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  1. Risk Factors for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization of Healthy Children

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    Soltani, Babak; Abbas TAGHAVI ARDAKANI; Moravveji, Alireza; Erami, Mahzad; Haji Rezaei, Mostafa; Moniri, Rezvan; Namazi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal colonization of healthy children with Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for different infections. Detection of colonized individuals with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and its eradication is the proper prevention strategy for infection spread in the community and health-care centers. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and antibiotic resistance pattern among healthy children who were nasal carrie...

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in Healthy Pet Cats Kept in the City Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Rypuła, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a significant pathogen in both human medicine and veterinary medicine. The importance of pets as reservoirs of human infections is still poorly understood. This article provides detailed information of a cross-sectional study of a S. aureus colonization in clinically healthy indoor cats. The study systematically assessed a number of different anatomical locations for the S. aureus colonization and the influence of a range of potential risk factors on the value of the final S. aureus colonization rate. The incidence rates observed for cats with at least one site positive for S. aureus or MRSA were 17.5% and 6.63%, respectively. The following risk factors were identified: one or more owners working in the healthcare industry (human or veterinary); dogs being kept with the cat under investigation; treatment of the cat under investigation with antibiotics or chemotherapeutics during the previous year. In conclusion, this study revealed a higher prevalence of MRSA than what has previously been reported in healthy pets. A combination of anatomical locations from which the samples were collected had a major influence on the final value of the S. aureus colonization rate.

  3. Genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from healthy persistent carriers.

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    Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents results on the relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonizing the upper respiratory tract isolated from healthy persistent carriers. Genotyping was carried out using two methods--multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By comparison of the results obtained by both methods, good correlations between MLVF and PFGE genotyping of strains isolated from the asymptomatic carriers were observed. Further studies are needed to evaluate methods useful for genotyping of S. aureus strains circulating in the community. PMID:24488811

  4. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

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    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  5. 广州健康儿童鼻前庭定植金黄色葡萄球菌危险因素研究∗%Analysis on risk factors of staphylococcus aureus nasal vestibule colonization Among Guangzhou healthy children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅锦坚; 叶小华; 樊燕平; 陈思东

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the staphylococcus aureus nasal vestibule colonization situation and its risk factors a-mong the community children.Methods The cross-sectional survey study method was adopted,the related data and the nasal swab samples from 1 012 healthy elementary school students in the Liwan district of Guangzhou city were collected.The 1 6Sr RNA and mecA gene were detected by PCR method after bacterial isolation and identification.Results The nasal vestibule colonization rate of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)was 38.9% and which of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MR-SA)was 1.2%.The MSSA colonization was related with the antibiotic exposure history in the past 1 year and the skin soft tissue infection(P <0.05).The MRSA colonization was mainly related with the history of visiting to clinic during the past 1 year(P <0.05).Conclusion The nasal vestibule colonization rate of MSSA among healthy children at school in the Liwan district of Guang-zhou city is higher,while which of MRSA is lower.The prevalence of MSSA is mainly related with the antibiotic use history and skin soft tissue infection,while which of MRSA is mainly related with the hospital exposure history in the past 1 year.%目的:了解社区健康儿童鼻前庭定植金黄色葡萄球菌及其危险因素。方法采用横断面调查研究方法,收集广州市荔湾区1012名健康小学生的相关资料及鼻拭子样本,对细菌进行分离鉴定后,使用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法检测金黄色葡萄球菌16 SrRNA 及 mecA 基因。结果小学生鼻前庭甲氧西林敏感性金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA)定植率为38.9%,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)定植率为1.2%。MSSA 定植主要与过去1年曾有过抗生素暴露史及皮肤软组织感染史有关(P <0.05), MRSA 定植主要与过去1年曾有医院/门诊看病史有关(P <0.05)。结论广州荔湾区在校健康儿童 MSSA 鼻前庭定植率较高而 MRSA

  6. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Schoolteachers in Ontario

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    Beth A Hanselman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization was performed involving teachers at a science teachers’ conference in Toronto, Ontario. Nasal swabs and questionnaire data were collected from consenting individuals. MRSA colonization was identified in seven of 220 (3.2% participants. No colonized individuals reported recent contact with the health care system, antimicrobial therapy, residence with health care workers or previous MRSA infections. Methicillin-susceptible S aureus colonization was identified in 72 of 220 (33% individuals. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was higher than expected for a purportedly low-risk population.

  7. Epidemiology and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus colonization in children in the post-PCV7 era

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    Kleinman Ken

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has risen dramatically in the U.S., particularly among children. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization has been inversely associated with S. aureus colonization in unvaccinated children, this and other risk factors for S. aureus carriage have not been assessed following widespread use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7. Our objectives were to (1 determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization in young children in the context of widespread use of PCV7; and (2 examine risk factors for S. aureus colonization in the post-PCV7 era, including the absence of vaccine-type S. pneumoniae colonization. Methods Swabs of the anterior nares (S. aureus were obtained from children enrolled in an ongoing study of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization of healthy children in 8 Massachusetts communities. Children 3 months to S. aureus was identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Epidemiologic risk factors for S. aureus colonization were collected from parent surveys and chart reviews, along with data on pneumococcal colonization. Multivariate mixed model analyses were performed to identify factors associated with S. aureus colonization. Results Among 1,968 children, the mean age (SD was 2.7 (1.8 years, 32% received an antibiotic in the past 2 months, 2% were colonized with PCV7 strains and 24% were colonized with non-PCV7 strains. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization remained stable between 2003–04 and 2006–07 (14.6% vs. 14.1%, while MRSA colonization remained low (0.2% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.09. Although absence of pneumococcal colonization was not significantly associated with S. aureus colonization, age (6–11 mo vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.39 [95% CI 0.24–0.64]; 1–1.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.35 [0.23–0.54]; 2–2.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0.45 [0.28–0.73]; 3–3.99 yrs vs. ≥5 yrs, OR 0

  8. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Medical Residents

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    Pascale Trépanier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA during their training. The occupational risk of this specific population is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data regarding MRSA colonization among health care professionals in Quebec.

  9. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization

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    Tennison L. Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1 whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone and (2 whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n=3,927 and were not screened (n=1,751 for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (p=0.04. Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58 and MRSA (AUC = 0.62. These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA.

  10. Key role for clumping factor B in Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); E.J. Walsh (Evelyn); R.S.R. Choudhurry (Roos); D.C. Melles (Damian); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); H. Miajlovic (Helen); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); T.J. Foster (Timothy); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus permanently colonizes the vestibulum nasi of one-fifth of the human population, which is a risk factor for autoinfection. The precise mechanisms whereby S. aureus colonizes the nose are still unknown. The staphylococcal cell-wall protein clumping factor

  11. Differential Expression and Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Determinants during Colonization and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Amy; Diep, Binh An; Mai, Thuy T.; Vo, Nhung H.; Warrener, Paul; Suzich, Joann; Stover, C. Kendall; Sellman, Bret R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium known to asymptomatically colonize the human skin, nares, and gastrointestinal tract. Colonized individuals are at increased risk for developing S. aureus infections, which range from mild skin and soft tissue infections to more severe diseases, such as endocarditis, bacteremia, sepsis, and osteomyelitis. Different virulence factors are required for S. aureus to infect different body sites. In this study, virulence gene ex...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on skin of hospitalized patients

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    Donskey Curtis J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus among hospitalized patients has been associated with increased risk of staphylococcal infection and could potentially contribute to transmission. We hypothesized that S. aureus intestinal colonization is associated with increased frequency of S. aureus on patients' skin and nearby environmental surfaces. Methods Selected inpatients were cultured weekly for S. aureus from stool, nares, skin (groin and axilla, and environmental surfaces (bed rail and bedside table. Investigator's hands were cultured after contacting the patients' skin and the environmental surfaces. Results Of 71 subjects, 32 (45.1% had negative nares and stool cultures, 23 (32.4% had positive nares and stool cultures, 13 (18.3% were nares carriers only, and 3 (4.2% were stool carriers only. Of the 39 patients with S. aureus carriage, 30 (76.9% had methicillin-resistant isolates. In comparison to nares colonization only, nares and intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures (41% versus 77%; p = 0.001 and trends toward increased environmental contamination (45% versus 62%; p = 0.188 and acquisition on investigator's hands (36% versus 60%; p = 0.057. Patients with negative nares and stool cultures had low frequency of S. aureus on skin and the environment (4.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Conclusion We found that hospitalized patients with S. aureus nares and/or stool carriage frequently had S. aureus on their skin and on nearby environmental surfaces. S. aureus intestinal colonization was associated with increased frequency of positive skin cultures, which could potentially facilitate staphylococcal infections and nosocomial transmission.

  13. Impact of Colonization Pressure and Strain Type on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Popoola, Victor O; Carroll, Karen C.; Ross, Tracy; Reich, Nicholas G.; Perl, Trish M.; Aaron M Milstone

    2013-01-01

    We studied the transmissibility of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) strains and the association of MRSA colonization pressure and MRSA transmission in critically ill children. Importantly, we found that in hospitalized children MRSA colonization pressure above 10% increases the risk of MRSA transmission 3-fold, and CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains have similar transmission dynamics.

  14. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal bacterium found in the nasal cavity and other body sites. Identifying risk factors for S. aureus nasal carriage is of interest, as nasal carriage is a risk factor for subsequent invasive infection. We recently investigated the influence of host genetics ......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  15. The role of human innate immune factors in nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Belkum, Alex; Emonts, Marieke; Wertheim, Heiman; Bartels, Hans; Cole, Alexander; Lemmens-den Toom, Nicole; Snijders, Susan Susan; Verbrugh, Henri; van Leeuwen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Slaphylococcus aureus colonization of the human nares predisposes to sometimes severe auto-infection. To investigate whether genetic polymorphism affects the S. aureus carriage status, sequence variation in alpha-defensin and beta-defensin, and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genes were determined for

  16. Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative drug users

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    K.A. Holbrook; R.S. Klein; D. Hartel; D.A. Elliott; T. B. Barsky; L. H. Rothschild; F. D. Lowy

    1997-01-01

    textabstractNasal colonization plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. To identify characteristics associated with colonization, we studied a cross-section of a well-described cohort of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative active and former drug users considere

  17. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among secondary school students at Duhok City-Iraq

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    Ary Habeeb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63

  18. 社区分离金黄色葡萄球菌在健康人群中的分布及其分子生物学特点%Distribution of Staphylococcus aureus strains colonized in healthy community population and molecular epidemiological characteristics for MRSA strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马笑雪; 罗恩杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查医科大学学生鼻腔中金黄色葡萄球菌(金葡菌)的定植状况,解析鼻腔定植社区型甲氧两林耐药性金葡菌(MRSA)克隆的分子生物学特点.方法 以无菌棉签从调查对象鼻腔中收集定植菌,鉴定出甲氧西林敏感性金葡菌(MSSA)和MRSA;多重PCR法分型MRSA携带的SCCmec基因岛;PCR测定pvl、seh、tsst1等毒素基因在菌株中的分布;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)检测MRSA菌株的脉冲场型.结果 2009年977名学生488份样本中鉴定出葡萄球菌,其中凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌(CoNS)和金葡菌分别为364份和124份,MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为3.4%.2010年调查显示,657名学生中有310份样本鉴定为葡萄球菌属,其中CoNS为195份,金葡菌115份,MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为7.7%.金葡菌在所有葡萄球菌属中所占比例为29.9%,而MRSA在金葡菌中所占比例为5.1%.MRSA菌株中共鉴定出5种SCCmec基因岛型,其中Ⅳa型最多(10株),为优势SCCmec基因岛类型.PFGE共有11种图谱型,7种(A~G)脉冲场型.10株MRSA均为pvl阳性.结论 1株起源于社区,基因型为Ⅳa SCCmec-pulsotype A且携带pvl毒素基因的特定MRSA克隆在健康大学生中传播.%Objective To investigate the nasal colonization of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains among medical university students in Shenyang and to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. Methods Sterilized nasal swabs were used to collect nasal bacteria from both nares of the students. Nasal specimens were further identified as S. aureus strains, sensitive or resistant to methicillin through a series of tests. Molecular related methods including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) , coagulase isotyping and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination etc. were used to characterize the isolates. Prevalence of the panton-valentine leukocidin (pvl) genes (luk

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk Factors for Infection Among Military Personnel in a Shipboard Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jennifer A; Maguire, Jason D; Fraser, Jamie; Tribble, David R; Deiss, Robert G; Bryan, Coleman; Tisdale, Michele D; Crawford, Katrina; Ellis, Michael; Lalani, Tahaniyat

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an important public health issue for the military. Limited data exist regarding the prevalence of S. aureus colonization in the shipboard setting. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to determine the point prevalence of S. aureus colonization among military personnel onboard a naval vessel. Asymptomatic active duty personnel completed a survey for risk factors associated with colonization and SSTIs. Culture specimens were obtained from the anterior nares, pharynx, groin, and perirectal regions. MRSA isolates underwent testing for antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and pulsed-field type. 400 individuals were enrolled, 198 (49.5%) of whom were colonized with S. aureus, with MRSA identified in 14 participants (3.5%). No significant risk factors were associated with MRSA colonization. USA800 was the most common colonizing MRSA strain in the cohort and was detected in 10 participants (71%). Two participants (14%) were colonized with USA300 MRSA. In this first report of S. aureus epidemiology in a shipboard setting, we observed high rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization. Longitudinal studies are needed to document the incident rates of S. aureus colonization during shipboard deployment and its impact on SSTI risk. PMID:27244061

  20. Infertility as a consequence of spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus colonization in genital tract of female mice.

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    Siftjit Kaur

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility has yet to be elucidated. The present study was designed to establish a spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus isolated from the cervix of a woman with unexplained infertility, in mouse and evaluate its effect on fertility outcome. Female Balb/c mice were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of S. aureus (10(4, 10(6 or 10(8cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. Microbial colonization monitored every 3(rd day by vaginal cultures, revealed that strain could efficiently colonize mouse vagina. Mating on day 12, with proven breeder males led to 100% decrease in fertility as compared to control. Even a single dose of 10(6 or 10(8cfu could lead to vaginal colonization which persisted for 10 days followed by gradual clearing till 21 days, vaginal cultures were negative thereafter. Female mice mated on day 7 (culture positive, were rendered infertile, however, the mice mated on day 22 (culture negative, retained fertility and delivered pups indicating its role in provoking infertility. Further, except infertility, no other clinical manifestation could be seen apparently or histologically. However, when a non-spermagglutinating/immobilizing standard strain of S. aureus MTCC6625 was inoculated intravaginally at 10(8cfu for 10 days followed by mating on day 12, fertility was observed in all the female mice. This supports the hypothesis that infertility observed in the former groups was as a result of colonization with spermagglutinating strain of S. aureus.

  1. Nasal carriage screening of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in healthy children of a developing country

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    Mobasherizadeh, Sina; Shojaei, Hasan; Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Mostafavizadeh, Kamyar; Davoodabadi, Fazlollah; Khorvash, Farzin; Kushki, Ali Mehrabi; Daei-Naser, Abbas; Ghanbari, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has raised considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries. The current study aimed to address the extent of this phenomenon in healthy preschool children of a developing country. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective study from April 2013 to March 2014 on 410 healthy 2-6 years old preschool children in Isfahan, Iran. Demographic medical data and nasal samples were collected from the participating children. Isolates were identified as S. aureus and MRSA based on microbiological and molecular tests, including the presence of eap and mecA genes. Results: The overall prevalence of S. aureus and CA-MRSA nasal carriage was 28% (115/410) and 6.1% (25/410), respectively. The identity of isolates was confirmed by molecular assay. The factors that were independently associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus were: Children crowding in day-care nurseries and income level of families. A total of 20/90 (22.2%) of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and all 25 CA-MRSA displayed multiple drug resistance to 3–8 antibiotics. Conclusions: The current report reflects issues and concerns that the high rate of colonization by CA-MRSA in Iranian healthy children provides obliging evidence that MRSA have established a foothold in the community and are emerging as important health threatening pathogens. It is suggested that we need more effective infection control measures to prevent transmission of nasal CA-MRSA in healthy preschool children. PMID:27656613

  2. Even for Men At High Risk, Healthy Living May Help Prevent Colon Cancer

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    ... at High Risk, Healthy Living May Help Prevent Colon Cancer Many lives could be saved if people avoided ... that healthy living can lower the odds for colon cancer, a new study finds it's even true for ...

