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Sample records for aureus con fenotipo

  1. Varicela sobreinfectada con Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Bellot

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 5 años de edad internado por presentar un cuadro clínico de más o menos cuatro días de evolución caracterizado por la presencia de fiebre, malestar general, anorexia y dolor abdominal leve complicándose con la aparición de erupciones en piel, cuero cabelludo, cara, tronco y mucosas de características maculo-papulosas eritematosas con un halo eritematoso. Las mismas de tamaños y formas variables, tensas, con contenido purulento, acompañado de fiebre de 38 C°. Al examen físico se evidencian: lesiones dérmicas sobreinfectadas con secreción purulenta en algunas regiones del cuerpo (rostro y tronco. El diagnóstico de ingreso fue varicela sobreinfectada por estafilococo.

  2. Fenotipo de asma en obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyos-Sánchez Bautista de la cruz; Miranda-Machado Pablo Andrés

    2010-01-01

    La obesidad y el asma son enfermedades prevalentes a nivel mundial y el aumento de la prevalencia de ambas, constituye un reto en salud pública. Diversos estudios sugieren una asociación en la obesidad y el asma. El objetivo de los autores fue realizar una revisión de la literatura de la evidencia que permita describir el fenotipo de asma en Obesidad. Los estudios sugieren un fenotipo de asma asociado a la obesidad, caracterizado por antecedentes de bajo peso al nacer, inactividad física en l...

  3. Respuesta terapéutica de pacientes con malaria por plasmodium falciparum a los antimaláricos y fenotipo y genotipo del citocromo p450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Cuesta González

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    En la evaluación de la eficacia a los antimaláricos, la falta
    de concordancia entre el fenotipo observado In vivo en el paciente (respuesta exitosa, falla e In vitro en el parásito (sensible, resistente, sugiere que factores como el metabolismo del medicamento en el hospedero pueden cumplir un papel
    determinante. El metabolismo de varios antimaláricos es
    realizado por el complejo citocromo P-450 (CYP450 en el
    hígado (1 y su actividad es vulnerable a la inhibición y a la
    inducción por: el estado nutricional, el genotipo enzimático y la
    administración concomitante de otros medicamentos (2. La
    amodiaquina (AQ es metabolizada al compuesto activo Ndesetilamodiaquina por el CYP2C8 y la mefloquina (MQ es
    metabolizada a carboximefloquina (su forma de excreción, por
    el CYP3A4; la inhibición del CYP450 puede convertir un metabolismo rápido en lento llevando a concentraciones
    inefectivas del medicamento, mientras que la inducción puede
    acelerar la conversión a su metabolito y favorecer la excreción
    rápida del mismo.

     

     

  4. Determinación de transfusiones sanguíneas con fenotipos del sistema RH incompatibles, analizados mediante pruebas inmunohematológicas en receptores y unidades de sangre transfundidas, remitidas por el banco de sangre Fausto Castello de la Cruz Roja Provincial de Napo durante el período Enero a Junio del 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal determinar la frecuencia de transfusiones sanguíneas con fenotipos del sistema Rh incompatibles, con el fin de prevenir posibles reacciones transfusionales que puedan presentar los receptores al quedar sensibilizados por los principales antígenos eritrocitarios, mediante la técnica en tubo realizamos las pruebas inmunohematológicas en los donantes y receptores de sangre que acuden al Banco de Sangre Fausto Castello de la Cruz Roja Provincia...

  5. Estudio de las mutaciones en el gen de la filagrina y su relación con diversos fenotipos de asma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cubero Saldaña, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    [ES] En los últimos años se está tratando de comprender las bases genéticas de las enfermedades complejas, entre ellas el asma. Por desgracia en esta enfermedad no se ha llegado a conclusiones sólidas y todavía no se han identificado genotipos que se asocien claramente con la incidencia de asma. En ocasiones se ha descrito cierta asociación génica con la gravedad de la enfermedad. Tal es el caso del gen de la filagrina que codifica una proteína clave de la barrera epidérmica. Se ha detectado...

  6. Hacia la integración del fenotipo

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La teoría neodarwiniana otorga a la selección natural un papel altamente destacado y concibe al fenotipo como respuesta a un ambiente determinado. Si embargo ambos conceptos se encuentran escasamente dilucidados. Recientemente se han re-elaborado términos como los de genómica, epigenómica, transcriptómica, proteómica, citómica y metabolómica, los cuales no hacen más que reproducir una enorme complejidad de conceptos con escasa integración conceptual. La nutrigenómica por ejemplo, supone modif...

  7. Cromosoma 9 en Anillo. Correlación Cariotipo - Fenotipo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaralis Arrieta García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un escolar de 9 años que es remitido a la consulta de Genética Clínica por presentar dismorfia facial, retardo en el desarrollo psicomotor y malformaciones congénitas urogenitales. El estudio citogenético reveló defecto estructural con fórmula 46, XY(r 9. Este rearreglo estructural es infrecuente y se desconoce su prevalencia. En el reporte se realiza la correlación fenotipo¿cariotipo y se describe la evolución del paciente. No se encontraron reportes anteriores descritos en el país.

  8. PREVALENCIA DE Staphylococcus epidermidis Y Staphylococcus aureus EN PACIENTES CON CONJUNTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hernández-Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de establecer la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, se evaluaron clínica y bacteriológicamente 131 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico presuntivo de conjuntivitis. A cada participante se le tomó muestra de secreción ocular, para la coloración de Gram y cultivo; además, se probó la susceptibilidad de los aislamientos frente a Oxacilina (Ox, Gentamicina (GM, Vancomicina (Va, Trimetoprim Sulfamethoxazole (SXT, Tetraciclina (Te, Cefalothin (CF, Ceftriaxone (CRO y Ciprofloxacina (CIP. El 53% de los cultivos bacteriológicos fueron positivos, donde el 87% de los aislamientos correspondieron a Gram positivos, siendo los más frecuentes Staphylococcus epidermidis (43%, Staphylococcus aureus (30%, Streptococcus sp. (15%, Enterococcus (7%, Corynebacterium sp. 5%. Se observó multirresistencia frente a 3 ó más antibióticos en S. epidermidis (44% y S.aureus (42%. La alta frecuencia de estos microorganismos y la multirresistencia encontrada en este estudio, determinan la importancia que tienen, como posibles patógenos oculares, y la necesidad de implementar las pruebas de susceptibilidad bacteriana en el ámbito oftalmológico. Este es el primer estudio publicado en Colombia sobre la prevalencia de Staphylococcus epidermidis y Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes con conjuntivitis, el cual seguramente originará la iniciación de posteriores investigaciones, encaminadas a determinar el verdadero papel de estos microorganismos, en el proceso infeccioso ocular.

  9. Relación entre quimerismo xx/xy y el fenotipo pseudohermafrodita masculino en porcinos.

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    Reinartz E. Mónica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La causa genética del pseudohermafroditismo no está bien dilucidada, sin embargo se han reportado distintos casos de pseudohermafroditas masculinos los cuales en la mayoría de los casos se han tratado de explicar por efectos hormonales sobre las gónadas en formación durante el desarrollo embrionario. Además se ha explorado poco la relación de este fenotipo con la constitución genómica de los organismos que presentan la disfunción sexual. En el presente trabajo se encontró una fuerte relación entre el quimerismo cromosómico XX/XY y el fenotipo pseudohermafrodita masculino exhibido por dos ejemplares de porcinos Landrace X Largewhite similar a lo encontrado en freemartinismo de bovinos.

  10. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene and relation to phenotype in patients with ulcerative colitis Polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10 y su relación con los diferentes fenotipos de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Mendoza

    2006-02-01

    polimorfismos de la IL-10 se correlacionan con las características fenotípicas de la CU. En este trabajo se estudia la relación entre estos polimorfismos del gen de la IL-10 y las diferentes características fenotípicas de la CU. Material y métodos: se estudió una cohorte de 215 pacientes españoles no emparentados que son atendidos habitualmente en la consulta de un único centro hospitalario. Todos los pacientes fueron rigurosamente fenotipados y seguidos clínicamente durante al menos 3 años (tiempo medio de seguimiento 11,8 años. El fenotipaje se realizó antes de conocer el genotipo de los pacientes. El genotipaje se realizó según las técnicas habituales de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados: se incluyeron 129 (60% hombres y 89 (40% mujeres. La edad media en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 38 años, rango (8-83. La extensión de la CU fue colitis izquierda en 127 (59,1% pacientes y extensa en 88 (40,9%. Ninguna de la svariables fenotípicas estudiadas se asoció con la presencia o ausencia de los polimorfismos (microsatélite IL10G14 y homocigoto para el alelo -1082G relacionados con la susceptibilidad a sufrir CU. Conclusiones: en la población española del área de Madrid, los pacientes con CU que son portadores del microsatélite IL10G14 y/o homocigotos -1082G del gen promotor de la IL-10 no se correlacionan con ninguna característica fenotípica de la enfermedad.

  11. Deleciones en el gen de la distrofina en 62 familias colombianas: correlación genotipo-fenotipo para la distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia T. Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La correlación genotipo-fenotipo se estableció mediante el análisis de deleciones del gen de la distrofina en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker (DMD/DMB. OBJETIVOS: Establecer la correlación entre el genotipo molecular y el fenotipo clínico de los pacientes. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 62 afectados mediante amplificaciones por PCR múltiplex de 18 exones ubicados en los dos puntos proclives dentro del gen. RESULTADOS: En la población analizada, 19 pacientes mostraron deleción en el gen de la distrofina con los 18 exones estudiados, esto corresponde a 31% de hombres afectados con deleción. CONCLUSIONES: Teniendo en cuenta la hipótesis del corrimiento del marco de lectura traduccional (CMLT y la mutación observada en los afectados, se pudo determinar que las mutaciones out frame, resultan en pacientes con el fenotipo severo o distrofia muscular de Duchenne y las mutaciones in frame, resultan en pacientes con el fenotipo leve o distrofia muscular de Becker. Se pudo predecir un cuadro clínico de DMD o DMB en 79% de los casos, lo cual permite utilizar este sistema diagnóstico como una herramienta importante para ayudarle a los neurólogos en la valoración clínica de los pacientes en los cuales se encuentra deleciones.

  12. Caracterización inmunohistoquimica del fenotipo celular muscular vascular en el seno carotídeo y sus cambios al envejecimiento en Oryctolagus cuniculus

    OpenAIRE

    Acero Mondragón, Edward Javier

    2012-01-01

    El seno carotídeo es la mayor aferencia barorefleja, con la cual sistema nervioso autónomo ejerce modulación de la presión arterial sistémica. En grado variable, se ha demostrado clínicamente en humanos y experimentalmente en modelos murinos, caninos y lagomorfos, cómo su estimulación tiene un efecto hipotensor; sin embargo, la caracterización inmunohistoquímica del fenotipo celular muscular vascular contráctil o vascular smooth cell contraction (VSC-C) y el fenotipo celular muscular vascular...

  13. Deleciones en el gen de la distrofina en 62 familias colombianas: correlación genotipo-fenotipo para la distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudia T.; Dora Fonseca; Carlos Martín Restrepo; Nora C. Contreras; Mateus, Heidi E

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La correlación genotipo-fenotipo se estableció mediante el análisis de deleciones del gen de la distrofina en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne y Becker (DMD/DMB). OBJETIVOS: Establecer la correlación entre el genotipo molecular y el fenotipo clínico de los pacientes. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 62 afectados mediante amplificaciones por PCR múltiplex de 18 exones ubicados en los dos puntos proclives dentro del gen. RESULTADOS: En la población analizada, 19 p...

  14. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Angulo Marta Lucía

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la poca información ecológica, taxonómica o genética sobre las ardillas colombianas, existen problemas
    sistemáticos aun no resueltos (Emmons LH, 1990, lo cual dificulta la reubicación y/o liberación de ejemplares sin procedencia, provenientes del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre. Estudios cariológicos sirven para detectar variaciones intra e interespecíficas por lo que en este trabajo se busco detectar diferencias cariotípicas entre varios fenotipos Sciurus granatensis. La diferenciación genética en conservación, puede ser una herramienta
    útil en la toma de decisiones en los procesos de liberación de ejemplares capturados, dado que la introducción
    de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales, procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping®. Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42, con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81, por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro

  15. Relación entre el fenotipo PROP, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de cintura, la grasa corporal total y el consumo dietario

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    Nina del Rocío Martínez-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenotipo de degustación PROP (6-n-propiltiuoraucilo ha sido propuesto como un indicador del índice de masa corporal, de adiposidad y del consumo dietario. La relación entre estas variables es contradictoria. Diversos estudios no han encontrado correlación entre el fenotipo PROP, los indicadores corporales y el consumo energético. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la relación entre el estatus PROP, el índice de masa corporal (IMC, la circunferencia de cintura (CC, la grasa corporal total (GC y el consumo de alimentos. El estatus PROP fue determinado utilizando dos escalas: una categórica de nueve puntos y una general de magnitud etiquetada. Los hábitos dietarios de los participantes fueron registrados en línea durante 35 días. La clasificación por fenotipo PROP varió según la escala. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre degustadores y no degustadores PROP, con ambas escalas, en índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, grasa corporal total, ingesta energética y de macronutrientes. El fenotipo PROP no fue factor indicativo del peso corporal, de adiposidad ni de consumo dietario en jóvenes adultos.

  16. Acercamiento al método de clonación para obtener el fenotipo de un sensor de fenol

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    Jairo Amador

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el estado de la investigación que debe llevar a la clonación artificial de un sensor que mida el índice de viscosidad de fenol en la plantade ECOPETROL en Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se presenta un diagrama de flujo que muestra las etapas generales que los investigadores plantean para cumplir el objetivo y la metodología de construcción del fenotipo del sensor utilizando la teoría de la posibilidad, aplicada por primera vez en los Algoritmos Genéticos con fines de clonación.

  17. Identificación de mutaciones en el gen para el receptor de andrógenos por medio de la técnica SSCP en pacientes con insensibilidad androgénica completa

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    Gutiérrez A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Insensibilidad Androgénica (SIA es causado por defectos del gen para elReceptor de Andrógenos (RA, el síndrome presenta 3 fenotipos: Completa (SIAC, el fenotipoes femenino, Parcial (SIAP donde se puede presentar ambigüedad genital y Mínima (SIAMque se presenta con infertilidad en pacientes con fenotipo masculino.

  18. Identificación de mutaciones en el gen para el receptor de andrógenos por medio de la técnica SSCP en pacientes con insensibilidad androgénica completa

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    El Síndrome de Insensibilidad Androgénica (SIA) es causado por defectos del gen para elReceptor de Andrógenos (RA), el síndrome presenta 3 fenotipos: Completa (SIAC), el fenotipoes femenino, Parcial (SIAP) donde se puede presentar ambigüedad genital y Mínima (SIAM)que se presenta con infertilidad en pacientes con fenotipo masculino.

  19. Correlación fenotipo neuroanatómico y neurocognitivo en el síndrome de Williams

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    Cristiana Vasconcelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Williams (SW es un trastorno genético del neurodesarrollo que se caracteriza por una arquitectura de disociación cognitiva, en la cual importantes déficits de cognición visuo-espacial contrastan con un lenguaje relativamente preservado, buen reconocimiento de caras y buenas habilidades auditivas de memoria a corto plazo. Esta disociación cognitiva ha sido propuesta también para caracterizar la estructura cerebral en el SW. En este estudio, analizamos el fenotipo neurocognitivo y estructural en un grupo con SW y con desarrollo típico. Concretamente, analizamos la relación entre volumetría cerebral de sustancia blanca, sustancia gris y áreas de interés específico (circunvolución temporal superior e hipocampo con el funcionamiento neurocognitivo. Los resultados de este estudio muestran diferencias entre el SW y el grupo control, con respecto al tipo de correlaciones encontradas. Estas diferencias en el patrón de asociación entre variables cerebrales y cognitivas sugieren patrones alterados de desarrollo en el SW.

  20. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  1. Doble aneuploidía en un niño Colombiano: síndrome de Down–Klinefelter, con fenotipo de síndrome de Down = Double aneuploidy in a Colombian child: Down-Klinefelter syndrome with Down syndrome phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry; Perilla Duque, Diana; Isaza de Lourido, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    La ocurrencia de una doble aneuploidía en una misma persona es un evento relativamente raro. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete meses de edad, de padres no consanguíneos con características clínicas de síndrome de Down y cariotipo 48XXY.

  2. Doble aneuploidía en un niño Colombiano: síndrome de Down–Klinefelter, con fenotipo de síndrome de Down = Double aneuploidy in a Colombian child: Down-Klinefelter syndrome with Down syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachajoa Londoño, Harry

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La ocurrencia de una doble aneuploidía en una misma persona es un evento relativamente raro. Se presenta el caso de un niño de siete meses de edad, de padres no consanguíneos con características clínicas de síndrome de Down y cariotipo 48XXY.

  3. Deleção 22q11.2 em pacientes com defeito cardíaco conotruncal e fenótipo da síndrome da deleção 22q11.2 Deleción 22q11.2 en pacientes con defecto cardiaco conotruncal y fenotipo del síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2 22q11.2 deletion in patients with conotruncal heart defect and del22q syndrome phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintia Iole Nogueira Belangero

    2009-04-01

    índrome de la delación 22q11.2. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron a 29 pacientes por medio de citogenética clásica, por hibridación in situ fluorescente (FISH y también por técnicas moleculares. RESULTADOS: El análisis citogenético por medio de bandeo G reveló cariotipo normal en todos los pacientes, con excepción de uno, que presentó cariotipo 47,XX,+idic(22(q11.2. Con la utilización de técnicas moleculares, se observó la deleción en el 25% de los pacientes, todos portadores del fenotipo del síndrome de la deleción 22q11.2. En ningún de los casos, la deleción se heredó de los padres. La frecuencia de la deleción 22q11.2 en el grupo de pacientes portadores del espectro clínico de este síndrome resultó mayor que en el grupo de pacientes con cardiopatía conotruncal aislada. CONCLUSIÓN: La investigación de la presencia de deleción y su correlación con los datos clínicos de los pacientes pueden auxiliar los pacientes y sus familias a tener un mejor aconsejamiento genético, así como un seguimiento clínico más adecuado.BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most frequent human microdeletion syndrome. The phenotype is highly variable, being characterized by conotruncal heart defect, facial dysmorphisms, velopharyngeal insufficiency, learning difficulties and mental retardation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of deletion 22q11.2 in a Brazilian sample of individuals with isolated conotruncal heart defect and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome phenotype. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients were studied by classical cytogenetics, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, and by molecular techniques. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis by G-banding revealed a normal karyotype in all patients except one who presented a 47,XX,+idic(22(q11.2 karyotype. Using molecular techniques, a deletion was observed in 25% of the patients, all exhibiting a 22q11.2 deletion syndrome phenotype. In none of the cases the deletion was inherited from

  4. VARIACIÓN CARIOLÓGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE

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    CAROLINA ARANGO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Nú- mero Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.

  5. [Methicillin resistance and vancomycin susceptibility pattern among blood isolates of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pineda, Jonathan; Terrazas-Estrada, José Juan; Urdez-Hernández, Elena; Hernández-Sánchez, Eva Aurora; Sánchez-Tejeda, Sandra Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el Staphylococcus aureus es capaz de desarrollar resistencia a todos los antimicrobianos. La vancomicina es clave para tratar infecciones graves causadas por S. aureus meticilino-resistente. Sin embargo, últimamente se reportan fallas terapéuticas. El objetivo fue establecer la resistencia a la meticilina y el perfil de susceptibilidad a la vancomicina del S. aureus. Métodos: de marzo a agosto del 2010, se determinó la meticilino-resistencia y la susceptibilidad a vancomicina de S. aureus aislados de hemocultivos, mediante el método estándar de microdilución. Para la meticilino-resistencia se utilizó una placa de agar Mueller-Hinton con 4 µg/mL de oxacilina, más NaCl al 2 % y una prueba de aglutinación. El desarrollo bacteriano o la aglutinación positiva identificaron al microorganismo meticilino-resistente. Para la susceptibilidad a vancomicina se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) en placas de agar Mueller-Hinton con dilución de 16 a 0.5 µg/mL. Resultados: en total se incluyeron 25 S. aureus. El 60 % fue meticilino-resistente; el 100 % sensible a vancomicina (CMI ≤ 2 µg/mL), con las siguientes CMI: el 48 %, ≤ 0.5 µg/mL; 44 %, 1 µg/mL; y el 8 %, 2 µg/mL. Conclusión: la proporción alta de meticilino-resistencia y la evidencia de fenotipos sensibles a la vancomicina, pero asociados a falla terapéutica (CMI 2 µg/mL), demandan no solo el reforzamiento continuo de las precauciones estándar y el control de antimicrobianos sino también la vigilancia sistemática del patrón de susceptibilidad a la vancomicina con un método de referencia.

  6. Un caso de grupo sanguíneo raro: fenotipo p A rare blood group: p phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. De La Vega Elena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un individuo con un fenotipo eritrocitario raro carece de uno o varios antígenos presentes en la mayor parte de la población de pertenencia. Cuando presenta el anticuerpo correspondiente, se pueden producir complicaciones perinatales, transfusionales y/o transplantológicas. Se presenta el caso de una embarazada aloinmunizada derivada a nuestro servicio en la semana 12 de su tercera gesta para su evaluación y seguimiento. El diagnóstico inmunohematológico le asignó el excepcional fenotipo "p" (aproximadamente 1/200 000 individuos, asociado con una mayor tasa de abortos espontáneos y a reacciones transfusionales graves cuando se transfunden unidades incompatibles. El estudio del gen A4GALT demostró la presencia de la mutación c.752C > T en doble dosis. Esta mutación lleva a un cambio de una prolina por una leucina en el residuo 251 de la 4-α-galactosiltransferasa. Por parto inducido por sufrimiento fetal, nace a las 36 semanas una bebé con prueba de antiglobulina (Coombs directa negativa, eluido reactivo, con ictericia que requirió luminoterapia. Una semana después el neonato fue externado sin secuelas aparentes. Posteriormente, a raíz de una cirugía inminente y la improbabilidad de encontrar sangre compatible, se elaboró un plan para cubrir las posibles demandas. Este caso pone en evidencia la necesidad de contar a nivel nacional con un laboratorio de referencia de inmunohematología y un banco de sangre de grupos raros, que permita resolver con celeridad situaciones que requieran transfundir a estos individuos.A rare blood group is usually defined as the absence of a high prevalence antigen or the absence of several antigens within a single blood group system. These individuals may develop clinically significant red cell antibodies to the high incidence red cell antigens they lack. A 33-year-old alloimmunized woman was referred to our center at the 12th week of her third pregnancy for evaluation and follow up. The laboratory

  7. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lozano C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entre 4 y 15 años. El 50% tenía diagnóstico previo de asma sin uso regular de corticoesteroides inhalados en dos tercios. Hospitalizaciones previas por asma en el 40%. La etiología de la exacerbación fue identificada en el 52% siendo los agentes más frecuentes Rhinovirus, Metapneumovius, VRS y Mycoplasma pneumoniae. El perfil inflamatorio fue determinado en 33 niños: eosinofílico en 36% y eosinoflico/neutroflico en 64%. Comentario: El asma severa con exacerbaciones graves sería un fenotipo cuyos aspectos destacados en esta cohorte serían: niños con hospitalizaciones previas, falta de tratamiento profiláctico, infección viral como desencadenante frecuente, patrón inflamatorio combinado del esputo y rinitis atópica.Background: The magnitude of response to treatment of asthma exacerbations is variable and a significant proportion of them need hospitalization. Objectives: to define the profile of children that were hospitalized for severe asthma and the possible indicators and determinants of their poor responsiveness. Methods: a prospective study in 60 children 4 years or more of age with a search of the ethiology of the exacerbation and a study of the inflammatory profile in sputum. Results: 60 children between 4 and 15 years. 50% had a previous diagnosis of asthma without regular use of inhaled corticosteroids in two thirds. 40% had previous admissions for asthma. Etiology of the exacerbation was identified in 52% with Rhinovirus, human

  8. Influencia de la edad y el género en los fenotipos y coeficientes de lateralidad en niños de 6 a 15 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Mayolas Pi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio valora la lateralidad manual, podal y ocular de 798 niños de 6 a 15 años. Se obtienen los fenotipos de lateralidad de cada niño (homogéneo, cruzado o no definido y se comparan los resultados según el género y la edad (de 6-7 años, de 8-10 y de 11-15 años. Finalmente, se correlacionan las pruebas comparan y los coeficientes de lateralidad. Según nuestro estudio, el género no influye en la lateralidad del miembro superior, pero sí en el miembro inferior y en el ocular. La lateralidad manual se afianza entre los 8-10 años, la podal no se afianza a estas edades y la ocular tiende a la dextralidad en las chicas hasta los 15 años, pero se afianza en los chicos a los 8-10 años. Según los fenotipos de lateralidad se observa la influencia de la edad, con un aumento significativo de lateralidad homogénea a costa de una disminución de lateralidad cruzada en las edades evaluadas, pero no del género. Las correlaciones entre los tres coeficientes de lateralidad son bajas.

  9. Acercamiento a una perspectiva biosemiótica sobre la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La etología ha recurrido a la psicología comparada y la genética para entender el comportamiento animal, sin
    embargo para poder contribuir a la teoría evolutiva debe enmarcarse dentro de una perspectiva biosemiótica.
    Este trabajo es un intento de interpretar la conducta animal en conjunción con las teorías “clásicas” -Niko
    Tinbergen y Konrad Lorenz-, la teoría de sistemas en desarrollo (TDS y la psicología comparada, para mostrar
    que la conducta es el agente por excelencia de la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos. La perspectiva
    biosemiótica es compatible enteramente con la TSD e integra a todas las anteriores, genética, psicología, etología clásica. Una visión integrada, considera que la información presente en el ADN requiere de las dinámicas
    catalíticas celulares para poder ser leída e interpretada; convirtiéndose en la base de la organización fenotípica
    en la que convergen un conjunto de jerarquías autorreferentes que regulan, modulan y coordinan la expresión genética a lo largo de la ontogenia del individuo. La selección orgánica de Baldwin define la relación con el
    entorno y esta fundamentada en ajustes a nivel fisiológico-anatómico en acople con los sistemas metabólicos
    celulares. Estos niveles fenotípicos median las relaciones organismo-entorno a través del comportamiento, el
    cual hace que la información del medio ambiente se reciba, codifique e interprete para definir las acciones correspondientes que la devuelven al entorno. Estos procesos son indispensables para el mantenimiento de los organismos individuales que cooperan en la formación y selección de paisajes asimilativos/interpretativos
    (paisajes de Umwelt y asimilación genética, asegurando determinadas líneas de variación para las generaciones
    subsiguientes. En consecuencia, los organismos son codificadores y usuarios de información, a la vez
    que son capaces de

  10. Análisis de la expresión de btk, lck, SAP, ICOS y células B de memoria en pacientes con inmunodeficiencia variable común

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate Hernández, María del Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX A la portada: Instituto de Biotecnología y Biomedicina, Unidad de Inmunología Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La Inmunodeficiencia Variable Común (IDVC) es la inmunodeficiencia primaria (IDP) sintomática más frecuente. Los pacientes con IDVC presentan un fenotipo clínico (infecciones recurrentes,etc) y un fenotipo inmunológico (hipogammaglobulinemia y respuesta nula de anticuerpos). El diagnóstico de IDVC se realiza por exclusión de otras causas de ...

  11. El síndrome de Kallmann. Correlación fenotipo-genotípica.

    OpenAIRE

    García Piñero, Alfonso José

    2015-01-01

    El Síndrome de Kallmann (SK) es una enfermedad genética del desarrollo, que asocia un hipogonadismo hipogonadotrópico (HH) congénito con pérdida total (anosmia) o parcial (hiposmia) del olfato. La alteración olfativa es secundaria a la aplasia o hipoplasia de las estructuras olfatorias (bulbos, tractos y surcos cerebrales olfatorios). El HH se debe a la deficiencia en la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas hipotalámica (GnRH) como resultado del fallo en la migración de las neuronas productor...

  12. Estudio del fenotipo de una línea celular hela-FASTK-KO

    OpenAIRE

    Espinaco García, María Adela

    2016-01-01

    El DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, es un polinucleótido con una secuencia específica de unidades de desoxirribonucléotidos unidos covalentemente mediante enlaces 3’, 5’ – fosfodiéster (1). La conformación natural del DNA es la estructura de doble hélice, en la cual dos cadenas de DNA antiparalelas y complementarias interaccionan mediante dos enlaces de hidrógeno entre las bases púricas adenina y las bases pirimídicas timina y mediante tres enlaces de hidrógeno entre las bases púricas guanina y la...

  13. Análisis de la inestabilidad de microsatélites mediante el marcador BAT-26 en una muestra de pacientes del Hospital Universitario de Santander con diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico o colorrectal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Cárdenas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La vía de inestabilidad de microsatélites se ha encontrado sobre todo en cánceres de vías digestivas, de los cuales 90% de los casos pertenecen a pacientes con cáncer hereditario y 15% con cáncer esporádico. De ella se deriva un fenotipo denominado de inestabilidad de microsatélites (IMI+ o fenotipo de error de la replicación (RER+ que induce a la acumulación de mutaciones en tasas más elevadas a las normales. Objetivos: Identificar la presencia del fenotipo IMI+ en los pacientes analizados y evaluar su relación con la diferenciación histopatológica del tumor porque en conjunto han sido asociados con un mejor pronóstico y una mejor respuesta al tratamiento dado. Metodología: Se extrajo ADN de las muestras de sangre (células normales y las biopsias de tumor (células tumorales de los 23 pacientes que se pudieron incluir para el estudio y mediante la amplificación por PCR y posterior electroforesis capilar; se tipificó el microsatélite mononucleotídico BAT-26, empleado por su sensibilidad para descubrir el fenotipo IMI+. Finalmente se hizo una correlación estadística según la presencia (IMI+ o ausencia (IMI- del fenotipo, con los hallazgos histopatológicos utilizando la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: Del total de pacientes, 4 (17% presentaron IMI+: 3 de ellos con cáncer colorrectal (2 casos posiblemente con cáncer hereditario y uno con cáncer gástrico. No se encontró ninguna asociación entre el fenotipo IMI+ con el diagnostico patológico, la edad, el sexo y la diferenciación histopatológica del tumor. Conclusión: Se encontró el fenotipo IMI+ en 17% de los casos, sin asociación con el grado de diferenciación histopatológica del tumor, posiblemente por el reducido número de muestras tipificadas, por lo cual es indispensable revisar los métodos de fijación, parafinación y almacenamiento de tejidos, pues las técnicas actuales dificultan la digestión de la proteinaza k y la PCR.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. Meningitis causada por staphylococcus aureus catalasa negativa

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Moreno, Carlos Arturo; Arroyo A., Claudia Patricia; Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Martínez R., Luz Marina; Quevedo S., Ruth

    2011-01-01

    En un paciente con cáncer se aisló del liquido cefaloraquideo y ascitico un coco gram positivo coagulasa positivo. El germen aislado mostró las características típicas de un Staphylococcus aureus, a excepción de la actividad de la catalasa, la cual no pudo ser encontrada.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  17. VARIACIÓN CARIOLÓGICA EN DIFERENTES FENOTIPOS DE Sciurus granatensis (RODENTIA, SCIURIDAE Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ARANGO

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels’ fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  18. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae Karyologic Variation in Different Phenotypes of Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacón Marcos Nicolás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de Sciurus granatensis (ardilla colombiana de diferentes fenotipos según color, rescatadas del tráfico ilegal de fauna silvestre de Colombia fueron estudiadas. Mediante técnicas convencionales de bandeo cromosómico G, C, Q, R y NOR se estableció su cariotipo 2n=42. Se encontraron tres cariomorfos de acuerdo al Número Fundamental (NF y características propias de cada uno de los complementos ocasionadas por distintos rearreglos cromosómicos, lo cual sugiere que S. granatensis es un complejo de especies. No se observó relación entre cariotipo y fenotipo. La variación en el color del pelaje se debe probablemente a las condiciones ambientales.Seven specimens of Sciurus granatensis (redtailed squirrel rescued from illegal fauna traffic in Colombia were studied; they had different phenotypes according to colour. G, C, Q, R and NOR chromosome banding was used, being found a 2n=42 diploid number for the Sciurus granatensis Colombian squirrels. There were 3 karyomorphs according to fundamental number (FN and different chromosomal characteristics caused by rearregement, suggesting that S. granatensis represents a complex of species. Relationships between karyotype and phenotype were not observed. The variation in the colour of sqirrels' fur was probably due to environmental conditions.

  19. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  20. One-year mortality in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in patients with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) compared to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infective endocarditis (IE). We used a prospective cohort study of 66 consecutive CoNS and 170 S. aureus IE...... patients, collected at 2 tertiary university hospitals in Copenhagen (Denmark) and at 1 tertiary university hospital in Gothenburg (Sweden). Median (range) C-reactive protein at admission was higher in patients with S. aureus IE (150 mg/l (1-521) vs 94 mg/l (6-303); p

  1. “Determinantes genéticos asociados con la resistencia a cefalosporinas, aminoglicósidos y quinolonas en aislamientos hospitalarios de Acinetobacter Baumannii”

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Castro, Olga Esther

    2011-01-01

    139 aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii aislados de 4 hospitales colombianos entre el 2005 y 2009 se les detectaron varios genes de resistencia a antibióticos relacionados con el fenotipo de resistencia a cefalosporinas, aminoglicósidos y quinolonas. La presencia de la ISAba1 corriente arriba del gen blaADC se correlacionó con la resistencia a cefalosporinas. El integron de clase 1 se correlacionó con los genes de enzimas modificadoras de aminoglicósidos aadA1 y aacC1. La presencia del...

  2. Validez de los criterios DSM-IV según respuesta de los padres en el diagnóstico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Villalobos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Objetivos: Estudiar la validez para el diagnóstico del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH, de cada uno de los ítems DSM-IV y buscar un modelo reducido de ítems que ayude a detectar casos de niños con TDAH. Sujetos y método. Se utilizan los datos de un estudio epidemiológico sobre TDAH con una muestra de 1095 casos. El 6.6% son TDAH. Casos de TDAH definidos según ADHD RS-IV y criterios clínicos DSM-IV. Controles definidos por exclusión. Resultados. El modelo de regresión logística que mejor predice el fenotipo inatento está compuesto por los ítems del ADHD RS-IV (versión padres 1, 3, 9, 15 y 17 (Se: 96.7%, Es: 81.5%; el fenotipo hiperactivo/impulsivo por los ítems 2, 4, 10, 12, 14 y 16 (Se: 96.6%, Es: 81% y el fenotipo combinado por los ítems 9, 10, 12, 14 y 15 (Se: 100 %, Es: 82.6%. Existe una reducción del 66% de los ítems en el fenotipo combinado. Conclusiones. Es posible reducir la lista de síntomas de TDAH con unos niveles de validez adecuados y determinados ítems parecen tener mayor capacidad para determinar decisiones diagnósticas

  3. Neutropenia Inmune - Aloinmune neonatal: IgG sérica reactiva y fenotipo específico de los neutrófilos evaluados por citometría de flujo Autoimmune-alloimmune neonatal neutropenia: Serum reactive IgG and neutrophil-specific phenotype detected by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma E. Riera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia inmune se diagnostica por la presencia de auto o aloanticuerpos reactivos con los neutrófilos. La neutropenia aloinmune neonatal es consecuencia de la sensibilización materna a los antígenos específicos de los neutrófilos paternos que afectan al neonato al atravesar la barrera placentaria. Se presentan 4 casos de niños, 2 de ellos hermanos consanguíneos con doble vínculo. Se estudiaron los sueros de los pacientes y sus padres. Por citometría de flujo se establecen los valores de referencia de la IgG sérica reactiva con los neutrófilos en voluntarios sanos, para 3 diluciones (1/2, 1/5 y 1/20 en reacción autóloga (suero y células de un mismo individuo y heteróloga (suero y células de diferentes individuos. Los resultados se expresan por un índice definido como el cociente entre la mediana de la intensidad de fluorescencia media del suero incógnita y la de un suero utilizado como referencia. Por leucoaglutinación se evaluó la dilución del suero 1/20. Se determinó el nivel de complejos inmunes circulantes. Se determinó el fenotipo, para los epitopes HNA-1a, HNA-1b y HNA-2a. En los 4 niños se encontró IgG reactiva y/o factores aglutinantes; 2/3 sueros maternos fueron reactivos con los neutrófilos del cónyuge y de los hijos. Los complejos inmunes circulantes fueron positivos en 2/4 sueros negativos en 3/3 sueros maternos. Se encontró incompatibilidad materno-infantil en los 4 casos. Las 3 madres tenían igual fenotipo: homocigotos NA1/NA1, NB1+. En síntesis, se presenta el hallazgo de 4 casos con neutropenia inmune: 3/4 auto-inmune, 1/3 se asocia a complejos inmunes circulantes y 1/4 con neutropenia neonatal aloinmune.Auto or alloantibodies reactive with neutrophils define immune neutropenia. Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia is caused by maternal sensitization to paternal neutrophil antigens, resulting in IgG antibodies that are transferred to the fetus through the placenta. We present the studies in 4

  4. Asma de riesgo vital caracterización e identificación de los fenotipos implicados /

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Pariente, José

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 12 novembre 2010 Aunque en la mayoría de los casos el asma es una enfermedad leve, que con un tratamiento adecuado permite llevar una vida prácticamente normal, existen otras formas mucho más graves de la enfermedad. En determinadas circunstancias, los pacientes pueden incluso fallecer a consecuencia del asma, o bien sufrir exacerbaciones que comprometen seriamente su vida. Los estudios previos que han analizado a estos pacientes muestran que la etiología y patogenia...

  5. Asma agudo severo en niños: ¿Fenotipo diferente? Severe asthma in children: A different phenotype?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Lozano C; Leticia Yáñez P; Michelangelo Lapadula A; Carlos Fernández C; Alex Alcántara P; Pilar Rodríguez G; Felipe Burgos F; Dolores Zúñiga P; Mónica Lafourcade R

    2012-01-01

    La magnitud de la respuesta al tratamiento de una exacerbación de asma es variable entre los pacientes y una proporción significativa de ellos debe hospitalizarse. Objetivos: Definir el perfil de los niños que se hospitalizaron por asma grave y los posibles indicadores y determinantes de la respuesta desfavorable al tratamiento. Método: Estudio prospectivo en niños de 4 años o más, con búsqueda etiológica de la exacerbación y estudio de perfil inflamatorio en esputo. Resultados: 60 niños entr...

  6. Acercamiento a una perspectiva biosemiótica sobre la modificación evolutiva de los fenotipos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Pérez Luis Eugenio; Fierro Toscano Yusleni

    2007-01-01

    La etología ha recurrido a la psicología comparada y la genética para entender el comportamiento animal, sin
    embargo para poder contribuir a la teoría evolutiva debe enmarcarse dentro de una perspectiva biosemiótica.
    Este trabajo es un intento de interpretar la conducta animal en conjunción con las teorías “clásicas” -Niko
    Tinbergen y Konrad Lorenz-, la teoría de sistemas en desarrollo (TDS) y la psicología comparada, para mostrar
    que la co...

