staphylothrombin improved the efficacy of vancomycin treatment both in vitro and in the mouse model. PMID:23532100

  10. Role of GapC in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerro-Dego, Oudessa; Prysliak, Tracy; Perez-Casal, Jose; Potter, Andrew A

    2012-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as a major pathogen causing clinical or subclinical intramammary infections in lactating cows, sheep and goats. S. aureus produces a wide arsenal of cell surface and extracellular proteins involved in virulence. Among these are two conserved proteins with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity named glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-B (GapB) and -C (GapC). In this study, we used the S. aureus wild type strain RN6390 and its isogenic gapC mutant H330 in in vitro and in vivo studies and determined that the S. aureus GapC protein plays a role on adherence to and internalization into bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. In addition, we found that S. aureus H330 did not caused mastitis after an experimental infection of ovine mammary glands. Together, these results show that GapC is important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus mastitis. PMID:22176759

  11. Pattern differentiation in co-culture biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Markussen, Trine;

    2011-01-01

    important for understanding of biofilm physiology and the treatment of biofilm-related infectious diseases. Here, we have investigated interactions of two of the major bacterial species of cystic fibrosis lung microbial communities -Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus- when grown in co......-culture biofilms. By growing co-culture biofilms of S. aureus with P. aeruginosa mutants in a flow-chamber system and observing them using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show that wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 facilitates S. aureus microcolony formation. In contrast, P. aeruginosa mucA and rpoN mutants do...... not facilitate S. aureus microcolony formation and tend to outcompete S. aureus in co-culture biofilms. Further investigations reveal that extracellular DNA (eDNA) plays an important role in S. aureus microcolony formation and that P. aeruginosa type IV pili are required for this process, probably through...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+ software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance.SeqSphere(+ analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  13. Itinerari Musicali con la Wiild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nanni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Wiild, acronimo di Wiimote Lavagna Digitale, è uno strumento didattico che utilizza il telecomando della Wii, il famoso gioco della Nintendo, insieme a un software libero, rendendolo così estremamente versatile. Non vincolato a software proprietario, il suo utilizzo è legato alla capacità dell’insegnante di ripartire dalla didattica, dalle risorse selezionate e dall’epistemologia di ogni singola disciplina, trovando così nel proprio contesto un ruolo per le tecnologie. Il contributo presenta ipotesi di lavoro per l’educazione musicale nella scuola secondaria di primo grado che si sviluppano sia attraverso lo studio del rapporto suono/segno con affinità pittoriche e successiva codificazione grafica, sia attraverso un’attività di laboratorio in cui co-costruire percorsi storico-musicali. La Wiild diventerà davvero utile ed efficace nel momento in cui, affiancando le risorse selezionate dal docente, verrà utilizzata senza essere notata, giocando un ruolo di strumento tecnologico «normale e trasparente».

  14. Adiciones y cementos con adiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, José

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with aspects concerning the conditions to be fulfilled by raw materials and manufacturing process of cements containing components other than clinker and setting regulator. It deals also with proper conditions for the utilization of these cements, as well as with the knowledge of the interrelation between manufacture and use of them, in order to aid the manufacturers and the users in the better profit o such energy saving blended cements in optimal technical and economical conditions.

    Se tratan en este trabajo aspectos relativos a las condiciones exigibles a las materias primas y a los procesos de fabricación de los cementos que contienen constituyentes distintos del clínker y del yeso. Se tienen también en cuenta las condiciones adecuadas para utilizar estos cementos, así como el conocimiento de las relaciones entre la fabricación y el empleo de los cementos con constituyentes secundarios que ahorran energía, a fin de ayudar a fabricantes y usuarios en su mejor aprovechamiento en condiciones técnicas y económicas óptimas.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  16. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus Colony-Spreading Stimulatory Factors from Mammalian Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Yosuke Omae; Kazuhisa Sekimizu; Chikara Kaito

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus forms giant colonies on soft-agar surfaces, which is called colony-spreading. In the present study, we searched for host factors that influence S. aureus colony-spreading activity. The addition of calf serum, porcine serum, or silkworm hemolymph to soft-agar medium stimulated S. aureus colony-spreading activity. Gel filtration column chromatography of calf serum produced a high molecular weight fraction and a low molecular weight fraction, both of which exhibited colony-...

  17. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  18. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics ......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  19. Infertility as a Consequence of Spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Genital Tract of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Siftjit Kaur; Vijay Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility...

  20. High Level Expression and Purification of Atl, the Major Autolytic Protein of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vineet K.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human and animal pathogen. Autolysins regulate the growth, turnover, cell lysis, biofilm formation, and the pathogenicity of S. aureus. Atl is the major autolysin in S. aureus. The biochemical and structural studies of staphylococcal Atl have been limited due to difficulty in cloning, high level overexpression, and purification of this protein. This study describes successful cloning, high level over-expression, and purification of two forms of fully functiona...

  1. High Genetic Diversity among Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: Results from a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Empel, Joanna; Bouchami, Ons; Faria, Nuno A.; Tavares, Ana; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fluit, Ad C.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this continent. Methods and Findings A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recover...

  2. Differential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Amy; Diep, Binh An; Mai, Thuy T.; Vo, Nhung H.; Warrener, Paul; Suzich, Joann; Stover, C. Kendall; Sellman, Bret R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium known to asymptomatically colonize the human skin, nares, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonized individuals are at increased risk for developing S. aureus infections, which range from mild skin and soft tissue infections to more severe diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, sepsis, and osteomyelitis. Different virulence factors are required for S. aureus to infect different body sites. In this study, virulence gene ex...

  3. Mechanism of hetero-erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a comparison of detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)hetero-resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin and compare their detection methods so as to report results accurately to guide clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods D test was used to detect the phenotypes of S.aureus hetero-resistant to erythromycin.And then the results of two methods(automated instrument and disk diffusion)were analyzed.All strains were continuously passaged for 50 generations to

  4. Evaluation of high-dose daptomycin for therapy of experimental Staphylococcus aureus foreign body infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lew Daniel P; Bento Manuela; Schaad Heinz J; Vaudaux Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Daptomycin is a novel cyclic lipopeptide whose bactericidal activity is not affected by current antibiotic resistance mechanisms displayed by S. aureus clinical isolates. This study reports the therapeutic activity of high-dose daptomycin compared to standard regimens of oxacillin and vancomycin in a difficult-to-treat, rat tissue cage model of experimental therapy of chronic S. aureus foreign body infection. Methods The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain I20 ...

  5. Application of molecular techniques in the study of Staphylococcus aureus clonal evolution - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcos Vivoni

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of healthcare-associated and community-acquired infections. A major characteristic of this microorganism is the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Several molecular techniques have been applied for the characterization of S. aureus in epidemiological studies. In the present review, we discuss the application of molecular techniques for typing S. aureus strains and describe the nomenclature and evolution of epidemic clones of this important pathogen.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus seroproteomes discriminate ruminant isolates causing mild or severe mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maréchal Caroline; Jardin Julien; Jan Gwenaël; Even Sergine; Pulido Coralie; Guibert Jean-Michel; Hernandez David; François Patrice; Schrenzel Jacques; Demon Dieter; Meyer Evelyne; Berkova Nadia; Thiéry Richard; Vautor Eric; Le Loir Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of mastitis in ruminants. In ewe mastitis, symptoms range from subclinical to gangrenous mastitis. S. aureus factors or host-factors contributing to the different outcomes are not completely elucidated. In this study, experimental mastitis was induced on primiparous ewes using two S. aureus strains, isolated from gangrenous (strain O11) or subclinical (strain O46) mastitis. Strains induced drastically distinct clinical symptoms when tested in ew...