  3. The effectiveness of bacteriophages against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 nasal colonization in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Koen M.; Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Fluit, Ad C.; Carney, Jennifer; Nes, Van Arie; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential a

  4. Evaluation of non-invasive biological samples to monitor Staphylococcus aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs.

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    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reintroduction of endangered animals as part of conservational programs bears the risk of importing human pathogens from the sanctuary to the natural habitat. One bacterial pathogen that serves as a model organism to analyze this transmission is Staphylococcus aureus as it can colonize and infect both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of various biological samples to monitor S. aureus colonization in great apes and lemurs. METHODS: Mucosal swabs from wild lemurs (n=25, Kirindy, Madagascar, feces, oral and genital swabs from captive chimpanzees (n=58, Ngamba and Entebbe, Uganda and fruit wadges and feces from wild chimpanzees (n=21, Taï National Parc, Côte d'Ivoire were screened for S. aureus. Antimicrobial resistance and selected virulence factors were tested for each isolate. Sequence based genotyping (spa typing, multilocus sequence typing was applied to assess the population structure of S. aureus. RESULTS: Oro-pharyngeal carriage of S. aureus was high in lemurs (72%, n=18 and captive chimpanzees (69.2%, n=27 and 100%, n=6, respectively. Wild chimpanzees shed S. aureus through feces (43.8, n=7 and fruit wadges (54.5, n=12. Analysis of multiple sampling revealed that two samples are sufficient to detect those animals which shed S. aureus through feces or fruit wadges. Genotyping showed that captive animals are more frequently colonized with human-associated S. aureus lineages. CONCLUSION: Oro-pharyngeal swabs are useful to screen for S. aureus colonization in apes and lemurs before reintroduction. Duplicates of stool and fruit wadges reliably detect S. aureus shedding in wild chimpanzees. We propose to apply these sampling strategies in future reintroduction programs to screen for S. aureus colonization. They may also be useful to monitor S. aureus in wild populations.

  5. Colonization of Cimex lectularius with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Barbarin, Alexis M; Hu, Baofeng; Nachamkin, Irving; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-05-01

    A recent paper published by Lowe and Romney in Emerging Infectious Diseases titled, Bed bugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria has sparked a renewed interest in bed bug vector potential. We followed a pyrethroid resistant strain of the human bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) fed either human blood or human blood with added methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for 9 days post-feeding. Results indicated that while the bed bug midgut is a hospitable environment for MRSA, the bacteria does not survive longer than 9 days within the midgut. Additionally, MRSA is not amplified within the midgut of the bug as the infection was cleared within 9 days. Due to the weekly feeding behaviours of bed bugs, these results suggest that bed bug transmission of MRSA is highly unlikely. PMID:24589308

  6. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

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    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants and H2O2 in media was quantified using microelectrodes. The re...

  7. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonization patterns and strain diversity in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Bärgman, Sofia Cathrine; Moodley, Arshnee;

    2012-01-01

    This is the first large-scale study of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius colonization and diversity in healthy dogs where samples were collected over a long time and strains were identified by PCR according to the current taxonomy of the S. intermedius group and typed by a highly discriminatory...... method such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A cross-sectional study of nasal, oral, perineal and inguinal carriage in 119 healthy dogs was followed by a longitudinal study where oral and perineal carriage was examined in 16 dogs for 10 times over a period of 1 year. Altogether we collected...... 762 samples and 285 S. pseudintermedius isolates, 182 of which were typed by PFGE to determine spatial and temporal strain diversity within individual carriers. In the cross-sectional study, S. pseudintermedius was isolated from at least one body site in 82 (69%) of the 119 dogs. The most frequent...

  8. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Abdul G; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Call, Douglas R

    2015-08-01

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using elevated-energy mass spectrometry (MS(E)). S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in lipid-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2- to 3-fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after 4 days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P < 0.01) more antioxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentrations found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in the media from the colonized explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  9. Colonization of Epidermal Tissue by Staphylococcus aureus Produces Localized Hypoxia and Stimulates Secretion of Antioxidant and Caspase-14 Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.

    2015-01-01

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using elevated-energy mass spectrometry (MSE). S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in lipid-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2- to 3-fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after 4 days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P < 0.01) more antioxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentrations found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in the media from the colonized explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface. PMID:25987705

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.

  11. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lone , Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, S.; Fransson, B.; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Call, Douglas R.

    2015-08-31

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using MSE mass spectrometry. We found that S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in sebum-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2-3 fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after four days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P< 0.01) more anti-oxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentration found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in media from infected explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization among Health Care Workers in a Downtown Emergency Department in Toronto, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Saito; Jessica Thom; Yanliang Wei; Piraveina Gnanasuntharam; Pirasanya Gnanasuntharam; Nathan Kreiswirth; Barbara Willey; Michelle Loftus; Catherine Varner; Vanessa Porter; Allison McGeer; Bjug Borgundvaag

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired in the community, otherwise known as community-acquired MRSA, has emerged rapidly in recent years. Colonization with MRSA has been associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and serious infections and, in some settings, health care workers (HCWs) exhibit a higher prevalence of MRSA colonization.OBJECTIVE: To determine MRSA colonization in emergency department (ED) HCWs in the setting of a moderate prevalence of MRSA...

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization in Children Attending Child Care Centers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; David J. Weber; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R; Kotch, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in ...

  14. Neonatal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is not associated with development of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L; Halkjaer, L B; Agner, T;

    2009-01-01

    participants were 356 children born of mothers with asthma from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood. Swabs from the vestibulum nasi and the perineum were cultured at 1 month and 1 year, from acute eczema, and from parents (vestibulum nasi and pharynx). AD development and severity were...... monitored prospectively. RESULTS: Of the neonates, 5.3% had positive swabs for S. aureus cultured from the vestibulum nasi (51.3%) and/or the perineum (11.3%). Forty-two per cent developed AD, but without association between colonization with S. aureus at 1 month of age and risk of developing AD at 3 years...... of age. There was a 70% concordance for S. aureus carriage between neonates and parents. At 1 year of age 11.3% children had swabs positive for S. aureus. Fourteen per cent of children tested at the 1-year visit developed AD after the visit but before 3 years of age, but again, there was no association...

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection risks from companion animals: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petinaki E

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efthimia Petinaki,1 Iris Spiliopoulou21Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Thessalia, Larissa, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remains one of the most virulent human pathogens and has also recently been recognized as such in the veterinary settings. Companion animals, including dogs, cats, horses, small exotic animals, wildlife animals, and livestock, may constitute a reservoir for MRSA transmission to humans and vice versa. The evolution, emergence, and risk factors for MRSA transmission among colonized or infected animals are reviewed in the present paper, and infection control practices are discussed.Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, companion animals, close contacts

  16. Nasal colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA does not predict subsequent infection in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha Ghidey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus; especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The aim of this study was compare the rates of MRSA infections between MRSA colonized and not-colonized patients. A retrospective, electronic and paper chart review of all adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU from 2007 to 2010 was screened for MRSA. Endpoints were pyogenic pneumonia, sepsis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Patients who were not screened for MRSA were excluded from the study. A total of 1203 patients were admitted and screened for MRSA colonization on admission to the ICU from 2007 to 2010. Two main groups were made for between colonized and not-colonized based on MRSA screening. Fifty-seven (57 positive colonized and 122 not-colonized patients' charts were randomly selected. The mean age of the study population was 61.7 ± 18.4 (range, 19–94; there were 80 (44.69% males and 99 (55.31% females. The occurrence of infection with MRSA with either lower respiratory tract infection or blood stream infection identified on the time of ICU admission was similar for patients with and without MRSA nasal colonization 3.51% vs. 2.46%; p = 0.459. There was no observed difference in the rates of MRSA infection between those who tested colonized and not-colonized.

  17. The Effectiveness of Bacteriophages against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 Nasal Colonization in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; Fluit, Ad C; Carney, Jennifer; van Nes, Arie; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential approach for the control of MRSA colonization to minimize the—often occupational—exposure of humans. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bacteriophage treatment on porcine nasal colonization with MRSA in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. The effectiveness of a bacteriophage combination of phage K*710 and P68 was assessed in vitro by incubating them with MRSA V0608892/1 (ST398) measuring the OD600 hourly. To study the in vivo effect, bacteriophages were administered in a gel developed for human application, which contain 109 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL (K and P68 in a 19.25:1 ratio) for 5 days to piglets (N = 8) that were experimentally colonized with the MRSA strain. Eight piglets experimentally colonized were used as a negative control. The MRSA strain was also used to colonize porcine nasal mucosa explants and bacteriophages were applied to assess the ex vivo efficacy of treatment. Bacteriophages were effective in vitro. In vivo, sixteen piglets were colonized with MRSA but the number of CFU recovered after the application of the bacteriophages in 8 piglets was not reduced compared to the control animals (approx. 105 CFU/swab). In the ex vivo model, 108 CFU were used to establish colonization with MRSA; a reduction of colonization was not observed after application of bacteriophages. However, application of mupirocin both in vivo and ex vivo resulted in a near eradication of MRSA. In conclusion: i) The MRSA strain was killed in the presence of the bacteriophages phage K*710 and P68 in vitro. ii) Bacteriophages did not reduce porcine nasal colonization in vivo or ex vivo. Physiological in vivo and ex vivo conditions may explain these observations. Efficacy

  18. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, Abdul S.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen;

    2016-01-01

    from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing....... Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. Results: S. aureus was isolated from 22 % of humans, 4 % of pigs and 11 % of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared...... between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. Conclusion: S...

  19. Meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus costochondritis in a healthy man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohammad, Ausaf F

    2009-12-01

    A 54-year-old previously healthy white man presented to hospital with fever, right parasternal pain and swelling over the right second and third costochondral joints. The symptoms had developed 1 week earlier.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus colonization modulates tic expression and the host immune response in a girl with Tourette syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino eEftimiadi; Gemma eEftimiadi; PierGiuseppe eVinai

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Tourette syndrome and increased antibody levels against Streptococcus pyogenes was monitored longitudinally for the presence of nasopharyngeal bacteria, specific antibody titers, and autoimmunity directed against brain antigens. Microbiological monitoring indicated that the child was an intermittent Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carrier. Clinical improvements in motor tic frequency and severity were observed during the S. aureus colonization phase, and were tempo...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Modulates Tic Expression and the Host Immune Response in a Girl with Tourette Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Eftimiadi, Costantino; Eftimiadi, Gemma; Vinai, Piergiuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with Tourette syndrome (TS) and increased antibody levels against Streptococcus pyogenes was monitored longitudinally for the presence of nasopharyngeal bacteria, specific antibody titers, and autoimmunity directed against brain antigens. Microbiological monitoring indicated that the child was an intermittent Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carrier. Clinical improvements in motor tic frequency and severity were observed during the S. aureus colonization phase and were t...

  2. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  3. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by healthy companion animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant human pathogen and has also been associated with wounded or ill companion animals. Healthy animals may also harbor MRSA without presenting any symptoms, but little is known about the prevalence of MRSA among these animals. Therefo...

  4. Specific Behaviors Predict Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Wang, Xun; Weintrob, Amy; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Bavaro, Mary; Okulicz, Jason F; Mende, Katrin; Ellis, Michael; Agan, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Few data exist on the incidence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods.  Over a 2-year period, we prospectively evaluated adults infected with HIV for incident S aureus colonization at 5 body sites and SSTIs. Cox proportional hazard models using time-updated covariates were performed. Results.  Three hundred twenty-two participants had a median age of 42 years (interquartile range, 32-49), an HIV duration of 9.4 years (2.7-17.4), and 58% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, 102 patients (32%) became colonized with S aureus with an incidence rate of 20.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8-25.0) per 100 person-years [PYs]. Predictors of colonization in the final multivariable model included illicit drug use (hazard ratios [HR], 4.26; 95% CI, 1.33-13.69) and public gym use (HR 1.66, 95% CI, 1.04-2.66), whereas antibacterial soap use was protective (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.78). In a separate model, perigenital colonization was associated with recent syphilis infection (HR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.01-21.42). Fifteen percent of participants developed an SSTI (incidence rate of 9.4 cases [95% CI, 6.8-12.7] per 100 PYs). Risk factors for an SSTI included incident S aureus colonization (HR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.35-4.69), public shower use (HR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.48-4.56), and hospitalization (HR 3.54; 95% CI, 1.67-7.53). The perigenital location for S aureus colonization was predictive of SSTIs. Human immunodeficiency virus-related factors (CD4 count, HIV RNA level, and HAART) were not associated with colonization or SSTIs. Conclusions.  Specific behaviors, but not HIV-related factors, are predictors of colonization and SSTIs. Behavioral modifications may be the most important strategies in preventing S aureus colonization and SSTIs among persons infected with HIV. PMID:26380335

  5. Long-Term Risk for Readmission, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection, and Death among MRSA-Colonized Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada Joaquin, Nestor M.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Bailey, George; Winokur, Patricia L.; Schweizer, Marin L.

    2013-01-01

    While numerous studies have assessed the outcomes of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization over the short term, little is known about longer-term outcomes after discharge. An assessment of long-term outcomes could provide information about the utility of various MRSA prevention approaches. A matched-cohort study was performed among Veterans Affairs (VA) patients screened for MRSA colonization between the years 2007 and 2009 and followed to evaluate outcomes until 2010. Cox propo...

  6. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  7. Burden of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in London acute hospitals: retrospective on a voluntary surveillance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, S; Bishop, L A; Wright, A L; Kanfoudi, L; Duckworth, G; Fraser, G G

    2011-12-01

    Although meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as an important cause of hospital and community healthcare-associated morbidity, and colonization as a precursor to infection, few studies have attempted to assess the burden of both colonization and infection across acute healthcare providers within a defined health economy. This study describes the prevalence and incidence of MRSA colonization and infection in acute London hospital Trusts participating in a voluntary surveillance programme in 2000-2001. Hospital infection control staff completed a weekly return including details on incident and prevalent colonizations, bacteraemias and other significant infections due to MRSA. Incidence and prevalence rates were calculated for hospitals with sufficient participation across both years. Colonizations accounted for 79% of incident MRSA cases reported; 4% were bacteraemias, and 17% other significant infections. There was no change in incidence of colonization of hospital patients between 2000 and 2001. By contrast, there was an unexplained 49% increase in prevalence of colonizations over this period. For any given month, prevalent colonizations outnumbered incident colonizations at least twofold. This MRSA surveillance programme was unusual for prospective ascertainment of incident and prevalent cases of both colonization and infection within an English regional health economy. Consistent with other studies, the incidence and prevalence of colonization substantially exceeded infection. Given the small contribution of bacteraemias to the overall MRSA burden, and the surveillance, screening and control interventions of recent years, it may be appropriate to review the present reliance on bacteraemia surveillance.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Representing a Population Subset Highly Prevalent in Human Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert E.; Layer, Franziska; Fuchs, Stephan; Bender, Jennifer K.; Fiedler, Stefan; Werner, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequences of two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 08-02119 and 08-02300. Belonging to sequence type 582 (ST582) and ST7, both isolates are representatives of clonal lineages often associated with asymptomatic colonization of humans. PMID:27469954

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Representing a Population Subset Highly Prevalent in Human Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Robert E; Layer, Franziska; Fuchs, Stephan; Bender, Jennifer K; Fiedler, Stefan; Werner, Guido; Strommenger, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequences of two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 08-02119 and 08-02300. Belonging to sequence type 582 (ST582) and ST7, both isolates are representatives of clonal lineages often associated with asymptomatic colonization of humans.