  7. Cultivo in vitro del tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav. Sendt. (Fenotipo naranja proveniente de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Chacón-Cerdas

    2014-06-01

    Se determinó que la desinfección con 2,5% de Ca(ClO2 fue la mejor para el establecimiento in vitro; el mejor medio de cultivo para la micropropagación del material fue el M1, compuesto por sales MS(1962 al 100%, sacarosa al 3%, phytagel® 1,8g/L, 0,5mg/L de AG3, 0,25mg/L de BAP y 2,0 mg/L de PaCa, el cual presentó el mejor balance entre el número promedio de brotación/explante y el número promedio de entrenudos/explante, sin formación excesiva de callo, mientras que el medio de cultivo E5, constituido por sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 6,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento y el medio de cultivo E6, que incluía las sales MS(1962 al 100%, agar 8,0g/L y sacarosa al 3%, sin reguladores del crecimiento, mostraron el periodo más corto para la formación de raíces, el mayor número promedio de raíces y la mayor longitud promedio de raíz y tallo.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Allan Garlik

    2003-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is still associated with a high mortality, and knowledge on risk factors and the clinical and the therapeutic aspects of SAB is still limited. This thesis focuses on the clinical aspects of SAB and its metastatic infections. In a study of all patients with bacteremia in Copenhagen County October 1992 through April 1993 (study I) we emphasized previous findings, that S. aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in bacteremia, and in a case control study also in Copenhagen County 1994-95 (study II) we demonstrated, that not only an inserted central venous catheter and nasal S. aureus carriage but also hyponatremia and anemia are important risk factors for hospital-acquired SAB (study II). Studies on the treatment of SAB have pointed out, that the eradication of a primary is important, but there are only limited clinical studies dealing with antibiotic treatment. By logistic regression analysis, we were able to demonstrate that focus eradication is essential, but also that treatment with dicloxacillin 1 g x 4 or 2 g x 3 are superior to 1 g x 3 (studie III), indicating that the time for serum concentration above the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the bacteria plays a role in the outcome of SAB treatment. S. aureus osteomyelitis secondary to SAB is frequently observed. No other countries, however, have a centralized registration, which make it possible to evaluate a large number of these patients. Since 1960, The Staphylococcal Laboratory, Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, has registrated selected clinical informations from nearly all patients with positive blood cultures of S. aureus. Based on this registration, we were able to show an increased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis among older patients and a decreased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis of femur and tibia among younger infants in the period 1980-90 (study IV). By reviewing the records of a large number of patients with vertebral S. aureus

  9. Síndrome de Williams-Beuren. Enfoque diagnóstico a través del fenotipo

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    María Angelina Lacruz-Rengel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen (español El síndrome de Williams-Beuren es un trastorno genético del desarrollo neurológico que incluye diferentes manifestaciones clínicas como retardo en el crecimiento e intelectual, cardiopatía congénita y rasgo facial distintivo. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características clínicas que conducen a su diagnóstico, conocer su evolución fenotípica y las medidas terapéuticas adecuadas. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, tipo serie de casos, en el que se incluyeron todos los pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Williams-Beuren, evaluados en el Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes, durante enero de 2000 a junio de 2014. El principal motivo de consulta fue la presencia de dismorfía facial y cardiopatía congénita, en la totalidad de los casos. La estenosis de la arteria pulmonar bilateral fue el tipo de cardiopatía congénita más frecuente en 4/7 pacientes. El síndrome de Williams-Beuren es una entidad genética que muestra un amplio espectro de características clínicas. Conocer todos estos hallazgos permite realizar el diagnóstico, ofrecer una adecuada atención médica, psicoterapéutica y educativa que permite mejorar su calidad de vida, sobrevida e inserción a la sociedad Abstract (english Williams-Beuren syndrome is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder that includes different clinical manifestations as growth retardation and intellectual, congenital heart disease and distinctive facial features. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features that leading to their diagnosis, know their phenotypic evolution and provide appropriate treatment. A retrospective, descriptive case series study, which included all patients with a diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome, evaluated in the Autonomous Institute University Hospital of Los Andes, from January 2000 to June 2014 was performed. The main complaint was the presence of facial dysmorphic and

  10. Alteraciones metabólicas de la Hiperlipemia Familiar Combinada y su asociación con la obesidad abdominal y la inflamación de bajo grado

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Ruiz, María

    2015-01-01

    La HFC es un síndrome dislipémico descrito por Goldstein et al en 1973 identificado al estudiar a jóvenes supervivientes de un infarto agudo de miocardio y a sus familias. Observaron en ellos diferentes fenotipos metabólicos y lipoproteicos, con presencia de elevaciones de los niveles de colesterol total y/o triglicéridos, junto con elevación de lipoproteínas VLDL, de LDL, o de ambas lipoproteínas. La HFC presenta el desarrollo de arteriosclerosis como la manifestación clínica responsable de...

  11. Tamizaje de deleciones en pacientes con distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) o Becker-Kiener (BMD) mediante PCR multiplex en Costa Rica, 1998-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Sancho-Fernández, Vanessa M.; Saborio, Manuel; de Céspedes-Montealegre, Carlos; Azofeifa-Navas, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 2001 Objetivo: Iniciar los estudios genético moleculares sobre las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica. Materiales y Métodos: Treinta y un pacientes varones, diagnosticados con distrofia muscular, que podrían ser distrofinopáticos fueron reevaluados clínicamente. Veintitrés mostraron un fenotipo de DMD y dos de BMD. Seis no mostraron síntomas definitivos de distrofinopatías. ADN de los pacientes fue analiza...

  12. Análisis numérico sobre esfuerzos y áreas de contacto en una PTR Scorpio II® Stryker®. Base para el diseño de PTR personalizada al fenotipo Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez-Martínez

    2013-06-01

    acuerdo con el fenotipo mexicano.Palabras clave: simulación numérica; desgaste; presión de contacto; inserto femoral; plato tibial.Abstract: The Wear of UHMWPE inserts continues affecting the longevity of total knee replacements (TKR together with septic loosening, constitute the two main causes of prosthesis failure. Bearing this in mind, it is necessary to find appropriate solutions to avoid excessive wear and even the rupture of polyethylene inserts. In this work a study was carried out by means of numeric simulation of a Scorpio II® Stryker® TKR, which was removed due to wearing of the UHMWPE insert in the Hospital 1° de Octubre of ISSSTE in Mexico city. Hypotheses of Bartel et al. (1995 and Chillag et al. (1991 were used to validate the numerical method applied, proving that wear of polyethylene can decrease using thicker tibial inserts, which reduces contact pressures. The analyses of this work carried out by means of  FEM employing inserts of thicknesses of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm, putting quasi-static axial loads on the articulation with no degree of flexion and loads equivalent to 1.33 times the bodyweight of a subject of 75 kg (736 N, proved under regular walking conditions drew  similar results to those reported by Bei et al. (2004 and Deen et al. (2006. After validating the method, a model of study case of TKR in FEM was developed and the points of effort and contact areas of UHMWPE were identified. Thus, important information was obtained to modify the design, as well as to produce a prosthesis of optimal geometrical conformity in both, the coronal and the sagital planes of the femoral and UHMWPE inserts, complying with the requirements of the Mexican phenotype.Key words: Numerical simulation; wear; contact pressure; femoral insert; tibial tray; UHMWPE;  geometrical conformity

  13. Inhibidores de la histidina quinasa con actividad antibacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Alberto; Velikova, Nadya; Finn, Paul; Fulle, Simone; Wells, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibidores de la histidina guinasa con actividad antibacteriana. La presente invención se refiere a un grupo de compuestos con actividad inhibidora de la autofosforilación y actividad antibacteriana frente a diferentes bacterias como Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis entre otras, y al uso de dichos compuestos para la fabricación de antibióticos.

  14. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  15. Biomarcadores de la inflamación en la diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Efecto del control glucémico y del fenotipo de las LDL

    OpenAIRE

    Vinagre Torres, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen las complicaciones más prevalentes en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y son las que se asocian con mayor morbi-mortalidad. Los mecanismos responsables del desarrollo acelerado de arteriosclerosis en los pacientes con DM2 no se conocen con precisión, pero tanto la dislipemia aterogénica y la inflamación de bajo grado características de esta población, están implicados. La información sobre la relación del grado de control glucémico...

  16. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  17. Líquen aureus "algesiogênico" "Algesiogenic" lichen aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se caso de líquen aureus em paciente do sexo feminino, com 23 anos de idade que apresentava há dois anos lesão dolorosa, purpúrica, acastanhada tendendo por semelhante a cor de ferrugem e de aspecto liquenóide no antebraço. O exame anatomopatológico revelou denso infiltrado linfo-histiocitário na derme superior papilar, com extravasamento de hemácias. O líquen aureus é relativamente raro, sendo ainda mais raro o sintoma de dor.A case is described of lichen aureus in a 23 year old female with a 2-year history of painful, purpuric, rust-coloured to tan, lichenous lesion on forearm. A biopsy specimen demonstrated a dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the upper dermis, with extravasation of red cells. The "algesiogenic" lichen aureus is a very rare dermatosis.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  19. La comunicación expresiva en niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra GRAZONA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo centrada en niños con multidiscapacidad que se comunican a través de canales no visuales y no verbales. A partir de la pregunta central respecto a: ¿Cómo dan a conocer el contenido de sus mensajes los niños con multidiscapacidad que no poseen lenguaje verbal?, implementamos un estudio con dos fases complementarias y de convergencia metodológica. La primera, amparada en el paradigma positivista, en la que realizamos un acercamiento objetivo a la realidad y por medio de la operacionalización de los conceptos teóricos. en la segunda fase, profundizamos a través de la Metodología de estudio de Caso (9 en total y con un anclaje en el paradigma fenomenológico-interpretativo. El objetivo perseguido fue: Conocer las formas comunicativas de niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal, por ello privilegiamos el análisis en profundidad a partir de la utilización de diferentes técnicas que permitieron el acercamiento a los niños en ambientes naturales y triangular la información para proporcionar fiabilidad y validez. Las mencionadas etapas permitieron obtener un conocimiento holístico de las formas comunicativas idiosincráticas utilizadas por los niños con multidiscapacidad, que, a modo de bisagra, constituyen su fenotipo comunicativo.

  20. Síndrome de Williams-Beuren: Informe de dos casos con diagnóstico molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Mauricio Pachajoa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Williams-Beuren , tiene una incidencia de 1 caso por cada 10,000 nacimientos, es causado por la deleciónde un fragmento del brazo largo del cromosoma 7, que contiene varios genes candidatos como responsables del fenotipo delsíndrome, el cual consiste en facies típicas, estenosis aórtica supravalvular y retardo mental variable con una personalidadamistosa. Se informa dos casos de síndrome de Williams-Beuren con hallazgos fenotípicos clásicos pero variados; seconfirmó el diagnóstico a través de FISH y se propone un protocolo de estudios complementarios necesarios para lacaracterización de los pacientes.

  1. Caracterizaci??n del fenotipo muscular en la EPOC y sepsis en pacientes : estructura fibrilar, inflamaci??n, estr??s oxidativo y regeneraci??n

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Gu??rdia, Sergi, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    La inflamaci??n y el estr??s oxidativo son mecanismos moleculares que contribuyen al da??o y a la disfunci??n muscular. Existen procesos cr??nicos con fen??menos inflamatorios de bajo grado pero de larga duraci??n (EPOC, con o sin p??rdida de peso), as?? como situaciones cl??nicas con liberaci??n aguda de gran cantidad de mol??culas proinflamatorias (Sepsis). Los mecanismos de regeneraci??n del m??sculo en ambas entidades son esenciales para la correcta recuperaci??n funcional y pueden condic...

  2. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Scott D; Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of human infections and syndromes-most notably skin and soft tissue infections. Abscesses are a frequent manifestation of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections and are formed, in part, to contain the nidus of infection. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) are the primary cellular host defense against S. aureus infections and a major component of S. aureus abscesses. These host cells contain and produce many antimicrobial agents that are effective at killing bacteria, but can also cause non-specific damage to host tissues and contribute to the formation of abscesses. By comparison, S. aureus produces several molecules that also contribute to the formation of abscesses. Such molecules include those that recruit neutrophils, cause host cell lysis, and are involved in the formation of the fibrin capsule surrounding the abscess. Herein, we review our current knowledge of the mechanisms and processes underlying the formation of S. aureus abscesses, including the involvement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and provide a brief overview of therapeutic approaches.

  3. Modelo computacional para la identificación de endofenotipos en pacientes con artritis reumatoide utilizando información del antígeno leucocitario humano HLA clase II

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Muñoz, Luis Antonio

    2014-01-01

    La Artritis Reumatoide es una enfermedad autoinmune que afecta del 0.4% al 1% de la población humana y existen marcadores genéticos implicados en esta enfermedad. Se han utilizado varios modelos de inteligencia computacional para la clasificación e identificación de endofenotipos (relación entre fenotipo y marcadores genéticos) en pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y controles sanos a partir de información genética, principalmente el HLA DRB1 (Antígeno Leucocitario Humano), así como la teoría ...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.

  5. Correlación fenotipo-genotipo de variantes génicas en síndrome metabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Antolí Royo, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La importancia del Síndrome Metabólico viene dada por el aumento del riesgo cardiovascular que genera, con un aumento de la mortalidad, y por su alta prevalencia. Esto ha llevado a investigar diferentes factores genéticos que puedan estar implicados en la resistencia insulínica y la obesidad. Nuestro objetivo ha sido encontrar una asociación entre determinados polimorfismos genéticos, como son la IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, PPAR-γ y TNF-α, y su relación con el Síndrome Metabólico (según l...

  6. Mild Staphylococcus aureus skin infection improves the course of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and ev

  7. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  8. Prevention of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ S. aureus colonizes the skin and mucosae of a proportion of the human population. Carriers of S. aureus are at increased risk of developing infections with this pathogen. The aim of this thesis was to add to the prevention of healthcare associated S. aureus infections.

  9. Dermatology case: segmental lichen aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, I.; S. Carvalho; Machado, S.; Alves,R.; Selores, M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The authors describe a clinical case of a six-year-old boy with history of a segmental brownish maculopapular skin eruption on his left thoracic and lumbar wall, since the last four months. Based on clinical and histological findings he was diagnosed with segmental lichen aureus.

  10. Estudio en la cohorte española de pacientes con síndrome de Wolf Hirschhorn: análisis de la epilepsia en el síndrome y correlación genotipo-fenotipo

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Lago, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN El síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn (SWH; OMIM#194190) es una cromosomopatía o síndrome polimalformativo resultado de una deleción en la región distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4 (4p16.3). La pérdida de material genético a dicho nivel tiene como consecuencia una serie de manifestaciones clínicas, algunas de ellas prácticamente constantes en todos los pacientes afectados (facies característica, retraso del desarrollo psicomotor, discapacidad intelectual, retraso e...

  11. Actividad antimicrobiana del OLEOZON® sobre Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    V. Curtiellas; M Gómez; O. Ledea; Fernández, I.; Sánchez, E.

    2005-01-01

    La actividad antimicrobiana de los aceites vegetales ozonizados suele atribuirse a la acción de los compuestos peroxídicos presentes en los mismos sobre las biomoléculas más sensibles al ataque oxidante, como son los lípidos insaturados y las proteínas que presentan grupos sulfidrilos (SH). Con el objetivo de caracterizar la actividad in vitro del aceite de girasol ozonizado, OLEOZON®, se realizó un estudio empleando las cepas S. aureus ATCC 25923 y P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Se determinaron l...

  12. Expresión de CAIX, GLUT-1 y HK II y su posible asociación con cáncer escamocelular invasivo de cuello uterino / CAIX, GLUT 1, HKII expression and its possible association with squamous cell cancer invasive cervical

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En Colombia, el cáncer de cuello uterino ocupa el primer lugar en incidencia, siendo la principal causa de muerte en mujeres. La mayoría son diagnosticadas en estadios avanzados IIB y IIIB, tratadas con radioterapia exclusiva o radioterapia concomitante a quimioterapia. El 40-70% de las pacientes no responden a estos tratamientos por factores como el microambiente tumoral, caracterizado por los fenotipos hipóxico, glicolítico y acidosis. En este entorno, las células tumorales presentan cambio...

  13. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  14. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  15. Diversity and evolution of blaZ from Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, John E.; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    NS) and Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. Methods: blaZ was detected in 143 strains of penicillin-resistant S. aureus and CoNS from five Danish cattle herds (n = 25/23), random CoNS isolates from Denmark (n = 37), a collection of S. aureus from six different countries (n = 52), humans in Denmark (n = 3) and beta...... and sequences retrieved from public databases were compared. A phylogenetic tree showed that blaZ exists in three evolutionary lines: one group was of plasmid origin, one group was of chromosomal origin and one intermediate group. Sixty-nine sequence types were demonstrated. They translated into 11 BlaZ protein...... types. The major types all contained strains of both human and bovine origin, and more than one Staphylococcus species, demonstrating a shared gene pool. In a comparison of S. aureus and CoNS obtained from five Danish cattle herds, the same type of blaZ was only detected in one case. Conclusions...

  16. Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus in north of Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Marwan Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study was conducted to update the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among human clinical S.aureus isolates recovered from Northern Palestine,to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin-Resistant S.aureus (VRSA)and vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VISA)and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these clinical isolates.Methods:The in vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 204 non-duplicate S.aureus isolates from clinical samples in North of Palestine were determined by the disk-diffusion method.These samples were isolated between June 2006 and December 2007.The minimum inhibitory con-centration (MIC)of vancomycin for 115 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)strains was carried out using the agar dilution method.Results:One hundred and fifteen (56.4 %)of these isolates were MRSA and ac-cording to their antibiotic profile these are multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more non-β-lactam antibiotics). Ninety nine (43.6 %)isolates were methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA),forty four of MSSA isolates (44.4 %) were multidrug resistant,while forty five (45.6 %)were non multidrug resistant.Our results showed that the most common resistance (95.6 %)was to penicillin.Two strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin-intermediate resistant,had MIC of 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL and these vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VI-SA)are resistant to all antibiotics tested.Conclusion:According to our information this is the first study report about VISA in Palestine.

  17. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A. McGuinness

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils, are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions.

  18. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  19. CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING IN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , CHROMOSOMES), (*CHROMOSOMES, MAPPING), NITROSO COMPOUNDS, GUANIDINES, GENETICS, MUTATIONS, DRUGS, TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST METHODS, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, INHIBITION, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY).

  20. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Leonardo da Cunha; Joaquim César Teixeira Fernandes; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; Adriana Rhoden; Elsio Wunder Jr.; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  1. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  2. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  3. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: molecular background, virulence, and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Bonesso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS are frequently found in nosocomial environments as the main pathogen in several infections. In 1961, reports of nosocomial S. aureus resistant to methicillin, the drug of choice against penicillin-resistant strains, required new alternatives and vancomycin started being used to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA was first reported in 1990 affecting patients without risk factors for infection with MRSA of hospital origin. MRSA of community origin harbor the genes responsible for the synthesis of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, a toxin associated with skin and soft tissue infections and that carries the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec type IV. CA-MRSA emergence has caused great impact on the worldwide medical community since the presence of this pathogen in patients without risk factors represents a high risk to public health.

  4. Triclosan promotes Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan K; Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G; Boles, Blaise R

    2014-04-08

    The biocide triclosan is used in many personal care products, including toothpastes, soaps, clothing, and medical equipment. Consequently, it is present as a contaminant in the environment and has been detected in some human fluids, including serum, urine, and milk. Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the noses and throats of approximately 30% of the population. Colonization with S. aureus is known to be a risk factor for several types of infection. Here we demonstrate that triclosan is commonly found in the nasal secretions of healthy adults and the presence of triclosan trends positively with nasal colonization by S. aureus. We demonstrate that triclosan can promote the binding of S. aureus to host proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, and keratin, as well as inanimate surfaces such as plastic and glass. Lastly, triclosan-exposed rats are more susceptible to nasal colonization with S. aureus. These data reveal a novel factor that influences the ability of S. aureus to bind surfaces and alters S. aureus nasal colonization. IMPORTANCE Triclosan has been used as a biocide for over 40 years, but the broader effects that it has on the human microbiome have not been investigated. We demonstrate that triclosan is present in nasal secretions of a large portion of a test population and its presence correlates with Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization. Triclosan also promotes the binding of S. aureus to human proteins and increases the susceptibility of rats to nasal colonization by S. aureus. These findings are significant because S. aureus colonization is a known risk factor for the development of several types of infections. Our data demonstrate the unintended consequences of unregulated triclosan use and contribute to the growing body of research demonstrating inadvertent effects of triclosan on the environment and human health.

  5. Chromones from an ascomycete,Chaetomium aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei Li; Qiang Zou; Guo You Li

    2010-01-01

    A novel chromone,named chaetoaurin (1),along with six known chromone derivatives (2-7),was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a solid-state fermented culture of Chaetomium aureus.Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis.All of these compounds were reported from C.aureus for the first time.

  6. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects we

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P hands...

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS

  11. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  12. Nutrient limitation governs Staphylococcus aureus metabolism and niche adaptation in the human nose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Krismer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the human nose by Staphylococcus aureus in one-third of the population represents a major risk factor for invasive infections. The basis for adaptation of S. aureus to this specific habitat and reasons for the human predisposition to become colonized have remained largely unknown. Human nasal secretions were analyzed by metabolomics and found to contain potential nutrients in rather low amounts. No significant differences were found between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers, indicating that carriage is not associated with individual differences in nutrient supply. A synthetic nasal medium (SNM3 was composed based on the metabolomics data that permits consistent growth of S. aureus isolates. Key genes were expressed in SNM3 in a similar way as in the human nose, indicating that SNM3 represents a suitable surrogate environment for in vitro simulation studies. While the majority of S. aureus strains grew well in SNM3, most of the tested coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS had major problems to multiply in SNM3 supporting the notion that CoNS are less well adapted to the nose and colonize preferentially the human skin. Global gene expression analysis revealed that, during growth in SNM3, S. aureus depends heavily on de novo synthesis of methionine. Accordingly, the methionine-biosynthesis enzyme cysteine-γ-synthase (MetI was indispensable for growth in SNM3, and the MetI inhibitor DL-propargylglycine inhibited S. aureus growth in SNM3 but not in the presence of methionine. Of note, metI was strongly up-regulated by S. aureus in human noses, and metI mutants were strongly abrogated in their capacity to colonize the noses of cotton rats. These findings indicate that the methionine biosynthetic pathway may include promising antimicrobial targets that have previously remained unrecognized. Hence, exploring the environmental conditions facultative pathogens are exposed to during colonization can be useful for understanding niche

  13. Emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA from a tertiary care hospital from northern part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Malay

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. For the last 7 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA respectively has been increasing in various parts of the world. The present study was carried out to find out the presence of VISA and VRSA in the northern part of India. Methods A total 1681 staphylococcal isolates consisting of 783 S. aureus and 898 coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS were isolated from different clinical specimens from various outpatient departments and wards. All S. aureus and 93 CoNS were subjected to MIC testing (against vancomycin, teicolplanin and oxacillin; Brain Heart Infusion (BHI vancomycin screen agar test; disc diffusion testing, and PCR for mecA, vanA and vanB genes detection. Results Out of 783 S. aureus two S. aureus strains were found to be vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant (one strain with MIC 32 μg/ml and the other strain with MIC 64 μg/ml; six strains of S. aureus have shown to be vancomycin intermediate (two strains with MIC 16 μg/ml and four strains with MIC 8 μg/ml; and two strains with teicoplanin intermediate (MIC 16 μg/ml. One CoNS strain was resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC 32 μg/ml, and two CoNS strains were intermediate to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC 16 μg/ml. All VRSA, VISA and vancomycin resistant CoNS had shown growth on BHI vancomycin screen agar (vancomycin 6 μg/ml and were mecA PCR positive. None of these isolates have demonstrated vanA/vanB gene by PCR. Conclusion The present study reveals for the first time emergence of VISA/VRSA from this part of world and indicates the magnitude of antibiotic resistance in and around the study area. The major cause of this may be unawareness and indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  15. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Cunha Leonardo da; Fernandes Joaquim César Teixeira; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Rhoden Adriana; Wunder Jr. Elsio; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  16. Etudes structurales du ribosome de Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Khusainov, Iskander

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome is a large cellular machinery that performs the protein synthesis in every living cell. Therefore, the ribosome is one of the major targets of naturally produced antibiotics, which can kill bacterial cells by blocking protein synthesis. However, some bacteria are resistant to these antibiotics due to small modifications of their ribosomes. Among them, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a severe pathogen that causes numerous infections in humans. The crystal structures of comple...

  17. Presentación atípica de piomiositis tropical difusa de psoas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La piomiositis tropical difusa primaria es una enfermedad de presentación infrecuente en nuestro medio, con pocos casos asociados a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, adquirido en la comunidad (MRSA-AC). Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, con tratamiento irregular para diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de diez días de evolución, con dolor lumbar irradiado a miembro inferior izquierdo, fiebre y flexión forzada de la cadera derecha por...

  18. Presentación atípica de piomiositis tropical difusa de psoas por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente Atypical presentation of diffuse tropical pyomiositis of the psoas due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Ticse

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La piomiositis tropical difusa primaria es una enfermedad de presentación infrecuente en nuestro medio, con pocos casos asociados a Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente, adquirido en la comunidad (MRSA-AC. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 70 años, con tratamiento irregular para diabetes mellitus tipo 2, que fue hospitalizado por presentar un cuadro de diez días de evolución, con dolor lumbar irradiado a miembro inferior izquierdo, fiebre y flexión forzada de la cadera derecha por dolor a la movilización. El diagnóstico de piomiositis difusa de ambos psoas se realizó con resonancia magnética. Del cultivo de una colección paravertebral posterior se aisló Staphylococcus aureus resistente a oxacilina, penicilina y dicloxacilina.Diffuse tropical primary pyomyositis is an infrequent entity in our country, with few cases associated to communityacquired Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. There are no reported cases of Community-Acquired Methicillin- Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA- MRSA in Peru. We present the case of a 70 year old male with a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving irregular treatment, who was admitted to the hospital with a history of 10 days of low back pain radiating to the left leg, fever and forced flexion of the right hip due to pain during movement. The diagnosis of diffuse pyomyositis of both psoas muscles was performed with MRI and culture of a posterior paravertebral collection, from which Staphylococcus aureus resistant to oxacillin, penicillin and dicloxacillin was isolated.

  19. Incidenza della meticillino-resistenza in Staphylococcus aureus e stafilococchi coagulasi-negativi isolati da emocolture

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    Alessandra Siddi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci are major cause of nosocomial blood stream infections.This local surveillance study was carry out to monitor frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS in blood stream infections and the incidence of methicillin-resistant (MET-R strains. Materials and methods: During the period January – December 2006, 9840 blood specimens were analyzed and microrganisms from positive samples were collected. Bacterial identifications were performed according to the standard methods (Murray, 2003.We evaluated, in particular, the antibiotic-resistance phenotype of staphylococci employing disk diffusion test as suggested by the CLSI (2006. The following antimicrobial agents were tested: oxacillin, penicillin, amoxiciclin-clavulanate, cefalotin, cefamandole, imipenem, teicoplanin, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamicin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, doxiciclin, fosfomycin. Results: The microrganisms isolated were 551: 370 Gram-positives (67%, 131 Gram-negatives (24%, 11 anaerobes (2% and 39 mycetes (7%. In particular, 121 S. epidermidis, 75 S. aureus, 42 S. haemolyticus and other 39 CoNS were analyzed: methicillin-resistance occurred in more than 80% of S.aureus strains collected from Intensive Care Units (ICU and in about 50 % of those isolated from other divisions. In CoNS the incidence of MET-R ranged from 30 to 80 %, the higher values were registered among S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus. MET-R strains were characterized by high resistance rates even to ciprofloxacin (from 47 to 100%, erythromycin (from 70 to 100%, and in same cases to gentamicin (from 23 to 86% also. Conclusions: Staphylococci are the prevalent cause of blood stream infections.The distinctive feature of MET-R strains is their resistance not only to all b-lactam antibiotics, but also to a wide range of other antimicrobial agents. However, the glycopeptide teicoplanin remains 100

  20. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  1. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  2. Mupirocin resistance in nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers of a tertiary care rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardi Charan Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A is a topical antimicrobial agent with excellent antistaphylococcal and antistreptococcal activity. A nasal formulation is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for eradicating nasal carriage in adult patients as well as in health care personnel. Resistance to mupirocin has already been reported worldwide. The increasing prevalence of mupirocin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS species could be an important threat to the future use of mupirocin against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Thus, this study was carried out to find the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion and to determine the rates of high-level and low-level mupirocin resistance in S. aureus and CoNS by disc diffusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 healthcare workers (HCWs (doctor, nursing staff, housekeeping staff were randomly selected. S. aureus and CoNS isolates were tested for mupirocin resistance by the disk diffusion method using 5 μg and 200 μg mupirocin discs. MRSA isolates were tested for antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Out of 140 nasal swabs collected from HCWs, S. aureus was isolated in 38 (27.14%, and CoNS was isolated in 73 (52.14%. MRSA was isolated in 20 (14.28% and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS in 34 (24.29%. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and MSCoNS isolates were 100% sensitive to mupirocin, but two isolates from MRSA (1.43% and five from MRCoNS (3.57% were mupirocin resistant. Conclusion: The presence of mupirocin resistance in MRSA and MRCoNS is a cause for concern. It could be limited by regular surveillance and effective infection control initiatives so to inform health care facilities to guide therapeutic and prophylactic use of mupirocin.

  3. Análisis genotípico de 11 pacientes colombianos con Síndrome de Apert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvy M Velasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El síndrome de Apert (SA es una de las craneosinostosis sindrómicas más severas que afecta el neuro y viscerocraneo y además presenta alteraciones multisistémicas con repercusiones en aspectos físicos (aspecto general y talla baja, sensoriales (hipoacusia y trastornos visuales, cognoscitivos (retardo mental o trastornos del aprendizaje y de inclusión laboral (sindactilia severa en manos y pies. Su etiología es la mutación del receptor 2 del factor de crecimiento fibroblástico (FGFR2 y se hereda de forma autosómica dominante. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron clínica y molecularmente 11 pacientes con sospecha de SA. Se realizó estudio mutacional mediante RFLP para el gen FGFR2. Resultados. Se confirmaron molecularmente los 11 pacientes con SA, cuyas edades oscilaron desde los 0 a 32 años. Todos los pacientes presentaron el fenotipo clásico. Se encontró un 63.6% de pacientes con la mutación S252W y 36.4% con P253R. Discusión. De los pacientes analizados, llamo la atención la presencia de talla baja y RM/RGD en algunos de ellos. Desde el punto de vista genotípico, las frecuencias mutacionales para S252W y P253R no mostraron diferencias con relación a lo reportado mundialmente. Aunque no se disponen de datos de la incidencia de esta patología a nivel local, este estudio podría ser el primer acercamiento para fines epidemiológicos en Colombia.

  4. Identificación de mutaciones y diagnóstico molecular de portadoras en familias mexicanas con distrofia muscular Duchenne/Becker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Canizales

    2008-01-01

    Discusión o Conclusión: El porcentaje de eliminaciones genéticas en los pacientes estudiados fue menor al reportado en otras poblaciones. Un estudio con un mayor número de individuos permitirá saber sí esta baja frecuencia es característica de nuestra población. El uso de estudios de ligamiento genético y de RT-PCR aumenta la posibilidad de definir el estado portador en mujeres pertenecientes a familias con DMD/BMD y así poder ofrecerles un adecuado consejo genético. Este es el primer trabajo realizado en México, donde se usó el RT-PCR como herramienta diagnóstica en esta distrofia, se identificó por primera vez, a nivel molecular, un paciente con Síndrome de genes continuos y se demostró un empalme alternativo en un paciente con esta miopatía para explicar su fenotipo.

  5. Arteterapia con personas con discapacidad intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pipkau, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Este proyecto pretende hacer una aproximaci??n al mundo del Arte Terapia y los beneficios que esta disciplina puede aportar a las personas con discapacidad intelectual. La idea surge de la experiencia previa de la autora en este ??mbito y con este colectivo. A trav??s de la documentaci??n bibliogr??fica se busca ampliar el conocimiento en cuanto al concepto de arteterapia y sus antecedentes, con la finalidad de elaborar una propuesta pr??ctica que se basar?? en el dise??o de un taller de arte...

  6. Portadores nasofaríngeos de Neisseria meningitidis en trabajadores con riesgo ocupacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los portadores de Neisseria meningitidis constituyen la principal fuente de infección y transmisión de la enfermedad meningocócica. Conocer su prevalencia, las características de las cepas aisladas y los factores de riesgos asociados con el estado de portador, aportan datos valiosos al control y vigilancia epidemiológica de esta entidad clínica. Para cumplimentar los objetivos propuestos se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo de portadores de N. meningitidis en 112 trabajadores de un centro de producción de biofarmacéuticos de La Habana, con edades comprendidas entre 18_60 años. Previo a su realización se cumplió con las exigencias bioéticas requeridas para este tipo de estudio. A todos se les realizó un exudado nasofaríngeo y una encuesta, donde se indagó sobre factores de riesgo (edad, sexo, hacinamiento, hábito de fumar, consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, amigdalectomía y antecedentes de infección respiratoria que favorecen la condición del portador. La identificación de las cepas de N. meningitidis se realizó según métodos convencionales, la clasificación de los serogrupos se hizo por aglutinación en láminas portaobjetos con antisueros comerciales y para la identificación de los serotipos y subtipos se empleó un ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA de células enteras con anticuerpos monoclonales. Se detectó un 8% de portadores de N. meningitidis con predominio del serogrupo B (77,8% y el fenotipo más frecuente fue el B:4:P1.4 (33,3%. Al analizar el estado de portador y su asociación con los factores de riesgo, la edad (p = 0,05 y el sexo (p = 0,013 mostraron diferencias significativas. Se demostró la posibilidad del riesgo ocupacional en aquellos individuos que por su profesión están en contacto con microorganismos patógenos

  7. Deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa en un paciente con síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Cammarata Scalisi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Down, es una alteración genética que ocurre cuando un individuo exhibe todo o una parte específica adicional del cromosoma 21 y es la entidad más frecuentemente asociada a retardo mental. La deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, es el defecto enzimático más común en humanos y presenta patrón de herencia ligado al cromosoma X recesivo. Se debe a la mutación del gen G6PD, el cual causa diversos fenotipos bioquímicos y clínicos. Reportamos un caso de lactante menor masculino, evaluado en la Unidad de Genética Médica de la Universidad de Los Andes, con el diagnóstico de deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa con doble mutación A376G y G202A y síndrome de Down con estudio citogenético 47, XY, +21. Palabras clave:Síndrome de Down; deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa; G6PD; A37G6; G202A. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with Down syndrome Abstract Down syndrome, is a genetic disorder that occurring when an individual exhibits all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21 and the most common entity associated mental retardation. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, is the most common human enzyme defect and has a X-linked recessive inheritance. Due to mutations in the G6PD gene, which cause many biochemical and clinical phenotypes. We reported a case of child male, evaluated in the Unit of Medical Genetics of the University of The Andes, with diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency with double mutation A376G and G202A and Down syndrome with cytogenetic study 47, XY, + 21.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus survival in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachowa, Natalia; DeLeo, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is abundant in hospitals and in the United States is a leading cause of mortality due to infectious agents. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300, which typically cause disease outside of healthcare settings, are also prevalent in the United States. Although most CA-MRSA infections affect skin and soft tissue, the pathogen can enter the bloodstream and ultimately cause severe disease. In a recent paper, we used USA300-specific microarrays to generate a comprehensive view of the molecules that facilitate S. aureus immune evasion and survival in human blood. Notably, genes encoding proteins involved in iron-uptake and utilization and gamma-hemolysin (hlgABC) are highly up-regulated by USA300 during culture in human blood. Here we discuss the potential implication of these findings and the possible role of gamma-hemolysin in the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen.

  9. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  10. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  11. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  12. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  13. Oxazolidinones as an Alternative in the Treatment of Multiresistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Quiros Enríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones provocadas por cepas resistentes se hacen cada día más difíciles de tratar con los antibióticos disponibles. Las causadas por Staphylococcus aureus multirresistente han alcanzado niveles sin precedentes y escasean los medicamentos efectivos para combatirla. La resistencia bacteriana es un problema global que disminuye las opciones terapéuticas en infecciones intra y extrahospitalarias y aumenta las posibilidades de fracaso y los costos de los tratamientos. Esta revisión pretende describir los mecanismos de resistencia de las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y caracterizar las oxazolidinonas (linezolid, como una alternativa para el tratamiento de infecciones por este germen.

  14. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Chidambaram, M.; Heath, J. D.; Mallary, L.; Mishra, S. K.; Sharma, B.; Weinstock, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated over 2 years from Space Shuttle mission crewmembers to determine dissemination and retention of bacteria. Samples before and after each mission were from nasal, throat, urine, and feces and from air and surface sampling of the Space Shuttle. DNA fingerprinting of samples by digestion of DNA with SmaI restriction endonuclease followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed S. aureus from each crewmember had a unique fingerprint and usually only one strain was carried by an individual. There was only one instance of transfer between crewmembers. Strains from interior surfaces after flight matched those of crewmembers, suggesting microbial fingerprinting may have forensic application.

  15. Detección de los genes mecA, mecRl y mecí en cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina de origen bovino aisladas en unidades de producción lechera familiar, México

    OpenAIRE

    M López-Vázquez; JS Martínez-Castañeda; M. Talavera-Rojas; JJ Valdez-Alarcón; V. Velázquez-Ordóñez

    2015-01-01

    En México como en otros países, Staphylococcus aureus es uno de los principales patógenos causantes de mastitis bovina. El tratamiento de esta enfermedad se realiza principalmente con antibióticos PTactámicos; sin embargo, en México existen estudios de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a este tipo de antibióticos, actualmente los mecanismos moleculares de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina no han sido ampliamente estudiados. En este trabajo se identificó Staphylococcus aureus aislad...

  16. Methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers and medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Breves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Cross-contamination by Staphylococcus aureus among patients, professionals and medical supplies in health facilities is a constant concern, leading many researchers to study the prevalence of this pathogen in asymptomatic carriers. Objective: We investigated the colonization and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. on surfaces of medical articles and in professionals from two basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine samples resulted in 49 isolates which underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of coa, mecA and femA genes. Results: According to the phenotypes, the isolates were identified as S. aureus (n = 35, 71.42% and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS (n = 14, 28.57%. Among these 14 isolates, 42.85% were methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS. Among the 35 S. aureus, 31.42% were methicillin resistant (MRSA, and 2.8% were vancomycin resistant, characterized as VRSA. Sixty-eight percent were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA. Genes coa, femA and mecA were amplified from 75.51%, 71.42% and 30.61% of the isolates, respectively. After amplification of the mecA gene, 20.41% were characterized as MRSA, and 10.20% as MRCoNS. The vancomycin-resistant strain was characterized as VRSA after detection of the vanB gene. Conclusion: Our results show a higher frequency of MSSA and MRCoNS among S. aureus and CoNS respectively, colonizing devices and health professionals. However, the already described transfer of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec from MRCoNS to MSSA may alter these results, increasing the frequency of MRSA strains.

  17. The molecular evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, R H; Vink, C; Kalenic, S; Friedrich, A W; Bruggeman, C A; Stobberingh, E E

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potentially pathogenic bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of diseases. S. aureus can adapt rapidly to the selective pressure of antibiotics, and this has resulted in the emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Resistance to methicillin and other

  18. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  19. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  20. Effect of a disinfectant powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs, bedding and air samples under simulated farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is an emerging zoonotic agent that can be transmitted to people exposed to contaminated farms. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial farm disinfectant in reducing LA-MRSA contamination under con...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  3. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...

  4. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  6. Profiling the surfacome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; Hempel, Kristina; Buist, Girbe; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Doerte; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide variety of life-threatening diseases. Especially for the colonization of human tissues and the development of invasiveness, surface-exposed proteins are of major importance. In the present studies, we optimized a prot

  7. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  8. El síndrome de Pasqualini: hipoandrogenismo con espermatogénesis conservada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Valdés Socin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pasqualini y Bur publican el primer caso de eunucoidismo con espermatogénesis conservada en 1950 en la Revista de la Asociación Médica Argentina. El síndrome de hipoandrogenismo con espermatogénesis incluye: (a eunucoidismo bien definido, (b testículos de volumen normal con espermatogénesis completa, llegando a espermatozoides maduros en una elevada proporción de tubos seminíferos, con células de Leydig indiferenciadas e inmaduras, (c compensación funcional completa mediante la administración de gonadotrofina coriónica, mientras ésta se aplique (d gonadotrofinas urinarias totales dentro de límites normales, y (e esta definición fue ampliada con la actividad normal de las otras hormonas adenohipofisarias y la ausencia de malformaciones congénitas en la mayoría de los casos. En la fisiopatogenia del síndrome de Pasqualini, conocido también como síndrome del "eunuco fértil", se demostró primero la ausencia de hormona luteinizante (LH en el plasma y orina de estos pacientes. El segundo gran avance fueron los estudios funcionales y genéticos que validaron la hipótesis de un déficit funcional de LH en estos hombres, extendido luego a las mujeres. Varios grupos, incluyendo el nuestro, demostrarían en estos casos una LH con diferentes grados de actividad inmunológica pero biológicamente inactiva, a partir de una o más mutaciones invalidantes en el gen LHB. Por último, la comprensión acabada del síndrome de Pasqualini permitiría revertir el fenotipo y la infertilidad de estos pacientes a partir de la utilización de gonadotrofina coriónica y las modernas técnicas de fertilidad in vitro. Este artículo es una revisión histórica y un homenaje a la memoria de Rodolfo Q. Pasqualini.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  10. Oxazolidinones as an Alternative in the Treatment of Multiresistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Quiros Enríquez; Diana Rosa Fernández Ruíz; Belkis Barrios Romero; Pedro Miguel Milián Vázquez.; Yacelys Cisneros Napóles; Lucía Noa Justafé

    2013-01-01

    Las infecciones provocadas por cepas resistentes se hacen cada día más difíciles de tratar con los antibióticos disponibles. Las causadas por Staphylococcus aureus multirresistente han alcanzado niveles sin precedentes y escasean los medicamentos efectivos para combatirla. La resistencia bacteriana es un problema global que disminuye las opciones terapéuticas en infecciones intra y extrahospitalarias y aumenta las posibilidades de fracaso y los costos de los tratamientos. Esta revisión preten...

  11. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in children attending school in cartagena, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Orozco, Raimundo; Villafañe-Ferrer, Lucy M.; Álvarez-Rivera, Eduviges; Martínez De Arco, Melina; Rambaut-Donado, Carmen L.; Vitola-Heins, Gina V.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar portadores nasales de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM) y factores de riesgo asociados a esta colonización, en una población escolar de Cartagena de Indias.  Métodos Se realizó un estudio analítico  transversal en 100 niños escolares sanos, para la búsqueda de portadores nasales de cepas SARM y su asociación con factores de riesgo. Para la identificación bacteriana se utilizaron métodos convencionales. A todos los aislamientos se les determinó la sensib...

  12. Importancia actual de la bacteriemia por "staphylococcus aureus" en un hospital universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Lalueza Blanco, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende conocer las caracteristícas de los pacientes con el diagnóstico de bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus, fundamentalmente los que presentan una bacteriemia por cateter ya que supone una importante causa de bacteriemia nosocomial que podría ser potencialmente prevenible. Además, queremos conocer como se presenta esta infección en nuestro hospital y si del estudio de los signos y síntomas de los pacientes podríamos sacar alguna conclusión que permitiese predecir como va a...