  7. A rare case of acute epiglottitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in an adult

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    Clare Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epiglottitis has been mainly associated with childhood infection with Haemophilis influenzae type B but cases of adult epiglottitis are increasing. We report here a case of adult epiglottitis and present evidence that it was caused by S. aureus. A 48-year old patient with clinical symptoms of epiglottitis grew Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture from an epiglottal swab. Staphylococcus aureus should be considered as a potential pathogen in adult epiglottitis.

  8. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    AnnalisaPantosti

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbioma and resistoma, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged fifty years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become...

  9. A case-control study of mastitis: nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Garland Suzanne M; Amir Lisa H; Lumley Judith

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Mastitis is a common problem for breastfeeding women. Researchers have called for an investigation into the possible role of maternal nasal carriage of S. aureus in the causation of mastitis in breastfeeding women. Methods The aim of the study was to investigate the role of maternal S. aureus nasal carriage in mastitis. Other factors such as infant nasal S. aureus carriage, nipple damage, maternal fatigue and oversupply of milk were also investigated. A case-control design...

  10. Novel Chromosomally Encoded Multidrug Efflux Transporter MdeA in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jianzhong; O'Toole, Paul W.; Shen, Wei; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Jiang, Xinhe; Lobo, Neethan; Palmer, Leslie M.; Voelker, LeRoy; Fan, Frank; Gwynn, Michael N.; McDevitt, Damien

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic efflux is an important mechanism of resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel chromosomally encoded multidrug resistance efflux protein in Staphylococcus aureus, MdeA (multidrug efflux A). MdeA was identified from screening an S. aureus open reading frame expression library for resistance to antibiotic compounds. When overexpressed, MdeA confers resistance on S. aureus to a range of quaternary ammonium compounds and antib...

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar Medium for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, John D.; Davies, Amie; Butterworth, Lynne A.; Hopley, Andrew L. J.; Nicholson, Audrey; Gould, F. Kate

    2004-01-01

    We describe here the development and evaluation of MRSA ID, a new chromogenic agar medium for the specific isolation and identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used S. aureus ID (bioMérieux, La Balme Les Grottes, France) and supplemented it with various antimicrobials, including cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, and methicillin. Cefoxitin proved to be superior to the other antimicrobials for the selection of MRSA from other strains of S. aureus. MRSA ID (c...

  12. Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from nursing and pharmacy students

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    Renushri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Emergence of resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus has resulted in failure of clindamycin therapy. The prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance in S. aureus isolated from nursing students and pharmacy students (representing carriers exposed and not exposed to hospital environment respectively was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat, and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students and 100 pharmacy students. S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by the D-test. Results: 36 and 34 individuals in the exposed and non-exposed groups respectively were carriers of S. aureus. 16.7% and 5.9% isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance in exposed and non-exposed groups, respectively. The percentage of inducible clindamycin resistance was higher among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (27.8% compared to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (5.8%. Conclusion: S. aureus isolates resistant to β-lactams can also show inducible clindamycin resistance. Exposure to hospital environment was not found to be a risk factor for carriage of S. aureus with MLSBi phenotype.

  13. Characterization of Haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin

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    Dwi Ariyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen bacteria causing food poisoning and various infection in animals and humans. Haemolysin is one of the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. The aims of the research were to characterize haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. In the present study, eleven Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origins from traditional markets and supermarkets in Yogyakarta, Sidoarjo, Jakarta, and Bandung were characterized for haemolysin, pheno- and genotypically. Characterization of haemolysin phenotypically based on haemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plate. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results of the studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plates revealed an alpha haemolysis pattern (18,18%, beta haemolysis (27,27% and gamma haemolysis (54,55%. Based on amplification of the gene encoding haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus with specific primers showed hla genes (81,81%, and hla combined with hlb genes (18,18%. The amplification of gene hla and hlb had a single amplicon with a size of approximately 534 bp and 833 bp, respectively. The haemolysin characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus from various food of animal origin could be used as important information to control staphylococcal food poisoning.Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, haemolysin, PCR, food of animal origins

  14. Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Persistent or Recurrent Bacteremia

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    Henry Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.

  15. spa type distribution in Staphylococcus aureus originating from pigs, cattle and poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Moodley, A.; Guardabassi, L.;

    2010-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) of clonal complex 398 (CC398) is emerging globally among production animals such as cattle, pigs and poultry as well as among humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of CC398 among methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) or the relative clonal...... distribution of S. aureus isolated from these three animal reservoirs. To study this, we have analyzed a random sample of S. aureus consisting of 296 epidemiologically unrelated isolates from infections and colonisation of pigs, cattle and poultry. These were examined and compared by spa and multi...

  16. Isolation of nuc mutant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastempowska, E; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Lassa, H

    2014-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with a mutation in the nuclease (nuc) gene were recovered from cases of bovine mastitis in Poland. Three S. aureus isolates from cows in one herd had a 42 base pair duplication in the nuc gene. These isolates belonged to sequence type 97 (ST97) and clonal complex 97 (CC97). They had a different spa type and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) subtype than a S. aureus isolate without the nuc mutation from the same herd. Isolation of nuc mutant S. aureus strains from cases of bovine mastitis may confound diagnostic PCRs based on detection of the nuc gene.

  17. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  18. Nueva mutación heterocigota en el gen de la proteína regulatoria aguda de la esteroideogénesis (StAR en un paciente 46,XY con hiperplasia adrenal congénita lipoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sonia Baquedano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available StAR forma parte del complejo multiproteico transduceosoma, encargado del transporte de colesterol y que facilita su entrada a la mitocondria. Mutaciones recesivas en el gen STAR causan formas clásicas y no clásicas de hiperplasia adrenal congénita lipoidea. Analizamos las consecuencias moleculares de una nueva mutación heterocigota en STAR en un paciente 46,XY con genitales ambiguos e insuficiencia adrenal. Hallamos un cambio heterocigota de novo, IVS1-2A>G, en el gen STAR y el polimorfismo heterocigota, pG146A, en SF1. No se detectaron mutaciones en los genes CYP11A1, FDX1 y FDXR, VDAC1 y TSPO. Por RT-PCR y secuenciación se observó un transcripto-exón2 y el transcripto normal (WT de StAR, a partir del ARN de tejido gonadal del paciente. Se detectó el precursor (37 kD y la proteína StAR madura (30 kD en células COS-7 transfectadas con el plásmido mutante y WT. Por inmunofluorescencia la observación de co-localización de la proteína mutante (p.G22_L59delStAR en mitocondrias fue casi nula. La actividad de p.G22_L59delStAR fue del 65% ± 13 respecto del WT. La co-transfección de los plásmidos p.G22_L59delStAR y WT redujo la actividad de WT en 62.0 ± 13.9%. La mutación IVS1-2A>G provocó la pérdida de los aminoácidos 22 a 59 en la secuencia mitocondrial N-terminal. Postulamos que ello conduciría a un plegamiento anormal de la proteína que alteraría su procesamiento y translocación. La proteína mutante p.G22_L59delStAR podría interferir con la acción de la proteína StAR WT bloqueando el complejo transduceosoma y causando una forma dominante de deficiencia de StAR, que explicaría el fenotipo clínico en heterocigosis.