  10. Prospective Study of Infection, Colonization and Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in an Outbreak Affecting 990 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J. Jimenez; M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Arroyo; D. Minguez; C. Fernandez; F. Cruzet; C. Gaspar

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the three years between November 1989 and October 1992, an outbreak of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) affected 990 patients at a university hospital. The distribution of patients with carriage, colonization or infection was investigated prospectively. Nosocomial acq

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in HIV-infected outpatients is common and detection is enhanced by groin culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P J; Brooks, J T; Limbago, B; Lowery, H K; McAllister, S K; Mindley, R; Fosheim, G; Gorwitz, R J; Guest, J L; Hageman, J; Fridge, J; Rimland, D

    2011-07-01

    SUMMARYAlthough high rates of clinical infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported in HIV-infected adults, data on MRSA colonization are limited. We enrolled HIV-infected adults receiving care at the Atlanta VA Medical Center. Swabs from each participant's nares and groin were cultured with broth enrichment for S. aureus. Of 600 HIV-infected adults, 79 (13%) were colonized with MRSA and 180 (30%) with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. MRSA pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types USA300 (n=44, 54%) and USA500/Iberian (n=29, 35%) predominated. Inclusion of groin swabs increased MRSA detection by 24% and USA300 detection by 38%. In multivariate analysis, MRSA colonization compared to no MRSA colonization was associated with a history of MRSA clinical infection, rarely or never using condoms, and contact with prisons and jails. In summary, the prevalence of MRSA colonization was high in this study of HIV-infected adults and detection of USA300 was enhanced by groin culture. PMID:20843384

  12. Close association between oropharyngeal and rhinopharyngeal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus - clues to new insight of MRSA colonization of the oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, I S; Larsen, P L; Brandelev, B L;

    2013-01-01

    This study provides data on prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in oropharynx, rhinopharynx and vestibulum nasi. Specimens were taken from these three pharyngeal sites in 346 patients and analysed for S. aureus. Abnormal pharyngeal findings and patient histories were recorded. S. aureus was found...

  13. Levels of Antibody against 11 Staphylococcus aureus Antigens in a Healthy Population ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Jacobsson, Gunnar; Andersson, Rune; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Möllby, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples from 151 healthy individuals aged from 15 to 89 years were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG levels against 11 different purified antigens from Staphylococcus aureus. Surface antigens, such as teichoic acid, clumping factors A and B, and bone sialoprotein binding protein, and extracellular proteins, such as alpha-toxin, lipase, enterotoxin A, toxic shock syndrome toxin, scalded-skin syndrome toxin, fibrinogen binding protein, and extracellular adh...

  14. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin P Predicts Bacteremia in Hospitalized Patients Colonized With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Michael S.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakoulas, George; Nicol, Robert; DuBois, Andrea; Delaney, Mary L.; Kleinman, Ken; Cosimi, Lisa A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Birren, Bruce W.; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization predicts later infection, with both host and pathogen determinants of invasive disease. Methods. This nested case-control study evaluates predictors of MRSA bacteremia in an 8–intensive care unit (ICU) prospective adult cohort from 1 September 2003 through 30 April 2005 with active MRSA surveillance and collection of ICU, post-ICU, and readmission MRSA isolates. We selected MRSA carriers who did (cases) and those who did not (controls) develop MRSA bacteremia. Generating assembled genome sequences, we evaluated 30 MRSA genes potentially associated with virulence and invasion. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed the association of these genes with MRSA bacteremia, controlling for host risk factors. Results. We collected 1578 MRSA isolates from 520 patients. We analyzed host and pathogen factors for 33 cases and 121 controls. Predictors of MRSA bacteremia included a diagnosis of cancer, presence of a central venous catheter, hyperglycemia (glucose level, >200 mg/dL), and infection with a MRSA strain carrying the gene for staphylococcal enterotoxin P (sep). Receipt of an anti-MRSA medication had a significant protective effect. Conclusions. In an analysis controlling for host factors, colonization with MRSA carrying sep increased the risk of MRSA bacteremia. Identification of risk-adjusted genetic determinants of virulence may help to improve prediction of invasive disease and suggest new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24041793

  15. Effect of sodium fusidate and ofloxacin on Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesso, R; Parisio, K; Dalboni, A; Rabelo, T; Barbosa, D; Cendoroglo, M; Pignatari, A; Draibe, S; Ajzen, H

    1994-06-01

    The effectiveness of sodium fusidate and ofloxacin to eliminate nasal and catheter exit-site Staphylococcus aureus colonization and to prevent infections was compared in 31 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In a prospective randomized study, 9 patients were treated with topical 2% sodium fusidate ointment applied in the anterior nares and in the pericatheter skin twice daily for 5 days; 9 subjects received oral ofloxacin 200 mg taken every 48 hours for 5 days and 13 subjects were in the control group. Treatment courses were repeated at one-month intervals. Mean duration of follow-up was 7.8 months (242 patients-month). Follow-up samples from the nares and the catheter exit-site were obtained every month from all participants to determine the presence of S. aureus. Development of S. aureus exit-site infection and peritonitis were assessed. During the study, S. aureus was recovered from 45%, 59% and 52% of the samples from the nares and/or exit-site in the sodium fusidate, ofloxacin and control groups, respectively (p = 0.13). S. aureus grew less frequently (p 0.50). The corresponding figures for exit-site eradication were 43%, 33% and 11%, respectively (p = 0.34). Twenty-four S. aureus-associated infection episodes (12 of exit-site and 12 of peritonitis) were diagnosed in 16 of the 31 patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8076441

  16. Prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] colonization or carriage among health-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Nirmal A; Asogan, Harshini; Tejani, Sara; Al Mahruqi, Gaitha; Al Fakhri, Salma; Zafarulla, Roshna; Pathare, Anil V

    2016-01-01

    In Oman, the prevalence of health care associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [HA-MRSA] is unknown. Therefore, to estimate the prevalence of HA-MRSA, we collected nasal swabs and swabs from cell phones on sterile polyester swabs and immediately inoculated on the mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin from medical students and hospital health care providers. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was then performed using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method. Additionally, a brief survey questionnaire was used to acquire demographic data. Amongst the 311 participants enrolled, nasal colonization with HA-MRSA was found in 47 individuals (15.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]=11.1%, 19.1%). HA-MRSA was also isolated from the cell phone surfaces in 28 participants (9.0%, 95% CI=8.6%, 9.3%). 5 participants (1.6%) showed positive results both from their nasal swabs and from their cell phones. Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin [48%] and clindamycin [29%] was relatively high. 9.3% HA-MRSA isolates were vancomycin resistant [6.6% nasal carriage]. There was no statistically significant correlation between HA-MRSA isolates and the demographic characteristics or the risk factors namely gender, underlying co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, skin/soft tissue infections, skin ulcers/wounds, recent exposure to antibiotics, or hospital visits (p>0.05, Chi-square test). PMID:26768668

  17. Intermittent nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus within a menstrual cycle: Results from a prospective cohort of healthy carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Yi-Hsiung; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2016-06-01

    Female sex hormones have been related to nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in healthy individuals; however, whether nasal staphylococcal carriage varies by menstrual cycle phase remains unknown.We sampled anterior nares of female healthcare workers twice per week for 6 consecutive menstrual cycles. We used mixed-effects Poisson regression models to determine whether intermittent carriage was associated with cycle phases in a given individual. We also performed recurrent event survival analysis to identify host factors linked to incident carriage status.Overall, we collected 754 nasal swabs over 89 consecutive person-cycles from 14 intermittent carriers. In 84 ovulation-defined menstrual cycles (715 swabs), the period prevalence of staphylococcal carriage was 58.7%, 63.1%, and 64.9% in the follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases, respectively; these differences were not statistically significant after multivariable adjustment and correction for within-person correlation (adjusted relative risk [RR]-periovulatory 0.92, P: 0.30; luteal 1.00, P: 0.98).Using survival analysis, we identified several host factors that were associated with incident loss, gain of colonization, or both. For example, as compared to women aged 20 to 30 years, those aged 30 to 40 years were less likely to losing carriage (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.09, 0.80) but were as likely to regaining carriage (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.34). In comparison, being underweight (body mass index [BMI] <18.5) was significantly associated with a higher risk for regaining (HR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.51) and losing (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.12) colonization, indicating the alternating tendency for status changes. Personal hygiene behaviors, such as nostril cleansing habit and methods, differentially affected carriers' risk for losing or regaining staphylococcal colonization.Using an intensive sampling scheme, we found that nasal staphylococcal carriage could vary substantially

  18. COMPARISON OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HEALTHY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL VISITORS[CA-MRSA] AND HOSPITAL STAFF [HA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal A Pathare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] in unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on the isolates. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%, whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%. Nasal colonization prevalence with HA-MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%, whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54.  Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates.  There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5% as compared to 13.8% [HA-MRSA] in the hospital health-care staff. In spite of a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation the universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.

  19. Performance Analysis of Network Model to Identify Healthy and Cancerous Colon Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tanusree; Barman, Soma

    2016-03-01

    Modeling of cancerous and healthy Homo Sapiens colon gene using electrical network is proposed to study their behavior. In this paper, the individual amino acid models are designed using hydropathy index of amino acid side chain. The phase and magnitude responses of genes are examined to screen out cancer from healthy genes. The performance of proposed modeling technique is judged using various performance measurement metrics such as accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, etc. The network model performance is increased with frequency, which is analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The accuracy of the model is tested on colon genes and achieved maximum 97% at 10-MHz frequency. PMID:25730835

  20. Risk factors for developing clinical infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) amongst hospital patients initially only colonized with MRSA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J.R. Glynn (Judith); J. J. Picazo; J. Fereres; C. Gaspar

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn hospital outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) many patients are initially colonized without infection. The reasons why some progress to infection while others do not are not known. A cohort of 479 hospital patients, initially only colonized with MRSA, was fo

  1. Toward an understanding of the evolution of Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 during colonization in community households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kennedy, Adam D; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Deleo, Frank R; Lowy, Franklin D

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious infections and also a human commensal. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus led to a dramatic increase in skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. This epidemic has been driven by a limited number of clones, such as USA300 in the United States. To better understand the extent of USA300 evolution and diversification within communities, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of three clinical and five colonizing USA300 isolates collected longitudinally from three unrelated households over a 15-month period. Phylogenetic analysis that incorporated additional geographically diverse USA300 isolates indicated that all but one likely arose from a common recent ancestor. Although limited genetic adaptation occurred over the study period, the greatest genetic heterogeneity occurred between isolates from different households and within one heavily colonized household. This diversity allowed for a more accurate tracking of interpersonal USA300 transmission. Sequencing of persisting USA300 isolates revealed mutations in genes involved in major aspects of S. aureus function: adhesion, cell wall biosynthesis, virulence, and carbohydrate metabolism. Genetic variations also included accumulation of multiple polymorphisms within select genes of two multigene operons, suggestive of small genome rearrangements rather than de novo single point mutations. Such rearrangements have been underappreciated in S. aureus and may represent novel means of strain variation. Subtle genetic changes may contribute to USA300 fitness and persistence. Elucidation of small genome rearrangements reveals a potentially new and intriguing mechanism of directed S. aureus genome diversification in environmental niches and during pathogen-host interactions.

  2. Toward an understanding of the evolution of Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 during colonization in community households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kennedy, Adam D; Martens, Craig; Porcella, Stephen F; Deleo, Frank R; Lowy, Franklin D

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious infections and also a human commensal. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus led to a dramatic increase in skin and soft tissue infections worldwide. This epidemic has been driven by a limited number of clones, such as USA300 in the United States. To better understand the extent of USA300 evolution and diversification within communities, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of three clinical and five colonizing USA300 isolates collected longitudinally from three unrelated households over a 15-month period. Phylogenetic analysis that incorporated additional geographically diverse USA300 isolates indicated that all but one likely arose from a common recent ancestor. Although limited genetic adaptation occurred over the study period, the greatest genetic heterogeneity occurred between isolates from different households and within one heavily colonized household. This diversity allowed for a more accurate tracking of interpersonal USA300 transmission. Sequencing of persisting USA300 isolates revealed mutations in genes involved in major aspects of S. aureus function: adhesion, cell wall biosynthesis, virulence, and carbohydrate metabolism. Genetic variations also included accumulation of multiple polymorphisms within select genes of two multigene operons, suggestive of small genome rearrangements rather than de novo single point mutations. Such rearrangements have been underappreciated in S. aureus and may represent novel means of strain variation. Subtle genetic changes may contribute to USA300 fitness and persistence. Elucidation of small genome rearrangements reveals a potentially new and intriguing mechanism of directed S. aureus genome diversification in environmental niches and during pathogen-host interactions. PMID:23104992

  3. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  4. Various functions of PBMC from colon cancer patients are not decreased compared to healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    -2 and its receptor proteins in T helper cells. The proliferative responses and IL-2 synthesis of PBMC have earlier been shown to be reduced in patients with colon cancer. Recently immune modulating agents have been demonstrated to increase the proliferative response of PBMC in vitro, probably...... by inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and induction of IL-2 mRNA expression. We have therefore studied the proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients to PWM and tested the effect of immune modulating agents, such as Serotonin, Sumatriptan, and Buspirone on these PBMC. We found...... no difference in levels of intracellular cAMP, IL-2 mRNA expression, IL-2R mRNA expression, or proliferative responses of PBMC from colon cancer patients compared to healthy blood donors. There was no effect of the immune modulating agents on PBMC from colon cancer patients....

  5. Infertility as a Consequence of Spermagglutinating Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Genital Tract of Female Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Siftjit Kaur; Vijay Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown Staphylococcus aureus to be one of the most prevalent organism in male and female genital tract but most practitioners dismiss it as mere contamination which is assumed to be of no significance. However, it is now suggested that the presence of this organism should not be ignored, as incubation of spermatozoa with S. aureus results in reduced sperm motility. Although S. aureus has been reported to cause immobilization of spermatozoa, however, its role in infertility...

  6. Co-colonization and clonal diversity of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Alexandra; Roesler, Uwe; Kraushaar, Britta; Friese, Anika

    2016-03-15

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are colonizers of skin and mucosa. In humans, MSSA and MRSA compete for colonization space in the anterior nares of pig farmers; however, it was also shown that MSSA/MRSA co-colonization is common and one clone can be found rather than differing types of MSSA and MRSA. We investigated the colonization and clonality of both, MSSA and MRSA in pigs over a longer time. Eighteen sows were nasally sampled three times every ten weeks. Additionally, environmental samples were taken. Samples were investigated for MSSA and MRSA, respectively. The spa type was defined from up to five MRSA and MSSA isolates found per sample and sampling time; selected isolates were further investigated by microarray. Three sows (16.7%) were completely negative for MSSA and MRSA. Twelve pigs (66.7%) were irregularly positive for both, MSSA and MRSA over the time, whereas seven out of them (38.9%) were simultaneously colonized. CC398 (t034, t011) MRSA and CC9 (t337, t1430, and t13816) MSSA associated spa types were exclusively found. In 44.4% (n=8) of sows up to two different types of MSSA were present at the same time and sample. Strains of the same clonal lineage showed a high genetic identity despite their origin. Highly identic clones were present in sows and their environment. As conclusion, MSSA/MRSA may not exclude each other in the anterior nares of pigs. Pigs may also carry different clones at the same time.

  7. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  8. Effect of pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and colonic transit time in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Salles, J P; Fallet, M; Frileux, P; Cugnenc, P H; Barbier, J P

    1992-01-01

    Pinaverium bromide is a specific calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for its spasmolytic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of orally administered pinaverium bromide on jejunal motility and total and segmental colonic transit time in control subjects. Gastrointestinal studies were performed in 10 healthy volunteers (30 +/- 3 years), before and after a treatment phase of 14 days (150 mg/d). Jejunal motility was measured by prolonged manometry (14 h) and colonic transit time by a multiple ingestion, single marker technique. No significant modification of phase III of the migrating motor complexes was demonstrated. On the contrary, a significant (p < 0.01) but weak decrease of the frequency of contraction was found. Unlike previous studies, no decrease of total or segmental colonic transit time was demonstrated. PMID:1421047

  9. Colonic wall thickness measured by ultrasound: striking differences in patients with cystic fibrosis versus healthy controls.

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, H P; Benda, N; Fitzke, G; Lang, A.; Langenberg, M; Riethmüller, J; Stern, M.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonic strictures represent an advanced stage of fibrosing colonopathy in patients with cystic fibrosis. AIMS: To clarify whether ultrasonography can identify patients with an early stage of fibrosing colonopathy and to determine clinical factors that influence bowel wall thickening. PATIENTS: Ninety patients with cystic fibrosis, median age 10 years, and 46 healthy controls, median age 13 years, were investigated. METHODS: Bowel wall thickness was measured by ultrasound in a pro...