  13. Acción Bactericida del Jugo de Limón Sobre el Staphylococcus Aureus Rosenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obregón Botero. Rafael

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este experimento fue el determinar la influencia que pudiera tener el jugo de limón común (citrus limonia Osbeck sobre el Staphylococcus; aureus Rosenbach. Esta bacteria se encuentra con frecuencia en la piel y el pelo del hombre y de los animales, también en el pus y con frecuencia asociados a muchas otras causantes de abcesos, forúnculos, nacidos, etc. Ocasionalmente pueden causar osteomielitis y endocarditis. En individuos tuberculosos las infecciones causadas por esta bacteria pueden ocasionar la muerte.

  14. Kill the Killers: terapia con células Natural Killer en pacientes pediátricos con cáncer refractario Kill the Killers: Natural Killer cells therapy against paediatric refractory solid tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valentín Quiroga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el momento actual, los tumores sólidos refractarios al tratamiento convencional constituyen la principal causa de muerte en la edad pediátrica. Por tanto, es necesario desarrollar y consolidar nuevos tratamientos. Las células Natural Killer (NK constituyen la primera línea de defensa del sistema inmune frente al desarrollo de células tumorales. Planteamos una nueva estrategia de terapia celular antitumoral en niños con cánceres refractarios, inmunoterapia con células NK estimuladas con interleucina 15 (IL-15. Pacientes y Métodos: En 22 pacientes pediátricos con tumores sólidos refractarios y en controles sanos determinamos mediante citometría de flujo multiparamétrica y fluorescencia resuelta en el tiempo, el fenotipo y la actividad citotóxica de las células NK, respectivamente. En ratones inmunodeficientes desarrollamos un modelo de neuroblastoma metastático muy agresivo y terapia de rescate con células Natural Killer estimuladas con IL-15. Resultados: Los pacientes pediátricos con cáncer refractario tienen un mayor porcentaje de células NK bright y una menor actividad citotóxica. La estimulación con IL-15 mejora la citotoxicidad in vitro y disminuye la carga tumoral in vivo. Conclusiones: Las células NK estimuladas con IL-15 constituyen una prometedora estrategia antitumoral.Introduction: Refractory solid tumours lead children deaths. To change this statement, new treatments should be developed. Natural Killer cells constitute the first line of defence against tumour cells. We propose a new strategy for antitumor cell therapy in children with refractory solid malignancies: IL-15 stimulated NK cells. Patients and methods: 22 paediatric patients suffering refractory solid tumours participate in this study. We compare NK cell subsets and K562 cytotoxicity in patients and sex-age pair's healthy controls. We use multiparametric flow and time-resolved fluorescent, respectively. In immunocompromised mice we

  15. Bacteriemia en pacientes internados con celulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Lasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.

  16. Caracterización del fenotipo muscular en la EPOC y sepsis en pacientes : estructura fibrilar, inflamación, estrés oxidativo y regeneración

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Guàrdia, Sergi, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    La inflamación y el estrés oxidativo son mecanismos moleculares que contribuyen al daño y a la disfunción muscular. Existen procesos crónicos con fenómenos inflamatorios de bajo grado pero de larga duración (EPOC, con o sin pérdida de peso), así como situaciones clínicas con liberación aguda de gran cantidad de moléculas proinflamatorias (Sepsis). Los mecanismos de regeneración del músculo en ambas entidades son esenciales para la correcta recuperación funcional y pueden condicionar cambios f...

  17. Sensibilidad y resistencia en el antibiograma del Staphylococcus aureus en pacientes del Hospital Clinico Viedma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Favio Lazo Arispe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos es un problema de salud, ya que conlleva la utilización de fármacos más complejos y muy poco accesibles. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es conocer la sensibilidad y resistencia de Staphylococus aureus a los antibióticos, en pacientes que asistieron a Emergencias del Hospital Clínico Viedma. Mediante la realización de un estudio de tipo descriptivo-prospectivo-transversal; se tomó muestras por conveniencia no probabilística de pacientes con heridas infectadas y quemaduras sobre infectadas que asistieron a Emergencias del Hospital Clínico Viedma. Se encontró que el Staphylococcus aureus demostró una sensibilidad del 100% a la vancomicina, siendo este fármaco de mayor utilidad, pero este microorganismo demostró una mayor resistencia a la amoxicilina y oxacilina siendo estos fármacos de menor utilidad. Stafilococcus aureus presenta día a día mayor resistencia a antibióticos comúnmente usados para su tratamiento, presentando sensibilidad a fármacos que antes no se usaban en su tratamiento.

  18. Educar con significado o con sentido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín García García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día, tres tendencias influyen directamente en la conformación de la escuela. En primer lugar, el afán de encontrar la esencia de todo encumbró a la razón e hizo de la racionalidad el único valor a defender en las aulas. En segundo lugar, el sistema capitalista hizo lo mismo con aquello que tiene valor de uso y valor de cambio, es decir, con la mercancía, validando solo lo que puede tener una utilidad económica conocida o posible. Esto convirtió a la educación en un proceso para certificar y ganar dinero, desdibujando así su intención de formar personas. Finalmente, la visión masculina y eurocéntrica con su locura por quererlo dominar todo, y de pensar que el hombre era el dueño del planeta e inclusive la vida y el destino de los otros hombres, mutiló culturas y eliminó a la naturaleza de los currículums en los centros educativos.

  19. Evaluation of single and double-locus real-time PCR assays for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielly Haya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a human pathogen, representing an infection control challenge. Conventional MRSA screening takes up to three days, therefore development of rapid detection is essential. Real time-PCR (rt-PCR is the fastest method fulfilling this task. All currently published or commercially available rt-PCR MRSA assays relay on single or double-locus detection. Double-locus assays are based on simultaneous detection of mecA gene and a S. aureus-specific gene. Such assays cannot be applied on clinical samples, which often contain both coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS and S. aureus, either of which can carry mecA. Single-locus assays are based on detection of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec element and the S. aureus-specific orfX gene, assuming that it is equivalent to mecA detection. Findings Parallel evaluation of several published single and double-locus rt-PCR MRSA assays of 150 pure culture strains, followed by analysis of 460 swab-derived clinical samples which included standard identification, susceptibility testing, followed by PCR detection of staphylococcal suspected isolates and in-PCR mixed bacterial populations analysis indicated the following findings. Pure cultures analysis indicated that one of the single-locus assay had very high prevalence of false positives (Positive predictive value = 77.8% and was excluded from further analysis. Analysis of 460 swab-derived samples indicated that the second single-locus assay misidentified 16 out of 219 MRSA's and 13 out of 90 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus's (MSSA were misidentified as MRSA's. The double-locus detection assay misidentified 55 out of 90 MSSA's. 46 MSSA containing samples were misidentified as MRSA and 9 as other than S. aureus ending with low positive predicted value ( Conclusion The results indicate that high prevalence of false-positive and false-negative reactions occurs in such assays.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  1. El OLEOZON® sobre la viabilidad, la permeabilidad celular y la ultraestructura de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Curtiellas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El mecanismo de acción de los aceites vegetales ozonizados sobre los microorganismos no está aún establecido. Dada la naturaleza oxidante de sus principales componentes es posible que ocurran daños en los lípidos insaturados y las proteínas que presentan grupos sulfhidrilos de los microorganismos. No existen evidencias que demuestren los posibles efectos causados por aceites vegetales ozonizados sobre la membrana celular bacteriana, la que constituye uno de los sitios primarios de ataque de numerosos agentes antimicrobianos de elevado poder oxidante. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del OLEOZON sobre la cepa Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, en cuanto a la viabilidad, la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática y posibles variaciones de su ultraestructura. A los 1, 3, 10 y 30 min de exposición al OLEOZON, se realizó un estudio de susceptibilidad de los cultivos y se determinó el contenido de iones K+ liberados al medio por las células bacterianas, como criterio de alteración de la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática. Se realizaron exámenes por Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión a muestras expuestas al OLEOZON® durante 30 min y 24 h para evaluar los posibles cambios ultraestructurales. El OLEOZON® presentó un marcado efecto bactericida sobre la cepa de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, que se manifestó en una disminución de la viabilidad de más del 90 % desde el primer minuto de contacto. El OLEOZON® modificó la permeabilidad de la membrana plasmática de Staphylococcus aureus, al detectarse la pérdida del contenido intracelular de iones K+ con posterioridad a la afectación de la viabilidad celular. Este medicamento alteró la ultraestructura de las células de Staphylococcus aureus, al provocar la reducción del contenido citoplasmático, aunque no afectó la integridad de la envoltura celular bacteriana. Los cambios encontrados en la viabilidad, la viabilidad, la permeabilidad celular y la

  2. Aspartate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-04-01

    Biofilm formation renders Staphylococcus aureus highly resistant to conventional antibiotics and host defenses. Four D-amino acids (D-Leu, D-Met, D-Trp and D-Tyr) have been reported to be able to inhibit biofilm formation and disassemble established S. aureus biofilms. We report here for the first time that both D- and L-isoforms of aspartate (Asp) inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation on tissue culture plates. Similar biofilm inhibition effects were also observed against other staphylococcal strains, including S. saprophyticus, S. equorum, S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus. It was found that Asp at high concentrations (>10 mM) inhibited the growth of planktonic N315 cells, but at subinhibitory concentrations decreased the cellular metabolic activity without influencing cell growth. The decreased cellular metabolic activity might be the reason for the production of less protein and DNA in the matrix of the biofilms formed in the presence of Asp. However, varied inhibition efficacies of Asp were observed for biofilms formed by clinical staphylococcal isolates. There might be mechanisms other than decreasing the metabolic activity, e.g. the biofilm phenotypes, affecting biofilm formation in the presence of Asp.

  3. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Schuster

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  4. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christopher F; Bertram, Ralph

    2016-05-05

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements found in the majority of prokaryotes. They encode toxin proteins that interfere with vital cellular functions and are counteracted by antitoxins. Dependent on the chemical nature of the antitoxins (protein or RNA) and how they control the activity of the toxin, TA systems are currently divided into six different types. Genes comprising the TA types I, II and III have been identified in Staphylococcus aureus. MazF, the toxin of the mazEF locus is a sequence-specific RNase that cleaves a number of transcripts, including those encoding pathogenicity factors. Two yefM-yoeB paralogs represent two independent, but auto-regulated TA systems that give rise to ribosome-dependent RNases. In addition, omega/epsilon/zeta constitutes a tripartite TA system that supposedly plays a role in the stabilization of resistance factors. The SprA1/SprA1AS and SprF1/SprG1 systems are post-transcriptionally regulated by RNA antitoxins and encode small membrane damaging proteins. TA systems controlled by interaction between toxin protein and antitoxin RNA have been identified in S. aureus in silico, but not yet experimentally proven. A closer inspection of possible links between TA systems and S. aureus pathophysiology will reveal, if these genetic loci may represent druggable targets. The modification of a staphylococcal TA toxin to a cyclopeptide antibiotic highlights the potential of TA systems as rather untapped sources of drug discovery.

  5. NVC-422 inactivates Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekle, Andreas; Yoon, Jungjoo; Zuck, Meghan; Najafi, Ramin; Wang, Lu; Shiau, Timothy; Francavilla, Charles; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Eitzinger, Christian; Nagl, Markus; Anderson, Mark; Debabov, Dmitri

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial pathogens have specific virulence factors (e.g., toxins) that contribute significantly to the virulence and infectivity of microorganisms within the human hosts. Virulence factors are molecules expressed by pathogens that enable colonization, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression, obtaining nutrients from the host or gaining entry into host cells. They can cause pathogenesis by inhibiting or stimulating certain host functions. For example, in systemic Staphylococcus aureus infections, virulence factors such as toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) cause sepsis or toxic shock by uncontrolled stimulation of T lymphocytes and by triggering a cytokine storm. In vitro, these superantigens stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the release of many cytokines. NVC-422 (N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine) is a broad-spectrum, fast-acting topical anti-infective agent against microbial pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant microbes. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate here that NVC-422 oxidizes methionine residues of TSST-1, SEA, SEB, and exfoliative toxin A (ETA). Exposure of virulence factors to 0.1% NVC-422 for 1 h prevented TSST-1-, SEA-, SEB-, and ETA-induced cell proliferation and cytokine release. Moreover, NVC-422 also delayed and reduced the protein A- and clumping factor-associated agglutination of S. aureus cultures. These results show that, in addition to its well-described direct microbicidal activity, NVC-422 can inactivate S. aureus virulence factors through rapid oxidation of methionines.

  6. Genetic variants in the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM mitochondriogenesis pathway are neither associated with muscle characteristics nor physical performance in elderly. [Variaciones genéticas en la vía de la mitocondriogénesis PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM no están asociadas ni con características musculares ni con rendimiento físico en personas mayores].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Garatachea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of genetic polymorphisms involved in the PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM mitochondriogenesis pathway (rs6949152, rs12594956, rs2267668, rs8192678, and rs1937 on muscle phenotypes (thigh muscles’ cross-sectional, maximal handgrip-strength and 30-second chair stand-test and Barthel index in Caucasian (Spanish community-dwelling old people (n=75, 21 men, 54 women; 71–94 years. We found no significant genetic associations with the studied phenotypes. Multiple, complex gene-environment and gene-gene interactions which are yet to be determined are likely to play a more determinant role. Resumen Se estudió la influencia de los polimorfismos genéticos implicados en la vía de mitocondriogénesis PPARD-PPARGC1A-NRF-TFAM (rs6949152, rs12594956, rs2267668, rs8192678 y rs1937 en distintos fenotipos musculares (sección transversal muscular del muslo, fuerza máxima de prensión manual y 30 segundos de sentarse-levantarse de una silla y en el índice de Barthel en personas mayores caucásicas (españoles (n = 75, 21 hombres, 54 mujeres; 71 a 94 años. No se encontraron asociaciones genéticas significativas con los fenotipos estudiados. Interacciones múltiples, complejos gen-ambiente y relaciones gen-gen aún no determinadas podrían desempeñar un papel más determinante.

  7. SAMMD: Staphylococcus aureus Microarray Meta-Database

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    Elasri Mohamed O

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen, causing a wide variety of diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to severe life threatening infections. S. aureus is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Its ability to resist multiple antibiotics poses a growing public health problem. In order to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis of S. aureus, several global expression profiles have been developed. These transcriptional profiles included regulatory mutants of S. aureus and growth of wild type under different growth conditions. The abundance of these profiles has generated a large amount of data without a uniform annotation system to comprehensively examine them. We report the development of the Staphylococcus aureus Microarray meta-database (SAMMD which includes data from all the published transcriptional profiles. SAMMD is a web-accessible database that helps users to perform a variety of analysis against and within the existing transcriptional profiles. Description SAMMD is a relational database that uses MySQL as the back end and PHP/JavaScript/DHTML as the front end. The database is normalized and consists of five tables, which holds information about gene annotations, regulated gene lists, experimental details, references, and other details. SAMMD data is collected from the peer-reviewed published articles. Data extraction and conversion was done using perl scripts while data entry was done through phpMyAdmin tool. The database is accessible via a web interface that contains several features such as a simple search by ORF ID, gene name, gene product name, advanced search using gene lists, comparing among datasets, browsing, downloading, statistics, and help. The database is licensed under General Public License (GPL. Conclusion SAMMD is hosted and available at http://www.bioinformatics.org/sammd/. Currently there are over 9500 entries for regulated genes, from 67 microarray

  8. Bacillithiol: a key protective thiol in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Varahenage R; Newton, Gerald L; Pogliano, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Bacillithiol is a low-molecular-weight thiol analogous to glutathione and is found in several Firmicutes, including Staphylococcus aureus. Since its discovery in 2009, bacillithiol has been a topic of interest because it has been found to contribute to resistance during oxidative stress and detoxification of electrophiles, such as the antibiotic fosfomycin, in S. aureus. The rapid increase in resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to available therapeutic agents is a great health concern, and many research efforts are focused on identifying new drugs and targets to combat this organism. This review describes the discovery of bacillithiol, studies that have elucidated the physiological roles of this molecule in S. aureus and other Bacilli, and the contribution of bacillithiol to S. aureus fitness during pathogenesis. Additionally, the bacillithiol biosynthesis pathway is evaluated as a novel drug target that can be utilized in combination with existing therapies to treat S. aureus infections.

  9. Investigando con personas con dificultades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González Luna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los orígenes de lo que Walmsley (2008 denomina «investigación inclusiva». Para comprender qué se entiende por investigación inclusiva tenemos que remontarnos a los debates epistemológicos sobre las metodologías cuantitativas y cualitativas, acontecidos en la década de los 90, en torno a la revista Disability & Society. A partir de una síntesis de dichos debates, focalizados en el ámbito de la «discapacidad intelectual y del desarrollo», se exponen dos estrategias de colaboración con dicha población: a una aproximación etnográfica (de trabajo grupal, y b una aproximación biográfica (de trabajo individual. A continuación se esboza un posible diseño de trabajo de campo que intenta superar el paradigma cualitativo «clásico» con el objetivo de incluir a dicho colectivo más allá del rol de «sujetos de la investigación». Para finalizar se recoge el debate sobre la accesibilidad de los resultados de la investigación a los participantes en dichas investigaciones, y con ello la necesaria innovación en el ámbito de las «devoluciones» de los resultados, cuando se trata de incluir a personas que presentan limitaciones para la comprensión del lenguaje abstracto oral y/o escrito.

  10. Situación de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en el Hospital de Navarra (2000-2002 State of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Hospital of Navarre (2000-2002

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    A. Navascués

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido conocer la prevalencia y características que presentan los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina aislados en nuestro Servicio de Microbiología. Material y métodos. El estudio se desarrolló de forma retrospectiva abarcando los años 2000, 2001 y 2002. Se analizó el origen de la infección (nosocomial o extrahospitalaria, servicio de origen en caso de ser nosocomial, localización anatómica de la muestra y patrón de sensibilidad antibiótica. Resultados. Los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina constituyeron el 7,88% de los Staphylococcus aureus aislados en nuestro servicio. Menos de la mitad de las cepas (44,87% tuvieron un origen nosocomial y se aislaron con mayor frecuencia en los exudados de heridas. En cuanto al patrón de resistencia, hubo un 50% de resistencia a eritromicina, un 43,60% a clindamicina y un 21,79% a mupirocina. Conclusiones. La prevalencia y el patrón de resistencia in vitro de los aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina obtenidos en nuestro hospital es menor a la publicada en otras áreas de España.Background. The aim of the present paper was to determine the prevalence and characteristics shown by isolations of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, isolated in our Microbiology Service. Methods. Retrospective study, covering the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. Analysis was made of the origin of the infection (nosocomial or non-nosocomial, the unit of origin in the event of nosocomial origin, anatomical localisation of the sample, and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity. Results. The isolations of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 7.88% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Less than half of the strains (44.87% had a nosocomial origin and were most often isolated in the exudates of wounds. With respect to the pattern of resistance, there was some 50% of resistance to

  11. Phagocytosis and Killing of Staphylococcus aureus by Human Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Frank R DeLeo

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and unexpe...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus en quemaduras: estudio de incidencia, tendencia y pronóstico

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    A. García-Urquijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, retrospectivo de los últimos 10 años, en la Unidad de quemados del Hospital Universitario "Arnaldo Milián Castro" de Santa Clara, en Villa Clara, Cuba, con el objetivo de caracterizar el comportamiento del aislamiento de Staphylococcus aureus en heridas por quemaduras de pacientes ingresados. Se realizó con 1065 muestras tomadas por método cualitativo de hisopado, entre enero del 2002 y diciembre del 2011. Las variables utilizadas fueron: mes y año de realización, resultado del aislamiento, grupo de microorganismos y especies aisladas, series temporales y tasa pronóstico. Staphylococcus aureus resultó ser el microorganismos Gram positivo mas frecuentemente aislado (68,3%, representando entre el 7 y el 31,8% de las muestras realizadas cada año, con tasas de incidencias oscilando entre el 6,3 y 37,2 por cada 100 pacientes ingresados. Las tasas de incidencia mensuales se mantuvieron predominantemente en zonas de alerta y de seguridad durante los años 2011 y también en el seguimiento en 2012, sin que se produjeran picos epidémicos, mostrando una ligera tendencia al decremento con respecto al comportamiento de los 3 últimos años. Comprobamos después que la tasa de aislamiento para el siguiente año, 2012 fue de 9,5 por cada 100 ingresos, dentro de los límites del intervalo pronosticado según los estudios recogidos hasta 2011 (0 y 46,7 por cada 100 ingresos.

  13. Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus: The Never-Ending Story

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    Orlović Jovan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combating Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections using antibacterial drugs is actually an ongoing effort to overcome resistance mechanism of this microorganism. In this paper, we discussed (1 the mechanisms of resistance to some of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in the treatment of S. aureus: methicillin, vancomicyn and quinolones. In addition, (2 efflux pump mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis in the presence of compounds that inhibit S. aureus growth and reproduction, as well as mechanisms of resistance to a number of antibiotics, have been reviewed.

  14. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg;

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...

  15. Phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thea; Porter, Adeline R; Kennedy, Adam D; Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for host defense against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Although significant progress has been made, our understanding of neutrophil interactions with S. aureus remains incomplete. To provide a more comprehensive view of this process, we investigated phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils using varied assay conditions in vitro. A greater percentage of bacteria were internalized by adherent neutrophils compared to those in suspension, and, unexpectedly, uptake of S. aureus by adherent neutrophils occurred efficiently in the absence of opsonins. An antibody specific for S. aureus promoted uptake of unopsonized bacteria in suspension, but had little or no capacity to enhance phagocytosis of S. aureus opsonized with normal human serum or by adherent neutrophils. Collectively, these results indicate that assay conditions can have a significant influence on the phagocytosis and killing of S. aureus by neutrophils. More importantly, the results suggest a vaccine approach directed to enhance opsonophagocytosis alone is not sufficient to promote increased killing of S. aureus by human neutrophils. With the emergence and reemergence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, establishing parameters that are optimal for studying neutrophil-S. aureus interactions will pave the way towards developing immune-directed strategies for anti-staphylococcal therapies.

  16. Estudio fenotípico comparativo de consorcios microbianos con actividad quitinolítica de sedimentos marinos y rizósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Alvarado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron 4 muestras de sedimentos tanto del fondo como de la orilla de la playa «Marbella», Callao y 4 muestras de tierra agrícola a nivel de rizósfera obtenidas de un viñedo de la localidad de «Grocio Prado» en la Provincia de Chincha, Ica. Se determinó la densidad poblacional de microorganismos heterotróficos con actividad quitinolítica presentes en estos ambientes, y se describió sus principales características fenotípicas. Para la cuantificación de las poblaciones se empleó el método del Número Más Probable (NMP. Los tubos con crecimiento positivo fueron sembrados en placas con Agar Quitina Granulada y Agar Quitina Coloidal que fueron incubadas a temperatura ambiental hasta por dos semanas. Con las colonias desarrolladas se realizaron las pruebas de Oxidación/Fermentación de Glucosa, Oxidasa, Catalasa, motilidad, presencia de flagelo, capacidad tintoreal al GRAM, producción de esporas y actividad quitinolítica semicuantitativa. Se elaboraron fenogramas con el programa NTSYS v.1,7. La mayor densidad de bacterias quitinolíticas fue encontrada en la rizósfera alcanzando niveles ³1,6 x 105 en tanto que en sedimentos marinos la densidad osciló entre 2,2 x 102 a 1,6 x 104 NMP/g. Luego del análisis de agrupamiento de los fenotipos mostrados por los consorcios estudiados, se encontró que presentaban características distintivas, exhibiendo ambas una gran diversidad fenotípica.

  17. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin susceptibility testing directly from growth-positive blood cultures by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Leanne; Mikhail, Jane; Bome-Mannathoko, Naledi; Hadfield, Stephen J; Harris, Llinos G; El-Bouri, Khalid; Davies, Angharad P; Mack, Dietrich

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR method specific for the mecA, femA-SA and femA-SE genes for rapid identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and meticillin susceptibility testing directly in positive blood cultures that grew Gram-positive cocci in clusters. A total of 100 positive blood cultures produced: 39 S. aureus [12 meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 31% of all the S. aureus]; 30 S. epidermidis (56.6% of the CoNS), 8 Staphylococcus capitis (15.1%), 3 Staphylococcus saprophyticus (5.7%), 4 Staphylococcus hominis (7.5%), 3 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (5.7%), 2 Staphylococcus warneri (3.8%), 1 Staphylococcus cohnii (1.9%) and 2 unidentified Staphylococcus spp. (3.8%); and 1 Micrococcus luteus in pure culture. Two blood cultures had no growth on subculture and five blood cultures grew mixed CoNS. For the 95 blood cultures with pure growth or no growth on subculture, there was very good agreement between real-time PCR and the BD Phoenix identification system for staphylococcal species categorization in S. aureus, S. epidermidis and non-S. epidermidis CoNS and meticillin-resistance determination (Cohen's unweighted kappa coefficient κ=0.882). All MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus were correctly identified by mecA amplification. PCR amplification of mecA was more sensitive for direct detection of meticillin-resistant CoNS in positive blood cultures than testing with the BD Phoenix system. There were no major errors when identifying staphylococcal isolates and their meticillin susceptibility within 2.5 h. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of using such a rapid test on the consumption of glycopeptide antibiotics and the alteration of empiric therapy in the situation of positive blood cultures growing staphylococci, and the respective clinical outcomes.

  18. Relación entre superantigenicidad, resistencia antimicrobiana y origen de aislamientos de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Moncayo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:Staphylococcus aureus, es un patógeno que causa intoxicación alimentaria e infecciones hospitalarias y comunitarias.Objetivo:Establecer el perfil de genes de superantígenos en aislamientos hospitalarios correlacionándolos con el tipo de muestra clínica, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y origen hospitalario o comunitario.Métodos:Se analizaron 81 aislamientos de S. aureus de pacientes de un hospital colombiano. Fueron clasificadas por susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, tipo de muestra clínica y origen hospitalario o comunitario. Se detectó por PCR individual y múltiple 22 genes de superantígenos (18 enterotoxinas, una toxina del choque tóxico-1 y tres toxinas exfoliativas.Resultados:El 95.1% albergaban uno o más genes de superantígenos con un promedio de 5.6 genes. La prevalencia individual fue variable y el gen con mayor prevalencia fue seg (51.9%. Se obtuvieron 39 genotipos, y el genotipo gimnou (cluster egc completo fue el de mayor frecuencia (16.0% y asociado con otros genes (13.6%. La correlación de superantígenos frente a tipo de muestra clínica y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana no mostró diferencia estadística significativa, pero hubo diferencia significativa con el tipo de aislamiento hospitalario o comunitario (p= 0.049.Conclusiones:Los resultados muestran la diversidad genética en los aislados hospitalarios respecto a la presencia de superantígenos y no muestra una relación concluyente con el tipo de muestra clínica y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana pero sí con origen de los aislamientos comunitarios y hospitalarios. Un análisis de la interrelación entre la virulencia, epidemicidad y resistencia antimicrobiana de las poblaciones bacterianas es necesario para predecir el futuro de las enfermedades infecciosas.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

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    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  20. Curcumin Reverse Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Su-Hyun Mun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., was shown to possess superior potency to resensitize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA to antibiotics. Previous studies have shown the synergistic activity of curcumin with β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics. Further, to understand the anti-MRSA mechanism of curcumin, we investigated the potentiated effect of curcumin by its interaction in diverse conditions. The mechanism of anti-MRSA action of curcumin was analyzed by the viability assay in the presence of detergents, ATPase inhibitors and peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus, and the PBP2a protein level was analyzed by western blotting. The morphological changes in the curcumin-treated MRSA strains were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. We analyzed increased susceptibility to MRSA isolates in the presence of curcumin. The optical densities at 600 nm (OD600 of the suspensions treated with the combinations of curcumin with triton X-100 and Tris were reduced to 63% and 59%, respectively, compared to curcumin without treatment. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD and sodium azide (NaN3 were reduced to 94% and 55%, respectively. When peptidoglycan (PGN from S. aureus was combined with curcumin, PGN (0–125 μg/mL gradually blocked the antibacterial activity of curcumin (125 μg/mL; however, at a concentration of 125 µg/mL PGN, it did not completely block curcumin. Curcumin has a significant effect on the protein level of PBP2a. The TEM images of MRSA showed damage of the cell wall, disruption of the cytoplasmic contents, broken cell membrane and cell lysis after the treatment of curcumin. These data indicate a remarkable antibacterial effect of curcumin, with membrane permeability enhancers and ATPase inhibitors, and curcumin did not directly bind to PGN on the cell wall. Further, the antimicrobial action of curcumin involved in the PBP2a-mediated resistance mechanism was

  1. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus laryngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Tracey; Kaye, Keith; Rubin, Adam D

    2010-09-01

    Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become more prevalent, in part because of the emergence and spread of community-acquired MRSA. This trend is particularly concerning because of the significant rates of morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA infections, and because MRSA strains are often resistant to many classes of antibiotics. Reports of infections of the head and neck, including wound infections, cellulitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and otitis externa, are well documented. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of bacterial laryngitis due to MRSA. We report the first published case of bacterial laryngitis caused by MRSA.

  3. Soledad con espectador

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto se plantea como una investigación de las posibilidades del dibujo como una herramienta para relatar una historia propia que se empapa de realidad y de ficción con el deseo de confundir al espectador y suscitarle preguntas. Para ello me he servido de mi propia imagen como personaje central. Éste se presenta duplicado, multiplicado, repetido e interactúa consigo mismo en un espacio imaginario con intención de simular aquello que se revela en el interior de la psique. Mi trabajo se...

  4. Giochiamo con i robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "Giochiamo con i robot" e' un laboratorio interattivo per grandi e piccini realizzato per l'edizione 2007 del Festival della Scienza di Genova. Lungo un percorso che va dalla telerobotica alla robotica evolutiva, il laboratorio sviluppa il tema di dare intelligenza ai robot. Questo percorso, le cui tappe sono le varie installazioni, si conclude nella "bottega" dove e' possibile costruire e programmare i propri robot o smontare e modificare quelli esposti durante il percorso didattico. I visitatori sono coinvolti in attivita' ludiche grazie alle quali possonoentrare in contatto con alcune delle idee potenti della robotica,

  5. en pacientes con obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcia María Alvarado Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de una intervención psicológica en pacientes con obesidad. Se utilizó un diseño cuasiexperimental con un grupo de estudio y un grupo control. Después de la intervención, se encontró una diferencia significativa en la reducción de peso entre los grupos. Asimismo, hubo un incremento significativo en la autoestima del grupo estudiado.

  6. Funcionando con la computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Eduardo; Astiz, Mercedes; Medina, Perla; Montero, Y.; Oliver, María; Rocerau, M. Cristina; VALDEZ, Guillermo; Vecino, María; Vilanova, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta la descripción y resultados de la segunda etapa de una experiencia planteada con el objetivo de indagar la manera en que los alumnos determinan e interpretan funciones que explican situaciones problemáticas valiéndose de una nueva forma de trabajo en el aula: la utilización de la computadora como herramienta y un programa asistente matemático. La primera etapa consistió en el desarrollo de un taller optativo con alumnos de entre 14 y 15 años de edad del Colegio Dr....

  7. Genética y fenotipo conductual en la discapacidad intelectual: su aplicación a la cognición y a la conducta problemática (1ªParte)

    OpenAIRE

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2004-01-01

    El artículo examina en primer lugar las conexiones entre trastornos genéticos y conducta. Después de describir cómo los trastornos genéticos predisponen a pensar que una conducta concreta guarda relación con la etiología, revisa brevemente el estado de la cuestión en el campo de la investigación sobre la conducta en diversas formas de discapacidad intelectual y ofrece algunos principios generales sobre cómo los genes afectan a la conducta. Después expone dos ejemplos, sobre la psicología y co...

  8. Genética y fenotipo conductual en la discapacidad intelectual: su aplicación a la cognición y a la conducta problemática (2ªParte)

    OpenAIRE

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    El artículo examina en primer lugar las conexiones entre trastornos genéticos y conducta. Después de describir cómo los trastornos genéticos predisponen a pensar que una conducta concreta guarda relación con la etiología, revisa brevemente el estado de la cuestión en el campo de la investigación sobre la conducta en diversas formas de discapacidad intelectual y ofrece algunos principios generales sobre cómo los genes afectan a la conducta. Después expone dos ejemplos, sobre la psicología y co...

  9. Caracterización molecular de Staphylococcus aureus de origen nosocomial por Electroforesis de Enzimas Multilocus (MLEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez Zulma

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 41 aislamientos se Staphylococcus aureus tomados a pacientes y personal de la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI del Hospital San Juan de Dios, en el periodo comprendido entre septiembre de 1998 y septiembre de 1999 por medio del método de caracterización de Electroforesis de Enzimas Multilocus(MLEE. Se establecieron las relaciones genéticas entre los individuos, así como influencia del perfil de resistencia, el biotipo y el periodo de recolección. La evidencia experimental sugirió que la estructura de la población analizada encaja en el modelo clonal descrito previamente para las poblaciones de Staphylococcus aureus, coincidiendo con la prevalencia de un pequeño número de clones durante el periodo de recolección. 

  10. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  12. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  13. The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, K B; Lyytikäinen, O; Søgaard, M;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance...

  14. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Aloe Vera terhadap pertumbuhan Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, drg.Sp,Pros

    2011-01-01

    Dari hasil penelitian , maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak Aloe Vera dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus, dan kadar hambat minimal ekstrak Aloe Vera adalah pada konsentrasi 25%. Tujuan Penelitan Ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak Aloe vera dalam menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Stafhylococcus aureus dan daya hambat menimal, (DHM) terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri tersebut. Metode yang digunakan adalah pertumbuhan ekstrak Aloe vera, penegnceran ekstrak , pemur...

  15. Pneumonia and new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, Fabien; Tristan, Anne; François, Bruno; Etienne, Jerome; Delage-Corre, Manuella; Martin, Christian; Liassine, Nadia; Wannet, Wim; Denis, François; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the Panton-Valentin leukocidin gene is a newly described disease entity. We report a new fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia. An S. aureus strain with an agr1 allele and of a new sequence type 377 was recovered, representing a ne

  16. Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus : live-in and let die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraunholz, Martin; Sinha, Bhanu

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses a plethora of virulence factors to accommodate a diversity of niches in its human host. Aside from the classical manifestations of S. aureus-induced diseases, the pathogen also invades and survives within mammalian host cells. The survival strategies of the pathogen are as

  17. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Natalia; Bernat, Maria; Brusca, Maria; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duration of survival of Staphylococcus aureus on contaminated standardized fomites, such as sterilization paper (SP) and polyester previously sterilized in a steam autoclave, and to determine the potential inhibitory effects of the substrates (fabrics used to manufacture garments and special wrapping paper used in the dental setting) using the bacteriostasis test. The test was performed on two types of sterile standardized samples (T1 and T2). Sterility of the samples was validated following the protocol in use at the Department of Microbiology, after which the samples were inoculated with 50 microl of a calibrated suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (reference strain ATCC 25923) in the exponential growth phase, in a final concentration of 10(7) cfu/ml and 10(6) cfu/ml). The samples were incubated at 27 degrees C and survival and concentration of microorganisms attached to the surface of the substrates was determined at the following experimental time points: immediately post-contamination, and 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days post-contamination. Recovery was determined and expressed as a percentage; the bacteriostasis test was performed and showed negative results. Our results suggest that the quantity of recovered microorganisms varies according to the type of substrate and that there is a relation between survival and incubation time of the inoculated substrate serving as an artificial niche.

  18. Molecular study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from dogs and associated personnel in Jordan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaser; Hamadeh; Tarazi; Ahmed; Mahmoud; Almajali; Mustafa; Mohammad; Kheer; Ababneh; Humam; Shawket; Ahmed; Adnan; Saleem; Jaran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, genetic relatedness, and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(S. aureus)(MRSA) isolated from household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs, compared to isolates from their associated personnel.Methods: MRSA was isolated from 250 nasal swabs(150 swabs from dogs and 100 swabs from humans). PCR assays were used to detect the presence of both the nuc and mec A genes,which con firmed the identity of S. aureus isolates and the presence of methicillin resistance,respectively. Disk diffusion was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents along with an E-test that determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for oxacillin. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was conducted to determine the genetic relatedness of MRSA isolates from dogs to those from associated and unassociated personnel.Results: The prevalence of S. aureus in dogs and humans was 12.7% and 10.0%respectively, while the prevalence of MRSA isolates in dogs and humans was 5.3% and5.0%, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA isolates in household dogs, farm dogs, and stray dogs was 7.8%, 4.7%, and 0.0%, respectively. MRSA isolates demonstrated a significantly higher rate of multi-resistance against three or more antimicrobial agents than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus(MSSA). Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against all MRSA isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a strong association between dog MRSA isolates and MRSA isolates from strongly associated personnel.Conclusions: MRSA is prevalent in house dogs, as well as in dog rearing centers and among their strongly associated personnel. A strong association was found between the MRSA isolates from dogs and those from humans who are in close contact. In addition,MRSA isolates showed a high rate of multi-resistance compared to MSSA isolates.

  19. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  20. Quantitation of Staphylococcus aureus in seawater using CHROMagar SA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Alan D; Pombo, David; Hui, Jennifer; Kurano, Michelle; Bankowski, Matthew J; Seifried, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    A microbiological algorithm has been developed to analyze beach water samples for the determination of viable colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Membrane filtration enumeration of S. aureus from recreational beach waters using the chromogenic media CHROMagar SA alone yields a positive predictive value (PPV) of 70%. Presumptive CHROMagar SA colonies were confirmed as S. aureus by 24-hour tube coagulase test. Combined, these two tests yield a PPV of 100%. This algorithm enables accurate quantitation of S. aureus in seawater in 72 hours and could support risk-prediction processes for recreational waters. A more rapid protocol, utilizing a 4-hour tube coagulase confirmatory test, enables a 48-hour turnaround time with a modest false negative rate of less than 10%.

  1. Specificity for human hemoglobin enhances Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchany, Gleb; McCoy, Amanda L.; Torres, Victor J.; Krause, Jens C.; Crowe, James E.; Fabry, Mary E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron is required for bacterial proliferation and Staphylococcus aureus steals this metal from host hemoglobin during invasive infections. This process involves hemoglobin binding to the cell wall of S. aureus, heme extraction, passage through the cell envelope, and degradation to release free iron. Herein we demonstrate an enhanced ability of S. aureus to bind hemoglobin derived from humans as compared to other mammals. Increased specificity for human hemoglobin (hHb) translates into an improved ability to acquire iron and is entirely dependent on the staphylococcal hemoglobin receptor IsdB. This feature affects host-pathogen interaction as demonstrated by the increased susceptibility of hHb expressing mice to systemic staphylococcal infection. Interestingly, enhanced utilization of human hemoglobin is not a uniform property of all bacterial pathogens. These results suggest a step in the evolution of S. aureus to better colonize the human host and establish hHb expressing mice as a model of S. aureus pathogenesis. PMID:21147468

  2. fertilizada con diferentes abonos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera (Morus alba fertilizada con diferentes abonos. Se llevó a cabo un experimento en la Estación Experimental “Alfredo Volio Mata” de la Universidad de Costa Rica con el fi n de evaluar la aplicación de 150 kg de N/ha/año proveniente de dos abonos orgánicos: lombriabono y compostaje; y de un fertilizante químico, sobre la producción y calidad de la biomasa de morera. El periodo experimental comprendió un ciclo de 12 meses, iniciando en julio del 2003 y fi nalizando en julio del 2004. Se utilizó una plantación de morera de 12 años de establecida con una densidad de siembra de 27.777 plantas/ ha. Se empleó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro tratamientos: dos abonos orgánicos, nitrato de amonio (33,5% N y un control. Las plantas se podaron a 0,6 m sobre el nivel del suelo al inicio del ensayo. Durante el periodo experimental, las plantas fueron podadas consecutivamente cada 90 días. Las hojas y los tallos fueron separados y analizados para determinar el contenido de materia seca y proteína cruda. La producción de materia seca fue 23% superior y el contenido de proteína cruda fue signifi cativamente mayor con el nitrógeno químico, mientras que el contenido de materia seca fue menor. No se encontraron diferencias signifi cativas entre el tratamiento control y los tratamientos orgánicos.