  19. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

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    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  20. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

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    Bryan J. Berube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host.

  1. Proteome changes of Caenorhabditis elegans upon a Staphylococcus aureus infection

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    Schoofs Liliane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. The aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a Staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach. Results Different types of growth media in combination with either E. coli OP50 or Staphylococcus aureus were tested for an effect on the worm's lifespan. LB agar was chosen and C. elegans samples were collected 1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h post S. aureus infection or E. coli incubation. Proteomics analyses resulted in the identification of 130 spots corresponding to a total of 108 differentially expressed proteins. Conclusions Exploring four time-points discloses a dynamic insight of the reaction against a gram-positive infection at the level of the whole organism. The remarkable upregulation after 8 h and 24 h of many enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle might illustrate the cost of fighting off an infection. Intriguing is the downregulation of chaperone molecules, which are presumed to serve a protective role. A comparison with a similar experiment in which C. elegans was infected with the gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila reveals that merely 9% of the identified spots, some of which even exhibiting an opposite regulation, are present in both studies. Hence, our findings emphasise the complexity and pathogen-specificity of the worm's immune response and form a firm basis for future functional research. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Itai Yanai, Dieter Wolf and Torben Luebke (nominated by Walter Lutz.

  2. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  3. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus isolates in domestic dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Staphylococcus aureusis a one of THE most frequent causes of food poisoning (FP in dairy products. The main etiologic agents of FP are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE. There are different types of SE; types A (SEA and B (SEB are the most clinically important enterotoxins. Traditional dairy products are still produced in small batches and sold by some vendors without a permit from the Ministry of Health. This study focuses on the molecular and serological detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus SEA and SEB genes and its products, respectively from samples of such traditional products."nMaterials and Methods: 100 samples from dairy products were produced under sterile conditions via traditional methods and were transported to the laboratory. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were evaluated by PCR tests for detection of the genes encoding SEA and SEB. Subsequently, the ability of these strains to produce enterotoxin was examined by Sac's culture method and was confirmed by Sigel Radial Immounodiffussion (SRID."nResults: The results indicated that 32% of the dairy products were contaminated by S. aureus (cream 18% , cheese 10%, milk 4%. The PCR results showed that 15.6% of the S. aureus isolates possessed the SEA gene, 9.3% had the SEB gene, and 6.2% possessed both genes. The evaluation of enterotoxin production indicated that 80% of SEA and 33% of SEB genes were expressed."nConclusion: Enterotoxins SEA and SEB are heat stable and consequently; heating has no effect on dairy products contaminated by entertoxins. Subsequently, gastritis may occur within several hours after consumption. Our findings suggest that PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detecting SE and can replace the traditional assays.

  4. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  5. Bactericidal antibiotic-phytochemical combinations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Myint Kyaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection is a global concern nowadays. Due to its multi-drug resistant nature, treatment with conventional antibiotics does not assure desired clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is a need to find new compounds and/or alternative methods to get arsenal against the pathogen. Combination therapies using conventional antibiotics and phytochemicals fulfill both requirements. In this study, the efficacy of different phytochemicals in combination with selected antibiotics was tested against 12 strains of S. aureus (ATCC MRSA 43300, ATCC methicillin sensitive S. aureus or MSSA 29213 and 10 MRSA clinical strains collected from National University Hospital, Singapore. Out of the six phytochemicals used, tannic acid was synergistic with fusidic acid, minocycline, cefotaxime and rifampicin against most of strains tested and additive with ofloxacin and vancomycin. Quercetin showed synergism with minocycline, fusidic acid and rifampicin against most of the strains. Gallic acid ethyl ester showed additivity against all strains in combination with all antibiotics under investigation except with vancomycin where it showed indifference effect. Eugenol, menthone and caffeic acid showed indifference results against all strains in combination with all antibiotics. Interestingly, no antagonism was observed within these interactions. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration indices, synergistic pairs were further examined by time-kill assays to confirm the accuracy and killing rate of the combinations over time. The two methods concurred with each other with 92% accuracy and the combinatory pairs were effective throughout the 24 hours of assay. The study suggests a possible incorporation of effective phytochemicals in combination therapies for MRSA infections.

  6. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

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    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  7. Fonones en cristales con estructura de diamante

    OpenAIRE

    F. L. Pérez Sánchez; F. Pérez Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta un estudio de los modos vibracionales de cristales con estructura de diamante. En este estudio aplicamos el modelo de Keating para describir las interacciones de corto alcance entre los átomos e incorporar, en la forma más simple, las interacciones de tres cuerpos asociadas con la deformación del ángulo entre dos enlaces covalentes. En el marco de la aproximación armónica, se obtienen expresiones analíticas para las relaciones de dispersión de fonones con vectores de onda a lo lar...

  8. Reflexiones de un objeto con mente

    OpenAIRE

    Viader Junyent, Manel

    1993-01-01

    A estas alturas, y conociendo en parte su trayectoria, no resulta ninguna sorpresa para el lector avezado o al menos interesado en la problematica de la psicologia cognitiva que el profesor Ángel Riviere nos presente un libro como Objetos con mente. Por el contrario, se trata de un trabajo coherente con las reflexiones que viene aportando desde hace años a la tematica, y comparte con sus libros anteriores altos niveles de rigor y profundidad. Desde luego, los trabajos de Riviere rompen totalm...

  9. Posicionamiento WIFI con variaciones de fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Kornuta, Carlos; Acosta, Nelson; Toloza, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Los sistemas de posicionamiento Indoor estiman la posición de un dispositivo móvil en un entorno cerrado con una precisión relativa. Existen diversas técnicas de posicionamiento, donde el parámetro mayormente utilizado es el RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator). En este artículo se analiza la técnica Fingerprint con la finalidad de estimar el margen de error obtenido con la distancia euclidiana como métrica principal. Se presentan variantes de la construcción de la base de datos Fingerpr...

  10. El envejecimiento de las personas con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    Envejecimiento Activo, CERMI

    2012-01-01

    El envejecimiento activo es considerado como un concepto multidimensional que abarca y supera la buena salud, resultado de un amplio conjunto de factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales. En el caso de las personas mayores con discapacidad, la ausencia de una política de promoción y sensibilización en la comunidad a veces les niega la igualdad de oportunidades en relación con el resto de los ciudadanos. Para desarrollar ese potencial de envejecimiento activo en personas con discapacidad ha...