  10. Relationship between antibiotic consumption, oropharyngeal colonization, and ventilator-associated pneumonia by Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit of a Brazilian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Rodrigues Moreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: his study evaluated the consumption of major classes of antibiotics, the colonization of the oropharynx of patients on mechanical ventilation, and the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an intensive care unit for adults. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out using colonized patients (cases by oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA and (controls oxacillin-sensitive S. aureus (OSSA from May 2009 to August 2010. The occurrence of VAP by S. aureus was also evaluated in the same period. Antibiotic consumption was expressed as the number of defined daily doses (DDD/1,000 patient-days for glycopeptides, carbapenems, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-six (56.1% patients underwent mechanical ventilation with a frequency of oropharyngeal colonization of 36.4%, corresponding to 63.5% for ORSA and 36.5% for OSSA. The risk of illness for this organism was significant (p60 years, previous antibiotic therapy, and previous use of carbapenems were statistically significant by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant relationship between the colonization of the oropharyngeal mucosa and the risk of VAP by both phenotypes. The use of glycopeptides was related to colonization by ORSA.

  11. Characterization of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wards' patients in a Nigerian university hospital.

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    Deboye O Kolawole

    Full Text Available In contrast to developed countries, only limited data on the prevalence, resistance and clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus are available for African countries. Since S. aureus carriage is a risk factor for postoperative wound infection, patients who had been hospitalized in surgical wards in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital were screened for S. aureus carriage. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped (spa, agr and assigned to multilocus sequence types (MLST. Species affiliation, methicillin-resistance, and the possession of pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAg, exfoliative toxins (ETs and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL were analyzed. Of 192 patients screened, the S. aureus carrier rate was 31.8 % (n = 61. Of these isolates, 7 (11.5% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA. The isolates comprised 24 spa types. The most frequent spa types were t064, t084, t311, and t1931, while the most prevalent MLST clonal complexes were CC5 and CC15. The most frequent PTSAg genes detected were seg/sei (41.0% followed by seb (29.5%, sea (19.7%, seh (14.7% and sec (11.5. The difference between the possession of classical and newly described PTSAg genes was not significant (63.9% versus 59.0% respectively; P = 0.602. PVL encoding genes were found in 39.3% isolates. All MRSA isolates were PVL negative, SCCmec types I and VI in MLST CC 5 and CC 30, respectively. Typing of the accessory gene regulator (agr showed the following distribution: agr group 1 (n = 20, group II (n = 17, group III (n = 14 and group IV (n = 10. Compared to European data, enterotoxin gene seb and PVL-encoding genes were more prevalent in Nigerian methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, which may therefore act as potential reservoir for PVL and PTSAg genes.

  12. Prevalence of USA300 Colonization or Infection and Associated Variables During an Outbreak of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Marginalized Urban Population

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    Mark Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2004, an outbreak of the USA300 strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was identified in persons with histories of homelessness, illicit drug use or incarceration in the Calgary Health Region (Calgary, Alberta. A prevalence study was conducted to test the hypotheses for factors associated with USA300 colonization or infection.

  13. Scintigraphic evaluation of colon targeting pectin-HPMC tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, L A; Connolly, S M; Band, J; O'Mahony, B; Ugurlu, T; Turkoglu, M; Wilson, C G; Stevens, H N E

    2009-03-31

    The in vivo evaluation of colon-targeting tablets was conducted in six healthy male volunteers. A pectin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose coating was compressed onto core tablets labelled with 4MBq (99m)Tc-DTPA. The tablets released in the colon in all subjects; three in the ascending colon (AC) and three in the transverse colon (TC). Tablets that released in the TC had reached the AC before or just after food (Group A). The other three tablets released immediately upon AC entry at least 1.5h post-meal (Group B). Release onset for Group B was earlier than Group A (343min vs 448min). Group B tablets exhibited a clear residence period at the ileocaecal junction (ICJ) which was not observed in Group A. Prolonged residence at the ICJ is assumed to have increased hydration of the hydrogel layer surrounding the core tablet. Forces applied as the tablets progressed through the ICJ may have disrupted the hydrogel layer sufficiently to initiate radiolabel release. Conversely, Group A tablets moved rapidly through the AC to the TC, possibly minimising contact times with water pockets. Inadequate prior hydration of the hydrogel layer preventing access of pectinolytic enzymes and reduced fluid availability in the TC may have retarded tablet disintegration and radiolabel diffusion.

  14. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P < 0.05. All tested procedures led to a significant reduction of bacteral colonization irrespective of the toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are

  15. Risk factors affecting nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus when admitted in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiang; Zhuang Taifeng; Lin Ying; Xi Jingjing; Yao Gaiqi

    2014-01-01

    Background Colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a risk factor for subsequent invasive MRSA infection,particularly in patients admitted for critical care.The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors affecting nasal colonization of MRSA in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU).Methods Between August 1,2011 and June 30,2012,we screened for MRSA nasal colonization in 350 patients by Real-time PCR within 24 hours of admission by means of swab samples taken from the anterior nares.According to the results of PCR,the patients were divided into 2 groups:the positive group with nasal MRSA colonization and the negative group without nasal MRSA colonization.The 31 (8.86%) patients were MRSA positive.The risk factors evaluated included thirteen variables,which were analyzed by t test for continuous variables and X2 test for discrete variables.The variables with significance (P <0.05) were analyzed with stepwise Logistic regression.Results There were differences (P <0.05) in four variables between two groups.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission in the positive group was (35.7±16.1) days,vs.(4.5±3.1) days in the negative group.The average blood albumin level was (28.4±2.9) g/L in the positive group,vs.(30.5±4.3) g/L in the negative group.Of 31 patients in the positive group,seven had been treated with antibiotics longer than seven days vs.34 of 319 patients in the negative group.In the positive group,four of 31 patients received treatment with more than two classes of antibiotics prior to admission in ICU,contrasted to 13 of 319 patients in the negative group.Furthermore,stepwise Logistic regression analysis for these four variables indicates that the duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission may be an independent risk factor.Conclusions MRSA colonization in ICU admission may be related to many factors.The duration of stay in hospital prior to ICU admission is an independent risk

  16. Host Physiologic Changes Induced by Influenza A Virus Lead to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and Transition from Asymptomatic Colonization to Invasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Reddinger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen and a major health concern worldwide, causing a wide variety of diseases from mild skin infections to systemic disease. S. aureus is a major source of severe secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza A virus infection, which causes widespread morbidity and mortality. While the phenomenon of secondary bacterial pneumonia is well established, the mechanisms behind the transition from asymptomatic colonization to invasive staphylococcal disease following viral infection remains unknown. In this report, we have shown that S. aureus biofilms, grown on an upper respiratory epithelial substratum, disperse in response to host physiologic changes related to viral infection, such as febrile range temperatures, exogenous ATP, norepinephrine, and increased glucose. Mice that were colonized with S. aureus and subsequently exposed to these physiologic stimuli or influenza A virus coinfection developed pronounced pneumonia. This study provides novel insight into the transition from colonization to invasive disease, providing a better understanding of the events involved in the pathogenesis of secondary staphylococcal pneumonia.

  17. Host Physiologic Changes Induced by Influenza A Virus Lead to Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and Transition from Asymptomatic Colonization to Invasive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddinger, Ryan M.; Luke-Marshall, Nicole R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous opportunistic human pathogen and a major health concern worldwide, causing a wide variety of diseases from mild skin infections to systemic disease. S. aureus is a major source of severe secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza A virus infection, which causes widespread morbidity and mortality. While the phenomenon of secondary bacterial pneumonia is well established, the mechanisms behind the transition from asymptomatic colonization to invasive staphylococcal disease following viral infection remains unknown. In this report, we have shown that S. aureus biofilms, grown on an upper respiratory epithelial substratum, disperse in response to host physiologic changes related to viral infection, such as febrile range temperatures, exogenous ATP, norepinephrine, and increased glucose. Mice that were colonized with S. aureus and subsequently exposed to these physiologic stimuli or influenza A virus coinfection developed pronounced pneumonia. This study provides novel insight into the transition from colonization to invasive disease, providing a better understanding of the events involved in the pathogenesis of secondary staphylococcal pneumonia. PMID:27507829

  18. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus colonizing the anterior Nares of school children of Udupi Taluk

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    S Govindan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA cause serious skin and soft tissue infections including necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Production of Panton Valentine Leucocidine (PVL toxin is implicated in its enhanced virulence. A variant of epidemic MRSA-15 (EMRSA-15 which produces PVL toxin has been isolated and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method from the Indian population both in hospital and community settings. Aims: Identify the epidemiological type of MRSA colonizing the anterior nares of school children in Udupi taluk. Settings and Design: The study population included children of the age group of 5-16 years belonging to the Udupi taluk of Karnataka, India. A total of 1503 children were screened for MRSA colonization during July 2009 to December 2010. Materials and Methods: PVL assay, Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome (SCC mec typing and PFGE typing were carried out with all the MRSA isolates. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency distribution of different variables was assessed by SPSS. Results: Among the 1.1% of MRSA, 58.8% (10/17 of isolates were positive for pvl and 41.7% (7/17 were identified as SCC mec type IV. PFGE patterns of all the strains were identical with Indian variant EMRSA-15; however they were different from classical EMRSA-15 in 3-4 bands. Conclusions: The Indian variant EMRSA-15 gains much epidemiological relevance owing to the acquisition of pvl gene. In spite of low prevalence of nasal colonization of MRSA, emergence of the virulent Indian variant EMRSA-15 in our community is a worrisome fact to be reckoned with.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus sarA regulates inflammation and colonization during central nervous system biofilm formation.

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    Jessica N Snowden

    Full Text Available Infection is a frequent and serious complication following the treatment of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts, with limited therapeutic options because of biofilm formation along the catheter surface. Here we evaluated the possibility that the sarA regulatory locus engenders S. aureus more resistant to immune recognition in the central nervous system (CNS based on its reported ability to regulate biofilm formation. We utilized our established model of CNS catheter-associated infection, similar to CSF shunt infections seen in humans, to compare the kinetics of bacterial titers, cytokine production and inflammatory cell influx elicited by wild type S. aureus versus an isogenic sarA mutant. The sarA mutant was more rapidly cleared from infected catheters compared to its isogenic wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-17, CXCL1, and IL-1β were significantly increased in the brain following infection with the sarA mutant versus wild type S. aureus, in agreement with the fact that the sarA mutant displayed impaired biofilm growth and favored a planktonic state. Neutrophil influx into the infected hemisphere was also increased in the animals infected with the sarA mutant compared to wild type bacteria. These changes were not attributable to extracellular protease activity, which is increased in the context of SarA mutation, since similar responses were observed between sarA and a sarA/protease mutant. Overall, these results demonstrate that sarA plays an important role in attenuating the inflammatory response during staphylococcal biofilm infection in the CNS via a mechanism that remains to be determined.

  20. Colonic Perforation Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Enteritis After Total Gastrectomy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kenei; Tsutsumi, Jun; Takayama, Sumio; Mashiko, Hiroshi; Shiba, Hiroaki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent total gastrectomy and splenectomy for adenocarcinoma and low anterior resection for carcinoma in tubulo-villous adenoma of the rectum. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered for postoperative pancreatic fistula. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus enteritis occurred on the 50th postoperative day and cecal perforation followed. The patient underwent construction of cecostomy with peritoneal drainage, and vancomycin was administered orally and per cecostomy for 2 weeks. The patient recovered well and was discharged at 35 days after re-operation in good general condition.

  1. Lower Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Associated with Reduced Diversity of the Colonic Microbiota in Healthy Adults.

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    Gregory E Miller

    Full Text Available In the United States, there are persistent and widening socioeconomic gaps in morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Although most disparities research focuses on person-level socioeconomic-status, mounting evidence suggest that chronic diseases also pattern by the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods. Yet the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. There is increasing recognition that chronic diseases share common pathogenic features, some of which involve alterations in the composition, diversity, and functioning of the gut microbiota. This study examined whether socioeconomic-status was associated with alpha-diversity of the colonic microbiota. Forty-four healthy adults underwent un-prepped sigmoidoscopy, during which mucosal biopsies and fecal samples were collected. Subjects' zip codes were geocoded, and census data was used to form a composite indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic-status, reflecting household income, educational attainment, employment status, and home value. In unadjusted analyses, neighborhood socioeconomic-status explained 12-18 percent of the variability in alpha-diversity of colonic microbiota. The direction of these associations was positive, meaning that as neighborhood socioeconomic-status increased, so did alpha-diversity of both the colonic sigmoid mucosa and fecal microbiota. The strength of these associations persisted when models were expanded to include covariates reflecting potential demographic (age, gender, race/ethnicity and lifestyle (adiposity, alcohol use, smoking confounds. In these models neighborhood socioeconomic-status continued to explain 11-22 percent of the variability in diversity indicators. Further analyses suggested these patterns reflected socioeconomic variations in evenness, but not richness, of microbial communities residing in the sigmoid. We also found indications that residence in neighborhoods of higher socioeconomic-status was

  2. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Vento, Todd J.; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P.; Rini, Elizabeth A.; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C.; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Landrum, Michael L.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collect...

  3. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  4. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

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    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  5. Aleitamento materno e colonização mucocutânea pelo Staphylococcus aureus na criança com dermatite atópica Breastfeeding and mucosal and cutaneous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in atopic children

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    Raissa Massaia Londero Chemello

    2011-06-01

    remains unclear whether colonization of atopic patients by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus through breastfeeding is relevant to the development of AD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential relation between breastfeeding and colonization by S. aureus in atopic patients. METHOD: Transversal study of atopic patients, aged from 4 to 24 months, both genders, receiving outpatient care and 72 mothers. Data on infant breastfeeding practices and on clinical-epidemiological profile were registered. Swabs of the infants' nares and skin (cubital fossa and swabs of the mothers' nares were collected. For univariate analysis, X2 (chi-square and Fischer Exact's test were used. RESULTS: Among breastfed children, S. aureus was isolated from 8 (25.8% infants' nares swabs and from 4 (12.9% skin swabs. Among not breastfed children, S. aureus was isolated from 10 (20.8% infants' nares swabs and from 11 (22.9% skin swabs. Sixteen mothers (22.2% had S. aureus isolated from their nares swabs. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and S. aureus colonization (child skin and/or nares. However, there was a degree of concordance for S. aureus carriage among mothers and infants. Among 72 pairs, 56 (77.8% were concordant. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was not associated with S. aureus muco-cutaneous colonization in atopic infants

  6. Colonization of butchers with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boost, Maureen; Ho, J.; Guardabassi, Luca;

    2013-01-01

    contamination levels of 10% of retail pork were reported from the Netherlands and Canada, there are limited data of contamination rates of workers handling raw meat. We investigated the rates of MRSA contamination of local butchers working in wet markets, where recently slaughtered pigs are cut up. Nasal swabs......), colonizing two subjects at the same establishment, and single isolates of t008 (CC8), t002 (CC5) and t123 (CC45). The remaining isolates were t359 (CC97), previously reported from buffaloes, and t375 (CC5), reported from bovine milk. None of these butchers reported recent hospitalization or a healthcare...... worker in the family. Two had recently received antibiotics, one for a skin infection. Four reported wound infections within the last year. All were exposed to meat for >9 h per day. Carriage of MRSA was higher in butchers than in the general community. Although five strains were probably of healthcare...

  7. Adaptive immune response to lipoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, Chi Hai; Kolata, Julia; Stentzel, Sebastian; Beyer, Anica; Salazar, Manuela Gesell; Steil, Leif; Pané-Farré, Jan; Rühmling, Vanessa; Engelmann, Susanne; Götz, Friedrich; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Mäder, Ulrike; Schmidt, Frank; Völker, Uwe; Bröker, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent commensal but also a dangerous pathogen, causing many forms of infection ranging from mild to life-threatening conditions. Among its virulence factors are lipoproteins, which are anchored in the bacterial cell membrane. Lipoproteins perform various functions in co

  8. Serum antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus antigens in healthy individuals and patients with invasive infections

    OpenAIRE

    Colque-Navarro, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to study the antibody responses against Staphylococcus aureus in health and in deep infections and is composed of six papers. We developed a sandwich enzyme immuno assay (EIA) with a detection limit for alpha-toxin at nanograms levels. This method is applicable to measure alpha-toxin in culture supernatants and in human fluids. The assay is simple, reproducible and performed within 6 hours. We determined the presence of alpha-toxin in serum samples ...