  3. Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to Staphylococcus aureus: a single-center experience over 15 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqual Barretti

    Full Text Available Peritonitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD, which is associated with poor outcome and high PD failure rates. We reviewed the records of 62 S. aureus peritonitis episodes that occurred between 1996 and 2010 in the dialysis unit of a single university hospital and evaluated the host and bacterial factors influencing peritonitis outcome. Peritonitis incidence was calculated for three subsequent 5-year periods and compared using a Poisson regression model. The production of biofilm, enzymes, and toxins was evaluated. Oxacillin resistance was evaluated based on minimum inhibitory concentration and presence of the mecA gene. Logistic regression was used for the analysis of demographic, clinical, and microbiological factors influencing peritonitis outcome. Resolution and death rates were compared with 117 contemporary coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS episodes. The incidence of S. aureus peritonitis declined significantly over time from 0.13 in 1996-2000 to 0.04 episodes/patient/year in 2006-2010 (p = 0.03. The oxacillin resistance rate was 11.3%. Toxin and enzyme production was expressive, except for enterotoxin D. Biofilm production was positive in 88.7% of strains. The presence of the mecA gene was associated with a higher frequency of fever and abdominal pain. The logistic regression model showed that diabetes mellitus (p = 0.009 and β-hemolysin production (p = 0.006 were independent predictors of non-resolution of infection. The probability of resolution was higher among patients aged 41 to 60 years than among those >60 years (p = 0.02. A trend to higher death rate was observed for S. aureus episodes (9.7% compared to CoNS episodes (2.5%, (p = 0.08, whereas resolution rates were similar. Despite the decline in incidence, S. aureus peritonitis remains a serious complication of PD that is associated with a high death rate. The outcome of this infection is negatively

  4. Una metodología para evaluar el comportamiento de interacción genotipo-intrambiente con fines de selección en cabras lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. López

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocida la universalidad del componente de interacción genotipo ambiente en el modelo fenotípico, el cual incluye otros dos componentes: el genotipo con sus efectos aditivos, dominantes y epistáticos, y el componente ambiental con sus efectos permanentes y temporales; se hace evidente que la selección de individuos en un ambiente dado no garantiza que manifiesten el mismo comportamiento cuando el ambiente es diferente. Con los resultados de investigaciones preliminares efectuadas por los autores, se propone una metodología basada en el modelo de regresión lineal, capaz de medir los efectos de interacción genotipo-intrambiente (ambientes fisiológicos de la curva de lactación para su evaluación con fines de selección del comportamiento diferencial que manifiestan los genotipos ante diversas condiciones ambientales. Se utilizan los registros mensuales de la producción láctea anual de 14 cabras «Saanen» en su primera lactación y se compara el comportamiento de interacción genotipo ambiente entre ellas. Los valores α y β de cada recta (cabra, fueron estimados considerando la producción mensual de cada cabra (fenotipo como la variable dependiente y los efectos ecológicos estandarizados como la variable independiente. Se graficaron y proyectaron las rectas de regresión de cada cabra a ± dos desviaciones estándar de los efectos ecológicos en el eje de las abscisas, se comparan los coeficientes β mediante pruebas de hipótesis «t»; poniéndose de manifiesto los efectos de interacción genotipo ambiente entre cabras al demostrarse que las pendientes de las rectas son diferentes. En esta metodología los valores de β cercanos a cero indican que los genotipos son estables

  5. Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Buah Putih Terhadap Pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus Dari Abses Dan Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC® 29213™)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Jojor

    2016-01-01

    Daun jambu biji mengandung senyawa aktif seperti tanin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, saponin yang mempunyai efek antibakteri. Mekanisme tanin sebagai antibakteri dengan mengkerutkan dinding sel dan membran sel, inaktivasi enzim, inaktivasi fungsi materi genetik bakteri. Flavonoid merusak sel bakteri, denaturasi protein, inaktivasi enzim dan menyebabkan lisis. Triterpenoid dan saponin menghambat pertumbuhan Staphylococcus aureus dengan cara merusak struktur membran sel. Staphylococcus aureus adala...

  6. Development and evaluation of hexaplex PCR for rapid detection of methicillin, cadmium/zinc and antiseptic-resistant staphylococci, with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sasmita; Kar, Sarita; Choudhury, Ranginee; Sharma, Savitri; Singh, Durg V

    2014-03-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR to detect the presence of methicillin- (mecA), cadmium/zinc-(czrC) and antiseptic-resistant (qacA/B) staphylococci and to identify Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive and -negative Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from infected and healthy eyes. The assay was validated on 177 staphylococci comprising of 55 each of S. aureus and CoNS isolated from infected eyes and five S. aureus and 62 CoNS isolated from healthy eyes and nine direct ocular samples. Nine direct ocular samples for in situ testing consisted of corneal scrapings (4), conjunctiva swabs (2) and others (3). Multiplex PCR result was correlated with genotype data obtained with single PCR and dot-blot assay. The control strains that were positive in multiplex PCR for 16S rRNA, nuc, mecA, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes were also positive in the dot-blot assay. The specificity of amplified genes obtained with reference strains was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. The single step-hexaplex PCR method can be used for rapid detection of mecA, nuc, pvl, czrC and qacA/B genes in staphylococci with simultaneous identification of PVL-positive and -negative S. aureus and CoNS from a variety of ocular samples.

  7. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  8. The molecular changing mechanism of Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular changing of S.aureus, which is resistant to Ampicillin-Sulbactam and then become resistant to Methicillin as a result of improper dosage. The study was conducted by isolating Ampicillin-Sulbactam resistant and Methicillin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, afterwards an amplification process was performed by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. to isolate the betalactamase enzyme regulator and PBP 2a genes. The result of this research showed that there were a deletion of few amino acids from the regulator gene, and a suspicion that the DNA sequence had been substituted from PBP 2 gene into PBP 2a (gen mec. This process had formed MRSA.

  9. sistema Web con JSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Viloria Núñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.

  10. Transporte forestal con cables

    OpenAIRE

    Anaya L. Héctor J.

    2012-01-01

    La explotación forestal es un problema fundamentalmente de transporte. El apeo y la preparación de las trozas, aunque a veces presentan algunas dificultades, son operaciones fáciles de resolver comparadas con la operación de transporte la cual absorbe del 60% al 70% o más del costo total del aprovechamiento del bosque. El 30% o 40% restante es absorbido por las faenas previas de apeo y troceo.

  11. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  12. pacientes con falla cardiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marcela Achury Saldaña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la adherencia al tratamiento de pacientes con falla cardiaca hospitalizados, al aplicar un plan educativo quefomenta el autocuidado.Método: estudio cuasiexperimental (entrevistas enfermera-paciente realizado entre diciembre de 2004 y mayo de 2006, con unamuestra de 50 pacientes seleccionados por conveniencia. Se diseñó un instrumento para evaluar los comportamientos de los pacientes,con base en algunos resultados de la adherencia y sus respectivos indicadores de la taxonomía NOC (Nursing out comes classification. Laadherencia al tratamiento fue medida en dos momentos: el primero durante la hospitalización, seguido de la aplicación del plan educativoantes del alta, que proporcionaba información en el manejo de su enfermedad desde una dimensión física, psicológica y social quepromueve el autocuidado; y el segundo un mes después del alta en su domicilio.Resultados: diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P=0,0001 que demuestran cómo mediante la capacitación al paciente enel manejo de su tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico, el establecimiento de una sana relación entre el profesional de enfermeríay el paciente, y la participación de la familia, se logra una total adherencia al tratamiento.Conclusiones: para lograr una adherencia total del paciente con falla cardiaca al tratamiento es necesario un proceso educativo y unseguimiento continuo y personalizado que motive permanentemente al paciente y se le reconozca el papel protagónico en su cuidado y manejo de la enfermedad.

  13. Immunoglobulin Fc receptors in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus do not confer resistance to Phagocytosis in an in vitro assay Los receptores Fc para inmunoglobulinas en cepas clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus no confieren resistencia a la fagocitosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito VEGA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus binds Immunoglobulin G (IgG on its external surface due to the presence of specific receptors for the Fc domain of this immunoglobulin. This mechanism represents a kind of camouflage against phagocytic cells. In order to confirm that possibility an in vitro evaluation of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes polymorpho-nuclear (PMN against strains of Staphylococcus aureus was done, comparing 18 strains isolated from clinical samples and 16 from healthy individuals. The presence of Fc receptors was evaluated by haemagglutination (HA with erythrocytes group A after incubation of the strains with IgG anti blood group A. Phagocytosis of S. aureus was carried out by mixing live bacteria with a suspension of human PMN and incubating at 37 °C for 1 h; survivors were counted as colony forming units by plating. The strains from clinical specimens showed higher HA than those from healthy individuals (p = 0.01; but the former were killed more efficiently than the latter (80-90% and 40%, respectively. It is may be possible that S. aureus showed different behavior in vivo, where could express other virulence factors to prevent the action of phagocytes.Staphylococcus aureus liga inmunoglobulinas G (IgG a su superficie externa debido a la presencia de receptores para el dominio Fc de esas inmunoglobulinas. Este mecanismo representa una clase de camuflage contra células fagocíticas. Para confirmar tal posibilidad se realizó una evaluación in vitro de la actividad fagocítica de leucocitos polimorfonucleares (PMN contra cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, comparando 18 cepas aisladas de casos clínicos y 16 de individuos sanos. La presencia de receptores fue evaluada por hemaglutinación (HA con eritrocitos grupo A luego que las cepas fueron incubadas con IgG anti grupo sanguíneo A. La fagocitosis de S. aureus fue realizada mezclando células vivas con una suspensión de PMN e incubada a 37 °C por una hora; las bacterias sobrevivientes

  14. Lectura con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en la premisa de que la lectura de textos literarios tiene una función formadora y que esta se acentúa en la adolescencia, me propongo demostrar que el cuento “Rapunzel” puede utilizarse como estrategia para explorar algunas situaciones que los sujetos adolescentes perciben como particulares en relación con su vida, pero que se inscriben dentro de grandes problemáticas estudiadas por varias disciplinas. Para ello, he identificado, desde dos marcos de referencia (sociológico y psicoanalítico, diversas problemáticas y discursos que se desprenden de la lectura del cuento realizada por dos mujeres adolescentes, quienes respondieron una guía de lectura y participaron en una entrevista a profundidad. Concluyo que la lectura y comentario del cuento hacen posible que una serie de experiencias que los sujetos adolescentes viven como únicas (como el embarazo de una amiga, las críticas de las personas adultas y las exigencias de padres y madres, ingresen en el circuito de los conocimientos generales al relacionarlas con los discursos y problemáticas en que se inscriben (por ejemplo, el discurso de la “crisis” de la adolescencia, el enfoque de derechos humanos, el mundo fantasmático materno. Por ello, recomiendo la lectura y comentario de textos literarios como estrategia didáctica para contribuir a la elaboración de la subjetividad de personas adolescentes.

  15. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression.

  16. Neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jos A.G. Van Strijp

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For invading staphylococci, phagocytosis an killing bij human neutrophils is the biggest threat. Neutrophils are the only cells that can effectively kill staphylococci by engulfment and subsequent bombardment with proteases, amidases, antimicrobial peptides and proteins in concert with reactive oxygen species that are generated during the metabolic burst.Both complement and antibodies are crucial for effective uptake and neutrophil activation. S. aureus is not an innocent bystander in this process. It actively secretes several proteins to impair every single step in this process from receptor modulation, to complement inhibition to neutrophil lysis to protease, antimicrobial peptide inhibition and resistance to reactive oxygen species. For the design of future novel antimicrobial strategies: therapeutic antibodies, vaccines, novel antibiotics, all this should be taken into account. Still the best way to treat diseases is to help to enhance the natural defence mechanism that are already in place.

  17. Frequency of Antiseptic Resistance Among Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated From a University Hospital in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Nona; Ardebili, Abdollah; Amouzandeh-Nobaveh, Alireza; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reduced biocide susceptibility in Staphylococci is associated with various antiseptic resistance genes encoding efflux systems. Our aim was to determine the susceptibility to three disinfectant agents, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BZT), and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG) among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS). Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 60 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 54 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 51 CoNS isolates from a single hospital to three biocidal agents (BAC, BZT, and CHDG) was determined. Biocide resistance genes (qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH, qacJ, and norA) were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction assay. Results All isolates had MICs for BAC and BZT from 0.25 to 8 µg/mL, and for CHDG from 0.5 to 64 µg/mL. qacA/B was the most common biocide resistance gene among all 165 Staphylococcus isolates (76; 46%), which comprised 38 (63.3%) MRSA, 14 (25.9%) MSSA, and 24 (47%) CoNS. Eleven (6.7%) and 24 (14.5%) isolates among the 165 Staphylococci carried smr and norA genes, respectively. In contrast, other resistance genes such as qacG, qacH, and qacJ were absent in all Staphylococci studied. The qacA/B and smr genes were detected concomitantly in 3% of isolates, and 23.6% strains of the total 165 Staphylococcus isolates were negative for each studied gene. Conclusions The carriage of several biocide resistance genes, including qacA/B, smr, and norA, alone or concurrently, is associated with reduced susceptibility. Use of antiseptics may select for antibiotic-resistant strains and assist their survival in the healthcare environment. PMID:27974958

  18. Structural and functional characterization of Staphylococcus aureus dihydrodipicolinate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Tavarekere S; Sharma, Eshita; Gopal, B

    2008-08-20

    Lysine biosynthesis is crucial for cell-wall formation in bacteria. Enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis are thus potential targets for anti-microbial therapeutics. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first step of this pathway. Unlike its homologues, Staphylococcus aureus DHDPS is a dimer both in solution and in the crystal and is not feedback inhibited by lysine. The crystal structure of S. aureus DHDPS in the free and substrate bound forms provides a structural rationale for its catalytic mechanism. The structure also reveals unique conformational features of the S. aureus enzyme that could be crucial for the design of specific non-competitive inhibitors.

  19. The Effect of Essential Oils on Staphylococcus aureus

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    Seda Ozdikmenli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are widespread through the world in spite of developing technology. S. aureus is an important pathogen causing food intoxications besides hospital infections by its antibiotic resistant strains. Nowadays, there has been worldwide increasing concern on usage of natural products to control microorganisms. One of these natural products is essential oils. They are produced from plants especially from spices and composed of many components and volatiles. This review summarizes informative literature on essential oils and their mode of antimicrobial action. In addition, current knowledge on in vitro researches on antibacterial activity of essential oils and food applications to control S. aureus has been discussed.

  20. Descolonização de portadores de Staphylococcus aureus: indicações, vantagens e limitações

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira; Adriana Oliveira Paula

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo fue establecer las principales indicaciones, ventajas y limitaciones de la descolonización de los pacientes infectados por Staphylococcus aureus. Se realizó una revisión integrativa de literatura, buscando artículos, publicados a partir de 1999, en las bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE, Science Direct, SCOPUS y el ISI Web of Knowledge. Las principales indicaciones fueron dirigidas a los pacientes de alto riesgo (ingresados en la UCI, sometidos a cirugía, con una estancia de larga dur...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  2. Cementos con cenizas volantes

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    Ossa M., Mauricio

    1984-03-01

    additions of 20 and 30% .

    Casi la generalidad de los estudios realizados sobre cementos con adición de cenizas volantes se refieren a sus características y comportamiento en pastas, morteros y hormigones, siempre en relación con aquéllos del cemento portland. Esta vez, se desarrolló un trabajo experimental orientado a relacionar entre sí los cementos con adiciones de cenizas volantes y de puzolana natural. Para ello se fabricaron a escala de laboratorio cementos de ambos tipos, empleando como materias primas comunes clinker y yeso y, como variables, diferentes porcentajes de las dos adiciones, que cumplieron previamente los requisitos normalizados en cuanto a sus actividades puzolánicas. La calidad de los cementos fabricados resultó adecuada y concordante con la del cemento portland-puzolánico obtenido a escala industrial con los mismos clinker, yeso y puzolana natural de este estudio. Posteriormente, se determinaron las características de los cementos experimentales y se confeccionaron morteros normales para la realización de ensayos físicos y mecánicos. Los resultados de ensayos indicaron que los cementos con adición de cenizas volantes (CCV requieren menos agua para consistencia normal, presentan tiempos de fraguado mayores y expansiones en autoclave menores que los cementos con adición de puzolana (CP. Los calores de hidratación a 7 y 28 días de edad fueron aproximadamente similares para ambos tipos de cemento. En morteros normales, los cementos CCV mostraron menor retracción de secado, mayor retentividad y mayor fluidez (para igual cantidad de agua que los cementos CP. En los ensayos de exudación se observó que ésta depende más de la finura que el tipo de adición. Finalmente, los ensayos mecánicos señalaron que las resistencias a compresión y flexotracción de los morteros con cementos CCV son menores a edades inferiores que 14 días (del orden de 5 a 10% a un día de edad, pero que a partir de entonces pasan a ser mayores que las de

  3. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients

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    Donskey Curtis J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized that S. aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on patients' skin and nearby environmental surfaces. Methods Selected inpatients were cultured weekly for S. aureus from stool, nares, skin (groin and axilla, and environmental surfaces (bed rail and bedside table. Investigator's hands were cultured after contacting the patients' skin and the environmental surfaces. Results Of 71 subjects, 32 (45.1% had negative nares and stool cultures, 23 (32.4% had positive nares and stool cultures, 13 (18.3% were nares carriers only, and 3 (4.2% were stool carriers only. Of the 39 patients with S. aureus carriage, 30 (76.9% had methicillin-resistant isolates. In comparison to nares colonization only, nares and intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures (41% versus 77%; p = 0.001 and trends toward increased environmental contamination (45% versus 62%; p = 0.188 and acquisition on investigator's hands (36% versus 60%; p = 0.057. Patients with negative nares and stool cultures had low frequency of S. aureus on skin and the environment (4.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion We found that hospitalized patients with S. aureus nares and/or stool carriage frequently had S. aureus on their skin and on nearby environmental surfaces. S. aureus intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures, which could potentially facilitate staphylococcal infections and nosocomial transmission.

  4. Modelo de estudio de dos informativas familias colombianas con Síndrome de Usher

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    Tamayo ML.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Establecer y evaluar un modelo de abordaje para el estudio del Síndrome de Usher, que abarca el diagnóstico clínico de los pacientes, establecimiento y confirmación del subtipo mediante estudios moleculares y posterior correlación genotipo-fenotipo.

  5. Prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en infecciones de piel y partes blandas en pacientes ambulatorios

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    Verónica Bermejo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha observado un aumento en la prevalencia de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR en pacientes ambulatorios con infecciones de piel y partes blandas (IPyPB. Los datos epidemiológicos locales disponibles son limitados. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, de consultantes con IPyPB en la División Infectología del Hospital General de Agudos Juan A. Fernández, en el período 01/10/2009 a 31/01/2011. Fueron 130; edad mediana 36 años (RIC 25.9-43.5; hombres 61.5%. El 46.9% era HIV+. Cien cultivos (76.9%, de 100 pacientes, resultaron positivos: 83 S. aureus, 8 Streptococcus spp. y 9 con otros microorganismos. De los S. aureus aislados, 62 (74.7% fueron resistentes a oxacilina, 12 (14.4% a clindamicina, 14 (16.9% a eritromicina, 5 (6% a ciprofloxacina, presentando en algunos casos más de una resistencia. Todos fueron sensibles a rifampicina y minociclina, y 98.8% (82 a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. El 83.8% (52 de los pacientes con SAMR tenían algún factor de riesgo (FR, sin diferencias con los pacientes con otros aislamientos. La presentación clínica más frecuente de IPyPB / SAMR fue forunculosis: 56.4 (35/62 vs. 28.9% (11/38 en infecciones por otros microorganismos (p = 0.013. La resistencia a oxacilina fue similar entre pacientes HIV+ y negativos (79.1 vs. 70%, p = 0.179 (34/43 vs. 28/40. Concluimos que en la población estudiada se encontró una alta prevalencia de SAMR, independientemente de la serología para HIV o la presencia de FR. Las opciones de tratamiento empírico para este microorganismo son minociclina y trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol.

  6. con problemas de aprendizaje

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    Claudia Jaquelina González Trujillo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de niños con diversos problemas de aprendizaje fue atendido bajo un programa de intervención de integración y adaptación social. Mejoras importantes se obtienen en competencias académicas bajo el presente programa de intervención y delimitan áreas de oportunidad para la mejora en aspectos cognitivos como el del proceso de atención e integración social. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten bajo un programa de apoyo psicopedagógico para la educación especial.

  7. Mayonesa con quitosano

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffrey, María Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El quitosano es un polímero natural que se obtiene a partir de la quitina, la cual forma parte de la estructura de soporte de numerosos organismos vivos, tales como artrópodos (crustáceos e insectos), moluscos y hongos. Presenta propiedades aplicables en los alimentos, como estabilizante, emulsificante, y quelante. No puede ser digerido por los seres humanos por lo cual está considerado como una fibra dietética con un contenido calórico cero. Objetivos: Evaluar...

  8. Atender con ansiedad

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    Alberto Acosta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tener una personalidad ansiosa o estar ansioso en una determinada situación hace que atendamos de modo diferente a lo que acontece. Investigaciones recientes están descubriendo las relaciones específicas de la ansiedad-rasgo y de la ansiedad-estado con diferentes procesos atencionales. La intervención terapéutica para aliviar los trastornos de ansiedad, tan frecuentes en nuestra época, se va a beneficiar de este conocimiento.

  9. Creo con mis dedos

    OpenAIRE

    S??nchez Aniceto, Monta??a

    2015-01-01

    Las artes pl??sticas son muy importantes para los ni??os/as sobre todo para Educaci??n Infantil ya que promueven la creatividad mediante diferentes recursos y t??cnicas lo que favorece su motivaci??n en las competencias desde la edad temprana hasta la adolescencia. Es la primera forma que tiene el ni??o/a de expresarse en el mundo (a trav??s de los garabatos), de comunicarse, compartir sus emociones con los dem??s, creando su propio lenguaje que evolucionar?? hacia el lenguaje oral y escri...

  10. Eugenistas, pero con prudencia

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    Pogliano, Claudio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thinking that one could not describe eugenics like a unique movement, since numerous bound varians took place related to the geographical and cultural context, this article tries to demostrate the peculiarity of the Italian case. If already in 1889 Giuseppe Sergi wanted that the artificial selection take it to end what should make the natural, avoiding the risk of the so called «degeneration», only in the face of the First World War seems to grow the alarm for the decadent quality of the population, finding a more and more wide echo. In 1919 the Siges was born (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica shocked under the impression of the difusse fear about the butcher the war had caused. From there from now on fastens a «nazional» direction closely related to the traditional thought and also with the new political temper. A «moderate» direction, Fascist, Catholic, that was built in consonance with the pronatalism of the regime and in rough polemic with the presumed Anglo-Saxon eugenics aberration.

    Partiendo de la base de que no se puede describir la eugénica como un movimiento unitario, ya que se produjeron numerosas variantes ligadas al contexto geográfico y cultural, este artículo intenta demostrar la peculiaridad del caso italiano. Si ya en 1889 Giuseppe Sergi deseaba que la selección artificial llevase a cabo lo que debía de hacer la natural, evitando así el riesgo de la «degeneración », sólo ante la Primera Guerra Mundial parece crecer la alarma por la decadente calidad de la población, encontrando un eco cada vez más amplio. En 1919 nació la Sige (Società italiana de genetica ed eugenica bajo la impresión del difuso temor que la carnicería bélica había provocado. De ahí en adelante prende rápidamente una dirección «nazional» que se imbrica tanto con una tradición del pensamiento como con el nuevo temple político. Una dirección «moderada» fascista, católica, que se construyó en consonancia con el

  11. Arquitectura con discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Schaposnik, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    En particular a la Carrera Arquitectura le compete un doble rol social: uno general, "educar" desde la Universidad y otro, específico, el que le es propio: dar respuesta a las necesidades planteadas por la sociedad haciéndole su lugar: construyéndolo junto con ella. Aparece la figura del "alumno de arquitectura"' nuestro destinatario específico. El alumno de arquitectura, también deberá tomar conciencia, entender, que el "espacio" que él deberá dominar a través d...

  12. Polimorfismos en los genes CYP11α y CYP17 y etiología del hiperandrogenismo en pacientes con poliquistosis ovárica Polymorphism in CYP11alpha and CYP17 genes and the etiology of hyperandrogenism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Pérez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de poliquistosis ovárica (PCOS es un desorden endocrino-metabólico de naturaleza multifactorial, con una marcada predisposición genética, que afecta al 6% de las mujeres en edad reproductiva. Se caracteriza por la presencia de hiperandrogenismo, oligo-anovulación y ovarios poliquísticos. Entre los genes candidatos se encuentran aquellos que codifican para enzimas que actúan en la síntesis de andrógenos. Dos de los genes candidatos son el CYP17 y el CYP11alfa que codifican para la 17alfa hidroxilasa (P45017alfa y para el P450scc (colesterol side chain cleavage respectivamente. Los polimorfismos en estos genes están asociados al desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar las frecuencias alélicas de los polimorfismos de los dos genes mencionados en población con PCOS, compararla con población normal y analizar la relación de cada variante alélica con el fenotipo hiperandrogénico correspondiente. Se analizaron 65 pacientes y 58 controles sanos en los que se determinaron niveles de testosterona y frecuencia de polimorfismos en los genes mencionados. Se observó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa cuando se asoció el grupo de mayor nivel de androgenemia con la presencia del genotipo A2/A2 del gen CYP17, y se hallaron mayores niveles de andrógenos circulantes en las pacientes con PCOS portadoras del alelo 216- del gen CYP11alfa. Nuestros resultados sugieren que ambos alelos juegan un rol menor en el desarrollo de PCOS y podrían ser considerados como potenciales marcadores de riesgo genético para el desarrollo del fenotipo hiperandrogénico.The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous multifactorial endocrine metabolic disorder with genetic predisposition affecting 6% of women in the reproductive age. This syndrome is characterized by the presence of oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Several genes have been postulated as responsible for the

  13. Perfil fenotípico e genotípico de Staphylococcus aureus isolados de estudantes de enfermagem, 2008 Perfil fenotípico y genotípico del Staphylococcus aureus aislados de estudiantes de enfermería, 2008 Phenotypic and genotypic profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in nursing students, 2008

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    Suelen Teixeira Faria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de carreamento nasal, perfil fenotípico e genotípico de S. aureus isolados de estudantes de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, com população composta por 101 alunos, cursando as três primeiras séries do curso de graduação em Enfermagem no ano de 2008. S. aureus foi isolado de material biológico obtido dos vestíbulos nasais através de swab. A susceptibilidade à oxacilina e vancomicina foi determinada pelo teste de concentração inibitória mínima. A presença do gene MecA foi determinada pelo teste de reação em cadeia da polimerase. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se 90,1% de positividade para S. aureus. A frequência de resistência à oxacilina foi de 9,8% e todas as amostras foram sensíveis à vancomicina. A oito amostras resistentes À oxacilina apresentaram o gene MecA. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência foi elevada. A resistência à oxacilna foi expressiva e todas as amostras foram sensíveis à vancomicina. As amostras resistentes à oxacilina carreavam o gene MecA.OBJETIVO: Verificar la prevalencia de transporte nasal, perfil fenotípico y genotípico de S. aureus aislados de estudiantes de enfermería. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, con población compuesta por 101 alumnos, cursando las tres primeras series del Pregrado en Enfermería en el año 2008. El S. aureus fue aislado del material biológico obtenido de los vestíbulos nasales a través de swab. La susceptibilidad a la oxacilina y vancomicina fue determinada por el test de concentración inhibitoria mínima. La presencia del gen MecA fue determinada por el test de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. RESULTADOS: Se verificó el 90,1% de positividad para el S. aureus. La frecuencia de resistencia a la oxacilina fue de 9,8% y todas las muestras fueron sensibles a la vancomicina. Las ocho muestras resistentes a la oxacilina presentaron el gen MecA. CONCLUSION: La prevalencia fue elevada. La resistencia a la oxacilina fue expresiva y todas

  14. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, F; Alabi, A S; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2014-07-01

    Research on African Staphylococcus aureus has been largely neglected in the past, despite the cultural and geographical diversity in Africa, which has a significant impact on the epidemiology of this pathogen. The polarity between developed urban societies and remote rural populations (e.g. Pygmies), combined with close contact with animals (e.g. livestock and domestic animals, and wildlife), makes the epidemiology of S. aureus on the African continent unique and fascinating. Here, we try to draw an epidemiological picture of S. aureus colonization and infection in Africa, and focus on the wide spread of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive isolates, the emergence of the hypervirulent methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone USA300, and the dissemination of the typical African clone MRSA sequence type 88.

  15. [Recovery of Staphylococcus aureus after acid injury in milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, E M; De Carvalho, E P; Asquieri, E R; Robbs, P G

    1994-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were performed: acidity, pH, S. aureus counting using agar Baird Parker by the traditional methods and by the method recommended by the American Public Health Association to evaluate the reparation of injured cells. We had a secure indication of the presence of injured S. aureus when acidity was in the range of 0.7 to 0.8% expressed in lactic acid and when the cycle was 1.3 log higher than the traditional one.

  16. Improving Diagnosis and Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections : Experimental Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections like furuncles and impetigo, to severe, lifethreatening infections including endocarditis, osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Invasive infections are freq

  17. Environmental Staphylococcus aureus contamination in a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsa, Haythem; Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Chairat, Sarra; Lozano, Carmen; Torres, Carmen; Bellaaj, Ridha; Slama, Karim Ben

    2016-12-01

    One hundred hospital environment samples were obtained in 2012 in a Tunisian hospital and tested for Staphylococcus aureus recovery. Antimicrobial resistance profile and virulence gene content were determined. Multilocus-sequence-typing (MLST), spa-typing, agr-typing and SmaI-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates typed as: ST247-t052-SCCmecI-agrI were recovered from the intensive care unit (ICU). Ten samples contained methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and these samples were collected in different services, highlighting the presence of the tst gene encoding the toxic shock syndrome toxin as well as the lukED, hla, hlb, hld and hlgv virulence genes in some of the isolates. In conclusion, we have shown that the hospital environment could be a reservoir contributing to dissemination of virulent S. aureus and MRSA.

  18. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS IN FOOD AND ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traversa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some authors reported the possibility of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA human infections from meat and dairy products and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolation in animals. The aim of this study is to investigate the methicillin-resistance in S. aureus strains and in S. intermedius strains (food and wild animals. 236 S.aureus strains from food, 36 S.aureus strains and 1 S. intermedius strain from wild animals were analyzed. 2 (0.74% MRSA strains from bovine milk were phenotipically resistant to cefoxitin, grew on chromogenic medium (MRSA Brilliance Oxoid and were mecA positive. All MRSA strains had the spa-type t899. All mecA positive strains showed at least resistance to eight of the antibiotics tested but none to glicopeptides. Both MRSA strains were enterotoxigenic.

  19. Rapid, Culture-Free Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Elliot L.; Flenker, Katie S.; Clark, Karen C.; Miguel, Jeff; Ince, Dilek; Winokur, Patricia; Ford, Bradley; McNamara, James O.

    2016-01-01

    S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current methods used to diagnose SAB take at least a day, and often longer. Patients with suspected bacteremia must therefore be empirically treated, often unnecessarily, while assay results are pending. In this proof-of-concept study, we describe an inexpensive assay that detects SAB via the detection of micrococcal nuclease (an enzyme secreted by S. aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. 16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus bacteremia. These results suggest that a nuclease-detecting assay may enable the rapid and inexpensive diagnosis of SAB, which is expected to substantially reduce the mortality and morbidity that result from this condition. PMID:27305148

  20. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Colivet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  1. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Colivet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  2. Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933, de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. Éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó, con Geoffrey Kirk, Los filósofos presocráticos–, le indujo a ocuparse de la filosofía antigua; y otro maestro, William Guthrie –a quien debemos la gran Historia de la filosofía griega–, le inició, además, en la medicina griega.

  3. con la cosecha mecanizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Martínez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones dirigidas a incrementar los indicadores de eficiencia y calidad durante la cosecha mecanizada del café, constituyen un tema de gran actualidad a nivel internacional. La determinación de las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los frutos y del sistema frutopedúnculo, es una etapa indispensable durante las investigaciones relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este producto. En este trabajo se brindan los resultados sobre la determinación de un grupo de propiedades dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas del sistema fruto-pedúnculo de coffea arabica variedad Catuai en diferentes estadios de maduración, relacionadas con la cosecha mecanizada de este cultivo.Así mismo se determina el momento flector requerido para la ruptura de la unión fruto pedúnculo. Durante la investigación se emplearon técnicas de procesamiento de imágenes digitales, así como de extensometría eléctrica. Como resultado de la medición de las diferentes propiedades se apreciaron diferencias sustanciales en las características dimensionales, inerciales y elásticas de los frutos maduros y verdes, así como en el momento requerido para el desprendimiento de los frutos y en las formas en que se produce el desprendimiento.

  4. Entrevista con Patricia Ariza

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    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensamiento, Palabra y Obra entrevista a una artista, feminista y activista política, quien como mujer y artista ha permitido pensar el arte más allá de un simple espectáculo. Toda una vida dedicada al teatro y a darle voz, a través de sus obras, a víctimas del conflicto colombiano, defensora de derechos humanos; además de hacer evidente en su vida y a través de la plataforma “Artistas por la paz”, las múltiples relaciones que se pueden establecer entre el arte, la construcción de paz y la resolución de conflictos. Hablamos en su casa, en medio del calor de la bienvenida con Patricia Ariza, directora del festival alternativo de teatro, de Mujeres en Escena y de la Corporación Colombiana de Teatro, entre otras muchas actividades que voluntariamente su espíritu libertario ha asumido. Esta entrevista se realizó antes del 2 de octubre, pero con la revisión de los acuerdos que propició el plebiscito ganado por una ínfima minoría por el no, sigue siendo vigente este planteamiento.

  5. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Larsen, Anders R; Roed-Petersen, Casper;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  6. Tea Tree Oil-Induced Transcriptional Alterations in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuaron, Jesus A.; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E.; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and alt...

  7. Phenotype Switching Is a Natural Consequence of Staphylococcus aureus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus undergoes phenotype switching in vivo from its normal colony phenotype (NCP) to a slow-growing, antibiotic-resistant small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype that is associated with persistence in host cells and tissues. However, it is not clear whether phenotype switching is the result of a constitutive process that is selected for under certain conditions or is triggered by particular environmental stimuli. Examination of cultures of diverse S. aureus strains ...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

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    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  9. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  10. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal; Abbas Rahimi Foroushani; Sara Sharifi –Yazdi; Mohammad Kazem Sharifi -Yazdi; Noushin Arfatahery

    2016-01-01

    Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, i...

  11. IDENTIFIKASI MIKROORGANISE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS PADA PENDERITA ANGULAR CHEILITIS

    OpenAIRE

    MINARTI, NURHAERATUL

    2012-01-01

    2011 Pada suatu penelitian tentang Angular cheilitis ditemukan Staphylococcus aureus hampir dua kali dari candida albicans. Oleh karena itu tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi pengaruh Staphylococcus aureus pada penyakit Angular cheilitis. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 pasien yang datang ke Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Halimah Daeng Sikati Kandea Bagian Penyakit Gigi dan Mulut dalam periode waktu bulan Oktober-November 2011. Apusan pada permukaan lesi angular cheilitis dima...

  12. Marcadores fenotípicos de atenuación en cepas de virus Junín recuperadas de individuos vacunados con la cepa Junín Candid#1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S. Gamboa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Hemorrágica Argentina es una enfermedad producida por el virus Junín. Para la prevención de esta enfermedad se obtuvo una vacuna efectiva denominada Candid#1. Durante un ensayo clínico realizado en el INEVH, dos cepas de virus Junín fueron aisladas de sangre periférica de dos voluntarios mediante co-cultivo de células mononucleares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar las características fenotípicas de atenuación de esas dos cepas recuperadas de humanos con las de la vacuna Candid#1 utilizando los indicadores de atenuación desarrollados por Contigiani y Sabattini en 1977. A tal fin se midieron los índices de letalidad, infección y protección en cobayos y ratones de diferentes edades. Las tres cepas investigadas resultaron letales para ratones recién nacidos pero no para ratones de 10 a 12 días, ratones adultos ni cobayos, aun a la más baja dilución inoculada. Los cobayos inoculados con las cepas recuperadas de humanos y con la cepa Candid#1 no presentaron síntomas de enfermedad y mostraron estar protegidos cuando fueron desafiados con una cepa patógena. Los índices de infección y de protección hallados indican que estas cepas poseen elevada capacidad infectante y protectora en las especies animales aquí estudiadas. Estos resultados demuestran que las cepas de virus Junín aisladas de voluntarios inmunizados con Candid#1 mantienen el mismo fenotipo atenuado de la vacuna Candid#1 después de un pasaje por humanos.

  13. Detoxification of toxins by bacillithiol in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Gerald L; Fahey, Robert C; Rawat, Mamta

    2012-04-01

    Bacillithiol (BSH), an α-anomeric glycoside of l-cysteinyl-d-glucosaminyl-l-malate, is a major low-molecular-mass thiol found in bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Deinococcus radiodurans. Like other low-molecular-mass thiols such as glutathione and mycothiol, BSH is likely to be involved in protection against environmental toxins including thiol-reactive antibiotics. We report here a BSH-dependent detoxification mechanism in S. aureus. When S. aureus Newman strain was treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, the cellular BSH was converted to the fluorescent S-conjugate BS-bimane. A bacillithiol conjugate amidase activity acted upon the BS-bimane to produce Cys-bimane, which was then acetylated by an N-acetyltransferase to generate N-acetyl-Cys-bimane, a mercapturic acid. An S. aureus mutant lacking BSH did not produce mercapturic acid when treated with monobromobimane and monochlorobimane, confirming the involvement of bacillithiol. Furthermore, treatment of S. aureus Newman with rifamycin, the parent compound of the first-line anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin, indicated that this thiol-reactive antibiotic is also detoxified in a BSH-dependent manner, since mercapturic acids of rifamycin were observed in the culture medium. These data indicate that toxins and thiol-reactive antibiotics are detoxified to less potent mercapturic acids in a BSH-dependent manner and then exported out of the cell in S. aureus.

  14. Determining of antibiotic resistance profile inStaphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Motamedi; Hadis Mirzabeigi; Tahere Shirali

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance amongStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from clinical specimens and to identify community-acquired methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA)in specimens that have been collected from patients referring to one of the hospitals of Ahvaz.Methods:S. aureus isolates from a hospital in Ahvaz were screened for resistance to various antibiotics including methicillin. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. TheMRSA was also treated with ethidium bromide to find the origin of resistance.Results: Among the bacterial isolates, all of 11S. aureus were resistant to methicillin and cefixime,2 were resistant to ciprofloxacine,6 were resistant to tetracycline and the reminder were sensitive or intermediate to other antibiotics. The treated isolates were reminded resistant to methicillin and this suggested that the plasmid was not the origin of resistance in these isolates.Conclusions: These results showed that infection due toMRSA is widespread in Ahvaz and with respect to the spread of vancomycin resistance among MRSA and appearance of overwhelming infections. It is necessary to identify continuously the profile of antibiotic resistance amongS. aureus isolates in other regions and finding appropriate antibiotic for infection control and eradication.

  15. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño, Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar, Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes, pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones, Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados, Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones, No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  16. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño: Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes: pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones: Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones: No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  17. Entrevista con Juan Marichal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Juan Marichal nació en Santa Cruz de Tenerife, en 1922, en el seno de una familia ligada al partido republicano insular. Muy joven, en 1935, se trasladó a Madrid, ciudad en la que vive el estallido de la guerra civil. En 1937, pasa a Valencia y luego a Barcelona; tras su exilio en 1938, prosigue sus estudios secundarios en un liceo de París, concluyéndolos en Casablanca. En 1941 emigra a México, formándose en la UNAM: fue alumno de los exiliados José Gaos y Joaquín Xirau así como del mexicano Edmundo O 'Gorman. Luego, becado en Princeton desde 1946, lo fue de América Castro, donde preparó una tesis sobre Feijoo. Apoyado en las vastas perspectivas de sus maestros, fue orientándose hada nuestra historia intelectual, desde el siglo XV hasta hoy. Su carrera profesional se ha desarrollado en los Estados Unidos (coincidiendo con Amado Alonso y con Ferrater Mora: ha sido profesor de estudios hispánicos en la Universidad de Harvard, desde 1948 hasta 1988, año en que se jubiló voluntariamente como numerario (aunque había permanecido en el Bryn Mawr College, entre 1953 y 1957. A este trabajo se suman, con todo, sus conferencias en América Latina y en España. Ha colaborado en las revistas más importantes, en este campo, de México, Nueva York, Puerto Rico, La Habana, Buenos Aires o París así como de las españolas, desde los sesenta. Juan Marichal -hoy, miembro de la Junta Directiva de los Amigos de la Residencia de Estudiantes, director del Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza y asociado al Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset-, reside en España desde otoño de 1989: se considera a sí mismo «voluntario en Madrid», como había dicho Alfonso Reyes en su estancia madrileña (1914-1924.

  18. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo; Wu, Qingping; Guo, Weipeng; Huang, Jiahui; Cai, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA), is a life-threatening pathogen in humans, and its presence in food is a public health concern. MRSA has been identified in foods in China, but little information is available regarding MRSA in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in Chinese retail RTE foods. All isolated S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and MRSA isolates were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Of the 550 RTE foods collected from 2011 to 2014, 69 (12.5%) were positive for S. aureus. Contamination levels were mostly in the range of 0.3-10 most probable number (MPN)/g, with five samples exceeding 10 MPN/g. Of the 69 S. aureus isolates, seven were identified as MRSA by cefoxitin disc diffusion test. Six isolates were mecA-positive, while no mecC-positive isolates were identified. In total, 75.8% (47/62) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates and all of the MRSA isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Amongst the MRSA isolates, four were identified as community-acquired strains (ST59-MRSA-IVa (n = 2), ST338-MRSA-V, ST1-MRSA-V), while one was a livestock-associated strain (ST9, harboring an unreported SCCmec type 2C2). One novel sequence type was identified (ST3239), the SCCmec gene of which could not be typed. Overall, our findings showed that Chinese retail RTE foods are likely vehicles for transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus and MRSA lineages. This is a serious public health risk and highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices.