  11. Portal de compraventa con red social

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Vegas, Toni

    2010-01-01

    Este proyecto ha sido diseñado con la intención de añadir una aplicación a la red en la que un usuario que disponga de una necesidad, ya sea de compra o de venta, de un articulo pueda disponer de un medio más para vender en el que además, pueda hacer amistad con otros usuarios y que pueda interaccionar con todos estos usuarios, tanto amigo como simples usuarios bajo su punto de vista. Para poder realizar el proyecto, se han utilizado frameworks existentes como por ejemplo Ibatis, para la c...

  12. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  13. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also ...

  14. Schistosoma spindale infection in a captive jackal (Canis aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Latchumikanthan, A

    2015-03-01

    This report is based on the findings from a captive jackal (Canis aureus) housed in Amirthi Zoological Park, Javadu Hills, Vellore. The animal was reported to be dull, depressed and also had diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected in 10 % formalin and subjected to direct and sedimentation method of faecal examination and was examined for endoparasitic infection. Surprisingly, fecal examination revealed two spindle shaped eggs having terminal spine with a size of 250μ by 60μ. The eggs were identified as belonging to Schistosoma spindale and as per the standard keys (Soulsby 1982). PMID:25698875

  15. Molecular mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M A; Liñares, J; Martín, R

    1997-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are among the most common nosocomial pathogens. The most significant mechanism of resistance to methicillin in this-species is the acquisition of a genetic determinant (mecA gene). However, resistance seems to have a more complex molecular basis, since additional chromosomal material is involved in such resistance. Besides, overproduction of penicillinase and/or alterations in the PBPs can contribute to the formation of resistance phenotypes. Genetic and environmental factors leading to MRSA are reviewed.

  16. In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, F Ann; Cong, Le; Yan, Winston X.; Scott, David A.; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Kriz, Andrea J.; Zetsche, Bernd; Shalem, Ophir; Wu, Xuebing; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene; Sharp, Phillip A.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 has emerged as a versatile genome-editing platform. However, the size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) limits its utility for basic research and therapeutic applications that employ the highly versatile adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery vehicle. Here, we characterize six smaller Cas9 orthologs and show that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) can edit the genome with efficiencies similar to those of SpCas9, while being >1...

  17. Binding of collagen to Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Speziale, P; Raucci, G; Visai, L.; Switalski, L M; Timpl, R; Höök, M

    1986-01-01

    Collagen binds to a receptor protein present on the surfaces of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-labeled type II collagen to its bacterial receptor is reversible, and Scatchard plot analysis indicates the presence of one class of receptor that occurs on an average of 3 X 10(4) copies per cell and binds type II collagen with a Kd of 10(-7) M. Studies on the specificity of collagen cell binding indicate that the receptor does not recognize noncollagenous proteins but binds all of th...

  18. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Maja; Vuković, Dragana; Živanović, Irena; Dakić, Ivana; Soldatović, Ivan; Maletić, Dejan; Lazović, Saša; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran; Puač, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  19. The relation between Staphylococcus aureus and Wegener's granulomatosis : Current knowledge and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, ER; Tervaert, JWC

    2003-01-01

    To date, in the investigation of the role of S. aureus in WG, we face a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, clinical results obtained from treatment of WG patients with co-trimoxazole and studies assessing the impact of S. aureus on disease relapses strongly suggest that this bacterium contribut

  20. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Brown (Aisling F.); A.G. Murphy (Alison G.); S.J. Lalor (Stephen J.); J.M. Leech (John M.); K.M. O’Keeffe (Kate M.); M. Mac Aogáin (Micheál); D.P. O’Halloran (Dara P.); K.A. Lacey (Keenan A.); M. Tavakol (Mehri); C.H. Hearnden (Claire H.); D. Fitzgerald-Hughes (Deirdre); H. Humphreys (Hilary); J.P. Fennell (Jérôme P.); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); T.J. Foster (Timothy J.); J.A. Geoghegan (Joan A.); E.C. Lavelle (Ed C.); T.R. Rogers (Thomas R.); R.M. McLoughlin (Rachel M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrate

  1. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good...

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in pati

  3. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Imported Fish and Correlations between Antibiotic Resistance and Enterotoxigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Salman, Alaa E Bani; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-11-01

    A total of 156 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from three countries. Selective media were used for the isolation of S. aureus, and the isolates were confirmed by PCR. The isolates were tested for mecA gene, antibiotic resistance, and enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei). Most isolates carried sea, seg, and sei genes, and seg-sei was the most frequent enterotoxin profile. About 88.5% of the S. aureus exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic. High resistance to penicillin and ampicillin; low resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, and clindamycin; and very low resistance to cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin were exhibited by S. aureus from the three countries. In addition, some antibiotic resistance exhibited a strong correlation (P ≤ 0.01) with enterotoxigenicity in S. aureus. The study concluded that the large amount of globally traded fish increases the possibility of intercontinental transmission of enterotoxigenic and multidrug-resistant S. aureus through fish and highlights the potential influence of local fish handling and processing on consumer health worldwide. The introduction of periodic training in food safety and hygiene is essential to increase fish handlers' awareness of good hygienic practices in handling fish. These findings also enrich the ongoing debate about the risk of methicillin- and multidrug-resistant S. aureus as a foodborne pathogen compared with drug-susceptible S. aureus.

  4. Key role for clumping factor B in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E.J. Walsh (Evelyn); R.S.R. Choudhurry (Roos); D.C. Melles (Damian); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); H. Miajlovic (Helen); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); T.J. Foster (Timothy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus permanently colonizes the vestibulum nasi of one-fifth of the human population, which is a risk factor for autoinfection. The precise mechanisms whereby S. aureus colonizes the nose are still unknown. The staphylococcal cell-wall protein clumping factor

  5. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless s

  6. Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Akbar; Anil Kumar Anal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods: Foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results: A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26%were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18%were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72%of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions: The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage.

  7. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in

  8. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Ott, A.; Voss, A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Broucke-Grauls, C.M. van den; Meester, M.; Keulen, P.H. van; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the eff

  9. Mechanism and consequences of invasion of endothelial cells by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    It has become clear that Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular microorganism. Adherence and invasion are a prerequisite for endovascular infections caused by S. aureus, such as infective endocarditis. These phenomena may also be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive and metastatic

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiang; Zhong, Dengke; Ji, Lu; Yang, Junshu; Phillips, James; Ji, Yinduo

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major respiratory pathogens associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In this study, we collected sputum and isolated fifty S. aureus isolates from CF patients with the median age of 9.5 years old. Then we determined the profiles of these isolates by antibiotic susceptibility testing, examining their cytotoxicity and ability to internalize into an epithelial cell line (A549), as well as multiple loci sequencing typing. Predominant CF S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin; however, these isolates were sensitive to various antibiotics, such as vancomycin and minocycline. Different CF S. aureus isolates showed distinct cytotoxic activities, and 90 % of CF S. aureus isolates possessed the enterotoxin genes, sea and hlg. Moreover, we found that multiple different CF S. aureus isolates appeared to have the distinct capacity of invading A549 cells. ST5 (14 %), ST30 (14 %), and ST8 (10 %) were prevalent ST types in these isolates. Further analysis revealed that ST5 and ST30 isolates were less toxic than ST8 and ST15 isolates, and that the ST5, ST15, ST59, and ST87 types of CF S. aureus were less capable of invading A549 cells. Our results suggest that the ST typing method may be useful in predicting cytotoxicity and the invading capacity of S. aureus isolates from patients with CF. PMID:27562596