  9. Impact of neonatal intensive care bed configuration on rates of late-onset bacterial sepsis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Samuel; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Sellenriek, Patricia; Shannon, William D.; Hamvas, Aaron; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The association between nursery design and nosocomial infections has not been delineated. We hypothesized that rates of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), late-onset sepsis, and mortality are reduced in single-patient rooms. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting NICU in a tertiary referral center. Methods Our NICU is organized into single-patient and open-unit rooms. Clinical datasets including bed location and microbiology results were examined over a 29-month period. Differences in outcomes between bed configurations were determined by Chi-square and Cox regression. Patients All NICU patients. Results Among 1823 patients representing 55,166 patient-days, single-patient and open-unit models had similar incidences of MRSA colonization and MRSA colonization-free survival times. Average daily census was associated with MRSA colonization rates only in single-patient rooms (hazard ratio 1.31, p=0.039), while hand hygiene compliance on room entry and exit was associated with lower colonization rates independent of bed configuration (hazard ratios 0.834 and 0.719 per 1% higher compliance, respectively). Late-onset sepsis rates were similar in single-patient and open-unit models as were sepsis-free survival and the combined outcome of sepsis or death. After controlling for demographic, clinical and unit-based variables, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that bed configuration had no effect on MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or mortality. Conclusions MRSA colonization rate was impacted by hand hygiene compliance, regardless of room configuration, while average daily census only affected infants in single-patient rooms. Single-patient rooms did not reduce the rates of MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis or death. PMID:26108888

  10. Neighborhood analysis of low magnification structures (glands) in healthy, adenomatous, and carcinomatous colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, K; Shaver, M; Modlinger, F; Postl, K; Moyers, J J

    1986-05-01

    A new algorithm analyzing neighborhood conditions of adenomatous tissue is is introduced. Using O'Callaghan's definition of neighborhoods, a graph theory approach for measuring histomorphological structures can be created as follows: glands are defined as vertices and the coherence of neighboring glands as edges. The procedure leads to an unoriented, well-defined graph which contains information usually not measurable by conventional morphometric analysis. Measurements on healthy mucosa, tubulo-villous adenoma and highly to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of colon revealed statistically significant differences (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the following parameters: number of vertices, number of edges, frequency distribution of n-stars and of n-closed paths. Correct separation and reclassification of 83% of cases could be carried out using discriminant analysis. 11/15 cases (73%) could be classified correctly in a prospective group based upon the learning set. The significance of these findings for automatic pattern recognition in histopathology is discussed. PMID:3737471

  11. Gamma-cyclodextrin/usnic acid thin film fabricated by MAPLE for improving the resistance of medical surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Florin; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Curuţiu, Carmen; Diţu, Lia Mara; Socol, Gabriel; Ficai, Anton; Truşcă, Roxana; Holban, Alina Maria

    2015-05-01

    This study reports on the successful deposition of γ-cyclodextrin/usnic acid (γCD/UA) thin film by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) as anti-adherent coating on medical surfaces against microbial colonization. The obtained results demonstrate that these bioactive thin films inhibit Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at all stages, starting with their initiation. The antibiofilm effect was constant along the bacterial incubation time. Furthermore, the γCD/UA coatings show a great biocompatibility which means that this material is suitable for the development of modern medical devices with antimicrobial properties.

  12. Determinants of mortality in oncology patients colonized or infected with Staphylococcus aureus Determinantes de mortalidade em pacientes colonizados ou infectados por internados em um hospital do câncer. Staphylococcus aureus

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    Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA infection is an important cause of hospital morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to identify the main factors associated with death in patients colonized or infected with Staphylococcus aureus in a cancer center. A matched-pair case-control study enrolled all patients infected or colonized with ORSA (cases admitted to the Hospital do Câncer in Rio de Janeiro from 01/01/1992 to 12/31/1994. A control was defined as a patient hospitalized during the same period as the case-patients and colonized or infected with oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (OSSA. The study enrolled 95 cases and 95 controls. Patient distribution was similar for the two groups (p > or = 0.05 with respect to gender, underlying diseases, hospital transfer, prior infection, age, temperature, heart and respiratory rates, neutrophil count, and duration of hospitalization. Univariate analysis of putative risk factors associated with mortality showed the following significant variables: admission to the intensive care unit (ICU, presence of bacteremia, use of central venous catheter (CVC, ORSA colonization or infection, pneumonia, use of urinary catheter, primary lung infection, prior use of antibiotics, mucositis, and absence of cutaneous abscesses. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between mortality and the following independent variables: admission to ICU (OR [odds ratio]=7.2, presence of Staphylococcus bacteremia (OR=6.8, presence of CVC (OR=5.3, and isolation of ORSA (OR=2.7. The study suggests a higher virulence of ORSA in comparison to OSSA in cancer patients.As infecções causadas por Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina (ORSA são causas importantes de morbidade e mortalidade. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os principais fatores associados à mortalidade em pacientes colonizados ou infectados por Staphylococcus aureus em um hospital de câncer. Foi realizado um

  13. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as causes of human infection and colonization in Germany.

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    Robin Köck

    Full Text Available Pigs, cattle and poultry are colonized with MRSA and the zoonotic transmission of such MRSA to humans via direct animal contact, environmental contaminations or meat are a matter of concern. Livestock-associated (LA MRSA are mostly belonging to clonal complex (CC 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. However, MRSA of other clonal lineages including CC5, CC9 and CC97 have also been detected in livestock animals in Germany. Within the framework of a Dutch-German network project (EUREGIO, 14,036 MRSA isolated from clinical and screening specimens (January 2008 - June 2012 derived from human patients in hospitals as well as general or specialized practices in a German region characterized by a high density of livestock production, were subjected to S. aureus protein A (spa sequence typing. The prevalence of putative LA-MRSA among the human MRSA isolates was determined by analyzing the detection of livestock-indicator (LI spa types which had already been reported in German livestock. Overall, 578 spa types were detected among the MRSA isolates. LI spa types t011, t034, t108, t1451, t2011, t571, t1456, t1250, t1255, t1580, t2970, t2346, t1344, t2576, t2330 and t2510 (all of which are indicative for LA-MRSA CC398 accounted for 18.6% of all human isolates. The LI spa types t1430 (CC9, t3992 (CC97, t002 (CC5 and t007 (CC30 were found in 0.14%, 0.01%, 1.01% and 0.04% of all human MRSA isolates, respectively. LI spa types associated with CC398 represented 23% of all MRSA from screening samples and a varying proportion among isolates from clinical specimens ranging between 0% in cerebrospinal fluid, 8% in blood cultures and 14% in deep respiratory fluids. Our findings indicate that LA-MRSA are a major cause for human infection and stress the need for close surveillance. Although LA-MRSA CC398 predominates, the occurrence of putative LA-MRSA from other clonal lineages should be monitored.

  14. Individual predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs based on quantification, carriage dynamics and serological profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Dahl, Jan; Elvstrøm, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    associations between carriage and immune response. Nasal swabs were collected three times weekly from 480 tagged adult pigs in 20 Danish production farms. S. aureus and MRSA were quantified on selective media by the most probable number method. Serum levels of IgG against ten S. aureus antigens were quantified...... in selected pigs by a Luminex assay. All farms were positive for S. aureus and 15 for MRSA, leading to an overall prevalence of persistent, intermittent and non-carriers of 24, 52 and 23%, respectively. Carriage frequency and nasal loads were significantly higher in MRSA-positive farms. Logistic regression...

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from faeces of healthy neonates and potential mother-to-infant microbial transmission through breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Daniel; Lozano, Carmen; Jiménez, Esther; Albújar, Mar; Gómez, Adolfo; Rodríguez, Juan M; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Twenty-one women and their respective singleton infants participated in this study, contributing with samples of breast milk and faeces (at days 7, 14 and 35 after birth), respectively, used for Staphylococcus aureus recovery. The aim was to track the carriage of S. aureus in milk and infant faeces of mother-infant pairs, and to determine the genetic lineages of the isolates, their potential clonal relationships and their content in antimicrobial resistance, virulence and immune evasion cluster genes. The molecular characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing. Clonal relationship among mother-infant isolates was conducted by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from milk samples of 6 of 21 mothers (16 isolates) and from faecal samples of 12 of 21 infants (25 isolates). From these 41 S. aureus recovered, 18 were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and 23 methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Twelve diferentes spa types and eight sequence types were detected among S. aureus. Predominant clonal complexes were CC5 (43.9%) and CC30 (36.6%). MRSA strains presented a multidrug-resistance profile, 65.2% of MSSA strains harboured tsst-1 toxin gene and 26.8% of total strains carried the cna gene. A potential mother-to-infant S. aureus transmission was demonstrated in four cases by spa typing, MLST and PFGE (transmission of t322/ST5/CC5-PFGE-A, t136/ST34/CC30-PFGE-B and t021/ST1869/CC30-PFGE-C strains). Breastfeeding seems to contribute to early S. aureus intestinal colonization in neonates what might affect the immune system development.

  16. The expression of small regulatory RNAs in clinical samples reflects the different life styles of Staphylococcus aureus in colonization vs. infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Song

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways and in responses to stress and virulence. We analyzed the expression levels of five sRNAs of Staphylococcus aureus during human colonization or infection. Total RNA was isolated from nasal carriers, abscesses and cystic fibrosis patients (20 subjects per condition. The expression levels of the sRNAs were measured in the clinical samples and compared with those of the corresponding strains grown in vitro. Five sRNAs were encoded and expressed in all clinical strains in vitro. In vivo, the global expression of the five sRNAs was extremely variable in the abscessed patients, more homogeneous in the cystic fibrosis patients, and highly uniform in the nasal carrier samples. The expression levels of the sRNAs in vivo resembled those obtained at exponential phase or late exponential phase of growth in vitro, for three and one sRNA respectively; while for one sRNA, the expression was always higher in vivo as compared to in vitro growth. The in vitro conditions do not uniformly mimic the in vivo conditions for sRNA expression. Nasal colonization is associated with a unique expression pattern of sRNA that might reflect the commensalism of S. aureus in this niche.

  17. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage, Antibiotic Resistance and Molecular Pathogenicity among Healthy Individuals Exposed and Not Exposed to Hospital Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Veena; Renushri, Bhadravati Virupaksha; Nagaraj, Elkal Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers as well as healthy community-dwelling individuals may be colonised by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Healthcare workers who carry MRSA may transmit it to patients, causing various nosocomial infections. Literature shows that the differences between MRSA isolated from healthcare settings and from community settings, with regard to multi-drug resistance (traditionally exhibited by the former) and possession of pvl genes (traditionally exhibited by the latter), is diminishing due to a large community reservoir and increasing influx of community harboured strains into the hospital. However, there is no literature on the current scenario in India. Aims and Objectives: This study examines the influence of exposure to hospital environment on MRSA carriage, antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSA, and the presence of genes encoding five extracellular pathogenicity determinants (pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a). Materials and Methods: Nasal, throat and palmar swabs were collected from 119 nursing students of the age group 18-23 years (exposed group) and 100 age matched pharmacy students (non-exposed group). S. aureus was identified and antibiogram obtained as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MRSA was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion test and by growth on oxacillin screen agar as per CLSI guidelines. Conventional PCR was performed for mecA, pvl, sea, seb, tsst-1 and hly a. Results: The differences in carrier rates, antibiotic resistance patterns and expression of extracellular pathogenicity determinants between MRSA isolates from the two study groups were not significant, and pvl was found in all the MRSA isolates. Conclusion: The nursing students carried MRSA strains similar to those carried by the non-exposed group. Our results suggest that healthcare workers could act as a link and transmit MRSA acquired from the community to patients. PMID:25177563

  18. Nasal Colonization of Humans with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 with and without Exposure to Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Cuny, Christiane; Nathaus, Rolf; Layer, Franziska; Strommenger, Birgit; Witte, Wolfgang; Altmann, Doris

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. Methods: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family ...

  19. Another cause of chest pain: Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis in an otherwise healthy adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacek TP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas P Vacek, Shahnaz Rehman, Shipeng Yu, Ankush Moza, Ragheb Assaly Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo OH, USAAbstract: Chest pain requires a detailed differential diagnosis with good history-taking skills to differentiate between cardiogenic and noncardiogenic causes. Moreover, when other symptoms such as fever and elevated white blood cell count are involved, it may be necessary to consider causes that include infectious sources. A 53-year-old female with no significant past medical history returned to the hospital with recurrent complaints of chest pain that was constant, substernal, reproducible, and exacerbated with inspiration and expiration. The chest pain was thought to be noncardiogenic, as electrocardiography did not demonstrate changes, and cardiac enzymes were found to be negative for signs of ischemia. The patient's blood cultures were analyzed from a previous admission and were shown to be positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was started empirically on vancomycin, which was later switched to ceftriaxone as the bacteria were more sensitive to this antibiotic. A transthoracic echocardiogram did not demonstrate any vegetation or signs of endocarditis. There was a small right pleural effusion discovered on X-ray. Therefore, computed tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging of the chest were performed, and showed osteomyelitis of the chest. The patient was continued on intravenous ceftriaxone for a total of 6 weeks. Tests for HIV, hepatitis A, B, and C were all found to be negative. The patient had no history of childhood illness, recurrent infections, or previous trauma to the chest, and had had no recent respiratory infections, pneumonia, or any underlying lung condition. Hence, her condition was thought to be a case of primary sternal osteomyelitis without known cause.Keywords: substernal, pleuritic, myocardial infarction, differential

  20. The role of the colonic flora in maintaining a healthy large bowel mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, M A

    2001-01-01

    This work explores the intricate relationships between bacterial products of fermentation, the short chain fatty acids and the effect that these have on the colonic epithelium and the immune system. It confirms that butyrate is a major energy source for the colonic epithelium and there may be a minor epithelial abnormality in the metabolism of butyrate in patients with ulcerative colitis. Immunological studies suggest that butyrate has an effect on lymphocyte activation and inhibits cell prol...

  1. Comparison of genotypes and enterotoxin genes between Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood and nasal colonizers in a Korean hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kyong Ran; Baek, Jin Yang; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the genetic background of 70 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (36 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] and 34 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) obtained from blood at a Korean tertiary-care hospital, using spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, and SCCmec typing. In addition, the prevalence of enterotoxin (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, and sek), tst, and pvl genes among the samples was assessed via polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with those of 95 isolates of S. aureus obtained from nasal swabs. All MRSA isolates from blood, except one, belonged to three major clones: sequence type (ST)5-MRSA-II, ST72-MRSA-II (or IVA), and ST239-MRSA-III, among which ST5-MRSA-II was the predominant clone. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes in the S. aureus isolates obtained from blood differed significantly from those from the nasal swabs for the sea, seb, sec, and seh gene. In particular, the seb and sec genes were detected exclusively in the MRSA isolates of ST5 or spa-CC002, thereby suggesting the co-adaptation of virulence genes with the genetic background and their contribution to biological fitness.

  2. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from skin and soft tissue infections samples and healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svent-Kucina, Natasa; Pirs, Mateja; Kofol, Romina; Blagus, Rok; Smrke, Dragica Maja; Bilban, Marjan; Seme, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is among the most important human pathogens. It is associated with different infections and is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). The aim of our study was to compare S. aureus isolates associated with SSTIs with isolates obtained from healthy carriers in the Central Slovenia region in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, genetic diversity by clonal complex (CC)/sequence type, spa type, and by toxin gene profiling. In total, 274 S. aureus isolates were collected prospectively by culturing wound samples from 461 SSTI patients and nasal samples from 451 healthy carriers. We have demonstrated high heterogeneity in terms of CCs and spa type in both groups of isolates. The main clone among SSTI strains was Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) positive CC121, whereas the main clone among carrier strains was CC45 carrying a large range of toxin genes. The main spa type in both groups was t091. Pvl was more frequently present in SSTI strains (31.2% SSTI vs 3.6% carrier strains) and staphylococcal enterotoxin C was more frequently present in carrier strains (1.6% SSTI vs 17.0% carrier strains). We have also demonstrated that methicillin-resistant S. aureus was a rare cause (2.8%) of SSTIs in our region.