  19. Control of Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio; Martínez-Rubio, Roser; Martí, Miguel; Chen, John; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Penadés, José R

    2012-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) are a group of related 15-17 kb mobile genetic elements that commonly carry genes for superantigen toxins and other virulence factors. The key feature of their mobility is the induction of SaPI excision and replication by certain phages and their efficient encapsidation into specific small-headed phage-like infectious particles. Previous work demonstrated that chromosomal integration depends on the SaPI-encoded recombinase, Int. However, although involved in the process, Int alone was not sufficient to mediate efficient SaPI excision from chromosomal sites, and we expected that SaPI excision would involve an Xis function, which could be encoded by a helper phage or by the SaPI, itself. Here we report that the latter is the case. In vivo recombination assays with plasmids in Escherichia coli demonstrate that SaPI-coded Xis is absolutely required for recombination between the SaPI att(L) and att(R) sites, and that both sites, as well as their flanking SaPI sequences, are required for SaPI excision. Mutational analysis reveals that Xis is essential for efficient horizontal SaPI transfer to a recipient strain. Finally, we show that the master regulator of the SaPI life cycle, Stl, blocks expression of int and xis by binding to inverted repeats present in the promoter region, thus controlling SaPI excision.

  20. Musicalizarte con las Tics

    OpenAIRE

    Gamarra, Patricia Mabel; Velázquez, Helvecia Mercedes del Rocío; Verón, José María

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo hace referencia a un relato de experiencia didáctica desarrollada en el Instituto Superior de Música “Prof. Carmelo H. de Biasi” de Corrientes- Argentina, donde el área de interés de Tecnología en Educación se dirige hacia “Aplicación de las TIC en Educación/ Experiencias concretas de utilización de TIC en Educación”. En el diagnóstico realizado en la institución, se pudo observar la escasa transversalidad e interrelación con las distintas áreas curriculares como ser: l...

  1. Mirando con la cabeza

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, Capi

    2006-01-01

    Las matemáticas y la pintura trabajan con ideas. La palabra idea viene del griego ειδω, que significa ver, mirar u observar, y de ειδοζ, que significa figura, forma, aspecto o visión. Detrás de una montaña concreta está la idea de montaña, un dibujo abstracto, unas líneas que permiten reconocer la montaña detrás de las rocas, los pinos o la nieve. La diferencia entre este árbol y árbol, entre un círculo que dibujamos en la pizarra y círculo: la diferencia entre la cosa y la idea de la cosa. E...

  2. Inhibition of major integrin αV β3 reduces Staphylococcus aureus attachment to sheared human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, C J; Garciarena, C D; Watkin, R L; McHale, T M; McLoughlin, A; Claes, J; Verhamme, P; Cummins, P M; Kerrigan, S W

    2016-12-01

    Essentials Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) binds and impairs function of vascular endothelial cells (EC). We investigated the molecular signals triggered by S. aureus adhesion to EC. Inhibition of the EC integrin αVβ3 reduces S. aureus binding and rescues EC function. αVβ3 blockade represents an attractive target to treat S. aureus bloodborne infections.

  3. Entrevista con Georges Duby.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Duby, heredero de dos grandes historiadores como Marc Bloch y Lucien Febvre, es uno de los más importantes medievalistas europeos. Fue, y sigue siendo, un motor de la importante reforma en la historia producida desde los sesenta. En sus primeros trabajos se acusa la recepción de las ideas económicas y geográficas de la mejor historiografía. Su riguroso estudio sobre la base material de la Edad Media, le permitirá luego irrumpir en la historia de las mentalidades, analizando, como decía Febvre, el utillaje mental (vocabulario, sintaxis, lugares comunes, cuadros lógicos, etc. del Medioevo. Así, el ejemplo de Mauss y LéviStrauss le anima a trabajar sobre el matrimonio, la sexualidad y ciertos sistemas del pensamiento: el primero, con su defensa de los hechos sociales totales, y el segundo, que buscaba las dimensiones simbólicas de lo social, le impulsan a trabajar sobre la ideología entendida no como mero reflejo de la situación material sino como «proyecto de acción sobre lo vivido». A su obra individual, atenta a los impulsos culturales más vivos, se suma su empuje decisivo en la realización de proyectos colectivos como la Historia de la vida privada o la Historia de las mujeres. Prácticamente, han sido traducidos todos sus libros al castellano, y han podido verse en España asimismo varios de sus programas televisivos (ha sido presidente de la SEPT, cadena de televisión cultural fundada en 1985. La amplitud de sus intereses intelectuales, transmitidos en su obra con un lenguaje a la vez muy claro y bellamente elaborado, se hace palpable también en este diálogo.

  4. ANTISTAPHYBASE: database of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and essential oils (EOs) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhir, Abdelmajid; Taieb, Malek; Lamine, Mohamed Ashraf; Cherif, Ammar; Jridi, Taoufik; Mahjoubi, Basma; Mbarek, Sarra; Fliss, Ismail; Nefzi, Adel; Sebei, Khaled; Ben Hamida, Jeannette

    2017-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus are major pathogens. The antimicrobial peptides and essential oils (EOs) display narrow- or broad-spectrum activity against bacteria including these strains. A centralized resource, such as a database, designed specifically for anti-S. aureus/anti-methicillin-resistant S. aureus antimicrobial peptides and EOs is therefore needed to facilitate the comprehensive investigation of their structure/activity associations and combinations. The database ANTISTAPHYBASE is created to facilitate access to important information on antimicrobial peptides and essential peptides against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. aureus. At the moment, the database contains 596 sequences of antimicrobial peptides produced by diverse organisms and 287 essential oil records. It permits a quick and easy search of peptides based on their activity as well as their general, physicochemical properties and literature data. These data are very useful to perform further bioinformatic or chemometric analysis and would certainly be useful for the development of new drugs for medical use. The ANTISTAPHYBASE database is freely available at: https://www.antistaphybase.com/ .

  5. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein A (SasA) Protect Against Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis and Peritonitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yilong; Qian, Mengying; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Shuling; Li, Bing; Yu, Rui; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Yu, Changming; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) imposes an increasing impact on public health. Due to multi-antibiotics resistance in MRSA strains, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics such as effective monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against MRSA infections. Staphylococcus aureus surface protein A (SasA), a large surface-located protein (~240 kDa), is one of MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) and a potential target for immunotherapeutic approaches against S. aureus infections. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence of SasA with bioinformatics tools and generated a protective monoclonal antibody (2H7) targeting the conserved domain of SasA. 2H7 was shown to recognize wild-type S. aureus and promote opsonophagocytic killing of S. aureus. In both sepsis and peritoneal infection models, prophylactic administration of 2H7 improved the survival of BALB/c mice challenged by S. aureus strain USA300 and ST239 (prevalent MRSA clones in North America and Asian countries, respectively) and enhanced bacterial clearance in kidneys. Additionally, 2H7 prophylaxis prevented the formation of intraperitoneal abscess in a murine model of peritoneal infection and therapeutic administration of 2H7 showed protective efficacy in a murine sepsis model. Our results presented here provide supporting evidences that an anti-SasA mAb might be a potential component in an antibody-based immunotherapeutic treatment of MRSA infections.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at ambient freshwater beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Spencer, Chelsea

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a threat to human health worldwide, and although detected at marine beaches, they have been largely unstudied at freshwater beaches. Genes indicating S. aureus (SA; femA) and methicillin resistance (mecA) were detected at 11 and 12 of 13 US Great Lakes beaches and in 18% or 27% of 287 recreational water samples, respectively. Eight beaches had mecA + femA (potential MRSA) detections. During an intensive study, higher bather numbers, staphylococci concentrations, and femA detections were found in samples collected after noon than before noon. Local population density, beach cloud cover, and beach wave height were significantly correlated with SA or MRSA detection frequency. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene, associated with community-acquired MRSA, was detected in 12 out of 27 potential MRSA samples. The femA gene was detected less frequently at beaches that met US enterococci criteria or EU enterococci ‘excellent’ recreational water quality, but was not related to Escherichia coli-defined criteria. Escherichia coli is often the only indicator used to determine water quality at US beaches, given the economic and healthcare burden that can be associated with infections caused by SA and MRSA, monitoring of recreational waters for non-fecal bacteria such as staphylococci and/or SA may be warranted.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

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    Estrella Cervantes-García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs. Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results: We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions: The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in diabetic foot infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-García, Estrella; García-Gonzalez, Rafael; Reyes-Torres, Angélica; Resendiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the major pathogens causing chronic infections. The ability of S. aureus to acquire resistance to a diverse range of antimicrobial compounds results in limited treatment options, particularly in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A mechanism by which S. aureus develops reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials is through the formation of small colony variants (SCVs). Infections by SCVs of S. aureus are an upcoming problem due to difficulties in laboratory diagnosis and resistance to antimicrobial therapy. Methods A prospective study was performed on 120 patients diagnosed with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. The study was carried out from July 2012 to December 2013 in Hospital General de Mexico. The samples were cultured in blood agar, mannitol salt agar, and MacConkey agar media, and incubated at 37°C in aerobic conditions. Results We describe the first known cases of diabetic foot infections caused by MRSA-SCVs in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and infected diabetic foot ulcers. In all of our cases, the patients had not received any form of gentamicin therapy. Conclusions The antibiotic therapy commonly used in diabetic patients with infected diabetic foot ulcers fails in the case of MRSA-SCVs because the intracellular location protects S. aureus-SCVs from the host's defenses and also helps them resist antibiotics. The cases studied in this article add to the spectrum of persistent and relapsing infections attributed to MRSA-SCVs and emphasizes that these variants may also play a relevant role in diabetic foot infections. PMID:25787018

  9. Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Postoperative Wounds of Hospitalized Patients

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    Smritikana Biswas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus sp., gram positive pyogenic bacteria located on skin, nose etc, secretes toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome, abscess, food poisoning and other infectious diseases. This study was carried out to identify and characterize the type of Staphylococcus sp. bacteria especially Staphylococcus aureus in the pus from postoperative wounds of hospitalized patients. From pus samples collected from twenty-four patients from Kharagpur Hospital, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, twenty-eight bacterial isolates were obtained. Among them twenty-five (89.2% were appeared with golden yellow colonies which is usually formed by Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-three (82.14% of the bacterial isolates were Gram positive. Among them twenty isolates (86.9% were further confirmed to be Staphylococcus aureus by their ability to produce Catalase enzyme (positive in Catalase test and Coagulase enzyme (positive in Coagulase Test. Eighteen (90.00% of these Staphylococcus aureus were found to liquefy gelatin (Gelatin hydrolysis test, were able to hydrolyze urea (Urea hydrolysis test and were also l positive in Mannitol Fermentation Test. But there was no growth found of these isolates on MacConkey Agar, while sixteen isolates (80.00% of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to penicillin (50µg/ml. Moreover eighteen (90.00% Staphylococcus aureus isolates were able to elaborate Hemolysin (Hemolysis test on Blood Agar media. Hence the bacterial isolates obtained from pus of postoperative wounds were predominantly pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. So it can be concluded that careful treatment and postoperative measures to be taken to avoid serious health problem that may often be life threatening.

  10. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

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    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  11. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of the Response of Staphylococcus aureus to Cryptotanshinone

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    Haihua Feng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus strains with multiple antibiotic resistances are increasingly widespread, and new agents are required for the treatment of S. aureus. Cryptotanshinone (CT, a major tanshinone of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, demonstrated effective in vitro antibacterial activity against all 21 S. aureus strains tested in this experiment. Affymetrix GeneChips were utilized to determine the global transcriptional response of S. aureus ATCC 25923 to treatment with subinhibitory concentrations of CT. Transcriptome profiling indicated that the antibacterial action of CT may be associated with its action as active oxygen radical generator; S. aureus undergoes an oxygen-limiting state upon exposure to CT.

  12. Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo

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    Juan José Ferrer Narvaez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Es de gran interés para la ingeniería colombiana el efecto del refuerzo externo de elementos estructurales con elementos metálicos. La Unidad de Estructuras ha venido realizando en el transcurso de esta década estudios en elementos en concreto con refuerzos externos a flexión con resultados satisfactorios. El proyecto ''Vigas preesforzadas con refuerzo externo" sirve de base en el estudio del comportamiento de este tipo de elementos estructurales y la extrapolación de los resultados obtenidos en elementos de concreto reforzado a concreto preesforzado.

  13. [Intragenic deletions of NRXN1: three new case reports and a review of the phenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Sánchez, Francisco; Esteban-Cantó, Vanessa; Blaya-Fernández, Pedro; Jadraque-Rodríguez, Rocío; Manchón-Trives, Irene; Alcaraz-Más, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Aportar datos sobre el fenotipo determinado por las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1. Casos clinicos. Se estudian tres casos neuropediatricos con microdeleciones intragenicas NRXN1 alfa. El fenotipo en estos tres casos es inespecifico, con retraso mental leve-moderado, trastornos de comportamiento y escasos rasgos dismorficos o malformaciones. Conclusion. El fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones alfa del gen NRXN1 es claramente distinguible del fenotipo encontrado en las microdeleciones de los exones beta, con macrocefalia, epilepsia y retraso mental.

  14. Entrevista con Giovanni Levi.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en Milán en 1939, Giovanni Levi, el importante y original historiador italiano, es heredero de una tradición familiar de grandes defensores de la libertad tanto cultural como política. En su práctica investigadora late siempre, de hecho, la memoria de un momento tan crítico de la historia italiana como el final del fascismo. Por añadidura, sus antepasados son judíos del Piamonte. Esta experiencia vital y las luchas sociales de los sesenta han marcado su quehacer como historiador y como estudioso. Levi, reconocido en Italia y asimismo en Europa y América, fue profesor en la Universidad de Turín y luego en la de Viterbo; actualmente es catedrático de Historia económica en Venecia, ejerciendo como profesor visitante en Francia. Su trabajo, muy creativo, aborda aspectos de la historia de la familia, la demografía y la agricultura en los siglos XVII y XVIII, pero su crítica como intelectual comprometido con el dudoso presente desborda su estricto ámbito de estudio.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in chorizo and longaniza

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    Refugio Torres-Vitela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research in developed and developing countries, had found meat products as the principal cause for foodbourne diseases. In addition, Salmonella and Staphyococcus aureus are well known pathogens for their mayor impact in public health. The objective for the present study consisted on determinate the sanitary quality from chorizo and longaniza samples from several butcheries in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Samples of chorizo (50 and longaniza (50 were obtained from different points in Guadalajara metropolis. Presence of Salmonella and recounts for S. aureus were tested in 25 g samples. Procedure was followed according Mexican NOM 145-SSA1-1995 methods. In chorizo, 18 samples were positive to Salmonella. The count of S. aureus showed a mean of 24,600 UFC/g. On the other hand, 24 samples of longaniza were positive to Salmonella spp. In this case, the mean of S. aureus was 7,800 UFC/g. The serotypes of Salmonella spp were: Derby (30%, Adelaile (17%, Azteca (15%, Infantis (15%, Muenster(10% y Anatum (13 %. The high positivity of Salmonella spp. and S. aureus is a potential hazard to consumers.

  16. Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kitson; Ali, Syed A.; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Peh, Suat-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent. PMID:27956904

  17. Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Yeang Teow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and could be potentially developed into a naturally derived antibiotic in the future. However, there are several noteworthy challenges in the development of curcumin as a medicine. S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by the multidrug-resistant strains, have emerged as a global health issue and urgent action is needed. This review focuses on the antibacterial activities of curcumin against both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. We also attempt to highlight the potential challenges in the effort of developing curcumin into a therapeutic antibacterial agent.

  18. Superantigen Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Won; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Ballard, Alessandro D.; Tilahun, Ashenafi; Khaleghi, Shahryar Rostamkolaei; David, Chella S.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of superantigen production among Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with endocarditis is not well defined. We tested 154 S. aureus isolates from definite infective endocarditis cases for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, H and TSST-1 by PCR, ELISA and using an HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse splenocyte proliferation assay. Sixty-three isolates (50.8%) tested positive for at least one superantigen gene, with 21 (16.9%) testing positive for more than two. tst (28.6%) was most common, followed by seb (27%), sea (22.2%), sed (20.6%), see (17.5%), and sec (11.1%). Of 41 methicillin-resistant S. aureus, 21 had superantigen genes, with sed being more frequently detected in this group compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (P<0.05). Superantigen genes were not associated with mortality (P=0.81). 75% of PCR-positive isolates induced robust splenocyte proliferation. Overall, more than half of S. aureus isolates causing endocarditis carry superantigen genes of which most are functional. PMID:24745820

  19. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from tonsillectomized adult patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkowska, Marta; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Stromkowski, Józef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains from 118 tonsillectomized adults due to recurrent tonsillitis (RT). The study included strains isolated from the tonsillar surface prior to tonsillectomy, recovered from the tonsillar core at the time of surgery, and from the posterior throat 2-4 weeks after the procedure. Susceptibility of isolates to 19 antibiotics was tested in line with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Irrespective of the stage, the most commonly isolated bacteria were gram-positive cocci, and among them S. aureus. The tonsillar core was the most common site of S. aureus isolation (30.5%), followed by the tonsillar surface (10.8%) and the posterior pharynx (5.9%). This difference turned out to be statistically significant (p aureus seems to be the most common pathogen isolated from patients tonsillectomized due to RT. Staphylococcal isolates associated with RT are present mostly within the tonsillar core and susceptible to most antibiotics. They are typically isolated from patients between 21 and 30 years of age. Tonsillectomy results in less frequent isolation of S. aureus strains.

  20. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

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    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  1. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  2. A systematic review of animal models for Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis

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    W Reizner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus osteomyelitis is a significant complication for orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery, particularly with fracture fixation and arthroplasty. Given the difficulty in studying S. aureus infections in human subjects, animal models serve an integral role in exploring the pathogenesis of osteomyelitis, and aid in determining the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Animal models should mimic the clinical scenarios seen in patients as closely as possible to permit the experimental results to be translated to the corresponding clinical care. To help understand existing animal models of S. aureus, we conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE to identify in vivo animal experiments that have investigated the management of S. aureus osteomyelitis in the context of fractures and metallic implants. In this review, experimental studies are categorised by animal species and are further classified by the setting of the infection. Study methods are summarised and the relevant advantages and disadvantages of each species and model are discussed. While no ideal animal model exists, the understanding of a model’s strengths and limitations should assist clinicians and researchers to appropriately select an animal model to translate the conclusions to the clinical setting.

  3. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus Enterotoxin Genes A-E

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    Dadgar, T. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The main cause of spreading staphylococcal infections among patients is the healthy carriers working in hospitals. With the secretion of different sorts of toxins such as entrotoxin, this bacteria can provide the conditions for attacking on the host. The main objective of this study is identification of the characteristics and differences in the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from healthy carriers and from the patients on the basis of enterotoxin genes (sea-see. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty of the patients and 80 of healthy carriers worked in health centers of Gorgan, north of Iran, were investigated for S. aureus isolate. The isolates were evaluated by PCR for Enterotoxin Genes A-E (SEA to SEE. Results: Enterotoxin genes (SEA to SEE was found in 87.5% of the total isolates and the most frequent one was enterotoxin gene sea (N= 124. The prevalence of these isolates in healthy carriers was significantly higher than those of the patients. Conclusion: Based on the results, the high percentage of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples contains enterotoxin genes. Therefore, Human as the source and carrier of S. aureus is paramount importance, which is due to significant relationship between being toxigenic strains and the source of isolation. Key words: Staphylococcus Aureus; Enterotoxin; Patient; Carrier

  4. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis

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    C. G. Unakal and B. B. Kaliwal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitic Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from dairy herds. A total of 105 samples were screened and 68 confirmed Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. The a, ß and non haemolytic activity revealed 20.58%, 75% and 4.41% respectively in 68 isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest 86.76% isolates were resistant to penicillin followed by ampicillin 70.50%, amoxicillin 63.23%, gentamycin 47.05%, amikacin 30.80%, erythromycin 27.94%, Ciprofloxacin 26.47%, methicillin 23.52%, cefotaxime 20.58% and the lowest resistant was shown in ceftriaxone 19.11%. The study revealed that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 65-67

  5. Entrevista con Alberto Tenenti.

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    - Consejo de Redacción

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Gran especialista en historia moderna, Alberto Tenenti nació en Viareggio, en 1924. Tras realizar estudios superiores en Italia, trabajó en el Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique varios años, asesorado por Lucien Febvre. Ha dirigido el Archivo del Estado de Brescia; y, más tarde, ha enseñado en París, desde una cátedra en la École Pratique des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (VI Sección, alIado de Braudel. Su Il senso della morte e l'amore della vita nel Rinascimento, de 1957, es una obra maestra sobre los orígenes de la sensibilidad moderna: sin olvidar el naciente vitalismo, estudia el desarrollo de dos motivos, el del ars moriendi, que tiene su evolución propia desde 1350 hasta su difusión impresa, y el de lo macabro, que refleja la crisis de conciencia del siglo XV y adquiere «unas dimensiones desconocidas y verdaderamente anormales». En este libro sobre un problema clave como la muerte, apela de modo notable a la iconografía: Tenenti ha recordado que la cultura tradicional, eclesiástica sobre todo, percibió un mayor peligro en la capacidad de reflexión autónoma y de crítica de los hombres de letras, que en las renovaciones radicales de los artistas. Numerosos trabajos de conjunto realizados por él han perseguido una historia global: Los fundamentos del mundo moderno; Florencia en la época de los Medicis; La formación del mundo moderno; El Renacimiento; el primero de ellos estaba firmado con un historiador de su misma generación, R. Romano, estudioso de las relaciones comerciales en la época moderna en Europa y en la América española. Tenenti ha publicado monografías (Venezia e i corsari, 1961, colecciones de artículos (Credence, ideologie, libertinismi tra medioevo ed eta moderna, 1978; Stato: un'idea, una logica. Dal comune italiano all'assolutismo francese, 1987 y editado a clásicos como Il libri della famiglia de L. B. Alberti, 1969. Es también especialista en temas económicos, como el del

  6. Puentes con vigas pretensadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes one of the three bridges which Hidrocivil, S. A., has built in Catalonia (northern Spain, over the river Ripoll. The other two bridges are very similar to this one, both in construction and design, and show only minor adjustments to the local topography. The contracting firm proposed several alterations in the prefabrication and constructional procedure, in relation to the initial project, and these changes were accepted. The main feature of these projects is the use of prestressed beams, built at the workshop in sections, and joined together by means of sixty 7 mm cables in each beam. As the shear forces are more acute at the joints, the end of each section has a kind of diaphragm, to provide a large contact area, and hence greater surface to transmit the shear forces. The methods of construction are also of interest. Briefly, they involve building the bridge piles, and use these to support a provisional structure with transversal movement. This provisional structure, in turn, served as platform for two bridge cranes, which lifted the girders to their final location. After the first span was completed, the deck was concreted and the auxiliary structure pushed forward to the next span, to repeat the same operations. This arrangement saved the use of provisional framework.En este trabajo se describe uno de los tres puentes que Hidrocivil, S. A., ha construido.—previo concurso— en la región catalana; concretamente, el que salva el río Ripoll. Los otros dos no han sido objeto de descripción general por ser muy similares, en lo que a ejecución y concepción se refiere, con la única variante que presentan las características topográficas locales. La empresa propuso ciertas variantes— que fueron aceptadas— en la prefabricación y métodos de construcción. El interés de estas obras se centra en el empleo de vigas pretensadas, prefabricadas en taller por trozos, y solidarizados en el mismo mediante las operaciones

  7. Entrevista con Bernard Vincent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Colina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacido en París (1941, Bernard Vincent es un historiador de renombre en Europa y América del Sur. Consiguió su agregación universitaria en 1966, y desde sus inicios se centró en la Historia Moderna, particularmente en grupos marginales de la España de los siglos XVI-XVII. Ha residido en nuestro país muchos años. Vincent fue miembro de la sección científica de la Casa de Velázquez inicialmente (1968-1971, algo más tarde director de estudios (1977-1978, y a continuación secretario general (1978-1982 de dicha institución. Asimismo ha encabezado el programa de cooperación francoespañol en ciencias sociales (1993-1996. Por otra parte, ha enseñado en la Universidad de París VII, en varias etapas de su vida; pero, sobre todo, ha pertenecido siempre a centros superiores de investigación: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (1976-1978, y a la École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, en donde ha sido director de estudios desde 1988 –era doctor de Estado ya en 1986–, y luego responsable de la Sección de Historia, desde 1996 hasta hoy. Sus colaboraciones con las universidades y centros investigadores españoles han sido constantes hasta el presente. Por añadidura, ha sido miembro del Consejo Nacional de las Universidades en Francia, en lo relativo a la historia moderna y contemporánea (1987-1988, 1992-1995, y es desde hace años miembro de la madrileña Academia de la Historia.

  8. Contribution of coagulases towards Staphylococcus aureus disease and protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice G Cheng

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus seeds abscesses in host tissues to replicate at the center of these lesions, protected from host immune cells via a pseudocapsule. Using histochemical staining, we identified prothrombin and fibrin within abscesses and pseudocapsules. S. aureus secretes two clotting factors, coagulase (Coa and von Willebrand factor binding protein (vWbp. We report here that Coa and vWbp together are required for the formation of abscesses. Coa and vWbp promote the non-proteolytic activation of prothrombin and cleavage of fibrinogen, reactions that are inhibited with specific antibody against each of these molecules. Coa and vWbp specific antibodies confer protection against abscess formation and S. aureus lethal bacteremia, suggesting that coagulases function as protective antigens for a staphylococcal vaccine.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms: recent developments in biofilm dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jessica L; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections and represents a significant burden on the healthcare system. S. aureus attachment to medical implants and host tissue, and the establishment of a mature biofilm, play an important role in the persistence of chronic infections. The formation of a biofilm, and encasement of cells in a polymer-based matrix, decreases the susceptibility to antimicrobials and immune defenses, making these infections difficult to eradicate. During infection, dispersal of cells from the biofilm can result in spread to secondary sites and worsening of the infection. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the pathways behind biofilm dispersal in S. aureus, with a focus on enzymatic and newly described broad-spectrum dispersal mechanisms. Additionally, we explore potential applications of dispersal in the treatment of biofilm-mediated infections.

  10. Genetically enhanced cows resist intramammary Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Robert J; Powell, Anne M; Paape, Max J; Kerr, David E; Bannerman, Douglas D; Pursel, Vernon G; Wells, Kevin D; Talbot, Neil; Hawk, Harold W

    2005-04-01

    Mastitis, the most consequential disease in dairy cattle, costs the US dairy industry billions of dollars annually. To test the feasibility of protecting animals through genetic engineering, transgenic cows secreting lysostaphin at concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 14 micrograms/ml [corrected] in their milk were produced. In vitro assays demonstrated the milk's ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus. Intramammary infusions of S. aureus were administered to three transgenic and ten nontransgenic cows. Increases in milk somatic cells, elevated body temperatures and induced acute phase proteins, each indicative of infection, were observed in all of the nontransgenic cows but in none of the transgenic animals. Protection against S. aureus mastitis appears to be achievable with as little as 3 micrograms/ml [corrected] of lysostaphin in milk. Our results indicate that genetic engineering can provide a viable tool for enhancing resistance to disease and improve the well-being of livestock.

  11. Repurposing the antihistamine terfenadine for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, Jessamyn I; Forbes, Lauren T; Krysan, Damian J; Ebsworth-Mojica, Katherine; Colquhoun, Jennifer M; Wang, Jenna L; Dunman, Paul M; Flaherty, Daniel P

    2014-10-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is a rapidly growing health threat in the U.S., with resistance to several commonly prescribed treatments. A high-throughput screen identified the antihistamine terfenadine to possess, previously unreported, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria. In an effort to repurpose this drug, structure-activity relationship studies yielded 84 terfenadine-based analogues with several modifications providing increased activity versus S. aureus and other bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mechanism of action studies revealed these compounds to exert their antibacterial effects, at least in part, through inhibition of the bacterial type II topoisomerases. This scaffold suffers from hERG liabilities which were not remedied through this round of optimization; however, given the overall improvement in activity of the set, terfenadine-based analogues provide a novel structural class of antimicrobial compounds with potential for further characterization as part of the continuing process to meet the current need for new antibiotics.

  12. Local inflammation exacerbates the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Montgomery

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of skin infections. In a mouse model of S. aureus skin infection, we found that lesion size did not correlate with bacterial burden. Athymic nude mice had smaller skin lesions that contained lower levels of myeloperoxidase, IL-17A, and CXCL1, compared with wild type mice, although there was no difference in bacterial burden. T cell deficiency did not explain the difference in lesion size, because TCR βδ (-/- mice did not have smaller lesions, and adoptive transfer of congenic T cells into athymic nude mice prior to infection did not alter lesion size. The differences observed were specific to the skin, because mortality in a pneumonia model was not different between wild type and athymic nude mice. Thus, the clinical severity of S. aureus skin infection is driven by the inflammatory response to the bacteria, rather than bacterial burden, in a T cell independent manner.

  13. Botryomycosis Due to Staphylococcus Aureus-A Case Report

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    Manjula A.Vagarali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study Staphylococcus aureus as the causative organism of botryomycosis. Background: the botryomycosis is a chronic purulent granulomatous lesion of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and visceral organs caused by several bacterial species. This condition clinically and histopathologically resembles with that of mycetoma and Actinomycosis. Method: A 51 year old male presented to us with swelling over medial aspect of the right foot with multiple sinuses. He gave a history of trauma 3 years back at the same site. The sample was examined directly by KOH preparation and grams stain. The culture was put up on blood, chocolate, lowenstein Jensen (LJ and sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA media. Fungal culture was negative. Result: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in aerobic culture. Conclusion: the patient with botryomycosis caused by Staphylococcus aureus was subsequently treated with antibiotics and he recovered completely.

  14. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Sin-Yeang; Ali, Syed Atif

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic antibacterial activity of Curcumin with 8 different antibiotic groups. Two reference, one clinical and ten environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were tested. Disc diffusion assay with 25 μg/mL Curcumin demonstrated synergism in combination with a majority of tested antibiotics against S. aureus. However, checkerboard micro dilution assay only showed synergism, fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indifferent interactions but no antagonism was observed. In time-kill curve, appreciable reduction of bacterial cells was also observed in combination therapy (Curcumin + antibiotics) compared to monotherapy (Curcumin or antibiotic(s) alone). The antibiotics with higher synergistic interaction with Curcumin are arranged in a decreasing order: Amikacin > Gentamicin > Ciprofloxacin.

  15. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G. MacKay (William); W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTen samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Sample

  16. Quality control of direct molecular diagnostics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Niesters, Hubert G M; MacKay, William G; van Leeuwen, Willem B

    2007-01-01

    Ten samples containing various amounts of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and combinations thereof were distributed to 51 laboratories for molecular diagnostics testing. Samples containing

  17. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Brian M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Shirtliff, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus

  18. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population....

  19. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Vos (Margreet); A. Ott (Alewijn); A. Voss (Andreas); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); M.H.M. Meester (Marlene); P.H.J. van Keulen (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical patients

  20. The Significance of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and the Incidence of Postoperative Wound Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Wenzel (Richard); T. M. Perl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus infections are associated with considerable morbidity and, in certain situations, mortality. The association between the nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent infection has been comprehensively established in a variety of clinical settings, in particular, patie

  1. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canovas de la Nuez, Jaime; Baldry, Mara; Bojer, Martin S;

    2016-01-01

    between staphylococci and S. aureus, and show that this interaction may eventually lead to the identification of new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus......-inducing peptides (AIPs) sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for Staphylococcus epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to better understand the interaction....... To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species...

  2. Highly sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus directly from patient blood.

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    Padmapriya P Banada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of bloodstream infections (BSIs can be lifesaving. We investigated the sample processing and assay parameters necessary for highly-sensitive detection of bloodstream bacteria, using Staphylococcus aureus as a model pathogen and an automated fluidic sample processing-polymerase chain reaction (PCR platform as a model diagnostic system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared a short 128 bp amplicon hemi-nested PCR and a relatively shorter 79 bp amplicon nested PCR targeting the S. aureus nuc and sodA genes, respectively. The sodA nested assay showed an enhanced limit of detection (LOD of 5 genomic copies per reaction or 10 colony forming units (CFU per ml blood over 50 copies per reaction or 50 CFU/ml for the nuc assay. To establish optimal extraction protocols, we investigated the relative abundance of the bacteria in different components of the blood (white blood cells (WBCs, plasma or whole blood, using the above assays. The blood samples were obtained from the patients who were culture positive for S. aureus. Whole blood resulted in maximum PCR positives with sodA assay (90% positive as opposed to cell-associated bacteria (in WBCs (71% samples positive or free bacterial DNA in plasma (62.5% samples positive. Both the assays were further tested for direct detection of S. aureus in patient whole blood samples that were contemporaneous culture positive. S. aureus was detected in 40/45 of culture-positive patients (sensitivity 89%, 95% CI 0.75-0.96 and 0/59 negative controls with the sodA assay (specificity 100%, 95% CI 0.92-1. CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a highly sensitive two-hour assay for detection of sepsis causing bacteria like S. aureus directly in 1 ml of whole blood, without the need for blood culture.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible. PMID:27828633

  4. New epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-J; Huang, Y-C

    2014-07-01

    Not only is Asia the most populous region in the world, but inappropriate therapy, including self-medication with over-the-counter antimicrobial agents, is a common response to infectious diseases. The high antibiotic selective pressure among the overcrowded inhabitants creates an environment that is suitable for the rapid development and efficient spread of numerous multidrug-resistant pathogens. Indeed, Asia is among the regions with the highest prevalence rates of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) in the world. Most hospitals in Asia are endemic for multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with an estimated proportion from 28% (in Hong Kong and Indonesia) to >70% (in Korea) among all clinical S. aureus isolates in the early 2010s. Isolates with reduced susceptibility or a high level of resistance to glycopeptides have also been increasingly identified in the past few years. In contrast, the proportion of MRSA among community-associated S. aureus infections in Asian countries varies markedly, from 35%. Two pandemic HA-MRSA clones, namely multilocus sequence type (ST) 239 and ST5, are disseminated internationally in Asia, whereas the molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA in Asia is characterized by clonal heterogeneity, similar to that in Europe. In this review, the epidemiology of S. aureus in both healthcare facilities and communities in Asia is addressed, with an emphasis on the prevalence, clonal structure and antibiotic resistant profiles of the MRSA strains. The novel MRSA strains from livestock animals have been considered to constitute a public health threat in western countries. The emerging livestock-associated MRSA strains in Asia are also included in this review.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus in locally produced white cheese in Tirana market

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    ELVIRA BELI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheese has nutritional value, its consumption is very common in Albania, but is also excellent medium for bacterial growth, source of bacterial infection, particularly when it is produced from raw poor quality or unpasteurized milk. Microbial safety of cheeses may be enhanced by usage good quality raw milk, pasteurized milk, following GMP in aim to prevent cross-contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and amount of Staphylococcus aureus in white cheeses, as an Albanian traditional product. Totally 120 samples of white cheese, produced in small big plant at different Albanian district, by raw milk or pasteurized milk, were collected from Tirana market. All samples were tested by phosphatase test to determine whether raw milk or pasteurized milk it was used for cheese production. 53/120 samples (44% resulted produced by pasteurized milk, 67/120 samples (56 % resulted produced by raw milk. The S. aureus was isolated in Baird Parker agar, and submitted to coagulase and API-staph test. Out of 120 cheese samples, 47 showed contamination by S. aureus coagulase-positive corresponding to 39.16%, otherwise 58 out of 120, 48.33 % of cheeses samples being contaminated with coagulase-negative strain of S. aureus. The occurrence S. aureus coagulase-positive in cheeses produced by pasteurized milk and raw milk it was respectively 7/53 (13.2 % and 40/67 (59.7%. 10% of the samples had high levels 105- 106cfu/g of S. aureus coagulase-positive, suggested that white cheese, may represent a health risk for the consumers

  6. Matrices con entradas enteras e inversa con entradas enteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Algunos artículos publicados en The American Mathematical Monthly discuten acerca de la construcción de matrices con entradas enteras, valores propios enteros y vectores propios con componentes enteras, en particular en [1] se hace una construcción que además permite construir, de manera sencilla, matrices con entradas enteras cuya inversa también tiene entradas enteras. Este artículo trata de estas últimas construcciones e incluye software en Java para generar y modificar ejemplos y para hac...

  7. [recovery Of Staphylococcus Aureus After Acid Injury In Milk Products].

    OpenAIRE

    Assis, E M; CARVALHO, E.P. de; E.R. Asquieri; Robbs, P G

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were p...

  8. CHARACTERISATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM SHINGLES PATIENTS

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    Jasmine R. et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Even after treating Shingles patients with antiviral drugs, they are found to suffer from secondary bacterial infections. With this background as a guide, we undertook an investigation to isolate the bacterial pathogens from the pus of Shingles patients. Among the isolates obtained during the one year study period, Staphylococcus aureus sp. was found to be multi drug resistant and hence it was chosen for the study. The antibiogram pattern of the methicillin resistant S. aureus was obtained, since this could serve as a tool for suggesting useful drugs.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...... antisense RNAs not co-transcribed with other genes were found. Promoter analysis and comparison with Bacillus subtilis links the small number of antisense RNAs to a less profound impact of alternative sigma factors in S. aureus. Furthermore, we revealed that Rho-dependent transcription termination...

  11. Synthetic peptide inhibitors of DNA replication in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Kjelstrup, Susanne

    of clinically important pathogens and is essential for bacterial proliferation. The bacterial replication apparatus fulfill the requirements for a good drug target. The replisome of S. aureus consists of 5 different subunits (2, PolC2, 4, δ and δ`) who’s organization depends on multiple protein-protein...... interactions. Centrally in the replisome is the -clamp where to multiple proteins binds through a conserved motif. We have identified the protein-protein interactions in the replisome of S. aureus by use of a bacterial two-hybrid system. A reverse bacterial two-hybrid system (R-BTH) based on Pyr...

  12. Response of Staphylococcus Aureus to a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S. L.; Ott, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The decreased gravity of the spaceflight environment creates quiescent, low fluid shear conditions. This environment can impart considerable effects on the physiology of microorganisms as well as their interactions with potential hosts. Using the rotating wall vessel (RWV), as a spaceflight analogue, the consequence of low fluid shear culture on microbial pathogenesis has provided a better understanding of the risks to the astronaut crew from infectious microorganisms. While the outcome of low fluid shear culture has been investigated for several bacterial pathogens, little has been done to understand how this environmental factor affects Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen which presents a high level of infection risk to the crew, as it has been isolated from both the space shuttle and International Space Station. Given that approximately forty percent of the population are carriers of the bacteria, eradication of this organism from in flight environments is impractical. These reasons have lead to us to assess the response of S. aureus to a reduced fluid shear environment. Culture in the RWV demonstrated that S. aureus grown under the low-shear condition had lower cell concentrations after 10 hours when compared to the control culture. Furthermore, the low-shear cultured bacteria displayed a reduction in carotenoid production, pigments responsible for their yellow/gold coloration. When exposed to various environmental stressors, post low-shear culture, a decrease in the ability to survive oxidative assault was observed compared to control cultures. The low fluid shear environment also resulted in a decrease in hemolysin secretion, a staphylococcal toxin responsible for red blood cell lysis. When challenged by the immune components present in human whole blood, low-shear cultured S. aureus demonstrated significantly reduced survival rates as compared to the control culture. Assays to determine the duration of these alterations

  13. Identification of the ClpX Regulon in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Ingmer, Hanne;

    Staphyloccous aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections ranging from superficial wound infections to life-threatening endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome. Essential for S. aureus virulence is a large number of cell-surface-associated proteins and secreted...... proteins. Results from our group have shown that the ClpXP proteolytic complex and the ClpX chaperone play central roles in regulating expression of many of these factors (2;3). By using DNA microarrays to compare transcription of strain 8325-4 (wt) and the isogenic ¿clpX strain during the transition phase...

  14. Outbreaks associated to bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp in premature neonates in a university hospital from Brazil Surtos associados a infecções sanguíneas por Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus spp coagulase-negativa em neonatos prematuros em um hospital universitário do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Von Dolinger de Brito

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS are among the most important nosocomial pathogens in patients from neonatal intensive care units, mainly in bloodstream infections. The main objective of this study is to determine the occurrence of nosocomial infections by these microorganisms using two surveillance systems (Laboratorial Surveillance and National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System and to determine the most important risk factors during a two-year period (2001-2002. Two outbreaks by both methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA (1.5% and methicillin resistant CoNS (MRCoNS (1.0% were observed, from January to February/02 and August to September/02. Endemic incidence rates of 3.77% and 5.16% of S. aureus and CoNS, respectively were detected. Risk factors included age or = 7 days and utilization of polietilene central vascular catheter (CVC through vein dissection (phlebotomy, but none of these independent factors were confirmed by the multivariate analysis. However, oxacillin resistant CoNS prevailed (66.0% in the epidemic episodes. Molecular analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis showed the polyclonal nature of S. aureus isolates. In conclusion, two outbreaks were identified of mixed etiology by MSSA and MRCoNS associated to the lack of an adequate material (central venous catheter for neonates, related invasive procedure. The outbreaks were controlled with the substitution of polietilene CVC for peripherally inserted central catheter.Staphylococcus aureus e Estafilococos coagulase-negativa (ECN estão entre os patógenos hospitalares mais importantes em pacientes de unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal, principalmente em infecções da corrente sanguínea. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de infecções hospitalares por estes microrganismos usando dois sistemas de vigilância (laboratorial e "National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance" - NNIS e determinar os fatores de

  15. con el aborto provocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas de células diploides humanas (WI-38, MRC-5 tienen un origen éticamente objetable, dado que dichas células proceden de abortos provocados. Entre ellas destacan vacunas empleadas contra rubéola, sarampión, parotiditis, rabia, poliomielitis, viruela, hepatitis A, varicela y herpes zóster. Actualmente se encuentran en desarrollo otras vacunas cultivadas en células (293, PER.C6 transformadas mediante virus, procedentes de abortos. Entre ellas hay vacunas contra la gripe, virus respiratorio sincitial, parainfl uenza, HIV, virus del Nilo Occidental, virus Ébola, Marburg y Lassa, hepatitis B y C, glosopeda, encefalitis japonesa, dengue, tuberculosis, carbunco, peste, tétanos y paludismo. También con igual origen se trabaja en la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y otras proteínas, terapia génica y genómica. Existe la tecnología necesaria para producir todo lo descrito sin recurrir a abortos provocados. Debe indicarse en los prospectos de vacunas y otros productos el origen de las células empleadas. Debe facilitarse el acceso a las vacunas existentes no cultivadas en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la investigación de opciones en aquellos casos en los que no exista una vacuna no originada en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Debe potenciarse la elaboración de anticuerpos monoclonales y de otras proteínas, así como la terapia génica y la genómica sin recurrir a células procedentes de abortos provocados. No sería consecuente rechazar productos obtenidos a partir de células troncales embrionarias y aceptar los originados en células procedentes de abortos provocados. Se debe evitar que la biotecnología basada en el aborto provocado invada todos los terrenos de la medicina.