  11. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  12. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous, versatile and dangerous pathogen. It colonizes over 30% of the human population, and is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious agent. During S. aureus colonization and invasion, leukocytes are recruited to the site of infection. To combat S. aureus, leukocytes generate an arsenal of reactive species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypohalous acids that modify and inactivate cellular macromolecules, resulting in growth defects or death. When S. aureus colonization cannot be cleared by the immune system, antibiotic treatment is necessary and can be effective. Yet, this organism quickly gains resistance to each new antibiotic it encounters. Therefore, it is in the interest of human health to acquire a deeper understanding of how S. aureus evades killing by the immune system. Advances in this field will have implications for the design of future S. aureus treatments that complement and assist the host immune response. In that regard, this review focuses on how S. aureus avoids host-generated oxidative stress, and discusses the mechanisms used by S. aureus to survive oxidative damage including antioxidants, direct repair of damaged proteins, sensing oxidant stress and transcriptional changes. This review will elucidate areas for studies to identify and validate future antimicrobial targets.

  13. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  14. Triple-acting antimicrobial treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiang; Zhong, Dengke; Ji, Lu; Yang, Junshu; Phillips, James; Ji, Yinduo

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major respiratory pathogens associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In this study, we collected sputum and isolated fifty S. aureus isolates from CF patients with the median age of 9.5 years old. Then we determined the profiles of these isolates by antibiotic susceptibility testing, examining their cytotoxicity and ability to internalize into an epithelial cell line (A549), as well as multiple loci sequencing typing. Predominant CF S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin; however, these isolates were sensitive to various antibiotics, such as vancomycin and minocycline. Different CF S. aureus isolates showed distinct cytotoxic activities, and 90 % of CF S. aureus isolates possessed the enterotoxin genes, sea and hlg. Moreover, we found that multiple different CF S. aureus isolates appeared to have the distinct capacity of invading A549 cells. ST5 (14 %), ST30 (14 %), and ST8 (10 %) were prevalent ST types in these isolates. Further analysis revealed that ST5 and ST30 isolates were less toxic than ST8 and ST15 isolates, and that the ST5, ST15, ST59, and ST87 types of CF S. aureus were less capable of invading A549 cells. Our results suggest that the ST typing method may be useful in predicting cytotoxicity and the invading capacity of S. aureus isolates from patients with CF.

  16. Rapid first-line discrimination of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains using MALDI-TOF MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus; Grønvall Kjær Hansen, Sanne; Møller, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    Fast and reliable discrimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is essential in identifying an outbreak. Molecular typing methods, such as S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) are generally...

  17. Nosocomial Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterimia among Nasal Carriers of Methicillin- Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ariza (Javier); J. Ayats (Josefina); M.A. Dominguez; F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the relevance of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, either methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) or methicillinresistant (MRSA), as a risk factor for the development of nosocomial S aureus bacteremia during an MRSA outbreak. patients and methods: In this prospective

  18. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information.

  19. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr type determination by a novel multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  20. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  1. Heterologously expressed Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding proteins are sufficient for invasion of host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Francois, P; Que, Y A; Hussain, M; Heilmann, C; Moreillon, P; Lew, D; Krause, K H; Peters, G; Herrmann, M

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin alpha(5)beta(1) (B. Sinha et al., Cell. Microbiol

  2. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Schlecht; B.M. Peters; B.P. Krom; J.A. Freiberg; G.M. Hänsch; S.G. Filler; M.A. Jabra-Rizk; M.E. Shirtliff

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Community Acquired and Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    P R, Vysakh; M, Jeya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital.

  4. Correlation between Reduced Daptomycin Susceptibility and Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Longzhu; Tominaga, Eiji; Neoh, Hui-min; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    We present here findings of a strong positive correlation between reduced daptomycin susceptibility and vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). This correlation is related to cell wall thickening, suggesting that, similar to the case with vancomycin resistance in VISA, the physical barrier of a thickened cell wall may contribute to daptomycin resistance in S. aureus.

  5. Comparative analysis of conjugative plasmids mediating gentamicin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Goering, R. V.; Ruff, E A

    1983-01-01

    Five gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were found to contain self-transmissible plasmids of 32 to 37 megadaltons in size. Restriction endonuclease digests of the plasmids were markedly similar to those of reference plasmids of unrelated geographical origin, thus suggesting the significant contribution of common conjugal plasmids to the emergence of gentamicin resistance in S. aureus populations.

  6. Uptake of sparfloxacin and norfloxacin by clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kojima, T.; M. Inoue; Mitsuhashi, S

    1991-01-01

    The amount of sparfloxacin uptake was higher than that of norfloxacin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, energy-dependent reduction in quinolone uptake, probably due to active efflux of the quinolone, was observed. The reduction in quinolone uptake appeared to be associated with quinolone resistance in S. aureus.

  7. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus via Magnetic Hyperthermia Mediated by Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Chen, Linjie; Yi, Yong; Chen, Chuanfang; Wu, Long-Fei; Song, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common hospital and household pathogen. Given the emergence of antibiotic-resistant derivatives of this pathogen resulting from the use of antibiotics as general treatment, development of alternative therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. Here, we assess the feasibility of killing S. aureus cells in vitro and in vivo through magnetic hyperthermia mediated by magnetotactic bacteria that possess magnetic nanocrystals and demonstrate magnetically steered swimming. The S. aureus suspension was added to magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria either directly or after coating with anti-MO-1 polyclonal antibodies. The suspensions were then subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) for 1 h. S. aureus viability was subsequently assessed through conventional plate counting and flow cytometry. We found that approximately 30% of the S. aureus cells mixed with uncoated MO-1 cells were killed after AMF treatment. Moreover, attachment between the magnetotactic bacteria and S. aureus increased the killing efficiency of hyperthermia to more than 50%. Using mouse models, we demonstrated that magnetic hyperthermia mediated by antibody-coated magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria significantly improved wound healing. These results collectively demonstrated the effective eradication of S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of magnetotactic bacterium-mediated magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment for S. aureus-induced skin or wound infections. PMID:26873320

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Targets the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) to Lyse Erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Badiou, Cédric; Cochet, Sylvie; Boguslawski, Kristina M.; Yoong, Pauline; Day, Christopher J.; Gosselaar-de Haas, Carla J C; van Kessel, Kok P M; Vandenesch, François; Jennings, Michael P.; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Colin, Yves; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Henry, Thomas; Torres, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for Staphylococcus aureus to thrive inside the mammalian host, the bacterium has to overcome iron scarcity. S. aureus is thought to produce toxins that lyse erythrocytes, releasing hemoglobin, the most abundant iron source in mammals. Here we identify the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokin

  9. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concepción Porrero, M.; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I.;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (ML...