  3. Spontaneous septic arthritis of the lumbar facet caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an otherwise healthy adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaliodis, Dean N; Roberts, Timothy T; Richardson, Nicholas G; Lawrence, James B

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with isolated septic arthritis of a lumbar facet. This rare presentation of an infection in a lumbar facet joint occurred after minor trauma sustained in a football game. Septic arthritis of the spinal facet joint is an uncommon phenomenon. Only 5 cases have been reported in immunocompromised pediatric patients. To our knowledge, no case of septic arthritis in an immunocompetent pediatric patient has been reported. An otherwise healthy 16-year-old boy presented with 4 weeks of escalating back pain after a minor athletics-related trauma. Evaluation showed incapacitating pain, lumbar musculature spasms, and the absence of fever, hemodynamic, or neurologic changes. Laboratory values were within normal limits. Magnetic resonance images showed a fluid collection within the L3-L4 facet and a localized abscess. Computed tomographic-guided aspiration showed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, for which the patient received 6 weeks of vancomycin with complete resolution of symptoms. Refractory lumbago in an adolescent requires careful evaluation.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA colonization rates among personnel and dogs in a small animal hospital : association with nosocomial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walther, Birgit; Wieler, Lothar H; Friedrich, Alexander W; Kohn, Barbara; Brunnberg, Leo; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2009-01-01

    The genetic relationship of thirty Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates derived from the nasal cavities of canine patients hospitalized (n = 7), veterinary personnel (n = 20), and environmental sources (n = 3) sampled during a 20-month investigation period, were analyzed in this study. Ge

  5. Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398 with and without exposure to pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. METHODS: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family members. The same was performed in 18 veterinarians attending pig farms and in 44 of their non exposed family members. For investigating transmission beyond families we samples the nares of 462 pupils attending a secondary school in a high density pig farming area. MRSA were detected by direct culture on selective agar. The isolates were typed by means of spa-sequence typing and classification of SCCmec elements. For attribution of spa sequence types to clonal lineages as defined by multi locus sequence typing we used the BURP algorithm. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution assay. RESULTS: At the farms investigated 86% of humans exposed and only 4.3% of their family members were found to carry MRSA exhibiting spa-types corresponding to clonal complex CC398. Nasal colonization was also found in 45% of veterinarians caring for pig farms and in 9% of their non exposed family members. Multivariate analysis revealed that antibiotic usage prior to sampling beard no risk with respect to colonization. From 462 pupils only 3 were found colonized, all 3 were living on pig farms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that so far the dissemination of MRSA CC398 to non exposed humans is infrequent and probably does not reach beyond familial communities.

  6. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. Methods The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal s...

  7. Effect of experimental stress on the small bowel and colon in healthy humans

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, SE; Garsed, KC; Hoad, CL; Lingaya, M; Banwait, R; Thongborisute, W; Roberts, E; Costigan, C; Marciani, L.; Gowland, PA; Spiller, RC

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are frequently reported to be exacerbated by stress. Animal studies suggest that corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mediates the effect of stress on the bowel. We have shown that stressed IBS patients with diarrhea have constricted small bowels. We hypothesized that we could mimic this effect by applying experimental stress in the form of either hand immersion in ice water or CRH injection in healthy volunteers (HV). Methods The postpr...

  8. Diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and vagina of healthy women and potential role in the colonization of the infant gut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, R.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Smidt, H.; Rodriguez, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches. Methods and Results: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptical

  9. Dietary flaxseed modulates the colonic microenvironment in healthy C57Bl/6 male mice which may alter susceptibility to gut-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Krista A; Lepp, Dion; Zarepoor, Leila; Monk, Jennifer M; Wu, Wenqing; Tsao, Rong; Liu, Ronghua

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how dietary components alter the healthy baseline colonic microenvironment is important in determining their roles in influencing gut health and gut-associated diseases. Dietary flaxseed (FS) has demonstrated anti-colon cancer effects in numerous rodent models, however, exacerbated acute colonic mucosal injury and inflammation in a colitis model. This study investigates whether FS alters critical aspects of gut health in healthy unchallenged mice, which may help explain some of the divergent effects observed following different gut-associated disease challenges. Four-week-old C57Bl/6 male mice were fed an AIN-93G basal diet (BD) or an isocaloric BD+10% ground FS diet for 3 weeks. FS enhanced colon goblet cell density, mucus production, MUC2 mRNA expression, and cecal short chain fatty acid levels, indicative of beneficial intestinal barrier integrity responses. Additionally, FS enhanced colonic regenerating islet-derived protein 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) and reduced MUC1 and resistin-like molecule beta (RELMβ) mRNA expression which may indicate altered responses in regulating microbial defense and injury repair responses. FS diet altered the fecal microbial community structure (16S rRNA gene profiling), including a 20-fold increase in Prevotella spp. and a 30-fold reduction in Akkermansia muciniphila abundance. A 10-fold reduction in A. muciniphila abundance by FS was also demonstrated in the colon tissue-associated microbiota (quantitative PCR). Furthermore, fecal branched chain fatty acids were increased by FS, indicative of increased microbial-derived putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, consumption of a FS-supplemented diet alters the baseline colonic microenvironment of healthy mice which may modify subsequent mucosal microbial defense and injury-repair responses leading to altered susceptibility to different gut-associated diseases.

  10. Interaction between impaired and recovery of skin barrier and colonization of staphylococcus aureus%皮肤屏障功能损伤及恢复与金黄色葡萄球菌定植的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建美; 孙楠; 仲少敏; 陶荣; 吴艳

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨皮肤屏障功能损伤及采用保湿或封包手段恢复屏障功能与金黄色葡萄球菌(简称金葡菌)定植之间的相互影响。方法使用胶带反复黏贴SKH-1无毛小鼠背部皮肤制造皮肤屏障功能急性损伤模型。将36只小鼠分为对照组、破坏屏障组、接种金葡菌组、破坏+接种金葡菌组、破坏+封包+接种金葡菌组(后简称:封包组)以及破坏+保湿+接种金葡菌组(后简称:保湿组)6组。后四组在接种金葡菌24 h后收集局部菌进行培养、鉴定和计数。在屏障功能破坏前、破坏后即刻、封包/保湿后、接种金葡菌后4 h、24 h分别检测小鼠屏障功能相关生理指标。结果胶带反复黏贴后即刻,pH值、TEWL和基线相比明显升高(P<0.05),24 h角质层含水量低于基线,pH值和TEWL仍高于基线水平(P<0.05)。封包1 h可降低皮肤表面pH值和TEWL(P<0.05);保湿4 h可降低pH值(P<0.05),TEWL有所下降,但和破坏屏障组同一时间相比无统计学差异。接种金葡菌后24 h,接种组仅有少量的金葡菌生长;破坏+接种组的金葡菌定植量远高于接种组(P<0.05);封包组和保湿组金葡菌定植的数量与破坏+接种组相比明显减少(P<0.05)。在屏障功能破坏的小鼠皮肤上接种金葡菌会延缓pH值和TEWL的恢复,和破坏屏障组相比有统计学差异(P<0.05)。封包和保湿可以消除接种金葡菌抑制屏障功能恢复的作用。结论屏障功能破坏会促进金葡菌的定植,封包和保湿可以促进急性屏障功能破坏的恢复并减少金葡菌的定植,金葡菌定植后会延缓皮肤屏障功能的恢复,封包和保湿可以消除接种金葡菌抑制屏障功能恢复的作用。%Objective To investigate the interaction between damaged skin barrier and colonization of Staphylococcus aureus;and the impact of occlusion and moisturizer, which

  11. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma S. Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133+2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO – accession number GSE71571 – was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9].

  12. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]).

  13. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bruez

    Full Text Available Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD, is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP, and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Extracts on HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis Induced by Staphylococcus aureus and Its Alpha-Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Sun; Park, Woo Jung; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in sepsis, septic shock, pneumonia, and wound infections. Here, we demonstrate that Lactobacillus plantarum extracts inhibited S. aureusinduced cell death of a human epithelial cell line, HT-29. In particular, we have shown that S. aureus-induced cell death was abolished by neutralization of α-toxin, indicating that α-toxin is the major mediator of S. aureus-induced cell death. DNA fragmentation experiment and caspase assay revealed that the S. aureus-induced cell death was apoptosis. L. plantarum extracts inhibited the generation of effector caspase-3 and the initiator caspase-9 in S. aureusor α-toxin-induced cell death. Moreover, expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, was activated in L. plantarum extract-treated cells as compared with the S. aureus- or α-toxintreated only cells. Furthermore, S. aureus-induced apoptosis was efficiently inhibited by lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan of L. plantarum. Together, our results suggest that L. plantarum extracts can inhibit the S. aureus-mediated apoptosis, which is associated with S. aureus spreading, in intestinal epithelial cells, and may provide a new therapeutic reagent to treat bacterial infections.

  15. Prevention of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ S. aureus colonizes the skin and mucosae of a proportion of the human population. Carriers of S. aureus are at increased risk of developing infections with this pathogen. The aim of this thesis was to add to the prevention of healthcare associated S. aureus infections.

  16. 成都社区健康儿童携带金黄色葡萄球菌耐药性分析%community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus and drug resistance test in healthy children in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 万朝敏; 母得志; 周伟; 肖国光; 徐爱丽; 范娟; 苏敏; 舒敏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To learn about nasal carrier of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus and drug sensitivity test in healthy children in Chengdu. METHODS 1 416 Nasal swabs were collected torn healthy children in Chengdu. All specimens were cultivated, once S. aureus was identified, drug susceptibility test (disk diffusion method) including penicillin, ery-thromycin, clindamycin, ceftazidime and vancomycin were applied to all S. aureus. RESULTS 257 S. aureus were identified, the positive rate is 18.15%, and the resistant rate to penicillin was 89.11%.4.28% of the S. aureus showed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), We didn't find vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. CONCLUSION Nasal carriage of S. aureus among healthy children in Chengdu was high and S. aureus was highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics.%目的 了解成都市部分在校健康儿童鼻前庭金黄色葡萄球菌携带及药物敏感情况.方法 收集成都市部分中小学及幼儿园健康儿童鼻前庭拭子,培养并分离金葡菌,同时应用纸片扩散法进行青霉素、红霉素、克林霉素、头孢西丁及万古霉素药敏试验.结果 从1 416份标本中分离出金葡菌257例,阳性率为18.15%,青霉素耐药率高达89.11%,耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)占4.28%,未发现耐万古霉素的金葡菌.结论 成都在校健康儿童鼻前庭金葡菌携带率较高且对常用抗生素具有较高耐药率.

  17. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control...... zoonotic transmission. A recent longitudinal study indicated that a minority of pigs characterized by high nasal load and stable carriage may be responsible for the maintenance of S. aureus within farms. The primary objective of the present study was to detect genetic loci associated with nasal carriage of...

  18. [Muco-cutaneous colonization and nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanii in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasdeloup, T; Caron, F; Soyer, S; Castel, O; Aubenneau, C; Fauchere, J L; Robert, R

    2000-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the frequency and risk factors for colonization with MRSA and A. baumanii in the intensive care unit, and to analyse the relationship between colonization and infection with MRSA or A. baumanii. During a 24-day survey period, colonization was studied weekly with nasal, throat and digit skin swabs; nosocomial infections were routinely monitored according to CDC recommendations. Clinical data and invasive procedures were registered during a one-year non-epidemic period; 103 ICU patients hospitalized for more than 7 days were prospectively included. We investigated acquired colonization and nosocomial infection with SAMR or A. baumanii for 87 patients not colonized by SAMR or A. baumanii on admission. The colonization acquisition rate was 56% for MRSA and 27% for A. baumanii. Infection incidence (cases per 1,000 patient-days) was 6.46 for MRSA and 1.61 for A. baumanii. On univariate analysis, acquired MRSA colonization was associated with longer ICU stays, longer mechanical ventilation and longer central venous catheterization. Multivariate analysis only showed an association with longer ICU stay. Acquired A. baumanii colonization was associated with SAPSII, longer mechanical ventilation, and longer central venous catheterization in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis only showed an association with SAPSII and longer mechanical ventilation. In this study, SAMR or A. baumanii infections were not associated with colonization or clinical setting or invasive procedures. PMID:10965530

  19. Haematological and biochemical measurements in healthy, adult, free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus syriacus) held in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, I; Shpigel, N Y; Avidar, Y; Yakobson, B; King, R; Shamir, M

    2005-09-10

    Blood from 31 healthy, free-ranging golden jackals held in captivity for seven days was collected while they were anaesthetised. Haematological and serum biochemical measurements were analysed and the 95 per cent confidence interval for each variable was compared with the reference value for domestic dogs. The measurements of their red blood cells were within the reference interval for dogs, but the jackals had higher white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts than dogs. The male jackals had a higher haematocrit, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, and a lower red blood cell distribution width than the female jackals. High activities of muscle enzymes were detected in many of the jackals, in several of which the activity of creatine kinase exceeded 5000 U/l; these were considered abnormal. PMID:16155240

  20. Effect of surgical stress on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from healthy sections of colon and rectum of patients with colorectal cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lucia Potenza; Cinzia Calcabrini; Roberta De Bellis; Umberto Mancini; Emanuela Polidori; Sabrina Zeppa; Rossana Alloni; Luigi Cucchiarini; Marina Dachà

    2011-06-01

    Surgical resection at any location in the body leads to stress response with cellular and subcellular change, leading to tissue damage. The intestine is extremely sensitive to surgical stress with consequent postoperative complications. It has been suggested that the increase of reactive oxygen species as subcellular changes plays an important role in this process. This article focuses on the effect of surgical stress on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from healthy sections of colon and rectum of patients with colorectal cancer. Mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial common deletion and nuclear and mitochondrial 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine content were measured. Both the colon and rectal tissue were significantly damaged either at the nuclear or mitochondrial level. In particular, mitochondrial DNA was more damaged in rectum than in colon. The present investigation found an association between surgical stress and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, suggesting that surgery may generate an increase in free radicals, which trigger a cascade of molecular changes, including alterations in DNA.

  1. Targeted adsorption of molecules in the colon with the novel adsorbent-based medicinal product, DAV132: A proof of concept study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gunzburg, Jean; Ducher, Annie; Modess, Christiane; Wegner, Danilo; Oswald, Stefan; Dressman, Jennifer; Augustin, Violaine; Feger, Céline; Andremont, Antoine; Weitschies, Werner; Siegmund, Werner

    2015-01-01

    During antibiotic treatments, active residuals reaching the colon profoundly affect the bacterial flora resulting in the emergence of resistance. To prevent these effects, we developed an enteric-coated formulated activated-charcoal based product, DAV132, meant to deliver its adsorbent to the ileum and neutralize antibiotic residues in the proximal colon. In a randomized, control, crossover study, the plasma pharmacokinetics of the probe drugs amoxicillin (500 mg) absorbed in the proximal intestine, and sulfapyridine (25 mg) metabolized from sulfasalazine in the cecum and rapidly absorbed, were compared after a single administration in 18 healthy subjects who had received DAV132, uncoated formulated activated charcoal (FAC) or water 16 and 8 hours before, concomitantly with the probe drugs, and 8 hours thereafter. The AUC0-96 h of amoxicillin was reduced by more than 70% when it was taken with FAC, but bioequivalent when it was taken with water or DAV132. By contrast, the AUC0-96 h of sulfapyridine was reduced by more than 90% when administered with either FAC or DAV132 in comparison with water. The results show that DAV132 can selectively adsorb drug compounds in the proximal colon, without interfering with drug absorption in the proximal small intestine, thereby constituting a proof of concept that DAV132 actually functions in humans.

  2. Study on trace elements behaviour in cancerous and healthy tissues of colon, breast and stomach: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, T. [Centro de Fisica Atomica da Univeridade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-00, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.p [Centro de Fisica Atomica da Univeridade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-00, Lisboa (Portugal); Von Bohlen, A.; Becker, M. [Institute for Analytical Sciences (ISAS), Bunsen-Kirchhoff-Str. 11, 44139 Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    In this work Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyse healthy and cancerous tissues of the same individual along several contiguous thin sections of each tissue. Thirty two samples (16 pairs) of breast tissue, 30 samples (15 pairs) of intestine tissue and 10 samples (5 pairs) of stomach tissue were analysed. The samples were obtained in Civil Hospitals of Germany (Dortmund) and Portugal (Lisbon). The elemental distribution of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in these samples was studied. Descriptive statistics based on bar graphics and hypotheses tests and also an automatic classification based on hierarchical grouping analysis was used for the several analysed tissues. It was shown that the behaviour of the elements is tissue dependent. Some elements, like P and K exhibit the same behaviour in all the analysed tissue types. They have increased concentrations in all cancerous tissues. Unlike, other elements like Br show completely different behaviour depending on the tissue: similar concentration in healthy and cancerous stomach, decreased levels in colon cancerous tissues and enhanced concentrations in breast was observed. Moreover cancer tissues present decreased Se concentrations on colon and increased on breast.