  16. Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT SAN ANTONIO Disruption of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms with Enzymatic...fold lower than that needed to thoroughly disrupt biofilms in the current investigation. A previous study of α-amylase applied to S. aureus biofilms...Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Open Microbiology Journal, 2011. 5: p. 21-31. 36. Wu, J.A., et al., Lysostaphin disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and

  17. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin in combination with hexahydroquinoline derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    F Amin Harati; M Amini; Shahverdi AR; Pourmand, MR; Yousefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen responsible for skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a major cause of both nosocomial and community acquired infections. The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus is of global concern. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin are used to treat skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance has inc...

  18. Changes in the Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome during Early Adaptation to the Lung

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffin, Donald O.; Destry Taylor; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Craig E Rubens

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common inhabitant of the human nasopharynx. It is also a cause of life-threatening illness, producing a potent array of virulence factors that enable survival in normally sterile sites. The transformation of S. aureus from commensal to pathogen is poorly understood. We analyzed S. aureus gene expression during adaptation to the lung using a mouse model of S. aureus pneumonia. Bacteria were isolated by bronchoalveolar lavage after residence in vivo for up to 6 hours....

  19. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A genetic predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has been demonstrated in animals, suggesting that genetic differences might influence susceptibility to S aureus in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a history of S aureus bacteremia in first-degree relatives increases...

  20. Long-term cortisol levels are not associated with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Manenschijn (Laura); A.M. Jetten; W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); M. Tavakol (Mehri); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica); J.W. Koper (Jan); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonizes the anterior nares in part of the population and the persistent carrier state is associated with increased infection risk. Knowledge concerning the determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage is limited. Previously, we found that glucocorticoid re

  1. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using mol

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance traits of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a recognized pathogen in humans, which causes nosocomial infections and food poisoning. The transmission of antibiotic resistant S. aureus (ARSA), especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), between food products and humans has become a serious problem. Hence, it is n...

  3. Antibiotic-mediated selection of quorum-sensing-negative Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm Erik Axel; Varming, Anders Nissen; Bæk, Kristoffer Torbjørn;

    2012-01-01

    -acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus. IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen in intensive care units and a common cause of nosocomial infections, resulting in a high degree of morbidity...

  4. Perfil del trabajador con discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    CAPGEMINI; FUNDACIÓN ADECCO

    2014-01-01

    Capgemini y la Fundación Adeco analizan y reflexionan sobre empleo de las personas con discapacidad. A pesar de los avances que se están registrando en este ámbito, la situación laboral de las personas con discapacidad aún está lejos de alcanzar las cotas deseadas de normalización: mientras que la tasa de actividad de las personas sin discapacidad se sitúa en el 76,3%, la de las que sí la tienen desciende bruscamente hasta el 36,5%. En otras palabras, un 63,4% de las personas con discapacidad...

  5. Endocarditis infecciosa asociada con dispositivos electrónicos implantables intracardíacos. Nuestra experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Salmo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónLa endocarditis infecciosa es una patología con una morbimortalidad elevada. En esta comunicación se presentan 17 casos de endocarditis infecciosa (EI asociada con dispositivos electrónicos implantables (DEI, que representaron el 6% de las endocarditis entre 1992 y 2005.ObjetivoAnalizar las características clínicas, evolutivas y anatomopatológicas de un subgrupo de pacientes con EI portadores de DEI.Material y métodosDe un total de 263 pacientes con EI admitidos en nuestra institución entre 1992 y 2005, se analizaron 17 con EI asociada con DEI.Las EI asociadas con DEI se clasificaron en: 1 temprana, la ocurrida dentro de los 12 meses del posquirúrgico, y 2 tardía, la producida luego de ese lapso. En todos los pacientes se obtuvieron muestras para hemocultivos, se efectuó el cultivo de todo material extraído durante la cirugía y se realizaron ecocardiogramas por vía transtorácica (ETT y transesofágica (ETE.ResultadosDe los 17 pacientes, 13 (73% eran hombres; la edad promedio fue de 60 años y el tiempo entre el implante y el diagnóstico fue de 344 días. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron fiebre y bacteriemia; el germen predominante fue Staphylococcus aureus en el 70% de los casos. En todos se extrajo el sistema. La mortalidad fue del 17%.ConclusionesLa EI asociada con el DEI, que debe sospecharse siempre en ausencia de otro foco infeccioso, constituye un subgrupo que con diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz tiene una mortalidad menor que la global descripta. Al igual que para la EI sin DEI, los hemocultivos y la ecocardiografía son los pilares para el diagnóstico.

  6. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal;

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates from Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. MethodsThis study was conducted over a period of 11 months (September 2012–August 2013) at the Manip...

  7. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Medical Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Trépanier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA during their training. The occupational risk of this specific population is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data regarding MRSA colonization among health care professionals in Quebec.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Staphylococcus aureus with DNA array technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. Jay (Corinne); S.V. Snijders (Susan); N. Durin (Nathalia); B. Lacroix (Bruno); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Enright (Mark); A. Troesch (Alain); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA newly developed oligonucleotide array suited for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus strains was analyzed with two strain collections in a two-center study. MLST allele identification for the first strain collection fully agreed with conventiona

  9. Staphylococcus aureus colonization related to severity of hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, S; Carlsson, E; Henricson, J; Löfgren, S; Lindgren, P-E; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Matussek, A; Anderson, C D

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge on Staphylococcus aureus colonization rates and epidemiology in hand eczema is limited. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these issues. Samples were collected by the "glove juice" method from the hands of 59 patients with chronic hand eczema and 24 healthy individuals. Swab samples were taken from anterior nares and throat from 43 of the 59 patients and all healthy individuals. S. aureus were spa typed and analysed by DNA-microarray-based genotyping. The extent of the eczema was evaluated by the hand eczema extent score (HEES). The colonization rate was higher on the hands of hand eczema patients (69 %) compared to healthy individuals (21 %, p eczema (HEES ≥ 13) had a significantly higher S. aureus density on their hands compared to those with milder eczema (HEES = 1 to 12, p = 0.004). There was no difference between patients and healthy individuals regarding colonization rates in anterior nares or throat. spa typing and DNA-microarray-based genotyping indicated certain types more prone to colonize eczematous skin. Simultaneous colonization, in one individual, with S. aureus of different types, was identified in 60-85 % of the study subjects. The colonization rate and density indicate a need for effective treatment of eczema and may have an impact on infection control in healthcare.

  10. Menaquinone biosynthesis potentiates haem toxicity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Catherine A; Hammer, Neal D; Stauff, Devin L; Attia, Ahmed S; Anzaldi, Laura L; Dikalov, Sergey I; Calcutt, M Wade; Skaar, Eric P

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that infects multiple anatomical sites leading to a diverse array of diseases. Although vertebrates can restrict the growth of invading pathogens by sequestering iron within haem, S. aureus surmounts this challenge by employing high-affinity haem uptake systems. However, the presence of excess haem is highly toxic, necessitating tight regulation of haem levels. To overcome haem stress, S. aureus expresses the detoxification system HrtAB. In this work, a transposon screen was performed in the background of a haem-susceptible, HrtAB-deficient S. aureus strain to identify the substrate transported by this putative pump and the source of haem toxicity. While a recent report indicates that HrtAB exports haem itself, the haem-resistant mutants uncovered by the transposon selection enabled us to elucidate the cellular factors contributing to haem toxicity. All mutants identified in this screen inactivated the menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway. Deletion of the final steps of this pathway revealed that quinone molecules localizing to the cell membrane potentiate haem-associated superoxide production and subsequent oxidative damage. These data suggest a model in which membrane-associated haem and quinone molecules form a redox cycle that continuously generates semiquinones and reduced haem, both of which react with atmospheric oxygen to produce superoxide.

  11. Putative link between Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage serotype and community association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, D H; Saberesheikh, S; Kearns, A M; Saunders, N A

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from humans can be broadly separated into 3 groups: healthcare-associated (HA), community-associated (CA), and livestock-associated (LA) MRSA. Initially based on epidemiological features, division into these classes is becoming increasingly problematic. The sequencing of S. aureus genomes has highlighted variations in their accessory components, which likely account for differences in pathogenicity and epidemicity. In particular, temperate bacteriophages have been regarded as key players in bacterial pathogenesis. Bacteriophage-associated Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes (luk-PV) are regarded as epidemiological markers of the CA-MRSA due to their high prevalence in CA strains. This paper describes the development and application of a partial composite S. aureus virulence-associated gene microarray. Epidemic, pandemic, and sporadic lineages of UK HA and CA S. aureus were compared. Phage structural genes linked with CA isolates were identified and in silico analysis revealed these to be correlated with phage serogroup. CA strains predominantly carried a PVL-associated phage either of the A or Fb serogroup, whilst HA strains predominantly carried serogroup Fa or B phages. We speculate that carriage of a serogroup A/Fb PVL-associated phage rather than the luk-PV genes specifically is correlated with CA status.

  12. Phenotype switching is a natural consequence of Staphylococcus aureus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus undergoes phenotype switching in vivo from its normal colony phenotype (NCP) to a slow-growing, antibiotic-resistant small-colony-variant (SCV) phenotype that is associated with persistence in host cells and tissues. However, it is not clear whether phenotype switching is the result of a constitutive process that is selected for under certain conditions or is triggered by particular environmental stimuli. Examination of cultures of diverse S. aureus strains in the absence of selective pressure consistently revealed a small gentamicin-resistant SCV subpopulation that emerged during exponential-phase NCP growth and increased in number until NCP stationary phase. Treatment of replicating bacteria with the antibiotic gentamicin, which inhibited NCP but not SCV replication, resulted in an initial decrease in SCV numbers, demonstrating that SCVs arise as a consequence of NCP replication. However, SCV population expansion in the presence of gentamicin was reestablished by selection of phenotype-stable SCVs and subsequent SCV replication. In the absence of selective pressure, however, phenotype switching was bidirectional and occurred at a high frequency during NCP replication, resulting in SCV turnover. In summary, these data demonstrate that S. aureus phenotype switching occurs via a constitutive mechanism that generates a dynamic, antibiotic-resistant subpopulation of bacteria that can revert to the parental phenotype. The emergence of SCVs can therefore be considered a normal part of the S. aureus life cycle and provides an insurance policy against exposure to antibiotics that would otherwise eliminate the entire population.

  13. Surveillance van meticilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus in Nederland in 1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenay HME; van Leeuwen WJ; van Klingeren B; Rost JA; Schot CS

    1991-01-01

    Follow-up studies on the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Dutch hospitals were continued in 1990. The number of MRSA-isolates in 1990 compared to 1989 is approximately the same. Phage-type pattern and antibiogram were determined for 168 MRSA-isolates from 42 hosp

  14. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, A M; Orlando, P; Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L

    2014-12-01

    Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a source of great concern because, especially in hospitals, this class of antibiotics, particularly vancomycin, is one of the main resources for combating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA). Reduced susceptibility to vancomycin (VISA) was first described in 1996 in Japan; since then, a phenotype with heterogeneous resistance to vancomycin (h-VISA) has emerged. H-VISA isolates are characterised by the presence of a resistant subpopulation, typically at a rate of 1 in 10(5) organisms, which constitutes the intermediate stage betweenfully vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and VISA isolates. As VISA phenotypes are almost uniformly cross-resistant to teicoplanin, they are also called Glycopeptides-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains (GISA) and, in the case of heterogeneous resistance to glycopeptides, h-GISA. The overall prevalence of h-VISA is low, accounting for approximately 1.3% of all MRSA isolates tested. Mortality due to h-GISA infections is very high (about 70%), especially among patients hospitalised in high-risk departments, such as intensive care units (ICU). Given the great clinical relevance of strains that are heteroresistant to glycopeptides and the possible negative impact on treatment choices, it is important to draw up and implement infection control practices, including surveillance, the appropriate use of isolation precautions, staff training, hand hygiene, environmental cleansing and good antibiotic stewardship.

  16. Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from prosthetic joint infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon K.; Karau, Melissa J.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Tilahun, Ashenafi Y.; David, Chella S.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Patel, Robin; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). The prevalence of superantigens (SAgs) among PJI-associated S. aureus is unknown. Eighty-four S. aureus isolates associated with PJI isolated between 1999 and 2006 were studied. SAg genes, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei and tst, were assayed by PCR. Seventy-eight (92.9%) isolates carried at least one SAg gene studied, with 61 (72.6%) harboring more than one. seg was most commonly (70.2%) and seh was least frequently (4.8%) detected. tst-positive isolates were associated with early infection and increased ESR at diagnosis (P = 0.006 and P = 0.021, respectively). seg and sei were associated with methicillin resistance (P = 0.008 and 0.002, respectively). SAg genes are prevalent in S. aureus causing PJI; a majority of PJI-associated isolates produce biologically active SAgs in both planktonic and biofilm growth modes. PMID:25619753

  17. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the most applied and effective genetic typing method for epidemiological studies and investigation of foodborne outbreaks caused by different pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. The technique relies on analysis of large DNA fragments generated by th...

  18. An Interdisciplinary Experiment: Azo-Dye Metabolism by "Staphylococcus Aureus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklesby, Kayleigh; Smith, Robert; Sharp, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and engaging practical is detailed which offers great versatility in the study of a qualitative and quantitative metabolism of azo-dyes by "Staphylococcus aureus". This practical has broad scope for adaptation in the number and depth of variables to allow a focused practical experiment or small research project. Azo-dyes are…

  19. Increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...

  20. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

  2. Diabetes and risk of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes may experience higher risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without diabetes due to decreased immunity or coexisting morbidities. We investigated the risk of community-acquired (CA) SAB in persons with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Using...

  3. Transmissibility of Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, D.J.; Bootsma, M.C.J.; Troelstra, A.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous findings have suggested that the nosocomial transmission capacity of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is lower than that of other MRSA genotypes. We therefore performed a 6-month (June 1–November 30, 2011) nationwide study to quantify the single-adm

  4. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip; Rossen, John W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present st

  6. Strain Discrimination of Staphylococcus aureus Using Superantigen Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Hau-Yang; Li, Sheng-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Tsai, Shuo-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacterial species that may cause clinical infection and food-poisoning cases. Strains of this species may produce a series of superantigens (SAgs). Due to the importance of staphylococcal infections, reliable methods for the discrimination of strains of this species are important. Such data may allow us to trace the infection origins and be used for epidemiological study. For strain discrimination, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), etc., could be used. Recently, toxin gene profiles, which can be used for the elucidation of the genetic and pathogenic relatedness between strains, also have been used to improve the strain discrimination. For S. aureus, as more SAg genes were discovered, the SAg profiles become more useful for the strain discrimination of S. aureus. In this chapter, a method for the discrimination of S. aureus strains using superantigen profiles will be described in detail.

  7. Efficacy of extended cefquinome treatment of clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, J. M.; Cox, P.; Schukken, Y. H.; Lam, T. J G M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is difficult to cure. Extended antimicrobial treatment is often advocated as a practical approach to improve cure rates; however, scientific evidence of this hypothesis is lacking. A multi-centered, nonblinded, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial wa

  8. spa typing for epidemiological surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, Marie; Friedrich, Alexander W; Struelens, Marc J; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2009-01-01

    The spa typing method is based on sequencing of the polymorphic X region of the protein A gene (spa), present in all strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The X region is constituted of a variable number of 24-bp repeats flanked by well-conserved regions. This single-locus sequence-based typing method c

  9. Low efficacy of tobramycin in experimental Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C. J.; Christophersen, L. J.; Trøstrup, H.;

    2015-01-01

    The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  11. Natural Population Dynamics and Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Melles (Damian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen capable of causing a wide range of infections, from relatively mild skin infections such as folliculitis and furunculosis to life-threatening conditions, including sepsis, deep abscesses, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis

  12. Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perencevich, Eli N; Treise, Debbie M

    2010-11-01

    How the media communicate and how the scientific community influences the media are important factors to consider in the public health response to emerging pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Social representation theory suggests that the media link "the threatening" to commonplace "anchor representations" which can serve to educate or to create fear.

  13. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Italy: First nationwide survey, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Floriana; Bongiorno, Dafne; Perez, Marianna; Mongelli, Gino; Sessa, Laura; Benvenuto, Sabrina; Gona, Floriana; Varaldo, Pietro E; Stefani, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    A 3-month epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus nosocomial infections was performed in 52 centres throughout Italy in 2012. A total of 21,873 pathogens were analysed. The prevalence of S. aureus among all nosocomial pathogens isolated in that period was 11.6% (n=2541), whilst the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among the S. aureus was 35.8% (n=910). All tested antimicrobials demonstrated ≥92.2% susceptibility against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, with the exception of clindamycin (89.7%) and erythromycin (84.2%). Among MRSA, percentages of resistance ranged from 12.6% to >39% for tetracycline, rifampicin, clindamycin and gentamicin; higher percentages were found for erythromycin (65.4%) and fluoroquinolones (72.3-85.8%). Overall, the glycopeptide minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution showed that 58.3% of strains possessed MICs of 1-2mg/L and few strains were linezolid- or daptomycin-resistant. Molecular characterisation was performed on 102 MRSA selected from Northern, Central and Southern regions. Five major clones were found: Italian/ST228-I (t001-t023-t041-t1686-t3217), 33.3%; USA500/ST8-IV (t008), 17.6%; E-MRSA15/ST22-IVh (t020-t025-t032-t223), 16.7%; USA100/ST5-II (t002-t653-t1349-t2164-t3217-t388), 14.7%; and Brazilian/ST239/241-III (t030-t037), 3.9%. Five PVL-positive CA-MRSA isolates, belonging to USA300 and minor clones, were also identified. In conclusion, this first nationwide surveillance study showed that in Italy, S. aureus infections accounted for 11.6% of all nosocomial infections; MRSA accounted for approximately one-third of the S. aureus isolates and these were multidrug-resistant organisms. Five major MRSA epidemic clones were observed and were inter-regionally distributed, with ST228-SCCmecI becoming predominant.

  14. No decrease in susceptibility to NVC-422 in multiple-passage studies with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Louisa; Friedman, Lisa; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ping; Anderson, Mark; Debabov, Dmitri

    2012-05-01

    Twenty-five serial passages of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and 50 passages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resulted in no significant increase in NVC-422 MICs, while ciprofloxacin MICs increased 256-fold for E. coli and 32-fold for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Mupirocin, fusidic acid, and retapamulin MICs for MRSA increased 64-, 256-, and 16-fold, respectively. No cross-resistance to NVC-422 was observed with mupirocin-, fusidic acid-, and retapamulin-resistant strains.

  15. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  16. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  17. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus phage types and their correlation to antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most devastating human pathogen. The organism has a differential ability to spread and cause outbreak of infections. Characterization of these strains is important to control the spread of infection in the hospitals as well as in the community. Aim: To identify the currently existing phage groups of Staphylococcus aureus, their prevalence and resistance to antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Study was undertaken on 252 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical samples. Strains were phage typed and their resistance to antibiotics was determined following standard microbiological procedures. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test was used to compare the antibiotic susceptibility between methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA and methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA strains. Results: Prevalence of MRSA and MSSA strains was found to be 29.36% and 70.65% respectively. Of these 17.56% of MRSA and 40.44% of MSSA strains were community acquired. All the MSSA strains belonging to phage type 81 from the community were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested including clindamycin and were resistant to penicillin. Forty five percent strains of phage group III and 39% of non-typable MRSA strains from the hospital were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Conclusion: The study revealed that predominant phage group amongst MRSA strains was phage group III and amongst MSSA from the community was phage group NA (phage type 81. MSSA strains isolated from the community differed significantly from hospital strains in their phage type and antibiotic susceptibility. A good correlation was observed between community acquired strains of phage type 81 and sensitivity to gentamycin and clindamycin.

  19. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  20. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.

  1. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in European Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hotzel, Helmut; Peters, Martin; Guenther, Sebastian; Lazaris, Alexandros; Loncaric, Igor; Müller, Elke; Reissig, Annett; Ruppelt-Lorz, Antje; Shore, Anna C.; Walter, Birgit; Coleman, David C.; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known colonizer and cause of infection among animals and it has been described from numerous domestic and wild animal species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus in a convenience sample of European wildlife and to review what previously has been observed in the subject field. 124 S. aureus isolates were collected from wildlife in Germany, Austria and Sweden; they were characterized by DNA microarray hybridization and, for isolates with novel hybridization patterns, by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The isolates were assigned to 29 clonal complexes and singleton sequence types (CC1, CC5, CC6, CC7, CC8, CC9, CC12, CC15, CC22, CC25, CC30, CC49, CC59, CC88, CC97, CC130, CC133, CC398, ST425, CC599, CC692, CC707, ST890, CC1956, ST2425, CC2671, ST2691, CC2767 and ST2963), some of which (ST2425, ST2691, ST2963) were not described previously. Resistance rates in wildlife strains were rather low and mecA-MRSA isolates were rare (n = 6). mecC-MRSA (n = 8) were identified from a fox, a fallow deer, hares and hedgehogs. The common cattle-associated lineages CC479 and CC705 were not detected in wildlife in the present study while, in contrast, a third common cattle lineage, CC97, was found to be common among cervids. No Staphylococcus argenteus or Staphylococcus schweitzeri-like isolates were found. Systematic studies are required to monitor the possible transmission of human- and livestock-associated S. aureus/MRSA to wildlife and vice versa as well as the possible transmission, by unprotected contact to animals. The prevalence of S. aureus/MRSA in wildlife as well as its population structures in different wildlife host species warrants further investigation. PMID:27992523

  2. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  3. Environmental study of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic in a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, W A; Katz, E B; Sherertz, R J; Sarubbi, F A

    1983-01-01

    During an outbreak of infections caused by methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus in our burn unit, we conducted an extensive 10-week study to define the environmental epidemiology of the organism. The inanimate environment in patient rooms and adjacent areas was examined by using volumetric air samplers and Rodac plates. Airborne and surface level contamination with MR S. aureus was quantitated, and overall, MR S. aureus comprised 16, 31, and 40% of all bacterial growth from air, elevated surfaces, and floor surfaces, respectively. Mean air, elevated surface, and floor surface MR S. aureus contamination in rooms of MR S. aureus-infected burn patients were 1.9 MR S. aureus per ft3 (ca. 0.028 m3), 20 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate and 48 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate, respectively. Peak patient room environmental contamination levels were 6.9 MR S. aureus per ft3 of air, 70 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate per elevated surface and 138 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate per floor surface. Environmental contamination levels in the adjacent work areas were considerably lower than in infected patient rooms. There was ample opportunity for contamination of personnel through the inanimate environment in this unit. PMID:6630447

  4. The dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection in nine Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. D.; Sloth, K. H.; Elsberg, C.

    2000-01-01

    ribo- and phage patterns identical to S. aureus isolates from human carriers. The findings of the present study underline the importance of strict milking hygiene and improvement of current mastitis therapy. The results support the hypothesis that some S. aureus mastitis strains are more contagious......The aim of the present study was to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in nine dairy herds, and compare these with isolates from other sites on the cows by phage- and ribotyping. Whether colonisation of milkers with S. aureus could...... be a source of infection for bovine IMI was investigated. In addition, 100 epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic human carriers were also phage- and ribotyped to compare the human and bovine reservoir of S. aureus in Denmark. A total of 625 S. aureus isolates from bovine IMI, bovine...

  5. Inhibiting platelets aggregation could aggravate the acute infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Gao, Yaping; Dong, Jie; Mu, Chunhua; Lu, Qiang; Shao, Ningsheng; Yang, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Several fibrinogen binding proteins (Fibs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most Fibs can promote the aggregation of platelets during infection, but the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) is an exception. It is reported that Efb can specifically bind fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of platelet with its N terminal. However, the biological significance of platelet aggregation inhibition in the infection caused by S. aureus is unclear until now. Here, we demonstrated that the persistence and aggregation of platelets were important for killing S. aureus in whole blood. It was found that the N terminal of Efb (EfbN) and platelets inhibitors could increase the survival of S. aureus in whole blood. The study in vivo also showed that EfbN and platelets inhibitors could reduce the killing of S. aureus and increase the lethality rate of S. aureus in the acute infection mouse model.

  6. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Milk Using Real-time Fluorescence Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a kind of worldwide food-borne pathogen. Recently, S. aureus has gained considerable attention because of the increasing alimentary toxicosis incidence. In this study, a Real-Time fluorescence Loop-Mediated isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP was developed to detect S. aureus rapidly. The heat-stable nuclease (nuc gene of S. aureus, the target sequence, was selected to design four special primers. A rapid detection method for S. aureus was initially established under optimum reaction conditions. The assay, performed for 40 min at 61°C, did not show cross reactivity with other bacterial species. The specificity and sensitivity of RT-LAMP for detecting S. aureus were 100% and 8.0 CFU/mL, respectively. Results indicated that RT-LAMP was a potential field-usable molecular tool for detecting S. aureus This method can be an alternative to conventional LAMP in clinical applications and operational programs.

  7. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  8. con mala calidad de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Martín-Rodríguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio ex post facto se ha analizado si los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida presentan diferencias en las variables clínicas de personalidad y relaciones familiares en función de que el paciente haya estado o no ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Seleccionamos dos grupos: 29 familiares de pacientes traumatizados graves transcurridos cuatro años de su ingreso en una UCI de Traumatología y con mala calidad de vida (debido a secuelas físicas y/o psicológicas tras el ingreso, tales como traumatismos craneoencefálicos, politraumatismos y tetraplejias traumáticas y 32 familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida con cuatro años de evolución de su enfermedad física (hipertensión, diabetes, artritis reumatoide y síndrome de intestino irritable que no han estado ingresados en la UCI. Para alcanzar nuestro objetivo empleamos una Encuesta Psicosocial y los siguientes instrumentos: Cuestionario de Análisis Clínico, Escala de Clima Social en la Familia y Escala de Adaptación Psicosocial de la Enfermedad. Los resultados mostraron que los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que estuvieron ingresados en la UCI hace cuatro años, presentan diferencias significativas en las variables agitación y expresividad comparados con los familiares de pacientes con mala calidad de vida que no han estado ingresados en la UCI.

  9. Encuentro con el tiempo: Adagio con variaciones de Alfredo Aracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinando analíticamente la obra sinfónica Adagio con variaciones de Aracil, estudiaremos los principales componentes para concluir con una evaluación de los mismos. A través de la cronología de la obra de Aracil175, observamos la importancia que adquiere en su trayectoria la memoria; su pensamiento va siempre unido a ésta. Uno de sus recursos principales es la cita; es Adagio con variaciones donde claramente observaremos la memoria lejana e inmediata al tiempo: Wagner es el punto de referencia al pasado, Wolf impulsa hacia el presente, y, Aracil advierte el devenir en cada una de sus variaciones.

  10. Receptores GABAA (ácido γ-aminobutírico y su relación con la dependencia al alcohol Receptores GABAA (ácido γ-aminobutírico y su relación con la dependencia al alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Rengifo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de dependencia al alcohol es una enfermedad multifactorial, ambiental, cultural, social y genética. Son innumerables las investigaciones que han intentado elu- cidar los posibles mecanismos neurobiológicos de este síndrome para entender los cambios fisiológicos y comportamentales del individuo, de tal manera que se puedan brindar alter- nativas farmacológicas que ayuden a controlar este tipo dependencia.Esta revisión describe el papel de la neurotransmisión involucrada en el síndrome de de- pendencia al alcohol, principalmente la relacionada con el glutamato, la dopamina, los opioides y en especial el ácido γ-aminobutírico (GABA, porque la activación del receptor GABAA (receptor canal de cloro desencadena un efecto inhibitorio a nivel neuronal, y en individuos alcohólicos presenta hipofunción, la cual no le permite modular la recurrente excitación neuronal obteniendo como resultado un estado de desinhibición/hiperexcitación típico de alcohólicos. Por otra parte, los genes que codifican para las subunidades de los receptores GABAA ubicados en los cromosomas 4 y 15 han sido asociados con alcoholismo, al presentarse fuertes relaciones entre el desequilibrio de unión entre estos genes y el fenotipo de las ondas β en los electroencefalogramas de los individuos con el síndrome de dependencia al alcohol y sus descendientes.De acuerdo a las investigaciones en el tema, finalmente proponemos las posibles vías y sus mecanismos de control implicados en el síndrome de dependencia al alcohol.The alcohol dependence syndrome is a multifactorial, enviromental, cultural, social, and genetic dissease. The investigations are countless that have tried to elucidate the possible neurobiologic mechanisms of this syndrome to understand the individual’s physiologic and behavioral changes, in such way that it can be offered pharmacological alternatives that help to control this type of dependence. This revision describes the

  11. Los nenes con los zombies, las nenas con los vampiros

    OpenAIRE

    López Corral, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo nos circunscribiremos, dentro de este género literario, a las sagas de reciente salida editorial y, con mayor precisión, a las sagas de novelas románticas para adolescentes tales como Crepúsculo (Stephenie Meyer, 2005), Hush Hush (Becca Fitzpatrick, 2009), Cazadores de Sombras (Cassandra Clare, 2007), Fallen (Lauren Kate, 2010), y otras similares, dejando de lado sagas con otro tipo de particularidades como los citados libros de Harry Potter o los pertenecientes a la trilogía...

  12. Mutation of neuronal channels of sodium and chloride associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (gefs+ Mutaciones de los canales neuronales de sodio y cloro asociadas a epilepsia generalizada con convulsiones febriles plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+ is a frequent entity characterized by generalized seizures with a wide phenotypic variety; the age of onset is 3 months and it persists beyond 6 years. Seizures may or may not be induced by fever. The disease has shown an autosomic dominant trait, incomplete penetrance and association with mutations on the genes that encode voltage-dependent sodium channels and the chloride neuronal channels on the central nervous system. The wide spectrum GEFS+ phenotype has been related with others entities such as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI and Intractable Childhood Epilepsy with Frequent Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures (ICEGTC; they have mutations in common with GEFS+ according to several recently published articles. This review compiles up to date information about EGCF+ with the aim of giving the reader a knowledge of this entity and of its association with mutations that participate in its pathogenesis. La Epilepsia Generalizada Con Convulsiones Febriles Plus (EGCF+, es una entidad relativamente común. Se caracteriza por convulsiones de tipo generalizado con una gran variabilidad fenotípica; se presenta desde los 3 meses de edad y persiste más allá de los 6 años; las convulsiones pueden ser precipitadas por fiebre pero se presentan también sin ella. La enfermedad se ha asociado a herencia autosómica dominante con penetrancia incompleta, en la que intervienen mutaciones de los genes que codifican los canales iónicos de sodio dependientes del voltaje y de los canales iónicos de cloro en las neuronas del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC. El amplio fenotipo de la EGCF+ se ha encontrado en asociación con otras entidades como la Epilepsia Mioclónica Severa del Lactante (EMSL y la Epilepsia Generalizada Tónico-Clónica Intratable de la Infancia (EGTCII, las cuales han presentado mutaciones comunes con las de la EGCF+, según informes recientemente publicados. Esta revisi

  13. Entrevista con Hans Robert Jauss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Consejo de Redacción

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El importante teórico y crítico literario alemán nació en 1921. Tras el largo paréntesis de la segunda guerra mundial, Jauss realizará sus estudios superiores, a partir de 1948, en Heidelberg, licenciándose en filología románica. Se doctora pronto con una tesis, publicada en 1955, sobre el tiempo y el recuerdo en la obra capital de Marcel Proust, En busca del tiempo perdido, y se habilita en 1957 con un trabajo sobre la epopeya animal en la Edad Media. A continuación, escribe un conjunto de estudios sobre la alegoría, y codirige con el gran especialista Erich Kohler una monumental historia de la literatura medieval, campo al que ha dedicado otros artículos, a la par que proseguía sus investigaciones iniciales.

  14. Epidemiology of drug resistance: The case of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci infections Epidemiología de la resistencia bacteriana: el caso de Staphylococcus aureus y las infecciones Staphylococcus coagulasa negativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the activity of several antibiotics against Staphylococcus spp. Material and Methods. The study included 1209 strains of Staphylococcus spp. from two institutions; Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (National Institute of Pediatrics and Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (Mexico City Children's Hospital. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of all antibiotics were determined by the agar macrodilution technique and standard methods from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results. Resistance of S. aureus was 14.2% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci was 53.4%. The activity of different antibiotics is presented in detail. Conclusions. Surveillance of strains resistant to methicillin is necessary.Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de la resistencia a la meticilina y la actividad de varios antibióticos. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 1 209 cepas de Staphylococcus spp. procedentes de pacientes del Instituto Nacional de Pediatría y del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Se utilizó la técnica de dilución en placas con agar. El procedimiento e interpretación fueron acordes con lo establecido por el National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Resultados. La frecuencia de la resistencia de S. aureus fue de 14.2% y de 53.4% en los Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa. La actividad de otros antimicrobianos se presenta en el texto. Conclusiones. Es necesario vigilar continuamente la progresión de la resistencia de Staphylococcus spp. a la meticilina.

  15. Tratamiento con implantes Leader-Nano en paciente con oligodoncia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los implantes dentales de titanio han revolucionado el mundo de la rehabilitación desde su surgimiento. De manera particular, el empleo de implantes de carga inmediata acorta el tiempo quirúrgico y protésico, con el consiguiente bienestar estético. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de oligodoncia de ambos incisivos laterales superiores y portadora de prótesis parcial acrílica. Fue atendida por el equipo multidisciplinario de implantes en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente “3 de Octubre” y se le realizó tratamiento de rehabilitación integral con implantes Leader-Nano y prótesis fija con corona acrílica sobre dichos implantes. La implantología fue satisfactoria en la paciente; la mejoría estética y funcional, así como la satisfacción de la paciente, fueron los principales logros obtenidos

  16. ARLAB: Laboratorio con Realidad Aumentada

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calderón, Rosalino; Santillana Arbesú, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    ResumenARLAB es una innovación que incorporar tecnología de realidad aumentada a los experimentos clásicos decontrol y automatización industrial, permitiendo integrar y que interactúen varias tecnologías desarrollándoseexperimentos mixtos, parte real y parte virtual en 3D, que se visualiza con un dispositivo inteligente, como lo esun celular o tableta electrónica; con el fin de generar una visión del conocimiento más profunda y clara.

  17. Huevos enriquecidos con omega 3

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio de usos de ingredientes no tradicionales; harina de algas, Macrocystis pyrifera, y la inclusión en raciones para aves de postura destinado a aumentar la concentración de omega 3 del huevo. Objetivo: Evaluar en la alimentación de la gallina la inclusión de harina de alga marina Macrocystis pyrifera con el fin de aumentar el valor de omega 3 en el huevo, y el grado de aceptación de un producto elaborado con el mismo en estudiante...

  18. con dietas suplementadas con Cromo-L-metionina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Garc\\u00EDa-Castillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 48 cerdos (Sus scrofa domesticus; 24 machos castrados y 24 hembras cruzados (Yorkshire, Hampshire, Duroc y Landrace de 3,5 a 4,0 meses de edad y 60,0 ± 5,0 kg PV en finalización. Se alimentaron con dietas isoproteícas (14,5 % PC e isoenergéticas (3.400 kcal EM/kg de MS, adicionadas con Cr-L-metionina (MiCroPlex® (0, 200, 400 y 600 ppb. El experimento tuvo una duración de 45 días y se realizó de agosto a noviembre del 2002 en las instalaciones de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, localizada en Saltillo, Coahuila, México. Al tener los animales aproximadamente 95 kg PV, se tomó muestra de 15 ml de sangre por cada animal para determinar la concentración de glucosa, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, proteinas totales y colesterol. Se aplicó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 4; dos para el factor sexo y cuatro para nivel de cromo. Los metabolitos en suero no fueron afectados (P>0,05 por el factor sexo. La glucosa en suero disminuyó (P<0,05 y el colesterol incrementó (P<0,05 con cromo en la dieta. Se concluye que el Cr incrementa el metabolismo de glucosa y disminuye el de colesterol, con lo cual puede haber energía disponible para síntesis de proteína la cual es necesaria para el crecimiento de los animales

  19. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Bijnen, E.M.E. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossen, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria

  20. Prevalence and resistance of commensal Staphylococcus aureus, including meticillin-resistant S aureus, in nine European countries: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D. den; Bijnen, E.M. van; Paget, W.J.; Pringle, M.; Goossens, H.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus resistance to antimicrobial drugs has mainly been obtained from invasive strains, although the commensal microbiota is thought to be an important reservoir of resistance. We aimed to compare the prevalence of nasal S aureus carria

  1. Preventing Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Sepsis in Patients With Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of Intravascular Catheters A Retrospective Multicenter Study and Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, David J.; de Ruiter, Susanne C.; Buiting, Anton G. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Thijsen, Steven F.; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Wintermans, Robert G. F.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Ekkelenkamp, Miquel B.

    2011-01-01

    Two previous studies in tertiary care hospitals identified Staphylococcus aureus colonization of intravascular (IV) catheters as a strong predictor of subsequent S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), even in the absence of clinical signs of systemic infection. Bacteremia was effectively prevented by timely an

  2. In Vitro Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus to a New Antimicrobial, Copper Silicate▿

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The soluble copper silicate (CS) MIC of 100 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 100 strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 175 mg Cu/liter. Bactericidal and postantibiotic effects (≥1 h) were seen at 2× MIC and 4× MIC. The frequency of mutation was

  3. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrino, MS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  4. Mastitis Bovina: Resistencia a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus asiladas de leche (Bovine Mastitis: Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrino, MS; Frola, ID; Odierno, LM; Bogni, CI

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mastitis bovina es considerada la enfermedad infecciosa del ganado lechero de mayor impacto económico mundial, siendo Staphylococcus aureus el principal agente patógeno en muchos países.SummaryBovine mastitis is a frequent cause of economic loss in worldwide dairy herds, being Staphylococcus aureus the main etiological agent in many countries.

  5. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Ejaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S. aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration. Results: Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus

  6. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahat Ejaz; Usman A Ashfaq; Sobia Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S.aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk) were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S.aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration.Results:Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo) exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus.

  7. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reené Naidoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in paediatric patients with bloodstream infections. The epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia, however, has not been well documented in children in South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia from 2007-2011. The incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, management and outcomes of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA bacteraemia were compared. RESULTS: Over the five year study period, 365 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were identified. The annual incidence was 3.28 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. MRSA was responsible for 26% of S. aureus bacteraemia and 72% of nosocomial infections. Only six possible cases of community-acquired MRSA infections were described. MSSA bacteraemia was more likely to present as pulmonary and bone or joint infections, while bacteraemia without a source was the most common presentation with MRSA.  Infants, children with malnutrition, and residents of long-term care facilities were at highest risk for MRSA bacteraemia. The overall case fatality rate for S. aureus bacteraemia was 8.8% over five years, with MRSA being the only significant risk factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia and MRSA bacteraemia in children has remained stable over the past five years. MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen in children with S. aureus bacteraemia in Cape Town, South Africa.

  8. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated.

  9. Facing antibiotic resistance: Staphylococcus aureus phages as a medical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use.

  10. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Kaźmierczak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use.

  11. Fluorescent reporters for markerless genomic integration in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nienke W. M.; van der Horst, Thijs; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Nijland, Reindert

    2017-01-01

    We present integration vectors for Staphylococcus aureus encoding the fluorescent reporters mAmetrine, CFP, sGFP, YFP, mCherry and mKate. The expression is driven either from the sarA-P1 promoter or from any other promoter of choice. The reporter can be inserted markerless in the chromosome of a wide range of S. aureus strains. The integration site chosen does not disrupt any open reading frame, provides good expression, and has no detectable effect on the strains physiology. As an intermediate construct, we present a set of replicating plasmids containing the same fluorescent reporters. Also in these reporter plasmids the sarA-P1 promoter can be replaced by any other promoter of interest for expression studies. Cassettes from the replication plasmids can be readily swapped with the integration vector. With these constructs it becomes possible to monitor reporters of separate fluorescent wavelengths simultaneously. PMID:28266573

  12. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus......, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods: The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological...... and histological examinations of different organs were performed 4, 5 or 6 h after inoculation. Results: Clearance of bacteria from the blood was completed within the first 2 h in some of the pigs and the highest bacterial load was recorded in the lungs as compared to the spleen, liver and bones. This probably...