  10. Three cases of severely disseminated Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients treated with tocilizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Mai; Pødenphant, Jan; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    -intensive diagnostic work-up and early treatment should be performed. Systematic postmarketing studies are needed to clarify if there is a true increased risk of disseminated S aureus infections. We suggest caution when prescribing tocilizumab to patients with prosthetic joints and/or prior invasive S aureus...

  11. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous, versatile and dangerous pathogen. It colonizes over 30% of the human population, and is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious agent. During S. aureus colonization and invasion, leukocytes are recruited to the site of infection. To combat S. aureus, leukocytes generate an arsenal of reactive species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypohalous acids that modify and inactivate cellular macromolecules, resulting in growth defects or death. When S. aureus colonization cannot be cleared by the immune system, antibiotic treatment is necessary and can be effective. Yet, this organism quickly gains resistance to each new antibiotic it encounters. Therefore, it is in the interest of human health to acquire a deeper understanding of how S. aureus evades killing by the immune system. Advances in this field will have implications for the design of future S. aureus treatments that complement and assist the host immune response. In that regard, this review focuses on how S. aureus avoids host-generated oxidative stress, and discusses the mechanisms used by S. aureus to survive oxidative damage including antioxidants, direct repair of damaged proteins, sensing oxidant stress and transcriptional changes. This review will elucidate areas for studies to identify and validate future antimicrobial targets. PMID:27354296

  12. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    . Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  13. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteri

  14. The dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection in nine Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Sloth, K. H.; Elsberg, C.;

    2000-01-01

    ribo- and phage patterns identical to S. aureus isolates from human carriers. The findings of the present study underline the importance of strict milking hygiene and improvement of current mastitis therapy. The results support the hypothesis that some S. aureus mastitis strains are more contagious...

  15. The role of human innate immune factors in nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Emonts, Marieke; Wertheim, Heiman; Bartels, Hans; Cole, Alexander; Lemmens-den Toom, Nicole; Snijders, Susan Susan; Verbrugh, Henri; van Leeuwen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Slaphylococcus aureus colonization of the human nares predisposes to sometimes severe auto-infection. To investigate whether genetic polymorphism affects the S. aureus carriage status, sequence variation in alpha-defensin and beta-defensin, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genes were determined for

  16. Methicillin (Oxacillin)-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Major Food Animals and Their Potential Transmission to Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John Hwa

    2003-01-01

    From May 2001 to April 2003, various types of specimens from cattle, pigs, and chickens were collected and examined for the presence of methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S. aureus was isolated and positively identified by using Gram staining, colony morphology, tests for coagulase and urease activities, and an API Staph Ident system. Among 1,913 specimens collected from the animals, 421 contained S. aureus; of these, 28 contained S. aureus resistant to concentrat...

  17. Subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem induce increased resistance to methicillin and imipenem in vitro in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, B A; McClatchey, K D; Schaberg, D R

    1984-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus that was susceptible to less than 0.75 micrograms of imipenem per ml demonstrated inducible resistance. MR S. aureus preincubated with 0.05 microgram of imipenem per ml grew in medium with an imipenem concentration of 32 micrograms/ml, and methicillin MICs increased 20-fold. Non-MR S. aureus exhibited no induction. Preincubation with methicillin produced no effect. Induction appeared to be a unique interaction of imipenem with MR S. aureus.

  18. Structural Analysis of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase B and Multiple Peptide Resistant Factor of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rakette, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are becoming increasingly problematic. The bacteria gain resistance to new antibiotics in relatively short time periods. Besides the hospital associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA), infections with community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) are increasing. The only serine/threonine kinase PknB of S. aureus is composed of an intracellular kinase domain, a transmembrane helix and three extracellular penicillin-binding protein and serine/th...

  19. Presa con revestimiento asfáltico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proudfit, D. P.

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available La presa denominada Montgomery se halla situada sobre el río South Platte River, a unos 8 km aguas arriba de la ciudad de Alma, del Estado de Colorado (EE. UU., y en la ladera oriental de la cordillera Continental Divide. El cuerpo o dique de esta presa está constituido por piedra, revestida con una capa de hormigón asfáltico en el paramento de contacto con el agua.

  20. Infactibilidad en programas con restricciones lineales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liern Carrión, V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo resumimos las técnicas más habituales que permiten diagnosticar las causas de infactibilidad de programas con restricciones lineales. Además, presentamos dos métodos que, con las mínimas transformaciones posibles del modelo inicial, permiten hacer viable un programa infactible. Los métodos descritos son aplicados a un modelo de selección de carteras eficientes.

  1. Catalase-negative, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of septicemia Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina como causa de septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Innaco de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalase-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was isolated from blood, venous catheter spike and bone marrow collected from an HIV-positive man with lobar pneumonia and sepsis after ten days of hospitalization. The isolate was resistant to oxacillin (positive for penicillin-binding protein 2', ceftriaxone, clindamycin and clarithromycin, and susceptible to vancomycin. This is the first case of septicemia due to a catalase-negative S. aureus reported in Brazil, and, to our knowledge, it is the first case of catalase-negative MRSA reported in the literature. We believe that the patient acquired the S. aureus infection within the hospital environment since it was isolated ten days after hospitalization, it was isolated in a venous catheter spike, and the antibiotic resistance profile is similar to other S. aureus isolates recovered from infections in our hospital.Em um paciente HIV-positivo, com pneumonia lobar e septicemia, foi isolada, após dez dias de internação, uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativa, resistente a meticilina/oxacilina (MRSA, de culturas de sangue, cateter venoso central e medula óssea. A cepa era resistente a oxacilina (PBP 2' positivo, ceftriaxona, clindamicina e claritromicina, e sensível a vancomicina. Este é o primeiro caso, reportado no Brasil, de uma septicemia por S. aureus catalase-negativo e, em nosso conhecimento, o primeiro caso de um S. aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina. Nós acreditamos que o paciente tenha adquirido a infecção no ambiente hospitalar, uma vez que esta cepa foi isolada aos dez dias de internação, foi isolada em cateter venoso central e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos é semelhante ao dos S. aureus de infecções nosocomiais que ocorrem em nosso hospital.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain M1, a unique t024-ST8-IVa Danish methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Worning, Peder; Bartels, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome sequence, in five contigs, of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate designated M1. This clinical isolate was from the index patient of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in Copenhagen, Denmark, that started in 2003. This strain is se...... is sequence type 8 (ST8), spa type t024, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type IVa....