  3. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  4. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents.

  5. Risk Factors for Infection and Colonization with Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Los Angeles County Jail: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Cynthia L.; Eells, Samantha J.; Tan, Jennifer; Bancroft, Elizabeth A.; Malek, Mark; Harawa, Nina T; Lewis, Martha J.; Santana, Elaine; Miller, Loren G.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and outbreaks occur in correctional facilities, such as jails and prisons. Spread of these infections can be extremely difficult to control. Development of effective prevention protocols requires an understanding of MRSA risk factors in incarcerated persons.

  6. A cohort study of the Copenhagen CF Centre eradication strategy against Staphylococcus aureus in patients with CF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbøge, Christina Schjellerup; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in CF. Centre prevalence of intermittent colonization and chronic S. aureus infections and the effectiveness of an anti-S. aureus eradication strategy was assessed....

  7. Gastrointestinal pH and Transit Time Profiling in Healthy Volunteers Using the IntelliCap System Confirms Ileo-Colonic Release of ColoPulse Tablets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba M Maurer

    Full Text Available ColoPulse tablets are an innovative development in the field of oral dosage forms characterized by a distal ileum and colon-specific release. Previous studies in humans showed release in the ileo-colonic region, but the relationship between gastrointestinal pH and release was not experimentally proven in vivo. This information will complete the in vivo release-profile of ColoPulse tablets.Release from ColoPulse tablets was studied in 16 healthy volunteers using the dual label isotope strategy. To determine gastrointestinal pH profiles and transit times the IntelliCap system was used. A ColoPulse tablet containing 13C-urea and an uncoated, immediate release tablet containing 15N2-urea were taken simultaneously followed by a standardized breakfast after three hours. Five minutes after intake of the tablets the IntelliCap capsule was swallowed and pH was measured until excretion in the feces. Breath and urine samples were collected for isotope analysis.Full analysis could be performed in 12 subjects. Median bioavailability of 13C -urea was 82% (95% CI 74-94%, range 61-114%. The median lag time (5% release of 13C was 5:42 h (95% CI 5:18-6:18 h, range 2:36-6:36 h, There was no statistically significant difference between lag time based on isotope signal and colon arrival time (CAT based on pH (median 5:42 vs 5:31 h p = 0.903. In all subjects an intestinal pH value of 7.0 was reached before release of 13C from the ColoPulse tablet occurred.From the combined data from the IntelliCap system and the 13C -isotope signal it can be concluded that release from a ColoPulse tablet in vivo is not related to transit times but occurs in the ileo-colonic region after pH 7.0 is reached. This supports our earlier findings and confirms that the ColoPulse system is a promising delivery system for targeting the distal ileum and colon.ISRCTN Registry 18301880.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Depke, Maren;

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that colonizes about 20% of the human population. Intriguingly, this Gram-positive bacterium can survive and thrive under a wide range of different conditions, both inside and outside the human body. Here, we investigated the transcriptional adaptation of S....... aureus HG001, a derivative of strain NCTC 8325, across experimental conditions ranging from optimal growth in vitro to intracellular growth in host cells. These data establish an extensive repertoire of transcription units and non-coding RNAs, a classification of 1412 promoters according...... to their dependence on the RNA polymerase sigma factors SigA or SigB, and allow identification of new potential targets for several known transcription factors. In particular, this study revealed a relatively low abundance of antisense RNAs in S. aureus, where they overlap only 6% of the coding genes, and only 19...

  9. Monitoramento da colonização pelo Staphylococcus aureus em alunos de um curso de auxiliar de enfermagem durante a formação profissional Monitoreo de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en alumnos de un curso de auxiliar de enfermería durante su formación Monitoring the colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in students from a nursing auxiliary program during the professional formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branca Maria de Oliveira Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista o nosso objetivo de conhecer o quadro de colonização pelo Staphylococcus aureus em alunos de um curso de Auxiliar de Enfermagem, durante a formação profissional, realizamos a coleta de material da cavidade nasal (N e mãos direita (Md e esquerda (Me de 42 alunos, em diferentes momentos da formação, relacionando as taxas com as atividades desenvolvidas durante a programação do curso. Os resultados evidenciaram uma oscilação nas taxas de colonização nos diferentes momentos e a possibilidade de transmissão recíproca do agente entre os alunos e os receptores dos cuidados prestados, considerando o tipo de contato mantido entre eles.Considerando nuestro objetivo de conocer el cuadro de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en alumnos de un curso de auxiliar de enfermería durante su formación, realizamos la colecta de material de la cavidad nasal (N, manos derecha (Md e izquierda (Me de 42 alumnos, en diferentes momentos de su formación, relacionando las tasas con las actividades desarrolladas durante la programación del curso. Los resultados evidenciaron una oscilación en las tasas de colonización en los diferentes momentos y la posibilidad de transmisión mutua del agente entre los alumnos y los receptores de los cuidados, considerando el tipo de contacto mantenido entre ellos.Considering our goal of understanding the colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in students from a nursing auxiliary program, during their professional formation, we collected material from the nasal cavity (N, right (Md and left (Mehands from 42 students on different moments of their formation relating the levels of colonization to the activities developed during the program. Results showed an oscillation in the colonization rate in different moments and the possibility of agent reciprocal transmission between the students and the taken care receptors, considering the type of contact.

  10. 金黄色葡萄球菌乳房炎奶牛血浆的比较蛋白质组研究%Differential Proteomics Analysis of Plasma Protein from Staphylococcus aureus Mastitic and Healthy Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永新; 曹随忠; 张勇; 程广龙; 赵辉玲; 赵兴绪

    2011-01-01

    为了分析金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)自然感染引起的隐性乳房炎奶牛血浆蛋白的表达变化,经细菌培养分离鉴定了乳中金黄色葡萄球菌,选择其感染的奶牛.采用二维凝胶电泳技术分离了临床健康奶牛和乳房炎奶牛的血浆蛋白,考马斯亮蓝G-250染色后PDQuest 8.0软件检测差异表达蛋白点,高效液相色谱串联离子阱质谱鉴定.结果发现,金黄色葡萄球菌乳房炎奶牛血浆中有10个蛋白点的表达量发生改变,其中6个蛋白点经质谱鉴定为结合珠蛋白、转甲状腺素蛋白和α1酸性糖蛋白等4种蛋白.金黄色葡萄球菌感染可造成奶牛血浆结合珠蛋白、α1酸性糖蛋白和血清淀粉样蛋白A的表达量增加.ELISA法测定血浆结合珠蛋白的结果也发现,金黄色葡萄球菌感染奶牛血浆结合珠蛋白水平显著高于健康牛(P<0.01).结果提示乳房炎奶牛血浆蛋白的变化可为揭示金黄色葡萄球菌感染乳腺炎症的应答提供依据.%The purpose of our study was to investigate the changes of plasma protein from the cows infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Dairy cows shown to be S. aureus-positive on bacteriological culture of milk from all 4 quarters, were classified as S. aureus subclinical mastitis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate plasma protein from S. aureus subclinical mastitis and healthy dairy cows, and stained with Coomassie Blue G-250 solution. Differential expression proteins were detected by PDQuest 8.0 software and identified by ion trap mass spectrometer. The results showed that the ten protein spots were changed in cows subclinically infected with S. aureus mastitis, and six spots were identified as four proteins including haptoglobin, alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, transthyretin and serum amyloid protein A. Haptoglobin, alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, and serum amyloid protein A were up-regulated in plasma from S. aureus infected cows. ELISA detection of

  11. Challenges of implementing national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2009-03-01

    Of the 49 acute care hospitals in Ireland that responded to the survey questionnaire drafted by the Infection Control Subcommittee of the Health Protection Surveillance Centre\\'s Strategy for the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland, 43 reported barriers to the full implementation of national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection; these barriers included poor infrastructure (42 hospitals), inadequate laboratory resources (40 hospitals), inadequate staffing (39 hospitals), and inadequate numbers of isolation rooms and beds (40 hospitals). Four of the hospitals did not have an educational program on hand hygiene, and only 17 had an antibiotic stewardship program.

  12. Co-detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and cotrimoxazole resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Implications for HIV-patients' care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKraef

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This might have an impact on the resistance profile, genetic background and virulence factors of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus. Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be endemic for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL positive S. aureus which can be associated with skin and soft tissue infections. We compared S. aureus from nasal and pharyngeal swabs from HIV patients (n=141 and healthy controls (n=206 in Gabon in 2013, and analyzed determinants of colonization with PVL positive isolates in a cross-sectional study. S. aureus isolates were screened for the presence of selected virulence factors (incl. PVL and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotyping. In HIV patients, S. aureus was more frequently detected (36.9 vs. 31.6% and the isolates were more frequently PVL positive than in healthy controls (42.1 vs. 23.2%. The presence of PVL was associated with cotrimoxazole resistance (OR=25.1, p<0.001 and the use of cotrimoxazole was a risk factor for colonization with PVL positive isolates (OR=2.5, p=0.06. PVL positive isolates were associated with the multilocus sequence types ST15 (OR=5.6, p<0.001 and ST152 (OR=62.1, p<0.001.Participants colonized with PVL positive isolates reported more frequently skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI in the past compared to carriers of PVL negative isolates (OR=2.7, p=0.01. In conclusion, the novelty of our study is that cotrimoxazole might increase the risk of SSTI in regions where cotrimoxazole resistance is high and associated with PVL. This finding needs to be confirmed in prospective studies.

  13. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-Positive Health Care-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Are Associated with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Colonized Mainly by Infective PVL-Encoding Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiwen; Cheng, Hang; Yuan, Wenchang; Zeng, Fangyin; Shang, Weilong; Tang, Dahai; Xue, Wencheng; Fu, Jianfeng; Zhou, Renjie; Zhu, Junmin; Yang, Jie; Hu, Zhen; Yuan, Jizhen; Zhang, Xia; Rao, Qing; Li, Shu; Chen, Zhijin; Hu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xingan

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health concern worldwide. PVL is associated with community-associated MRSA and is linked to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). However, PVL genes have also been detected in health care-associated (HA) MRSA isolates. The diseases associated with PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates and the distributions of PVL-encoding bacteriophages in HA-MRSA have not been determined. In this study, a total of 259 HA-MRSA strains isolated between 2009 and 2012 in China from inpatients with SSTIs, pneumonia, and bacteremia were selected for molecular typing, including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, multilocus sequence typing, and staphylococcal protein A gene typing. The PVL genes and PVL bacteriophages in the MRSA isolates were characterized by PCR. Among the tested MRSA isolates, 28.6% (74/259) were PVL positive. The high prevalence of PVL-carrying HA-MRSA was observed to be associated with SSTIs but not with pneumonia or bacteremia. The PVL-positive HA-MRSA isolates were colonized mainly by infective PVL phages, namely, Φ7247PVL, ΦSLT, and ΦSa2958. The distribution of PVL-carrying bacteriophages differed geographically. Our study highlights the potential risk of the emergence of multidrug-resistant HA-MRSA strains with increased virulence. PMID:25339405

  14. Risk factors for colonization/infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylo-coccus aureus in intensive care unit patients%ICU 患者 MRSA 定植与感染的危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珊红; 李颖; 戈伟; 许文; 慕彩妮; 李谨革

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the colonization/infection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MR-SA)in patients in intensive care unit (ICU),respiratory ICU (RICU)and neurosurgical ICU(NSICU),so as to find out the risk factors for MRSA colonization/infection in patients.Methods A prospective method was used for this study,data of all patients admitted to three ICUs between May 1 and July 31,2013 were collected,specimens of nasal swabs of patients and health care workers (HCWs),as well as specimens of patients’surroundings were taken and per-formed MRSA detection.Results The average colonization rate of MRSA in 197 patients at three ICUs was 11.17%,22 MRSA strains were isolated,the colonization rate in ICU,RICU and NSICU patients was 4.00%,11.90% and 15.87%respectively,no significant difference was found among different ICU groups (χ2 =4.04,P =0.133).The detection rate of MRSA from patients was 2.03% (4/197),colonization rate of MRSA in HCWs’nasal vestibule was 1.72%(2/116).De-tection rate of MRSA from surroundings of patients with MRSA colonization was higher than that without MRSA coloniza-tion (22.73%[5/22]vs 4.00%[7/175],χ2 =8.93,P =0.003).Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that pa-tients aged ≥60 years,invasive procedures,long length of ICU stay,and recent antimicrobial use were independent risk factors for MRSA colonization/infection.Conclusion Patients in ICU should be screened for MRSA colonization,ef-fective measures should be taken to avoid MRSA transmission between hospital and patients;invasive procedures should be minimized,length of ICU stay should be shortened,antimicrobial agents should be used rationally,so as to reduce MRSA colonization and infection in ICU patients.%目的:比较重症监护室(ICU)、呼吸内科监护室(RICU)和神经外科监护室(NSICU)耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)定植与感染状况,探讨患者 MRSA 定植/感染的危险因素。方法采用前瞻

  15. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with food intoxication with isolates from human nasal carriers and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattinger, L; Stephan, R; Layer, F; Johler, S

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents an organism of striking versatility. While asymptomatic nasal colonization is widespread, it can also cause serious infections, toxinoses and life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide, results from oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins leading to violent vomiting, diarrhea and cramps shortly upon ingestion. The aim of the present study was to compare isolates associated with SFP to isolates collected from cases of human nasal colonization and clinical infections in order to investigate the role of S. aureus colonizing and infecting humans as a possible source of SFP. Spa typing and DNA microarray profiling were used to characterize a total of 120 isolates, comprising 50 isolates collected from the anterior nares of healthy donors, 50 isolates obtained from cases of clinical infections in humans and 20 isolates related to outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning. Several common spa types were found among isolates of all three sources (t015, t018, t056, t084). DNA microarray results showed highly similar virulence gene profiles for isolates from all tested sources. These results suggest contamination of foodstuff with S. aureus colonizing and infecting food handlers to represent a source of SFP.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus mutants lacking cell wall-bound protein A found in isolates from bacteraemia, MRSA infection and a healthy nasal carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørum, Marit; Sangvik, Maria; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Renate S; Johannessen, Mona; Skov, Robert; Sollid, Johanna U E

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a multitude of virulence factors enables it to cause infections, from superficial lesions to life-threatening systemic conditions. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is a surface protein contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis by interfering with immune responses and activating inflammation. Seven isolates with frameshift mutations in the spa repeat region were investigated to determine whether these mutations lead to truncation and secretion of SpA into the extracellular environment. Five isolates originated from blood cultures, one from an MRSA infection and one from a persistent nasal carrier. Full-length spa genes from the seven isolates were sequenced, and Western blot experiments were performed to localize SpA. Three isolates had identical deviating 25-bp spa repeats, but all isolates displayed different repeat successions. The DNA sequence revealed that the frameshift mutations created premature stop codons in all seven isolates, resulting in truncated SpA of different lengths, however, all lacking the XC region with the C-terminal sorting signal. SpA was detected by Western blot in six of the seven isolates, mainly extracellularly. Our findings demonstrate that S. aureus isolates with truncated SpA, not anchored to the cell wall, can still be found in bacteraemia, infection and among carriers.