  13. An Aromatic Hydroxyamide Attenuates Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomacka, Jan; Korotkov, Vadim S; Bauer, Bianca; Weinandy, Franziska; Kunzmann, Martin H; Krysiak, Joanna; Baron, Oliver; Böttcher, Thomas; Lorenz-Baath, Katrin; Sieber, Stephan A

    2016-01-26

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes severe infections with only few effective antibiotic therapies currently available. To approach this challenge, chemical entities with a novel and resistance-free mode of action are desperately needed. Here, we introduce a new hydroxyamide compound that effectively reduces the expression of devastating toxins in various S. aureus and MRSA strains. The molecular mechanism was investigated by transcriptome analysis as well as by affinity-based protein profiling. Down-regulation of several pathogenesis associated genes suggested the inhibition of a central virulence-related pathway. Mass spectrometry-based chemical proteomics revealed putative molecular targets. Systemic treatment with the hydroxyamide showed significant reduction of abscess sizes in a MRSA mouse skin infection model. The absence of resistance development in vitro further underlines the finding that targeting virulence could lead to prolonged therapeutic options in comparison to antibiotics that directly address bacterial survival.

  14. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus......, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods: The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological...... was not detected in the blood and C-reactive protein did not increase, probably because of the short time course of the study. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the successful induction of acute pyemia (microabscesses), and forms a basis for future experiments that should include inoculation with strains of S...

  15. Applying Convergent Immunity to Innovative Vaccines Targeting Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Yeaman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent perspectives forecast a new paradigm for future 3rd generation vaccines based on commonalities found in diverse pathogens or convergent immune defenses to such pathogens. For Staphylococcus aureus, recurring infections and a limited success of vaccines containing S. aureus antigens imply that native antigens induce immune responses insufficient for optimal efficacy. These perspectives exemplify the need to apply novel vaccine strategies to high priority pathogens. One such approach can be termed convergent immunity, where antigens from non-target organisms that contain epitope homologues found in the target organism are applied in vaccines. This approach aims to evoke atypical immune defenses via synergistic processes that 1 afford protective efficacy; 2 target an epitope from one organism that contributes to protective immunity against another; 3 cross-protect against multiple pathogens occupying a common anatomic or immunologic niche; and/or 4 overcome immune subversion or avoidance strategies of target pathogens. Thus, convergent immunity has a potential to promote protective efficacy not usually elicited by native antigens from a target pathogen. Variations of this concept have been mainstays in the history of viral and bacterial vaccine development. A more far-reaching example is the pre–clinical evidence that specific fungal antigens can induce cross-kingdom protection against bacterial pathogens. This trans-kingdom protection has been demonstrated in preclinical studies of the recombinant Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (rAls3 where it was shown that a vaccine containing rAls3 provides homologous protection against C. albicans, heterologous protection against several other Candida species, and convergent protection against several strains of S. aureus. Convergent immunity reflects an intriguing new approach to designing and developing vaccine antigens and is considered here in the context of vaccines to target

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Staphylococcus aureus with DNA array technology

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA newly developed oligonucleotide array suited for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Staphylococcus aureus strains was analyzed with two strain collections in a two-center study. MLST allele identification for the first strain collection fully agreed with conventional strain typing. Analysis of strains from the second collection revealed that chip-defined MLST was concordant with conventional MLST. Array-mediated MLST data were reproducible, exchangeable, and epidemiologically ...

  17. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in der medizinischen Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hergenröder, H.; Mielke, Martin; Höller, C.; Herr, C.

    2012-01-01

    Reha-Kliniken legen im Umgang mit Methicillin-resistentem Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) häufig das Hygienemanagement der akutmedizinischen Versorgung zugrunde, was Patienten mit positivem MRSA-Status den Zugang in die stationäre Rehabilitation erschwert. In einer Arbeitsgruppe der Bayerischen Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Multiresistente Erreger (LARE) wurde die Problematik auf Basis einer systematischen Literaturrecherche, der Gründung eines Expertengremiums sowie der Auswertung vorliegender Hygi...

  18. Staphylococcus aureus nasal and pharyngeal carriage in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, C; Richard, V; Dufougeray, A; Biron, A; Seck, A; Laurent, F; Breurec, S

    2014-04-01

    Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from 132 patients admitted to the Principal Hospital in Dakar (Senegal), in January and February 2012. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage was 56.1% (n = 74): 40.2% for pharyngeal samples and 36.4% for nasal samples. None of the isolates was methicillin-resistant. Carriage was independently associated with being female (p Senegal as compared with industrialized countries.

  19. Phagotherapy faced with Staphylococcus aureus methicilin resistant infections in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tamariz, Jesús H.; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Biólogo, doctor en Ciencias Biológicas.; Lezameta, Lizet; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. licenciada en Tecnología Médica.; Guerra, Humberto; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the bacteriophage activity in localized and systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicilin (MRSA). Materials and methods. An experimental study was performed in 45 mice of the Balb/c strain divided in nine groups of five individuals. Ten naive bacteriophages were isolated through clinical samples and hospital effluents. Lytic capacity and spectrum activity was evaluated on the basis of which six phages were selected for phagotherapy trials. A...

  20. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump.

  1. Extensive Spinal Cord Injury following Staphylococcus aureus Septicemia and Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas De Schryver

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is rarely complicated by spinal cord involvement in adults. We report a case of Staphylococcus aureus septicemia complicated by meningitis and extensive spinal cord injury, leading to ascending brain stem necrosis and death. This complication was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging which demonstrated intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and by multimodality evoked potentials. Postmortem microscopic examination confirmed that the extensive spinal cord injury was of ischemic origin, caused by diffuse leptomeningitis and endarteritis.

  2. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to disco...

  3. Distribution of food-borne Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W D

    2016-01-29

    We identified and analyzed 5 new-type enterotoxin genes, including SEj, SEl, SEq, SEm, and SEr, to explore the distribution of 5 enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus aureus of different origins as well as their correlations and differences. We examined the distribution of the S. aureus enterotoxin genes and their pathogenic mechanisms. A total of 660 specimens were collected from January 2011 to December 2014, and 217 strains of S. aureus were isolated. The template DNA of S. aureus was extracted. The Primer6.0 and Oligo7 software were used to design and synthesize polymerase chain reaction primers. Amplification results were analyzed by electrophoresis, and the amplification products were recovered and sequenced. Thirty-six bacterial strains contained the SEj gene (16.6%), including 15, 8, 8, 4, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, human purulent tissue, and living environment, respectively. Thirty-one bacterial strains contained the SEr gene (14.3%), including 16, 9, and 6 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, and raw milk, respectively. Twenty-one bacterial strains contained the enterotoxin SEq gene (9.7%), including 8, 6, 6, and 1 strains in fresh meat, quick-frozen food, raw milk, and human purulent tissue, respectively. No SEm and SEl genes were detected. Different types of foods carry different types of enterotoxins, providing a basis for quick tracing for food poisoning. Three enterotoxin genes, SEj, SEr, and SEq, showed the highest carrier rate in quick-frozen food. It is imperative to improve their detection in quick-frozen food.

  4. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  5. Improved lux reporters for use in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesak, Lili Rosana; Yim, Grace; Davies, Julian

    2009-05-01

    The use of luxABCDE (lux) offers certain advantages over other reporters, such as: lacZ and xylE. It is real time and its signal generation is produced without the requirement for any additional substrates. In some bacteria such as Staphylococcus spp, light production by luciferase is restricted because of a limited availability of endogenous substrates such as fatty acid aldehyde. We describe the construction of promoterless-lux cloning vectors, pGYlux and pAmilux. S. aureus carrying B. subtilis xyl/tetO promoter fused to the lux genes of pGYlux gave up to a 2.5-fold enhancement of luminescence over S. aureus carrying the xyl/tetO promoter fused to lux genes of the previously published parent vector pAL2. Furthermore, pAmilux showed a 6-fold enhancement of lux expression when compared to pGYlux in S. aureus. This was achieved by cloning the constitutive ami promoter upstream of the luxCDE genes to increase endogenous fatty acid aldehyde production while maintaining its reporter functionality by fusing promoters to the luxAB genes.

  6. Persister formation in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with ATP depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Rowe, Sarah E.; Gandt, Autumn Brown; Nuxoll, Austin S.; Donegan, Niles P.; Zalis, Eliza A.; Clair, Geremy; Adkins, Joshua N.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Lewis, Kim

    2016-04-18

    Persisters are dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are tolerant to killing by antibiotics1. Persisters are associated with chronic bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment failure. In Escherichia coli, toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules are responsible for persister formation. The mechanism of persister formation in Gram positive bacteria is unknown. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, responsible for a variety of chronic and relapsing infections such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis and infections of implanted devices. Deleting TA modules in S. aureus did not affect the level of persisters. Here we show that S. aureus persisters are produced due to a stochastic entrance to stationary phase accompanied by a drop in intracellular ATP. Cells expressing stationary state markers are present throughout the growth phase, increasing in frequency with cell density. Cell sorting revealed that expression of stationary markers was associated with a 100-1000 fold increased likelihood of survival to antibiotic challenge. We find that the antibiotic tolerance of these cells is due to a drop in intracellular ATP. The ATP level of the cell is predictive of bactericidal antibiotic efficacy and explains bacterial tolerance to antibiotic treatment.

  7. Tea tree oil-induced transcriptional alterations in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2013-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO.

  8. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennison L. Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1 whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone and (2 whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n=3,927 and were not screened (n=1,751 for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (p=0.04. Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58 and MRSA (AUC = 0.62. These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA.

  9. Biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biochemical characters and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated Staphylococcus aureus (S. auerus) strains against some conventional and traditional antibiotics.Methods:Bacterial culture was done in Mueller-Hinton broth at 37 ℃. Characters of these strains were determined by traditional biochemical tests such as hydrolysis test of gelatin, urea, galactose, starch and protein, and fermentation of lactose and sucrose. Antibiotic susceptibility were carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration test, minium bactericidal concentration test, disc agar diffusion test and brain heart infusion oxacillin screening agar. Results: From this study, it was observed that 100% S. aureus isolates showed positive results in gelatin, urea and galactose hydrolysis test, 50% isolates were positive in starch hydrolysis test, 35% in protein hydrolysis test, 100% isolates in lactose fermenting test, but no isolate was positive in sucrose fermenting test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing suggested that 20% of isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Conclusions: These findings show that all these isolates have gelatin, urea, galactose hydrolysis and lactose fermenting activity. 20% of these isolates were resistant to kanamycin and 46.67% were resistant to oxacillin. Thirty post operative pathogenic isolated S. aureus strains were used in this study.

  10. Necroptosis Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Clearance by Inhibiting Excessive Inflammatory Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyegon Kitur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus triggers inflammation through inflammasome activation and recruitment of neutrophils, responses that are critical for pathogen clearance but are associated with substantial tissue damage. We postulated that necroptosis, cell death mediated by the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, would function to limit pathological inflammation. In models of skin infection or sepsis, Mlkl−/− mice had high bacterial loads, an inability to limit interleukin-1b (IL-1b production, and excessive inflammation. Similarly, mice treated with RIPK1 or RIPK3 inhibitors had increased bacterial loads in a model of sepsis. Ripk3−/− mice exhibited increased staphylococcal clearance and decreased inflammation in skin and systemic infection, due to direct effects of RIPK3 on IL-1b activation and apoptosis. In contrast to Casp1/4−/− mice with defective S. aureus killing, the poor outcomes of Mlkl−/− mice could not be attributed to impaired phagocytic function. We conclude that necroptotic cell death limits the pathological inflammation induced by S. aureus.

  11. Rot is a key regulator of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, Joe M.; Benson, Meredith A.; Heim, Cortney E.; Crosby, Heidi A.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Dunman, Paul M.; Kielian, Tammy; Torres, Victor J.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    AUTHOR SUMMARY Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of chronic biofilm infections on medical implants. We investigated the biofilm regulatory cascade and discovered that the repressor of toxins (Rot) is part of this pathway. A USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain deficient in Rot was unable to form a biofilm using multiple different assays, and we found rot mutants in other strain lineages were also biofilm deficient. By performing a global analysis of transcripts and protein production controlled by Rot, we observed that all the secreted protease genes were upregulated in a rot mutant, and we hypothesized that this regulation could be responsible for the biofilm phenotype. To investigate this question, we determined that Rot bound to the protease promoters, and we observed that activity levels of these enzymes, in particular the cysteine proteases, were increased in a rot mutant. By inactivating these proteases, biofilm capacity was restored to the mutant, demonstrating they are responsible for the biofilm negative phenotype. Finally, we tested the rot mutant in a mouse catheter model of biofilm infection and observed a significant reduction in biofilm burden. Thus S. aureus uses the transcription factor Rot to repress secreted protease levels in order to build a biofilm. PMID:25612137

  12. Modulation of Drug Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus with Coumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Aquino de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semisynthetic and commercial coumarins were investigated for their antibacterial and adjuvant properties with antibiotic agents against norfloxacin, erythromycin, and tetracycline resistant Staphylococcus aureus as based on efflux mechanisms. The coumarins and certain commercial antibiotics had their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations determined by broth microdilution assay against resistant S. aureus strains which overexpress efflux pump proteins. For evaluation of the modulatory activity, the antibiotics MICs were determined in the presence of the coumarin derivatives at subinhibitory concentration. Although the coumarins did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC ≥ 128 µg/mL, they did modulate the antibiotics activities. Various coumarins, especially the alkylated derivatives in combination with antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations, modulated antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC for tetracycline and norfloxacin by 2 to 8 times. Polar Surface Area (PSA studies were performed and the fact that the presence of apolar groups is an important factor for the modulatory activity of coumarins was corroborated. Docking on the Penicillin-Binding Protein from MRSA identified that 18 is a potential ligand presenting low Ebinding. The results indicate that coumarin derivatives modulated antibiotic resistance and may be used as potential antibiotic adjuvants, acting by bacterial efflux pump inhibition in S. aureus.

  13. Inhibitory effects of antibiofilm compound 1 against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Looniva; Kayama, Shizuo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kato, Fuminori; Hisatsune, Junzo; Tsuruda, Keiko; Koizumi, Kazuhisa; Tatsukawa, Nobuyuki; Yu, Liansheng; Takeda, Kei; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2016-03-01

    A novel benzimidazole molecule that was identified in a small-molecule screen and is known as antibiofilm compound 1 (ABC-1) has been found to prevent bacterial biofilm formation by multiple bacterial pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, without affecting bacterial growth. Here, the biofilm inhibiting ability of 156 μM ABC-1 was tested in various biofilm-forming strains of S. aureus. It was demonstrated that ABC-1 inhibits biofilm formation by these strains at micromolar concentrations regardless of the strains' dependence on Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin (PIA), cell wall-associated protein dependent or cell wall- associated extracellular DNA (eDNA). Of note, ABC-1 treatment primarily inhibited Protein A (SpA) expression in all strains tested. spa gene disruption showed decreased biofilm formation; however, the mutants still produced more biofilm than ABC-1 treated strains, implying that ABC-1 affects not only SpA but also other factors. Indeed, ABC-1 also attenuated the accumulation of PIA and eDNA on cell surface. Our results suggest that ABC-1 has pleotropic effects on several biofilm components and thus inhibits biofilm formation by S. aureus.

  14. Monitoring of abdominal Staphylococcus aureus infection using magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromrey, M L; Göhler, A; Friedrich, N

    2017-01-01

    complying with biosafety level 2 requirements was constructed. After intravenous infection with 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) (n = 3), 10(6) CFU (n = 11) or 10(7) CFU (n = 6) of S. aureus strain Newman, female Balb/c mice were whole-body scanned by 7T MRI. Abdominal infections such as abscesses were...... survival rate was 33 %. An intermediate S. aureus dose showed a survival rate of 80 %, whereas at the lowest infection dose, none of the animals died. All animals with the highest infection dose exhibited hepatic abscesses 4 days after inoculation, 80 % developed renal abscesses on the 3rd day. Mice...... obtaining the intermediate S. aureus load reached a plateau at day 4 with 72 % liver and 60 % renal abscess probability. No abscesses were observed in other abdominal organs at any time point. The implemented experimental setup provides a suitable and reliable in vivo MRI method to study murine abdominal...

  15. Heterogeneity of host TLR2 stimulation by Staphylocoocus aureus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Hilmi

    Full Text Available High lipoprotein expression and potent activation of host Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2 are characteristic features of the staphylococcal species. Expression of TLR2 in the host is important for clearance of Staphylococcus aureus infection and host survival. Thus, we hypothesized that bacterial regulation of its intrinsic TLR2-stimulatory capacity could represent a means for immune evasion or host adaptation. We, therefore, compared clinical S. aureus isolates in regards to their TLR2 activation potential and assessed the bacterial factors that modulate TLR2-mediated recognition. S. aureus isolates displayed considerable variability in TLR2-activity with low to absent TLR2-activity in 64% of the isolates tested (68/106. Notably, strain-specific TLR2-activity was independent of the strain origin, e.g. no differences were found between strains isolated from respiratory specimen from cystic fibrosis patients or those isolated from invasive disease specimen. TLR2-activity correlated with protein A expression but not with the agr status. Capsule expression and small colony variant formation had a negative impact on TLR2-activity but any disruption of cell wall integrity enhanced TLR2 activation. Altogether, heterogeneity in host TLR2-activity reflects differences in metabolic activity and cell wall synthesis and/or remodeling.

  16. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections.

  17. Ocorrência de Staphylococcus aureus em queijo tipo "frescal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Filho Edvaldo Sampaio de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a ocorrência de Staphylococcus aureus em uma amostra de queijo tipo Minas "frescal" comercializado na cidade de Poços de Caldas, MG, de modo a obter subsídios que permitam avaliar o risco potencial que este produto pode representar para a saúde da população consumidora. MÉTODOS: Foi investigada a presença e o número de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus em 80 amostras de queijo tipo Minas "frescal" produzido artesanalmente e comercializado na cidade de Poços de Caldas, MG, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a presença de S. aureus em 40 (50,0% amostras, cujas contagens revelaram valores médios em torno de 10(5/g. CONCLUSÕES: Tais achados parecem ser extremamente preocupantes, pois além de se situarem acima do limite máximo de 10³/g estabelecido pelo Ministério da Saúde, estes valores mostraram-se muito próximos dos requeridos para a produção de enterotoxinas em quantidades suficientes para a ocorrência de surtos de intoxicação alimentar estafilocócica.

  18. Un momento con el maestro

    OpenAIRE

    Poblete Garaycochea, Luis; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Quiero comenzar, manifestando mis experiencias de comunicación teniendo como fundamento teórico a Carl ROGERS, "El camino del Ser", obra que me sirvió de inspiración e identificación con su pensamiento en el proceso del desarrollo como ser humano.

  19. A vueltas con Samuel Beckett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Cardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de la obra de Lourdes Carriedo, Mª Luisa Guerrero, Carmen Méndez y Fabio Vericat(eds.: A vueltas con Beckett. Aproximaciones críticas en su centenario (Madrid, Ediciones de La Discreta,col. «Bártulos», 2009, 362 páginas, ISBN: 978-84-96322-29-5.

  20. Cross-talk between Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococcal species via the agr quorum sensing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Canovas de la Nuez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing peptides (AIPs sensed by AgrC, a two component histidine kinase. agr loci are found also in other staphylococcal species and for S. epidermidis, the encoded AIP represses expression of agr regulated virulence genes in S. aureus. In this study we aimed to determine how other staphylococci affect S. aureus agr, and if such interaction may point to new anti-virulence candidates to target S. aureus infections. Here we show that culture supernatants of 37 out of 52 staphylococcal isolates representing 17 different species inhibit S. aureus agr. The dog pathogen, S. schleiferi, expressed the most potent inhibitory activity and was active against all four agr classes found in S. aureus. By employing a S. aureus strain encoding a constitutively active AIP receptor we show that the activity is mediated via agr. Subsequent cloning and heterologous expression of the S. schleiferi AIP in S. aureus demonstrated that this molecule was likely responsible for the inhibitory activity, and further proof was provided when pure synthetic S. schleiferi AIP was able to completely abolish agr induction of an S. aureus reporter strain. To assess impact on S. aureus virulence, we co-inoculated S. aureus and S. schleiferi in vivo in the Galleria Mellonella wax moth larva, and found that expression of key S. aureus virulence factors was abrogated. Our data show that the S. aureus agr locus is highly responsive to other staphylococcal species suggesting that agr is an inter-species communication system. Based on these results we speculate that interactions between S. aureus and other colonizing staphylococci will significantly influence the ability of S. aureus to cause infection, and

  1. Con

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence to support the recommended salt intake of ..., health authorities use BP effects obtained in studies of pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients to recommend SR in the healthy population and use these biased BP effects in statistical models indirectly to project millions of saved lives. These fantasy projections are in contrast to real data from...

  2. Frecuencia y susceptibilidad antibiótica del staphylococcus aureus proveniente de hisopados asales en una población urbano marginal de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Carmona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y los factores asociados de la colonización nasal por Staphylococcus aureus, así como el patrón de susceptibilidad antibiótica en una población urbano marginal de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal en personas de cualquier edad provenientes de un distrito urbano marginal de la zona norte de la ciudad de Lima. El muestreo fue por conveniencia. A cada persona se le realizó una encuesta y se le tomó una muestra de hisopado de las narinas, las que fueron procesadas para la identificación de Staphylococcus aureus y determinación del patrón de susceptibilidad mediante el método de difusión de disco de Kirby Bauer. Resultados. De los 452 participantes reclutados, entre 1 y 84 años de edad, la frecuencia de colonización nasal de Staphylococcus aureus fue de 24,6%, de los cuales solo el 0,9% fue resistente a meticilina. El único factor asociado a la colonización nasal fue la edad menor o igual a 11 años (OR: 3,80; IC95%: 1,42 - 10,16. La mayoría de cepas fue resistente a la penicilina (96,4% pero también se presentó a la eritromicina (10,9%, clindamicina (7,3% y gentamicina (4,5% en menor proporción. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de colonización nasal por Staphylococcus aureus fue similar a otros estudios a nivel mundial, con predominio de cepas meticilino sensibles

  3. Dispersal of Bap-mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilm by proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Shukla, Sudhir; Rao, Toleti Subba

    2013-02-01

    The dominant role of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development prompted us to investigate Bap as a potential target for proteinase-mediated biofilm dispersion. Biofilm assay in microtitre plates showed that proteinase K hampered the early adhesion of cells as well as biofilm development. Proteinase K treatment of 24- and 48-h-old biofilms showed enhanced dispersion of bap-positive S. aureus biofilm; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-negative S. aureus biofilm. When antibiotics were used in combination with proteinase K, significant enhancement in antibiotic action was noticed against bap-positive S. aureus biofilm. This study establishes that antibiotics in combination with proteinase K can be used for controlling S. aureus biofilms in whose development Bap surface protein has a major role. We propose that Bap protein could be a potential target for therapeutic control of S. aureus infections (for example, bovine mastitis).

  4. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zituni, Dunya; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Kopp, Marion; Krönke, Martin; Addicks, Klaus; Hoffmann, Christian; Hellmich, Martin; Faber, Franz; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V⋅m(-1). Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli.

  5. [Examination of Staphylococcus aureus survival and growth during cheese-making process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Kenji; Takahashi, Chitose; Yamauchi, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Fumihiko; Igarashi, Hideo; Yanahira, Syuichi; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2008-04-01

    Inoculation tests of Staphylococcus aureus were performed to evaluate the risk of toxic hazard in cheese manufacturing processes. S. aureus was inoculated into pasteurized milk or cheese curd, and the survival and growth were examined. S. aureus grew only slightly or decreased in cell number under the manufacturing condition of semi-hard type cheese or soft-type cheese. Under the conditions of the fresh cheese making process, S. aureus slightly increased in cell number, though no enterotoxin was detected. In processed cheese, S. aureus did not grow at all. Growth inhibition of S. aureus by lactic acid produced from starter culture was suggested to be the cause of growth inhibition in the natural cheese.

  6. Be alert to the alterations in the biological characteristics in heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus in many cases appears to be associated with characteristic changes. These changes may have pitfall of identifying S. aureus by automated testing methods like Vitek 32. In this study, we retested 24 heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus haemolyticus (h-VISH collected in 2008-2010 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology by conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA reversion test and electron microscopic examination were also used. Six isolates of 24 h-VISH possessed nuc, coa, and 16S rRNA genes, and could be reversed into S. aureus. It suggested that biochemical and morphological changes in hVISA and vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA should be considered, and the detection of S. aureus, especially reduced vancomycin susceptibility isolates, requires more attention and different techniques.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+ software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance.SeqSphere(+ analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  8. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  9. Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus play an important role in experimental skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub; Jin, Tao; Josefsson, Elisabet

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of skin infections that range from mild diseases up to life-threatening conditions. Mechanisms of S. aureus virulence in those infections remain poorly studied. To investigate the impact of S. aureus surface proteins on skin infection, we used mouse models of skin abscess formation and skin necrosis, induced by a subcutaneous injection of bacteria. In the skin abscess model, a sortase-deficient S. aureus strain lacking all of its cell-wall anchored proteins was less virulent than its wild-type strain. Also, strains specifically lacking protein A, fibronecting binding proteins, clumping factor A or surface protein SasF were impaired in their virulence. When a model of dermonecrosis was studied, the S. aureus surface proteins could not be shown to be involved. In summary, surface proteins play an important role in virulence of S. aureus skin abscess infections, but not in formation of skin necrosis.

  10. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low-direct current electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dunya Zituni; Heidi Schu tt-Gerowitt; Marion Kopp; Martin Kro nke; Klaus Addicks; Christian Hoffmann; Martin Hellmich; Franz Faber; Wilhelm Niedermeier

    2014-01-01

    Electrical potentials up to 800 mV can be observed between different metallic dental restorations. These potentials produce fields in the mouth that may interfere with microbial communities. The present study focuses on the impact of different electric field strengths (EFS) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) in vitro. Cultures of S. aureus and E. coli in fluid and gel medium were exposed to different EFS. Effects were determined by calculation of viable counts and measurement of inhibition zones. In gel medium, anodic inhibition zones for S. aureus were larger than those for E. coli at all field strength levels. In fluid medium, the maximum decrease in the viable count of S. aureus cells was at 10 V?m21. Field-treated S. aureus cells presented ruptured cell walls and disintegrated cytoplasm. Conclusively, S. aureus is more sensitive to increasing electric field strength than E. coli.

  11. A type IV modification-dependent restriction enzyme SauUSI from Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus USA300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang-Yong; Corvaglia, Anna R; Chan, Siu-Hong; Zheng, Yu; Linder, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    A gene encoding a putative DNA helicase from Staphylococcus aureus USA300 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified to over 90% purity by chromatography. The purified enzyme, SauUSI, predominantly cleaves modified DNA containing 5mC and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Cleavage of 5mC-modified plasmids indicated that the sites S5mCNGS (S = C or G) are preferentially digested. The endonuclease activity requires the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or dATP whereas the non-hydrolyzable γ-S-ATP does not support activity. SauUSI activity was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is most active in Mg(++) buffers. No companion methylase gene was found near the SauUSI restriction gene. The absence of a cognate methylase and cleavage of modified DNA indicate that SauUSI belongs to type IV restriction endonucleases, a group that includes EcoK McrBC and Mrr. SauUSI belongs to a family of highly similar homologs found in other sequenced S. aureus, S. epidermidis and S. carnosus genomes. More distant SauUSI orthologs can be found in over 150 sequenced bacterial/archaea genomes. Finally, we demonstrated the biological function of the type IV REase in restricting 5mC-modified plasmid DNA by transformation into clinical S. aureus strain SA564, and in restricting phage λ infection when the endonuclease is expressed in E. coli.

  12. Decoupling Activation of Heme Biosynthesis from Anaerobic Toxicity in a Molecule Active in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Dutter, Brendan F.; Mike, Laura A.; Reid, Paul R.; Chong, Katherine M.; Ramos-Hunter, Susan J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Sulikowski, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules active in the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are valuable tools for the study of its basic biology and pathogenesis, and many molecules may provide leads for novel therapeutics. We have previously reported a small molecule, 1, which activates endogenous heme biosynthesis in S. aureus, leading to an accumulation of intracellular heme. In addition to this novel activity, 1 also exhibits toxicity towards S. aureus growing under fermentative conditions. To determine if...

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses’ hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention. PMID:28030828

  14. Mechanism of hetero-erythromycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and a comparison of detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东科

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phenotypes and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus)hetero-resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin and compare their detection methods so as to report results accurately to guide clinical rational use of antibiotics.Methods D test was used to detect the phenotypes of S.aureus hetero-resistant to erythromycin.And then the results of two methods(automated instrument and disk diffusion)were analyzed.All strains were continuously passaged for 50 generations to

  15. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  16. Subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil affect the expression of secreted virulence factor genes in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of staphylococcus aureus is dependent largely upon its ability to secrete a number of virulence factors, therefore, anti-virulence strategy to combat S. aureus-mediated infections is now gaining great interest. It is widely recognized that some plant essential oils could affect the production of staphylococcal exotoxins when used at subinhibitory concentrations. Perilla [Perilla frutescens (L. Britton], a natural medicine found in eastern Asia, is primarily used as both a medicinal and culinary herb. Its essential oil (perilla oil has been previously demonstrated to be active against S. aureus. However, there are no data on the influence of perilla oil on the production of S. aureus exotoxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of perilla oil against S. aureus strains. Hemolysis, tumour necrosis factor (TNF release, Western blot, and real-time RT-PCR assays were performed to evaluate the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of perilla oil on exotoxins production in S. aureus. The data presented here show that perilla oil dose-dependently decreased the production of α-toxin, enterotoxins A and B (the major staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1 in both methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The production of α-toxin, SEA, SEB, and TSST-1 in S. aureus was decreased by perilla oil. These data suggest that perilla oil may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics, which can increase exotoxins production by S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, perilla oil could be rationally applied in food systems as a novel food preservative both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to repress the production of exotoxins, particularly staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  17. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics ......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  18. Emergence of sequence type 779 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harboring a novel pseudo staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-SCC-SCCCRISPR composite element in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinnevey, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a major cause of nosocomial infection in Irish hospitals for 4 decades, and replacement of predominant MRSA clones has occurred several times. An MRSA isolate recovered in 2006 as part of a larger study of sporadic MRSA exhibited a rare spa (t878) and multilocus sequence (ST779) type and was nontypeable by PCR- and DNA microarray-based staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element typing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of a novel 51-kb composite island (CI) element with three distinct domains, each flanked by direct repeat and inverted repeat sequences, including (i) a pseudo SCCmec element (16.3 kb) carrying mecA with a novel mec class region, a fusidic acid resistance gene (fusC), and two copper resistance genes (copB and copC) but lacking ccr genes; (ii) an SCC element (17.5 kb) carrying a novel ccrAB4 allele; and (iii) an SCC element (17.4 kb) carrying a novel ccrC allele and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) region. The novel CI was subsequently identified by PCR in an additional 13 t878\\/ST779 MRSA isolates, six from bloodstream infections, recovered between 2006 and 2011 in 11 hospitals. Analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) carried by the CI showed amino acid sequence similarity of 44 to 100% to ORFs from S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). These findings provide further evidence of genetic transfer between S. aureus and CoNS and show how this contributes to the emergence of novel SCCmec elements and MRSA strains. Ongoing surveillance of this MRSA strain is warranted and will require updating of currently used SCCmec typing methods.

  19. Estudio clínico, citogenético y molecular en pacientes con el síndrome de Russell- Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bedoya Berrío

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Russel Silver (SRS fue descrito independientemente por Silver y colaboradores en 1953 (1 y por Russell en 1954 (2. Silver hizo énfasis en la asimetría esquelética como característica del trastorno. Russel observó que esta característica era variable en los pacientes que examinó. El diagnóstico clínico incluye un severo retraso en el crecimiento pre y postnatal, características dismórficas incluyendo cara triangular, frente amplia, mandíbula pequeña y comisuras
    labiales hacia abajo (3,4.
    Recientes descubrimientos de disomía uniparental materna
    (DUPm del cromosoma 7 en el 10% de los pacientes con SRS,
    sugieren la presencia de genes impronta en este cromosoma, cuya mutación es responsable del fenotipo de SRS (5.
    Genes comprometidos: varios genes impronta (PEG1/MEST,
    gamama2- COP, y GBR10 localizados en el cromosoma 7. En pacientes con SRS se han identificado duplicaciones en la región 7p13-p11.2 de origen materno que rodean el gen GBR10. Recientemente, pacientes SRS con DUP de la región 7q31-qter únicamente, han reforzado la evidencia que PG1/MEST o genes adyacentes son críticos.
    Pruebas moleculares: solamente el 10% de los casos clínicos
    presentan un mecanismo de alteración de la impronta (UDPm 7; este análisis de microsatélites requiere las muestras de los padres. Luego de que los genes críticos han sido mapeados, las deleciones y los puntos de mutación pueden identificarse en pacientes que no presentan DUP (6.
    La incidencia de SRS no se conoce y puede estar subestimada.

  20. Characterization of Haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Food of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ariyanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen bacteria causing food poisoning and various infection in animals and humans. Haemolysin is one of the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. The aims of the research were to characterize haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. In the present study, eleven Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origins from traditional markets and supermarkets in Yogyakarta, Sidoarjo, Jakarta, and Bandung were characterized for haemolysin, pheno- and genotypically. Characterization of haemolysin phenotypically based on haemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plate. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results of the studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plates revealed an alpha haemolysis pattern (18,18%, beta haemolysis (27,27% and gamma haemolysis (54,55%. Based on amplification of the gene encoding haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus with specific primers showed hla genes (81,81%, and hla combined with hlb genes (18,18%. The amplification of gene hla and hlb had a single amplicon with a size of approximately 534 bp and 833 bp, respectively. The haemolysin characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus from various food of animal origin could be used as important information to control staphylococcal food poisoning.Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, haemolysin, PCR, food of animal origins

  1. A Prophage in Diabetic Foot Ulcer-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus Impairs Invasiveness by Limiting Intracellular Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Rémy, Catherine; Sapin, Anaïs; Messad, Nourredine; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Dupieux, Céline; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Frédéric

    2016-11-15

    The mechanisms that drive the transition from commensality to invasiveness in Staphylococcus aureus are poorly understood. We recently reported that >50% of S. aureus isolates from uninfected diabetic foot ulcers in French patients harbor a prophage, ROSA-like, that is absent from invasive isolates from diabetic foot infections, including osteomyelitis. Here we show that the ROSA-like insertion abolishes the ability of S. aureus to replicate within osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, greatly reducing damage to infected cells. These results unravel an important mechanism by which particular S. aureus strains are maintained in a commensal state in diabetic foot ulcers.

  2. Role of Nasal Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Transmission among Contact Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Tagami, K

    2015-12-01

    Among athletes, Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be transmitted by close physical contact with carriers. Nevertheless, evidence is limited with regard to both the tracking of individual strains and the role of S. aureus on the skin's surface. We investigated its transmission using molecular genotyping and the presence of S. aureus on the skin during exercise. In the first study, nasal samples were obtained from 172 athletes over a period of up to one year. The 200 strains of S. aureus collected from these athletes were genotyped, and transmission of S. aureus was detected by phage open reading frame typing (POT). In the second study, the presence of S. aureus on the skin's surface was compared between nasal carriers (n=9) and non-nasal carriers (n=9), who had participated in the first study. In the first study, 10 cases of transmission were confirmed. In the second study, exercise-induced sweating increased S. aureus isolates from the skin's surface (before vs. after exercise: 5.2±5.4 vs. 41.7±40.6 CFU/ml) in nasal carriers. In 5 of 9 nasal carriers, S. aureus isolates from the skin's surface were clonally identical to those from the nares. These results identify a major route of S. aureus transmission among athletes and provide insight into the role played by exercise-induced sweating in nasal carriers.

  3. The complex biology and contribution of Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis, current and future therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, L; Hijnen, D J; Sellman, B R; Mustelin, T; Sleeman, M A; May, R D; Strickland, I

    2016-10-25

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection. S. aureus generates exoproteins that enable invasion and dissemination within the host skin but can also damage the skin and activate the host immune system. Antibiotics are often used by dermatologists to aid clearance of S. aureus; however, these are becoming less effective and chronic usage discouraged with the emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains. New ways to target S. aureus using monoclonal antibodies and vaccines are now being developed. This review will attempt to evaluate the key biology of S. aureus, current treatment of S. aureus infections in atopic dermatitis and recent advances in developing new anti-S. aureus therapies that have potential in severe AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus on university dance studio floors and barres: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Desiree A; Russell, Jeffrey A; Martiny, Adam C

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium associated with various infectious diseases. Not only has the bacterium been detected in sports environments, the reported incidences of S. aureus infections have steadily increased in athletic teams. However, in spite of similarities between sports and dance facilities, to our knowledge no previous study has examined the presence of this bacterium in the dance environment. We hypothesized that S. aureus would be present in a university's dance studios, and that it would be extant in higher concentrations inside versus outside the studios. Using common microbiological culturing methods, samples were gathered from floors and barres in three studios of a single university, as well as from outside floors and railings near the studios and a conference room used by dancers. Confirming our hypothesis, we detected S. aureus in every dance studio sample (0.03 to 0.38 cfu/cm 2 ). Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that average S. aureus concentrations from the three studios were significantly higher compared to both outside and conference room samples (P ≤ 0.001). The latter two locations did not yield any S. aureus concentrations. Control samples developed as expected. The results of this study suggest that S. aureus bacteria are common on the flooring and barres of university dance studios, with the bacterial concentrations possibly dependent on the hours of usage of these surfaces. Whether the presence of S. aureus in dance studios presents a health risk to dancers should be studied further.

  5. Isolation of nuc mutant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastempowska, E; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Lassa, H

    2014-06-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with a mutation in the nuclease (nuc) gene were recovered from cases of bovine mastitis in Poland. Three S. aureus isolates from cows in one herd had a 42 base pair duplication in the nuc gene. These isolates belonged to sequence type 97 (ST97) and clonal complex 97 (CC97). They had a different spa type and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) subtype than a S. aureus isolate without the nuc mutation from the same herd. Isolation of nuc mutant S. aureus strains from cases of bovine mastitis may confound diagnostic PCRs based on detection of the nuc gene.

  6. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  7. Rapid Exchange of Bound ADP on the Staphylococcus aureus Replication Initiation Protein DnaA*

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, regulatory inactivation of the replication initiator DnaA occurs after initiation as a result of hydrolysis of bound ATP to ADP, but it has been unknown how DnaA is controlled to coordinate cell growth and chromosomal replication in Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. This study examined the roles of ATP binding and its hydrolysis in the regulation of the S. aureus DnaA activity. In vitro, S. aureus DnaA melted S. aureus oriC in the presence of ATP but n...

  8. Literatura con mayúsculas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerrillo, P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un acercamiento alconcepto de la Literatura Infantil y Juvenil a travésde una breve visión diacrítica desde sus orígeneshasta nuestros días, subrayando los usos particularesmás característicos de esta literatura en cadaépoca (didáctico, doctrinal, proselitista…. Ademásde señalar sus coincidencias con la Literatura engeneral, se pone también de relieve sus particularidadesy características específicas, en lo que noes sino un nuevo intento de delimitar la caracterizaciónde la LIJ (contenidos, temática, estructuraliteraria, forma, ediciones… y reivindicar estaLiteratura con mayúsculas.

  9. pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Herrera Herrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación fundamenta en la clínica psicoanalítica el estudio de dos casos de tres personas diagnosticadas con IRT que reciben tratamiento de hemodiálisis, en razón a que dadas las características y el aumento de los reportes que se presentan, ya esto se considera un problema de salud pública. El objetivo principal es describir las características dinámicas del proceso de duelo en pacientes con IRT en un centro de terapia renal de la ciudad de Cartagena. El procedimiento metodológico empleó un diseño de tipo cualitativo; la investigación se desarrolló con un diseño clínico mediante el estudio de casos, y fundamentada en la hermenéutica psicoanalítica. Todo esto respaldado en la historia clínica, la entrevista semiestructurada individual y familiar, los test proyectivos, test del dibujo de la figura humana Machover y TAT de Murray, para la debida integración de los análisis. Se concluye que predominan funciones fallidas de los progenitores y que son individuos provenientes de familias psicosomáticas, que utilizan la enfermedad para obtener un beneficio secundario.