  3. Wear analysis by applying a pin-disc configuration to phemoral head and acetabular cup Análisis del desgaste de la articulación cabeza femoral–copa acetabular mediante simulación experimental con máquina perno-disco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Fernandez Juan Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    -ASTM 316L, las probetas del componente femoral y polietileno de alta densidad, el componente acetabular, a condiciones de desgaste equivalentes a un uso cotidiano de diez años. Con respecto a la distribución de las cargas por aplicar en el desarrollo experimental, se empleó el método del elemento finito para realizar una simulación numérica de las condiciones de operación del conjunto y así determinar los esfuerzos correspondientes en la zona de interés. El ensayo tribológico realizado permitió evaluar la pérdida volumétrica de materiales del sistema analizado. Al comparar los resultados obtenidos con los reportados en la literatura, se puede establecer que en principio se valida el procedimiento planteado en este trabajo, lo que permitirá establecer con certidumbre la vida esperada de una prótesis de cadera. Se propone desarrollar un trabajo posterior que valida estadísticamente la metodología propuesta. Palabras clave: vida útil; componente femoral; copa acetabular; fenotipo mexicano; configuración Perno-Disco (POD

  4. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  5. Fagoterapia frente a infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Tamariz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la actividad de los bacteriófagos frente a infecciones localizadas y sistémicas producidas por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de tipo experimental en 45 ratones de la cepa Balb/c divididos en nueve grupos de cinco individuos. Se aislaron diez bacteriófagos nativos a partir de muestras clínicas y efluentes hospitalarios, se evaluó su capacidad lítica y su espectro de actividad, en base a lo cual se seleccionaron seis fagos para los ensayos de fagoterapia. Adicionalmente, se empleó un bacteriófago de origen comercial. La fagoterapia fue evaluada mediante profilaxis y terapia de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas causadas por la inoculación de MRSA por vía subcutánea y endovenosa respectivamente. Se probó la efectividad de tres esquemas terapéuticos: monoterapia, cóctel de fagos en múltiples dosis y de cóctel de fagos en una sola dosis. También se comparó la actividad terapéutica de los fagos frente a vancomicina y clindamicina. Resultados. El cóctel de fagos y la terapia a diversas dosis fueron efectivos para prevenir y controlar infecciones localizadas por MRSA, su actividad fue similar a la de vancomicina y clindamicina. La dosis única del cóctel de fagos no logró controlar la infección localizada; asimismo, la fagoterapia no resultó efectiva en infecciones sistémicas. Conclusiones. La fagoterapia se proyecta como una alternativa viable frente a infecciones causadas por MRSA. Se requieren estudios que evalúen aspectos relacionados con la inocuidad de los fagos frente al paciente

  6. Influence of Magnolol on the Secretion of α-Toxin by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ming Deng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the antimicrobial activity of magnolol on Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol against 31 S. aureus strains ranged from 4–32 μg/mL. In addition, hemolysin assays, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR were performed to investigate the effect of magnolol on α-toxin secretion by both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The results indicated that sub-inhibitory concentrations of magnolol dose-dependently inhibited the transcription of hla (the gene encoding α-toxin in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of α-toxin secretion and, thus, hemolytic activities.

  7. Assessment of adhesion, invasion and cytotoxicity potential of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Ben Nejma, Mouna; Helali, Imen; Hentati, Hajer; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2015-09-01

    The oral cavity is regarded as a relevant site for Staphylococcus aureus colonization. However, characterization of virulence mechanisms of oral S. aureus remains to be uncovered. In this study, twenty one S. aureus strains isolated from the oral cavity of Tunisian patients were screened for adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. In addition, the presence of adhesins (icaA, icaD, can, fnbA and fnbB) and α-hemolysin (hla) genes in each strain was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our finding revealed that oral S. aureus strains were able to adhere and invade epithelial cells, with variable degrees (P toxin was found in 52.4% of the isolates. All these virulence factors give to S. aureus the right qualities to become a redoubtable pathogen associated to oral infections.

  8. Prolonged in vitro exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to germicidal teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L

    1989-04-01

    Eight strains of Staphylococcus aureus were tested to determine if prolonged exposure to commercial teat dips could enhance bacterial tolerance to teat dips in vitro. All strains of S. aureus were serially plated 15 times on chemically defined agar medium containing sublethal concentrations of linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, and iodophor teat dips. Growth responses of S. aureus to chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, and iodophor were not affected by prolonged exposure to these teat dips. Isolates subcultured on agar containing .1% linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid teat dip subsequently had a greater mean growth response to .1% solution of the germicide than did controls subcultured on basal medium. Hemolytic patterns, tube coagulase, clumping factor, and protein A reactions of S. aureus were not altered by exposure to any of the teat dips tested. In general, prolonged exposure to commercial teat dips did not alter germicidal susceptibility of S. aureus. PMID:2745808

  9. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow milk in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueena Jahan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended for identification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw cow milk. A total of 47 milk samples were collected from Sheshmore, Shutiakhali and Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy Farm, Mymensingh. Using bacteriological, biochemical and PCR-based identification schemes, 12 (25.53% isolates were confirmed as S. aureus. All the isolates showed β-hemolysis on 5% sheep blood agar. S. aureus specific nuc gene (target size 279-bp was amplified in the cases of all isolates. The isolates were found as resistant to Penicillin (100%, Erythromycin (75% and Amoxicillin (100%. On the other hand, the isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (83.33%, Oxacillin (100%, Cloxacillin (100% and Neomycin (100%. The isolated S. aureus showed increased resistance to broad spectrum antibiotic (e.g., Ciprofloxacin. As many people have a tendency to drink raw milk and raw milk products, there is high risk of S. aureus infection in human.

  10. First report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from cage-cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyah, M A S; Zamri-Saad, M; Siti-Zahrah, A

    2010-08-26

    Swabs from the brain, eyes and kidneys of tilapia from 11 farms were collected for a period of 2 years. They were grown on blood agar before cultures of suspected Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to ABI STAPH Detection Kit and PCR for identification. They were then grown on oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and subjected to PCR using the MRSA 17 kb forward and reverse primers to identify the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 559 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained, from which 198 (35%) isolates were identified as S. aureus. Of the 198 S. aureus isolated from tilapias, 98 (50%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Since global spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has increased in the past decade, this new finding in fish should be of concern. PMID:20189324

  11. Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Petr; Sladek, Zbysek; Rysanek, Dusan; Langrova, Tereza

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis is modulated by infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Samples of cell populations were obtained by lavage of the mammary glands at 4 intervals (24, 48, 72 and 168 h) following infection. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes peaked at 168 h after challenge with S. aureus or S. uberis. Subsequent experiments focused on in vitro cultivation of mammary gland lymphocytes with S. aureus and S. uberis. These experiments showed a lower percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes following 3h of cultivating cells with bacteria than after cultivation without bacteria. The results demonstrate that during both experimental infection of bovine mammary glands with S. aureus or S. uberis and during in vitro cultivation of lymphocytes with S. aureus or S. uberis, apoptosis of lymphocytes is delayed.

  12. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Lung Cell Injury by Inhibiting Alpha-Hemolysin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanxiang; Li, Hongen; Wang, Laiying; Song, Zexin; Shi, Lei; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, like other gram-positive pathogens, has evolved a large repertoire of virulence factors as a powerful weapon to subvert the host immune system, among which alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a secreted pore-forming cytotoxin, plays a preeminent role. We observed a concentration-dependent reduction in Hla production by S. aureus in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of isorhamnetin, a flavonoid from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., which has little antibacterial activity. We further evaluate the effect of isorhamnetin on the transcription of the Hla-encoding gene hla and RNAIII, an effector molecule in the agr system. Isorhamnetin significantly down-regulated RNAIII expression and subsequently inhibited hla transcription. In a co-culture of S. aureus and lung cells, topical isorhamnetin treatment protected against S. aureus-induced cell injury. Isorhamnetin may represent a leading compound for the development of anti-virulence drugs against S. aureus infections. PMID:26643966

  13. Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. A 10-year nationwide study of 96 consecutive cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Benfield, Thomas L; Skinhoej, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical prognostic features of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis. METHODS: Nationwide...... surveillance in Denmark from 1991 to 2000 with clinical and bacteriological data. Risks of death were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 12480 cases of S. aureus bacteraemia/sepsis, we identified 96 cases of non-surgical bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis (0.8%). Incidence...... > or = 4) (HR, 2.14; CI, 1.09 to 4.19) remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence, but not mortality of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis decreased during the study period. Co morbidity and critical illness were independent predictors of a poor outcome....

  14. RadCon: A Radiological Consequences Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RadCon estimates the dose received by user selected groups in the population from an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. The exposure pathways considered are external exposure from the cloud and ground and internal exposure from inhalation and ingestion of contaminated food. Atmospheric dispersion modelling is carried out externally to RadCon.Given a two dimensional time varying air and ground concentration of radioactive elements, RadCon allows the user to: view the air and ground concentration over the affected area, select optional parameters and calculate the dose to people,display the results to the user, and change the parameter values. RadCon offers two user interfaces: 1) the standard graphical user interface which is started using Java DoseApp at the command line, or by setting up a shortcut to this command (particularly when RadCon is installed on a PC) and 2) the text based interface used to generate information for the model inter-comparison exercise . This is initiated using Java BIOMASS at the command line, or an equivalent shortcut. The text based interface was developed for research purposes and is not generally available. Appendices A, B and C provide a summary of instructions on setting up RadCon. This will generally be carried out by the computer support personnel

  15. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Katie; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Alonzo, Francis; Durbin, Joan; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two defense strategies employed by the host against microbial threats. Autophagy-mediated degradation of bacteria has been extensively described as a major resistance mechanism. Here we find that the dominant function of autophagy proteins during infections with the epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 is to mediate tolerance rather than resistance. Atg16L1 hypomorphic mice (Atg16L1(HM)), which have reduced autophagy, were highly susceptible to lethality in both sepsis and pneumonia models of USA300 infection. Autophagy confers protection by limiting the damage caused by α-toxin, particularly to endothelial cells. Remarkably, Atg16L1(HM) mice display enhanced survival rather than susceptibility upon infection with α-toxin-deficient S. aureus. These results identify an essential role for autophagy in tolerance to Staphylococcal disease and highlight how a single virulence factor encoded by a pathogen can determine whether a given host factor promotes tolerance or resistance.

  16. Converting a Staphylococcus aureus toxin into effective cyclic pseudopeptide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Olivia; Mosbah, Amor; Baudy Floc'h, Michèle; Felden, Brice

    2015-03-19

    Staphylococcus aureus produces peptide toxins that it uses to respond to environmental cues. We previously characterized PepA1, a peptide toxin from S. aureus, that induces lytic cell death of both bacterial and host cells. That led us to suggest that PepA1 has an antibacterial activity. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously provided PepA1 has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We also see that PepA1 is significantly hemolytic, thus limiting its use as an antibacterial agent. To overcome these limitations, we converted PepA1 into nonhemolytic derivatives. Our most promising derivative is a cyclic heptapseudopeptide with inconsequential toxicity to human cells, enhanced stability in human sera, and sharp antibacterial activity. Mechanistically, linear and helical PepA1 derivatives form pores at the bacterial and erythrocyte surfaces, while the cyclic peptide induces bacterial envelope reorganization, with insignificant action on the erythrocytes. Our work demonstrates that bacterial toxins might be an attractive starting point for antibacterial drug development.

  17. Expression of Four Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus possesses three MsrA enzymes (MsrA1, MsrA2, MsrA3 that reduce the S-epimer of methionine sulfoxide (MetO and an MsrB enzyme that reduces R-MetO. The four msr genes are expressed from three different promoters. The msrA1/msrB genes are coexpressed. To determine the expression pattern of msr genes, three independent reporter strains were constructed where msr promoter was cloned in front of a promoterless lacZ and the resulting construct was integrated in the chromosome. Using these strains, it was determined that the msrA1/B expression is significantly higher in S. aureus compared to msrA2 or msrA3. Expression of msrA1/B was highest during stationary phase growth, but the expression of msrA2 and msrA3 was highest during the early to midexponential growth phase. Expression of msrA1/B was induced by oxacillin and the expression of msrA3 was upregulated by salt. Expression of msrA2 remained unchanged under all tested conditions.

  18. Investigation of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassat, James E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Lee, Chia Y

    2014-01-01

    Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are often characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates, but also the capacity to form biofilms. Biofilms consist of ordered populations of bacterial colonies encased in a polysaccharide and/or proteinaceous matrix. This unique physiologic adaptation limits penetration of antimicrobial molecules and innate immune effectors to the infectious focus, increasing the likelihood of treatment failure and progression to chronic infection. Investigation of mechanisms of biofilm formation and dispersal, as well as the physiologic adaptations to the biofilm lifestyle, is therefore critical to developing new therapies to combat MRSA infections. In this chapter, we describe two in vitro methods for the investigation of staphylococcal biofilm formation, a microtiter plate-based assay of biofilm formation under static conditions and a flow cell-based assay of biofilm formation under fluid shear. We also detail an in vivo murine model of catheter-associated biofilm formation that is amenable to imaging and microbiologic analyses. Special consideration is given to the conditions necessary to support biofilm formation by clinical isolates of S. aureus. PMID:24085698

  19. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI GETAH PEPAYA KERING TERHADAP Staphylococcus aureus PADA DANGKE [Antibacterial Activity of Dried Papaya Latex toward Staphylococcus aureus in Dangke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifah Hestyani Arum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional milk curd product, made by coagulation of milk using fresh papaya latex. This product is usually kept at room temperature (27-30ºC until consumption. Dried papaya latex was used in this study to produce dangke, and its effect to S. aureus was determined by direct contact in TSB and dangke. Fresh papaya latex was dried using vacuum oven at 50-55ºC for 22 hours. Dried papaya latex at a concentration of 2.7x10-3 g/100 mL could reduce S. aureus approximately 1 log CFU/mL in TSB after 24 hours. Dried papaya latex and papain could maintain the S. aureus number in dangke within 24 hours storage at room temperature. The antibacterial activity of non-proteolytic compound of papaya latex, i.e ethanolic extract of papaya latex was determined by macrodilution method, resulted an the MIC90 of 8 mg/mL. The cell membrane leakage after exposure was detected by measuring the optical density of bacterial supernatant at 260 nm. The result showed that exposure to increasing antibacterial concentration resulted in increasing of optical density of S. aureus supernatant, indicating that the antibacterial caused the S. aureus membrane leakage. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that S. aureus exposure to antibacterial caused membrane leakage thus gave Propidium Iodide (PI chance to penetrate into the cell, as indicated by changing of fluorescence color from green to red.

  20. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.