  10. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  11. Estudio del perfil de anticuerpos contra Helicobacter pylori producidos por pacientes con diferentes patologías gastroduodenales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinel Clara

    2004-12-01

    una parte, los pacientes con G, GA y C relacionados con el reconocimiento frecuente de los antígenos VacA y el antígeno de 90 kDa, y por otra parte, los pacientes con UD y MI, asociados con el antígeno de 70 kDa. Estos resultados muestran que la respuesta hacia los antígenos de Helicobacter pylori, además de resultar específica y variada, actúa como un indicador de la patología desarrollada luego de la infección, distinguiendo los dos procesos excluyentes de formación de úlcera y cáncer. Al determinar la respuesta específica dada por cada subclase de IgG, se observó que los antígenos eran reconocidos
    especialmente por la IgG2, con menor frecuencia por la IgG1 e IgG3, y minoritariamente por la IgG4. Este tipo de proporción (IgG2>IgG1 manifiesta una mayor activación de los linfocitos T ayudadores de fenotipo Th1 que resulta inapropiada pues perpetúa la inflamación
    inducida por la bacteria y que puede dar origen al desarrollo de enfermedades gastrointetinales más severas. Por otra parte, se determinó que según su papel en el reconocimiento antigénico
    de la bacteria, las subclases de IgG pueden separarse en dos grupos diferentes: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 y por otro lado la IgG4 , asociado con una variedad de antígenos en cada patología. Esta diferenciación sugiere que mientras las subclases IgG1 e IgG2 representan la mayor respuesta
    en el reconocimiento de la bacteria, la subclase IgG4 por ser minoritaria, resulta específica y podría ser usada en el estudio de la respuesta hacia la bacteria en cada patología. Adicionalmente, la estrecha relación encontrada en el reconocimiento del antígeno de 82 kDa por parte
    de la subclase 1 en los pacientes con gastritis atrófica y adenocarcinoma gástrico, indica que la presencia de anticuerpos hacia esta proteína podría ser usada como un marcador de cáncer, mientras que el estudio del reconocimiento de los demás antígenos principales (70 kDa, 90 kDA y VacA puede convertirse en una

  12. Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus on Polish pig farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowska, Aneta; Żmudzki, Jacek; Marszałek, Natalia; Orczykowska-Kotyna, Monika; Komorowska, Iga; Nowak, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Anna; Czyżewska-Dors, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Pejsak, Zygmunt; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Wyszomirski, Tomasz; Empel, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Background Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) draws increasing attention due to its particular ability to colonize farm animals and be transmitted to people, which in turn leads to its spread in the environment. The aim of the study was to determine the dissemination of LA-SA on pig farms selected throughout Poland, characterize the population structure of identified S. aureus, and assess the prevalence of LA-SA carriage amongst farmers and veterinarians being in contact with pigs. Methods and findings The study was conducted on 123 pig farms (89 farrow-to-finish and 34 nucleus herds), located in 15 out of 16 provinces of Poland. Human and pig nasal swabs, as well as dust samples were analyzed. S. aureus was detected on 79 (64.2%) farms from 14 provinces. Amongst these farms LA-SA-positive farms dominated (71/79, 89.9%, 95% CI [81.0%, 95.5%]). The prevalence of LA-MRSA-positive farms was lower than LA-MSSA-positive (36.6% of LA-SA-positive farms, 95% CI [25.5%, 48.9%] vs. 74.6%, 95% CI [62.9%, 84.2%]). In total, 190 S. aureus isolates were identified: 72 (38%) MRSA and 118 (62%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), of which 174 (92%) isolates were classified to three livestock-associated lineages: CC398 (73%), CC9 (13%), and CC30/ST433 (6%). All CC398 isolates belonged to the animal clade. Four LA-MRSA clones were detected: ST433-IVa(2B) clone (n = 8, 11%), described to the best of our knowledge for the first time, and three ST398 clones (n = 64, 89%) with the most prevalent being ST398-V(5C2&5)c, followed by ST398-V(5C2), and ST398-IVa(2B). Nasal carriage of LA-SA by pig farmers was estimated at 13.2% (38/283), CC398 carriage at 12.7% (36/283) and ST398-MRSA carriage at 3.2% (9/283), whereas by veterinarians at 21.1% (8/38), 18.4% (7/38) and 10.5% (4/38), respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of LA-MRSA-positive pig farms in Poland has increased considerably since 2008, when the first MRSA EU baseline survey was conducted in Europe. On

  13. Clinical Risk Factors for Infective Endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted. PMID:28265207

  14. Staphylococcus aureus α-Toxin: Nearly a Century of Intrigue

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    Bryan J. Berube

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus secretes a number of host-injurious toxins, among the most prominent of which is the small β-barrel pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Initially named based on its properties as a red blood cell lytic toxin, early studies suggested a far greater complexity of α-hemolysin action as nucleated cells also exhibited distinct responses to intoxication. The hemolysin, most aptly referred to as α-toxin based on its broad range of cellular specificity, has long been recognized as an important cause of injury in the context of both skin necrosis and lethal infection. The recent identification of ADAM10 as a cellular receptor for α-toxin has provided keen insight on the biology of toxin action during disease pathogenesis, demonstrating the molecular mechanisms by which the toxin causes tissue barrier disruption at host interfaces lined by epithelial or endothelial cells. This review highlights both the historical studies that laid the groundwork for nearly a century of research on α-toxin and key findings on the structural and functional biology of the toxin, in addition to discussing emerging observations that have significantly expanded our understanding of this toxin in S. aureus disease. The identification of ADAM10 as a proteinaceous receptor for the toxin not only provides a greater appreciation of truths uncovered by many historic studies, but now affords the opportunity to more extensively probe and understand the role of α-toxin in modulation of the complex interaction of S. aureus with its human host.

  15. Proteome changes of Caenorhabditis elegans upon a Staphylococcus aureus infection

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    Schoofs Liliane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of invertebrates throughout evolution is an excellent illustration of the efficiency of their defence strategies. Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an appropriate model for transcriptome studies of host-pathogen interactions. The aim of this paper is to complement this knowledge by investigating the worm's response to a Staphylococcus aureus infection through a 2-dimensional differential proteomics approach. Results Different types of growth media in combination with either E. coli OP50 or Staphylococcus aureus were tested for an effect on the worm's lifespan. LB agar was chosen and C. elegans samples were collected 1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 24 h post S. aureus infection or E. coli incubation. Proteomics analyses resulted in the identification of 130 spots corresponding to a total of 108 differentially expressed proteins. Conclusions Exploring four time-points discloses a dynamic insight of the reaction against a gram-positive infection at the level of the whole organism. The remarkable upregulation after 8 h and 24 h of many enzymes involved in the citric acid cycle might illustrate the cost of fighting off an infection. Intriguing is the downregulation of chaperone molecules, which are presumed to serve a protective role. A comparison with a similar experiment in which C. elegans was infected with the gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila reveals that merely 9% of the identified spots, some of which even exhibiting an opposite regulation, are present in both studies. Hence, our findings emphasise the complexity and pathogen-specificity of the worm's immune response and form a firm basis for future functional research. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Itai Yanai, Dieter Wolf and Torben Luebke (nominated by Walter Lutz.

  16. Detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus isolates in domestic dairy products

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    HR Tavakoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Staphylococcus aureusis a one of THE most frequent causes of food poisoning (FP in dairy products. The main etiologic agents of FP are staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE. There are different types of SE; types A (SEA and B (SEB are the most clinically important enterotoxins. Traditional dairy products are still produced in small batches and sold by some vendors without a permit from the Ministry of Health. This study focuses on the molecular and serological detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus SEA and SEB genes and its products, respectively from samples of such traditional products."nMaterials and Methods: 100 samples from dairy products were produced under sterile conditions via traditional methods and were transported to the laboratory. The samples were cultured and identified by routine bacteriological methods. The isolated bacteria were evaluated by PCR tests for detection of the genes encoding SEA and SEB. Subsequently, the ability of these strains to produce enterotoxin was examined by Sac's culture method and was confirmed by Sigel Radial Immounodiffussion (SRID."nResults: The results indicated that 32% of the dairy products were contaminated by S. aureus (cream 18% , cheese 10%, milk 4%. The PCR results showed that 15.6% of the S. aureus isolates possessed the SEA gene, 9.3% had the SEB gene, and 6.2% possessed both genes. The evaluation of enterotoxin production indicated that 80% of SEA and 33% of SEB genes were expressed."nConclusion: Enterotoxins SEA and SEB are heat stable and consequently; heating has no effect on dairy products contaminated by entertoxins. Subsequently, gastritis may occur within several hours after consumption. Our findings suggest that PCR is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive method for detecting SE and can replace the traditional assays.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a new zoonotic agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Burkhard; Orendi, Ulrike; Much, Peter; Höger, Gerda; Ruppitsch, Werner; Krziwanek, Karina; Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection in hospitals and the community. One third of the general population is colonized by the bacterium, constituting a risk factor for acquisition of infection with this pathogen. Worldwide, the increasing antibiotic resistance of S. aureus complicates treatment of infection and control measures. Soon after the introduction of methicillin, the first isolates resistant to this antibiotic were reported and named methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). During the past decade a major change in MRSA epidemiology has been observed: whereas in the past MRSA was almost exclusively regarded a hospital pathogen, the advent of community-acquired MRSA has led to infections in people without hospital-related risk factors. Recent evidence has also identified a link between colonization of livestock and MRSA carriage and infections in people who work with animals. Screening of pigs and pig farmers in the Netherlands revealed high prevalence of MRSA sequence type (ST) 398 and it has become clear that the emergence of ST398 is not just a Dutch problem, as reports on livestock colonization and human infections are appearing worldwide. In Austria, the ST398 lineage has been detected in dust samples from pig breeding facilities and in food samples. Since the first Austrian detection of this emerging lineage in 2006, 21 human isolates, partially associated with infections, have been observed. MRSA has to be regarded as a new emerging zoonotic agent and livestock may constitute a growing reservoir of the ST398 lineage. More information is needed so that control measures to reduce the impact of the emerging MRSA ST398 lineage on public health can be developed and implemented.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in a tropical setting: patient outcome and impact of antibiotic resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Nickerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most information on invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections comes from temperate countries. There are considerable knowledge gaps in epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance and outcome of invasive S. aureus infection in the tropics. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of S. aureus bacteraemia was conducted in a 1000-bed regional hospital in northeast Thailand over 1 year. Detailed clinical data were collected and final outcomes determined at 12 weeks, and correlated with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of infecting isolates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-eight patients with S. aureus bacteraemia were recruited. The range of clinical manifestations was similar to that reported from temperate countries. The prevalence of endocarditis was 14%. The disease burden was highest at both extremes of age, whilst mortality increased with age. The all-cause mortality rate was 52%, with a mortality attributable to S. aureus of 44%. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was responsible for 28% of infections, all of which were healthcare-associated. Mortality rates for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA were 67% (18/27 and 46% (33/71, respectively (p = 0.11. MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant. Only vancomycin or fusidic acid would be suitable as empirical treatment options for suspected MRSA infection. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus is a significant pathogen in northeast Thailand, with comparable clinical manifestations and a similar endocarditis prevalence but higher mortality than industrialised countries. S. aureus bacteraemia is frequently associated with exposure to healthcare settings with MRSA causing a considerable burden of disease. Further studies are required to define setting-specific strategies to reduce mortality from S. aureus bacteraemia, prevent MRSA transmission, and to define the burden of S. aureus disease and emergence of drug resistance throughout the developing world.

  19. Decrease of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Helcococcus kunzii in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngba Essebe, Christelle; Visvikis, Orane; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Vergne, Anne; Cattoir, Vincent; Lecoustumier, Alain; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Social bacterial interactions are considered essential in numerous infectious diseases, particularly in wounds. Foot ulcers are a common complication in diabetic patients and these ulcers become frequently infected. This infection is usually polymicrobial promoting cell-to-cell communications. Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated. Its association with Helcococcus kunzii, commensal Gram-positive cocci, is frequently described. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of co-infection on virulence of both H. kunzii and S. aureus strains in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. To study the host response, qRT-PCRs targeting host defense genes were performed. We observed that H. kunzii strains harbored a very low (LT50: 5.7 days ± 0.4) or an absence of virulence (LT50: 6.9 days ± 0.5). In contrast, S. aureus strains (LT50: 2.9 days ± 0.4) were significantly more virulent than all H. kunzii (P < 0.001). When H. kunzii and S. aureus strains were associated, H. kunzii significantly reduced the virulence of the S. aureus strain in nematodes (LT50 between 4.4 and 5.2 days; P < 0.001). To evaluate the impact of these strains on host response, transcriptomic analysis showed that the ingestion of S. aureus led to a strong induction of defense genes (lys-5, sodh-1, and cyp-37B1) while H. kunzii did not. No statistical difference of host response genes expression was observed when C. elegans were infected with either S. aureus alone or with S. aureus + H. kunzii. Moreover, two well-characterized virulence factors (hla and agr) present in S. aureus were down-regulated when S. aureus were co-infected with H. kunzii. This study showed that H. kunzii decreased the virulence of S. aureus without modifying directly the host defense response. Factor(s) produced by this bacterium modulating the staphylococci virulence must be investigated. PMID:28361041

  20. Análisis de las hospitalizaciones por bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter de hemodiálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carrasco Salinas

    Full Text Available El uso de catéteres venosos centrales para hemodiálisis se ha incrementado de tal forma, que actualmente en nuestro país, el 30%, de los pacientes son portadores de este acceso vascular. No obstante su duración es limitada y presentan con frecuencia complicaciones, como por ejemplo bacteriemias relacionadas con el catéter de hemodiálisis. Esta, es una complicación con elevada morbimortalidad en los pacientes en tratamiento renal sustitutivo crónico. El objetivo de este análisis fue conocer la incidencia de hospitalizaciones, identificar los gérmenes más frecuentemente relacionados en nuestra población y analizar los factores demográficos y clínicos asociados. Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo en el que se analizaron todos los ingresos por bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter de hemodiálisis durante el año 2011. Se recogieron los datos clínicos de los pacientes, demográficos y comorbilidad. El número total de ingresos por bacteriemias relacionadas con el catéter fue de 45 en 35 pacientes, con una edad media de 69.9 años. Los gérmenes más frecuentemente aislados fueron cocos gram positivos (Staphilococcus aureus mecitilin resistente y Staphilococcus aureus meticilin sensible. La mortalidad fue de 14% (5 pacientes. A la vista de nuestros resultados, podemos concluir que la bacteriemia relacionada con el catéter es una complicación grave en los pacientes en hemodiálisis. Representa casi el 50% de los ingresos durante 2011 de los pacientes en hemodiálisis. Está asociada con una elevada morbilidad y consumo de recursos.

  1. Synthesis and function of phospholipids in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Slavetinsky, Christoph J; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Phospholipids are the major components of bacterial membranes, and changes in phospholipid composition affect important cellular processes such as metabolism, stress response, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence. The most prominent phospholipids in Staphylococcus aureus are phosphatidylglycerol, lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin, whose biosynthesis is mediated by a complex protein machinery. Phospholipid composition of the staphylococcal membrane has to be continuously adjusted to changing external conditions, which is achieved by a series of transcriptional and biochemical regulatory mechanisms. This mini-review outlines the current state of knowledge concerning synthesis, regulation, and function of the major staphylococcal phospholipids.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M A; Liñares, J; Martín, R

    1997-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are among the most common nosocomial pathogens. The most significant mechanism of resistance to methicillin in this-species is the acquisition of a genetic determinant (mecA gene). However, resistance seems to have a more complex molecular basis, since additional chromosomal material is involved in such resistance. Besides, overproduction of penicillinase and/or alterations in the PBPs can contribute to the formation of resistance phenotypes. Genetic and environmental factors leading to MRSA are reviewed.

  3. Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Kalynn B; Hill, Emilie; Shah, Kairav J

    2016-05-10

    A 37-year-old woman with a history of type II diabetes and Crohn's disease, status postcholecystectomy, presented with a >2-week history of cramping abdominal pain, nausea, non-bloody/non-bilious emesis and, later, diarrhoea. A flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed, revealing that 'a segmental pseudomembrane was found from rectum to sigmoid colon'. Clostridium difficile PCR on the stool was repeated twice and resulted negative both times. A food history prior to onset of symptoms was consistent with Staphylococcal food poisoning and a stool culture was positive for heavy growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the absence of enteric flora. The patient was successfully treated with oral vancomycin.

  4. Aminoglycoside inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation is nutrient dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Stanley, Michelle J; Hess, Donavon J; Wells, Carol L

    2014-06-01

    Biofilms represent microbial communities, encased in a self-produced matrix or extracellular polymeric substance. Microbial biofilms are likely responsible for a large proportion of clinically significant infections and the multicellular nature of biofilm existence has been repeatedly associated with antibiotic resistance. Classical in vitro antibiotic-susceptibility testing utilizes artificial growth media and planktonic microbes, but this method may not account for the variability inherent in environments subject to biofilm growth in vivo. Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that nutrient concentration can modulate the antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Developing S. aureus biofilms initiated on surgical sutures, and in selected experiments planktonic cultures, were incubated for 16 h in 66 % tryptic soy broth, 0.2 % glucose (1× TSBg), supplemented with bactericidal concentrations of gentamicin, streptomycin, ampicillin or vancomycin. In parallel experiments, antibiotics were added to growth medium diluted one-third (1/3× TSBg) or concentrated threefold (3× TSBg). Following incubation, viable bacteria were enumerated from planktonic cultures or suture sonicates, and biofilm biomass was assayed using spectrophotometry. Interestingly, bactericidal concentrations of gentamicin (5 µg gentamicin ml(-1)) and streptomycin (32 µg streptomycin ml(-1)) inhibited biofilm formation in samples incubated in 1/3× or 1× TSBg, but not in samples incubated in 3× TSBg. The nutrient dependence of aminoglycoside susceptibility is not only associated with biofilm formation, as planktonic cultures incubated in 3× TSBg in the presence of gentamicin also showed antibiotic resistance. These findings appeared specific for aminoglycosides because biofilm formation was inhibited in all three growth media supplemented with bactericidal concentrations of the cell wall-active antibiotics, ampicillin and vancomycin. Additional experiments

  5. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  6. Drugs resistance and penicillinase activity in skin isolated Staphylococcus aureus

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    Bhat K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to evaluate the drug resistance pattern and penicillinase production in skin isolated Staphylococcus aurpus. The disk diffusion method showed prevalence of: multidrug resistance among S. aureus, strains, isolated from locafised skin abscesses. method for detection of penicilfinase could detect this enzyme m 98.60/o of the isolates all fo which were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. C16xacillin resistance as detected by the agar dilution method was found in 1.4% of the isolates. On the whole cloxacillin and gentamy′cin were found to be the most effective ′antistaphylococcal antibotics.

  7. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

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    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  8. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital......INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  9. Pyrazole Based Inhibitors against Enzymes of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Vijayakuma, Vinodhkumar; Palayam, Malathy

    2015-01-01

    Pyrazole derivatives display a wide variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Its biological prominence has intrigued chemists and biologists in recent years to synthesize new pyrazole derivatives as antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer...... agents. The current study focuses on molecular docking and dynamics studies of pyrazole derivatives against Nucleosidase and DNA gyrase B of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking and dynamics studies reveal that some of these derivatives show better binding abilities than some of the current drugs...

  10. Density-functional calculations of Con+,Con, Con- (n≤5) clusters%Con+,Con,Con -(n≤5)团簇的密度泛函理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 陈楚; 张军

    2011-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of Con+ ,Con,Con- (n≤5) clusters had been investigated using spin-polarized DFT calculations. The ground-state structures of Con+ ,Con,Con- (n≤5) clusters evoluted from one-dimension to three dimensional configurations. The total magnetic moment showed monotonic increase with size up to 5, which alternated with odd and even numbers. The interaction strengths between Con+-1(n≤5) cluster and Co atom were much more stronger. The electronic affinities (EA)and ionization potential (IP)also had been discussed in this work.%本文采用基于自旋极化的密度泛函理论系统研究了Con+,Con,Con- (n≤5)团簇的几何结构和电子结构特性.随尺寸的递增,Con,Con± (n≤5)团簇的基态几何结构由一维演变为三维的几何构型.总磁矩随尺寸的增加线性递增,并呈现奇偶交替的现象,从Con,Con±(n≤5)团簇系统中分离一个Co原子带正电的团簇体系需要的能量相对较大.本文对体系的电子亲和能(EA)以及离化势(IP)也进行了讨论.

  11. Welfare – con o senza stato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Steen

    Welfare – con o senza stato analizza una vasta gamma di servizi sociali presenti a Padova, comprandoli con quelli di una cittá di dimensioni simili, Århus. La ricerca pertanto illustra la concreta erticolazione del sisterma di sicurezza sociale danese, confrontadolo con quello realizzato del nord...

  12. Echocardiographic findings predict in-hospital and 1-year mortality in left-sided native valve Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K.; Park, Lawrence; Tong, Steven Y C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus left-sided native valve infective endocarditis (LNVIE) has higher complication and mortality rates compared with endocarditis from other pathogens. Whether echocardiographic variables can predict prognosis in S aureus LNVIE is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consec...

  13. Tratamiento del paciente con artrosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El manejo terapéutico del paciente con artrosis tiene como objetivo disminuir la sintomatología dolorosa e inflamatoria, mejorar la capacidad funcional del paciente y la aplicación de intervenciones terapéuticas eficaces y lo más seguras posibles. Un enfoque centrado en el paciente implica su participación activa en el diseño del plan terapéutico y en la toma de decisiones informadas oportunas en todas las etapas de la enfermedad. La educación terapéutica, la actividad física y el ejercicio t...

  14. Conversando con... ALBERTO CAMPO BAEZA

    OpenAIRE

    Granero Martín, Francisco; Millán-Millán, Pablo-M.

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Interview with Alberto Campo Baeza, who is an architect and Project profesor in the Architecture School of Madrid. He has just been awarded the Teachinbg Excellency Award issued by the Technical University of Madrid and the 2013 Tessenow Gold Medal [ES] Entrevista con Alberto Campo Baeza, que es arquitecto y catedrático de proyectos de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid. Acaba de recibir el Premio de Excelencia Docente de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid y la Medalla de Oro Tes...

  15. Paniculitis en paciente con dermatomiositis

    OpenAIRE

    Arias,Mariana; Hernández,María Inés; Cunha,Lais Gomes Barbosa; Kien,María Cristina; Abeldaño, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    La paniculitis es una manifestación cutánea infrecuente de la dermatomiositis. Puede preceder hasta en 14 meses a otras manifestaciones de la dermatomiositis. En todos los casos, la miositis y la paniculitis presentan mejoría simultánea durante el tratamiento. Describimos una paciente de sexo femenino de 30 años que presenta lesiones clínica e histológicamente compatibles con paniculitis luego de 2 meses de que el compromiso muscular y cutáneo permitió el diagnóstico de dermatomiositis. Las l...

  16. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concepción Porrero, M.; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I.;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (ML...

  17. Influence of antibiotic pressure on bacterial bioluminescence, with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daghighi, Seyedmojtaba; Sjollema, Jelmer; Harapanahalli, Akshay; Dijkstra, Rene J. B.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is used for longitudinal evaluation of bacteria in live animals. Clear relations exist between bacterial numbers and their bioluminescence. However, bioluminescence images of Staphylococcus aureus Xen29, S. aureus Xen36 and Escherichia coli Xen14 grown on tryptone soy agar in

  18. Development of a Standard Test to Assess the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Cells to Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppens, S.B.I.; Reij, M.W.; Heijden, van der R.W.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2002-01-01

    A standardized disinfectant test for Staphylococcus aureus cells in biofilms was developed. Two disinfectants, the membrane-active compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and the oxidizing agent sodium hypochlorite, were used to evaluate the biofilm test. S. aureus formed biofilms on glass, stainless s

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Imported Fish and Correlations between Antibiotic Resistance and Enterotoxigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaidat, Mohammad M; Salman, Alaa E Bani; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-11-01

    A total of 156 Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from 330 imported fresh fish samples from three countries. Selective media were used for the isolation of S. aureus, and the isolates were confirmed by PCR. The isolates were tested for mecA gene, antibiotic resistance, and enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei). Most isolates carried sea, seg, and sei genes, and seg-sei was the most frequent enterotoxin profile. About 88.5% of the S. aureus exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic. High resistance to penicillin and ampicillin; low resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampin, and clindamycin; and very low resistance to cefotaxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin were exhibited by S. aureus from the three countries. In addition, some antibiotic resistance exhibited a strong correlation (P ≤ 0.01) with enterotoxigenicity in S. aureus. The study concluded that the large amount of globally traded fish increases the possibility of intercontinental transmission of enterotoxigenic and multidrug-resistant S. aureus through fish and highlights the potential influence of local fish handling and processing on consumer health worldwide. The introduction of periodic training in food safety and hygiene is essential to increase fish handlers' awareness of good hygienic practices in handling fish. These findings also enrich the ongoing debate about the risk of methicillin- and multidrug-resistant S. aureus as a foodborne pathogen compared with drug-susceptible S. aureus.

  20. Prevalence and antibiogram study of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in poultry meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Akbar; Anil Kumar Anal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in retail poultry meat products. Methods: Foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and S. aureus) were isolated from poultry meat and confirmed with the help of biochemical and immunological test. Antibiogram of the isolates were examined by following CLSI methods. Results: A total number of 209 poultry meat samples were collected and studied in this study. Out of which, 5.26%were found contaminated with Salmonella while 18.18%were found contaminated with S. aureus. All the Salmonella and S. aureus isolates were found resistant to at least one antibiotic. About 72.72%of the Salmonella isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, while S. aureus isolates were also found highly resistant to tetracycline equal to 44.73%. One of the Salmonella isolates showed multi-drug resistance to almost six antibiotics out of nine antibiotics used in the study. Multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates were also found in the study. Conclusions: The study confirmed the presence of Salmonella and S. aureus in retail poultry meat. It is a potential threat to consumer health. To reduce the risk of contamination, good hygiene practices are necessary from processing to storage.

  1. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersing, Birgitte K; Dastgheyb, Sana S; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Moorthy, Vasee

    2016-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile gram positive bacterium that is resident as an asymptomatic colonizer on the skin and in the nasopharynx of approximately 30% of individuals. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk for acquiring S. aureus infections, which can cause a range of clinical symptoms that are commonly associated with skin and soft-tissue infections. The emergence of S. aureus strains that are highly resistant to antimicrobials has recently become a major public health concern. In low-income countries the incidence of S. aureus disease is highest in neonates and children up to one year of age and mortality rates are estimated to be up to 50%. In the United States, S. aureus infection accounts for approximately 300,000 hospitalizations per year. A vaccine against multi-drug resistant S. aureus, therefore, is urgently needed. Two vaccine candidates have previously been evaluated in late-stage clinical trials but have not demonstrated efficacy. At present, one vaccine candidate and two monoclonal antibody are undergoing clinical evaluation in target groups at high risk for S. aureus infection. This review provides an overview of current vaccine development efforts and presents the major technical and regulatory challenges to developing a licensed S. aureus vaccine.

  2. Nigribactin, a Novel Siderophore from Vibrio nigripulchritudo, Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that employs a number of virulence factors as part of its pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to explore marine bacteria as a source of compounds that modulate virulence gene expression in S. aureus. During the global marine Galathe...

  3. Prevalence of coagulase gene polymorphism in Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Dangler, C. A.; Sordillo, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate polymorphism of the coagulase gene of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis. One hundred eighty-seven strains of S. aureus were isolated from bovine mastitic milk samples obtained from 187 different Danish dairy farms. The isolates were characterised...

  4. Norlichexanthone Reduces Virulence Gene Expression and Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldry, Mara; Nielsen, Anita; Bojer, Martin S.;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen and antibiotic resistant, community-associated strains, such as the methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300, continue to spread. To avoid resistance, anti-virulence therapy has been proposed where toxicity is targeted rather than viab...

  5. Mechanism and consequences of invasion of endothelial cells by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    It has become clear that Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular microorganism. Adherence and invasion are a prerequisite for endovascular infections caused by S. aureus, such as infective endocarditis. These phenomena may also be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive and metastatic

  6. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, Abdul S.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Methodology: Nasal swabs were tak...

  7. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic p...

  8. The therapeutic effect of Chlorogenic acid against Staphylococcus aureus infection through Sortase A inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and wide spread of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus requires the development of new therapeutic agents with alternative modes of action. Anti-virulence strategies are hoped to meet that need. Sortase A (SrtA has attracted great interest as a potential drug target to treat infections caused by S. aureus, as many of the surface proteins displayed by SrtA function as virulence factors by mediating bacterial adhesion to specific organ tissues, invasion of host cells, and evasion of the host-immune responses. It has been suggested that inhibitors of SrtA might be promising candidates for the treatment and/or prevention of S. aureus infections. In this study, we report that Chlorogenic acid (CHA, a natural compound that lacks significant anti–S. aureus activity, inhibit the activity of SrtA in vitro (IC50=33.86±5.55μg/ml and the binding of S. aureus to fibrinogen (Fg. Using molecular dynamics simulations and mutagenesis assays, we further demonstrate that CHA binds to the binding sites of C184 and G192 in the SrtA. In vivo studies demonstrated that CHA prevent mice from S. aureus-induced renal abscess, resulting in a significant survival advantage. These findings indicate that CHA is a promising therapeutic compound against SrtA during S. aureus infections.

  9. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlecht, L.M.; Peters, B.M.; Krom, B.P.; Freiberg, J.A.; Hänsch, G.M.; Filler, S.G.; Jabra-Rizk, M.A.; Shirtliff, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  10. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous, versatile and dangerous pathogen. It colonizes over 30% of the human population, and is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious agent. During S. aureus colonization and invasion, leukocytes are recruited to the site of infection. To combat S. aureus, leukocytes generate an arsenal of reactive species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypohalous acids that modify and inactivate cellular macromolecules, resulting in growth defects or death. When S. aureus colonization cannot be cleared by the immune system, antibiotic treatment is necessary and can be effective. Yet, this organism quickly gains resistance to each new antibiotic it encounters. Therefore, it is in the interest of human health to acquire a deeper understanding of how S. aureus evades killing by the immune system. Advances in this field will have implications for the design of future S. aureus treatments that complement and assist the host immune response. In that regard, this review focuses on how S. aureus avoids host-generated oxidative stress, and discusses the mechanisms used by S. aureus to survive oxidative damage including antioxidants, direct repair of damaged proteins, sensing oxidant stress and transcriptional changes. This review will elucidate areas for studies to identify and validate future antimicrobial targets.

  11. Triple-acting Peptidoglycan hydrolase treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  12. Triple-acting antimicrobial treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  13. Subinhibitory concentrations of punicalagin reduces expression of virulence-related exoproteins by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Su-Hyun; Kong, Ryong; Seo, Yun-Soo; Zhou, Tian; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Shin, Dong-Won; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2016-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of virulence factors. The major virulence factors exhibited by S aureus include various antigens, enzymes, cytotoxins and exotoxins (e.g. hemolysins, enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin). In this report, we show the influence of punicalagin on the secretion of exoprotein from S aureus by western blotting, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assay and quantitative RT-PCR. When added to S aureus cultures at an OD600 of 0.9, graded subinhibitory concentrations of punicalagin reduced the production of α-toxin, SEA and SEB in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, punicalagin reduced TNF-inducing activity by S aureus culture supernatants. Here, the transcriptional level of agr (accessory gene regulator) in S aureus was inhibited by punicalagin, suggesting that the reduced transcription may affect the secretion of exotoxins. These findings suggest that the expression of α-toxin and enterotoxins in S aureus is sensitive to the action of punicalagin, which may be an advantageous candidate in the treatment of toxigenic staphylococcal disease.

  14. Physicochemical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus-lysing LysK enzyme in complexes with polycationic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many serious visceral, skin, and respiratory diseases. About 90% of clinical strains are multi-drug resistant, but the use of bacteriophage lytic enzymes offers a viable alternative to antibiotic therapy. LysK, the phage K endolysin can lyse S. aureus when purified and ...

  15. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  16. Human-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from a subtropical recreational marine beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of Staphylococcus aureus detected in marine environments have occurred since the early 1990’s. This investigation sought to isolate and characterize S. aureus from marine waters and sand at a subtropical recreational beach, with and without bathers present, in order to investigate possible s...

  17. Characterization and comparative analysis of a second thermonuclease in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal nuclease (here termed as NUC1) is considered an important virulence factor and a unique marker widely used in detection of Staphylococcus aureus. A novel functional thermostable nuclease (here termed as NUC2) in S. aureus was characterized after recombinant expression in Escherichia...

  18. Future challenges and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with emphasis on MRSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;

    2011-01-01

    . Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention...

  19. Reversible antibiotic tolerance induced in Staphylococcus aureus by concurrent drug exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Krause; Friberg, Cathrine; McCreary, Mark

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics has led to increasing use of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin as a life-saving treatment for major S. aureus infections. Coinfection by an unrelated bacterial species may necessitate concurrent treatment with a second...

  20. Altered gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus upon interaction with human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesema, A.J.M.; Beekhuizen, H.; Hamdi, M.; Soufan, A.; Lammers, A.; Willekens, B.; Bakker, O.; Veltrop, M.H.A.M.; Gevel, van de J.S.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from a substantial number of patients with infective endocarditis who are not known to have predisposing heart abnormalities. It has been suggested that the infection is initiated by the direct binding of S. aureus to human vascular endothelium. To determine the mut

  1. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...

  2. Host adaptation of bovine Staphylococcus aureus seems associated with bacteriological cure after lactational antimicrobial treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Nielen, M.; Schaik, van G.; Melchior, M.B.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide range of diseases in multiple species. Some sequence types (ST) are observed in a variety of hosts, whereas other strains are mainly associated with bovine mastitis, suggesting host adaptation. We propose that host adaptation of Staph. aureus may influence bacteri

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Targets the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) to Lyse Erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Badiou, Cédric; Cochet, Sylvie; Boguslawski, Kristina M.; Yoong, Pauline; Day, Christopher J.; Gosselaar-de Haas, Carla J C; van Kessel, Kok P M; Vandenesch, François; Jennings, Michael P.; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Colin, Yves; Van Strijp, Jos A G; Henry, Thomas; Torres, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for Staphylococcus aureus to thrive inside the mammalian host, the bacterium has to overcome iron scarcity. S. aureus is thought to produce toxins that lyse erythrocytes, releasing hemoglobin, the most abundant iron source in mammals. Here we identify the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokin

  4. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus": Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aniltta; Letizia, MariJo

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) is a disease-causing organism that has been present in hospital settings since the 1960s. However, a genetically distinct strain of MRSA, called community-acquired methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA), has emerged in recent years in community settings among healthy…

  5. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiang; Zhong, Dengke; Ji, Lu; Yang, Junshu; Phillips, James; Ji, Yinduo

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major respiratory pathogens associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In this study, we collected sputum and isolated fifty S. aureus isolates from CF patients with the median age of 9.5 years old. Then we determined the profiles of these isolates by antibiotic susceptibility testing, examining their cytotoxicity and ability to internalize into an epithelial cell line (A549), as well as multiple loci sequencing typing. Predominant CF S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin; however, these isolates were sensitive to various antibiotics, such as vancomycin and minocycline. Different CF S. aureus isolates showed distinct cytotoxic activities, and 90 % of CF S. aureus isolates possessed the enterotoxin genes, sea and hlg. Moreover, we found that multiple different CF S. aureus isolates appeared to have the distinct capacity of invading A549 cells. ST5 (14 %), ST30 (14 %), and ST8 (10 %) were prevalent ST types in these isolates. Further analysis revealed that ST5 and ST30 isolates were less toxic than ST8 and ST15 isolates, and that the ST5, ST15, ST59, and ST87 types of CF S. aureus were less capable of invading A549 cells. Our results suggest that the ST typing method may be useful in predicting cytotoxicity and the invading capacity of S. aureus isolates from patients with CF.

  6. Emergence and resurgence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a public-health threat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta; Boyce, John; Tiemersma, Edine

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that colonises the skin and is present in the anterior nares in about 25-30% of healthy people. Dependent on its intrinsic virulence or the ability of the host to contain its opportunistic behaviour, S aureus can cause a range of diseases in man. Th

  7. The relation between Staphylococcus aureus and Wegener's granulomatosis : Current knowledge and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, ER; Tervaert, JWC

    2003-01-01

    To date, in the investigation of the role of S. aureus in WG, we face a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, clinical results obtained from treatment of WG patients with co-trimoxazole and studies assessing the impact of S. aureus on disease relapses strongly suggest that this bacterium contribut

  8. Emergence and resurgence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a public-health threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta; Boyce, John; Tiemersma, Edine

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that colonises the skin and is present in the anterior nares in about 25-30% of healthy people.(1) Dependent on its intrinsic virulence or the ability of the host to contain its opportunistic behaviour, S aureus can cause a range of diseases in man.

  9. Killing of Staphylococcus aureus via Magnetic Hyperthermia Mediated by Magnetotactic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Chen, Linjie; Yi, Yong; Chen, Chuanfang; Wu, Long-Fei; Song, Tao

    2016-02-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common hospital and household pathogen. Given the emergence of antibiotic-resistant derivatives of this pathogen resulting from the use of antibiotics as general treatment, development of alternative therapeutic strategies is urgently needed. Here, we assess the feasibility of killing S. aureus cells in vitro and in vivo through magnetic hyperthermia mediated by magnetotactic bacteria that possess magnetic nanocrystals and demonstrate magnetically steered swimming. The S. aureus suspension was added to magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria either directly or after coating with anti-MO-1 polyclonal antibodies. The suspensions were then subjected to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) for 1 h. S. aureus viability was subsequently assessed through conventional plate counting and flow cytometry. We found that approximately 30% of the S. aureus cells mixed with uncoated MO-1 cells were killed after AMF treatment. Moreover, attachment between the magnetotactic bacteria and S. aureus increased the killing efficiency of hyperthermia to more than 50%. Using mouse models, we demonstrated that magnetic hyperthermia mediated by antibody-coated magnetotactic MO-1 bacteria significantly improved wound healing. These results collectively demonstrated the effective eradication of S. aureus both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of magnetotactic bacterium-mediated magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment for S. aureus-induced skin or wound infections.

  10. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing...

  11. The adhesive and immunomodulating properties of the multifunctional Staphylococcus aureus protein Eap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraghy, Niamh; Hussain, Muzaffar; Haggar, Axana; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Sinha, Bhanu; Herrmann, Mathias; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2003-01-01

    Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to the host tissue is an important step in the initiation of pathogenesis. At least 10 adhesins produced by S. aureus have been described and it is becoming clear that the expression of these adhesins and their interactions with eukaryotic cells involve complex pro

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A;

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus co...

  13. Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcal Species via the agr Quorum Sensing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canovas de la Nuez, Jaime; Baldry, Mara; Bojer, Martin S;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are associated with both humans and animals. While most are non-pathogenic colonizers, Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing severe infections. S. aureus virulence is controlled by the agr quorum sensing system responding to secreted auto-inducing pep...

  14. Staphylococcal aureus Enterotoxin C and Enterotoxin-Like L Associated with Post-partum Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina Træholt; Gumpert, Heidi; Olesen, Bente;

    2017-01-01

    between isolates from the two outbreaks revealed a S. aureus pathogenicity island containing enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L only in isolates from outbreak 2. Enterotoxin C and enterotoxin-like L carrying S. aureus are associated with bovine mastitis and our findings indicate that these may also...

  15. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, H.F.; Vos, A.M.C.; Ott, A.; Voss, A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.; Broucke-Grauls, C.M. van den; Meester, M.; Keulen, P.H. van; Verbrugh, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the eff

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in pati

  17. The role of human innate immune factors in nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Emonts, Marieke; Wertheim, Heiman; Bartels, Hans; Cole, Alexander; Lemmens-den Toom, Nicole; Snijders, Susan Susan; Verbrugh, Henri; van Leeuwen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Slaphylococcus aureus colonization of the human nares predisposes to sometimes severe auto-infection. To investigate whether genetic polymorphism affects the S. aureus carriage status, sequence variation in alpha-defensin and beta-defensin, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genes were determined for

  18. Complete genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain M1, a unique t024-ST8-IVa Danish methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larner-Svensson, Hanna; Worning, Peder; Bartels, Mette

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome sequence, in five contigs, of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate designated M1. This clinical isolate was from the index patient of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in Copenhagen, Denmark, that started in 2003. This strain is se...... is sequence type 8 (ST8), spa type t024, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type IVa....

  19. In Vitro susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus to a new antimicrobial, copper silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Kerry C; Bartlett, Jessica G; Tan, Trina-Jean; Riley, Thomas V

    2007-12-01

    The soluble copper silicate (CS) MIC of 100 strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 100 strains of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was 175 mg Cu/liter. Bactericidal and postantibiotic effects (> or =1 h) were seen at 2x MIC and 4x MIC. The frequency of mutation was <10(-9), and serial passage could not extend growth beyond 1.6x MIC.

  20. Catalase-negative, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of septicemia Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina como causa de septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Innaco de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalase-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was isolated from blood, venous catheter spike and bone marrow collected from an HIV-positive man with lobar pneumonia and sepsis after ten days of hospitalization. The isolate was resistant to oxacillin (positive for penicillin-binding protein 2', ceftriaxone, clindamycin and clarithromycin, and susceptible to vancomycin. This is the first case of septicemia due to a catalase-negative S. aureus reported in Brazil, and, to our knowledge, it is the first case of catalase-negative MRSA reported in the literature. We believe that the patient acquired the S. aureus infection within the hospital environment since it was isolated ten days after hospitalization, it was isolated in a venous catheter spike, and the antibiotic resistance profile is similar to other S. aureus isolates recovered from infections in our hospital.Em um paciente HIV-positivo, com pneumonia lobar e septicemia, foi isolada, após dez dias de internação, uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativa, resistente a meticilina/oxacilina (MRSA, de culturas de sangue, cateter venoso central e medula óssea. A cepa era resistente a oxacilina (PBP 2' positivo, ceftriaxona, clindamicina e claritromicina, e sensível a vancomicina. Este é o primeiro caso, reportado no Brasil, de uma septicemia por S. aureus catalase-negativo e, em nosso conhecimento, o primeiro caso de um S. aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina. Nós acreditamos que o paciente tenha adquirido a infecção no ambiente hospitalar, uma vez que esta cepa foi isolada aos dez dias de internação, foi isolada em cateter venoso central e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos é semelhante ao dos S. aureus de infecções nosocomiais que ocorrem em nosso hospital.