  17. Investigation of the prevalence of patients co-colonized or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycinresistant enterococci in China: a hospital-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; CAO Bin; LIU Ying-mei; GU Li; WANG Chen

    2009-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) could lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In 2006, VRE nosocomial spread became a reality in our hospital since the first VRE nosocomial infection in 2003. Little is known about the prevalence of coexistence with VRE and MRSA in the patients. The primary objective of the study was to identify the molecular characteristics of epidemic MRSA clones in our hospital and the prevalence of the coexistence with MRSA and VRE in same patients during the 2-year period, 2006-2007.Methods The clinical features, laboratory test results, and therapeutic outcomes of 129 cases who isolated MRSAcollected from January 2006 to December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine mecA-femB type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. All the participants were screened for clinical and microbiological data to identify the coexistence of VRE strains with MRSA.Results One hundred and twenty-nine MRSA isolates were included in the study: 71 (55%) from the intensive care unit,35 (27.2%) from the surgical wards and 23 (17.8%) from the medical wards. The most frequent source of isolation of MRSA was sputum (76.7%). From seven patients we isolated MRSA and VRE (E. faecium) simultaneously during their inpatient stay. One hundred and twenty-seven (127/129, 98.4%) MRSA isolates harboured SCCmec type Ⅲ, only 2 MRSA strains contained SCCmec type Ⅱ. All of the 129 MRSA isolates remained sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. Higher sensitivity rates were noted for chloramphenicol 99.2% (128/129). Only 20.2% (26/129) of the MRSA isolates were sensitive to rifampin. All isolates presented resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), including: β-lactams (penicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, and cefazolin), tetracycline

  18. Estudo comparativo da prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus importado para as unidades de terapia intensiva de hospital universitário, Pernambuco, Brasil Comparative study on the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus imported to intensive care units of a university hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria de Morais Cavalcanti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O Staphylococcus aureus é um dos principais patógenos que coloniza indivíduos saudáveis na comunidade e responde por infecções em pacientes hospitalizados. Um estudo transversal foi realizado para determinar a prevalência de S. aureus meticilina-resistente e sensível entre 231 pacientes, internados entre janeiro e abril de 2003, nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTIs do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, assim como os possíveis fatores associados à colonização. Foram coletadas secreções de narinas, axilas, região perineal e dermatoses com soluções de continuidade, de todos os pacientes, nas primeiras 48 horas de internamento nas UTIs. O material foi semeado em meios de cultura adequados. A prevalência de S. aureus igualou-se a 37,7% (87/231, sendo 13% (30/231 meticilina-resistente e 24,8% (57/231 meticilina-sensível. Idade, sexo, uso de antibioticoterapia, corticoterapia, motivo e local do internamento não se associaram à presença do S. aureus ou do meticilina-resistente. Houve associação significante entre procedência hospitalar e colonização por S. aureus, independente da cepa, e entre internamento anterior e presença do S. aureus meticilina-resistente. As narinas foram o sítio de colonização mais significante, por S. aureus meticilina-resistente (47/57=82,4% e sensível (23/30=76,7%. Foi alta a prevalência do S. aureus (meticilina resistente ou sensível, assim como do meticilina-resistente entre os pacientes das UTIs deste hospital. Estudos futuros poderão comprovar se os resultados aqui descritos e medidas de rastreamento para S. aureus poderiam ser adotadas, de forma prospectiva, para se avaliar o risco, assim como a magnitude do efeito, no controle de infecções hospitalares provocadas por estes patógenos.Staphylococcus aureus is the most important pathogen that colonizes healthy individuals in the community and is responsible for infections in hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was

  19. Phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance on nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from healthy people%健康人携带金黄色葡萄球菌耐药表型及基因型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫笑梅; 陶晓霞; 遇晓杰; 闫军; 张建中

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查我国健康人携带的金黄色葡萄球菌药物敏感性及大环内酯类耐药基因分布情况.方法 应用E-test方法,对2009-2011年收集的100株健康从业人员携带菌株进行16种抗生素的药物敏感性分析,以D试验测定红霉素对克林霉素的诱导耐药表型.采用spa分型对上述菌株进行分型分析.利用PCR检测基因:甲基化酶[erm(A),erm(B),erm(C),erm(F),erm(T),erm (Y),erm(33)和erm(G)]、ATP结合转运蛋白[msr(A)和msr(D)]、主要易化子[mef (A)]、酯酶[ere(A)]及磷酸化酶[mph(C)],并与猪来源菌株38株(31株MRSA,7株MSSA)和患者来源MRSA菌株20株进行比较.结果 健康人群携带菌株对红霉素和克林霉素耐药率较高,分别为52%和27%.克林霉素诱导耐药率为29%.共鉴定35个spa型别,其中51.0%的spa型别为t189、t571、t002、t796、t437、t034和t701.52株健康人菌株主要携带erm(C) (57.7%)和erm(B)(34.6%),95.0%的临床分离菌株携带erm(A),100.0%猪鼻拭子分离菌株均携带erm(C)菌株.结论 携带erm(C)和erm(B)耐药基因的大环内酯类耐药菌株在健康人群中广泛存在,这些耐药基因在金黄色葡萄球菌中呈散在克隆传播.%Objective To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular nature related to the resistance on macrolides from nasal Staphylococcus (S.) aureus isolates among healthy people.Methods A total of 100 S.aureus isolates collected from 2009 to 2011 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test.Double disc test (D-test) was used to detect the inducible clindamycin resistance.All S.aureus isolates were characterized by spa typing.Macrolides resistance genes were detected and compared with isolates that were collected clinically or from the livestock.Results High resistance rates on erythromycin or clindamycin was noticed,with 52% and 27%,respectively.Inducible clindamycin resistance was identified in 29 of the 100 (29%) isolates.In total,the 100 isolates

  20. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jimei; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; Song, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community. PMID:22114670

  1. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimei Du

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935 S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935 MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%, ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%. 82%, (23/28 of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116 of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs, as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779 and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

  2. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in pati

  4. Evaluation of bacterial colonization in patients with the diagnosis of mycosis fungoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Nisa Akay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL. Bacterial infections are a common complication of MF/Sezary syndrome (SS. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causes of skin infections in patients with MF/SS. However, the role of infectious agents and their effects on the clinical course is controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the colonization of bacterial pathogens among individuals with MF/SS in comparison with control subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty-six patients with MF/SS and 66 healthy control subjects were included in this study. The subjects were swabbed in the nose, throat and axilla and the samples were evaluated according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI criteria. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.9±14.8 years (range: 21-84 years. Forty-eight patients were with ≤stage 2A, 18 were ≥stage 2B SS and MF. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of pathogenic bacteria colonization in the nose and axilla between the two groups. However, in the throat it was statistically higher in MF/SS (p=0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of S.aureus colonization. The frequency of pathogenic bacteria colonization in the throat cultures were significant (p=0.004 for patients with late stage disease compared to those with early stages, but this was not shown in axilla and nose cultures. Conclusion: In this study, bacterial colonization in the throat and nasal carriage of S.aureus were found to be higher in patients with MF/SS. Further studies on the benefits of controlling this problem, possibly with simple and inexpensive methods that might ameliorates the symptoms such as itching, scaling and erythema are needed.

  5. Common R-plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis during a nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M. L.; Wong, E. S.; Falkow, S

    1982-01-01

    During a 7-month period in 1978 to 1979, 31 patients and personnel at a Kentucky hospital were colonized or infected with a Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, penicillin, and tetracycline. S. epidermidis with similar antibiotic resistance patterns had been isolated in this hospital in the year before the S. aureus outbreak. A 32-megadalton R-plasmid, pUW3626, mediating resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, was present in these isol...

  6. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Topical Polysporin Triple Compound Versus Topical Mupirocin for the Eradication of Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Complex Continuing Care Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O’Grady

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intranasal mupirocin or Polysporin Triple (PT ointment (polymyxin B, bacitracin, gramicidin, in combination with chlorhexidine body washes, have been used for eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, but no comparative studies have been done.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Shifts toward Commensalism in Response to Corynebacterium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Matthew M; Freire, Marcelo O; Gabrilska, Rebecca A; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Lemon, Katherine P

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus-human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr) system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence toward a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species. PMID:27582729

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus introduced into intensive care units of a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana M.M. Cavalcanti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the principal human pathogens that colonize healthy individuals in the community in general, and it is responsible for severe infections in hospitalized patients. Due to an increase in the prevalence of strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, combating these microorganisms has become increasingly difficult. A descriptive study was carried out on 231 patients in intensive care at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital (HUOC in Recife, Brazil between January and April 2003 to determine the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA and to evaluate risk factors for colonization by these bacteria when introduced into Intensive Care Units (ICUs. Body secretions were collected from the nostrils, axillary and perineal regions, and from broken skin lesions, of all patients during the first 48 hours following admission to the ICU. Samples were inoculated into blood agar and mannitol-salt-agar culture medium and identified by Gram staining, and by coagulase, DNAse and agglutination (Slidex Staph Test® tests. Growth in Mueller-Hinton agar with 4% sodium chloride and 6mg/L oxacillin was used to identify MRSA. In addition, the latex agglutination test was performed to identify penicillin-binding protein, PBP 2A. The prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA was 87/231 (37.7% and 30/231 (12.98%, respectively. There was no association between any risk factor studied (age, sex, origin of the patient - whether hospital or community, previous hospitalization, use of current or previous antibiotic therapy, corticotherapy and/or immunotherapy, reason for hospitalization and place of hospitalization and the presence of S. aureus. However, a significant association was established between previous hospitalization and the presence of MRSA (RR:1.85; CI:1.00-3.41; p=0.041. The nostrils were the principal site of colonization by both S. aureus (80.4% and MRSA (26.4%, followed by the perineal area, with rates of 27.6% and 12.6%, respectively. If only

  10. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...... for LA-MRSA ST398 survival on porcine skin and nasal epithelium ex vivo were identified. These genes could represent targets for de-colonization, which could help prevent further spread and adaption of LA-MRSA ST398. Manuscript III describes the construction of the S. aureus VirulenceFinder database...

  11. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800-227-2345 Home Learn About Cancer Stay Healthy Find Support & Treatment Explore Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Stay Healthy » Tools and Calculators » Videos » Get Tested for Colon ...

  12. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus “superbug”

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, TIMOTHY JAMES

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED There has been some debate about the disease-invoking potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains and whether invasive disease is associated with particularly virulent genotypes, or "superbugs." A study in this issue of the JCI describes the genotyping of a large collection of nonclinical, commensal S. aureus strains from healthy individuals in a Dutch population. Extensive study of their genetic relatedness by amplified restriction fragment typing and comparison with strains that...

  14. Colonic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diverticulitis - inflammation or infection of pouches in the colon Irritable bowel syndrome - an uncomfortable condition causing abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  15. Nasal carriage of a single clone of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among kindergarten attendees in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shih-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the prevalence and microbiological characterization of community-acquired (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal carriage in a kindergarten. Methods: Point prevalence study. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy children younger than 7 years of age who were attending a kindergarten in Taipei, Taiwan. A parent questionnaire regarding MRSA risk factors was administered simultaneously. All CA-MRSA colonization isolates were archived for subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing. Results: Of the 68 children who participated in the study, 17 (25% had S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs. Nine (13.2% of the 68 children had CA-MRSA carriage, and none of them had any identified risk factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed all of the 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates had uniformly high resistance (100% to both clindamycin and erythromycin, the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-constitutive phenotype and the ermB gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 8 (88.9% of 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates were genetically related and multilocus sequence typing revealed all isolates had sequence type 59. All of the colonization isolates carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV, but none were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a single predominant CA-MRSA colonization strain featuring high clindamycin resistance circulated in this kindergarten. Additionally, due to the established transmissibility of colonization isolates, the high prevalence of nasal carriage of CA-MRSA among healthy attendees in kindergartens may indicate the accelerated spread of CA-MRSA in the community.

  16. Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus infections of medical implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Fowler, Vance; Lower, Brian H.; Vellano, Francis P.; Alexander, Emily; Reller, L. Barth; Corey, G. Ralph; Lower, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Implanted medical devices (e.g., prosthetic heart valves, permanent pacemakers) significantly improve the quality of life for many humans. However, a common clinical observation is that such devices become colonized with potentially life-threatening Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, which are difficult to combat with host defenses or antibiotics. This study attempts to draw a correlation between the clinical outcome of patients with implanted cardiac devices and the fundamental binding forces ultimately responsible for the initiation of an S. aureus biofilm in-situ. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure forces between a fibronectin-coated probe (simulating a prosthetic implant) and 15 different strains of S. aureus isolated from either patients with infected cardiac devices (invasive population) or healthy human subjects (control population). The fibronectin-coated probe was repeatedly brought into and out of contact with a bacterium’s surface, “fishing” for a reaction with the cell’s fibronectin-binding proteins. More than 40,000 force profiles were measured on 5-10 different cells for each of the 15 clinical strains. A unique force-signature was observed for a binding event between the fibronectin-coated probe and the bacteria. When grouped by the frequency of this force-signature, there was a strong distinction (p=0.01) between the invasive and control populations of S. aureus. This discovery suggests that biofilm forming bacteria may be classified according to their “force taxonomy”, which could have a positive effect on health care as it bridges the long-standing disconnect between macroscopic, clinical investigations and nanometer-scale forces ultimately responsible for a bond between S. aureus and the surface of a prosthetic device.

  17. Mapping the Distribution of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M.; van den Wijngaard, Cees C.; Brian G Spratt; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W.; ,

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus lives on the skin and in the nose of about a third of healthy people. Although S. aureus usually coexists peacefully with its human carriers, it is also an important disease-causing organism or pathogen. If it enters the body through a cut or during a surgical procedure, S. aureus can cause minor infections such as pimples and boils or more serious, life-threatening infections such as blood poisoning and pneumonia. Minor S. aureu...

  18. Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Gandham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Linezolid is the only antibiotic available as an oral formulation for resistant staphylococcal infections. It is effective in skin and soft tissue infections, nosocomial pneumonias including VAP, infective endocarditis and MRSA meningitis. It is also effective in the eradication of both nasal and throat colonization of MRSA. Its high bioavailability and post antibiotic effect, ease of switching to oral therapy during its use and the fact that it can be used in patients of all ages, also in patients with liver disease and poor kidney function and its increased effectiveness over glycopeptides makes this drug a precious drug in the treatment of resistant staphylococcal infections. Linezolid resistance in staphylococcus is defined as a linezolid MIC of and #8805;8 mg/L. Reported Linezolid resistance in India and elsewhere is 2-20%. There is clonal dissemination of Linezolid Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LRSA within or across health care settings which demands continuous surveillance to determine the emergent risk of resistance strains and to establish guidelines for appropriate use. Clinical laboratories should confirm any LRSA preferably by a second method, prior to using linezolid for serious infections. Effective surveillance, more judicious use of this antibiotic, avoiding linezolid usage for empiric therapy in hospital acquired staphylococcus infections, optimization of the pharmacological parameters of the antibiotics in specific clinical situation, decreasing bacterial load by timely surgical debridement or drainage of collections, use of combination therapies would prevent the emergence of resistance to linezolid in staphylococcus aureus. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1253-1256

  19. The nares as a CA-MRSA reservoir in the healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Silveira de Brito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has increased in the community. This study evaluated the prevalence of MRSA and community-acquired (CA-MRSA in 120 healthy elderly.METHODS:The MRSA were evaluated for the presence of the IS256, mecA, agr, icaA, icaD, fnbB , and pvl genes with PCR. Results: Frequency of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 17.8% and 19%, respectively. CA-MRSA isolate showed SCC mec IV, fnbB+ , and icaD+ .CONCLUSIONS:CA-MRSA was detected, with genotype determined as SCC mec type IV/IS256/ fnbB+ / icaA / icaD+ / bbp-/agr2 / bap / pvl, characterizing this population as a possible reservoir of this organism in the community.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus spa type t437

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasner, C; Pluister, G; Westh, H;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the multilocus sequence type clonal complex 59 (MLST CC59) is the predominant community-associated MRSA clone in Asia. This clone, which is primarily linked with the spa type t437, has so far only been reported in low numbers among...... large epidemiological studies in Europe. Nevertheless, the overall numbers identified in some Northern European reference laboratories have increased during the past decade. To determine whether the S. aureus t437 clone is present in other European countries, and to assess its genetic diversity across...... Europe, we analysed 147 S. aureus t437 isolates from 11 European countries collected over a period of 11 years using multiple locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and MLST. Additionally 16 S. aureus t437 isolates from healthy carriers and patients from China were...

  1. Prevalence and risk factor analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization in neonatal intensive care unit%新生儿重症监护病房耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌定植率和危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏湘; 魏文金; 张茜; 王喜鸽; 程欣茹; 程秀永

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and risk factor of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin colonization in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).Methods One thousand six hundred and seventyeight newborns (938 boys and 740 girls) in NICU were selected,with a mean age of (5.9 ±6.4) days,ranging from 1 to 28 days.Nasal swabs were collected by medical cotton and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) was isolated.All of SA was detected and the mecA gene was detected to determine MRSA through PCR method.The rate of MRSA skin colonization was recorded,and the correlation was analyzed between the rate of MRSA skin colonization and some parameters.The rates of MRSA skin colonization of different time points were compared.Results In NICU,the rate of SA and MRSA skin colonization were 21.10% (354/1678 cases) and 3.69% (62/1678 cases),respectively.With the prolongation of hospital stay,the rate of MRSA skin colonization increased,in the order of 7 d > 3 d > 1 d,and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).But the rates of MRSA skin colonization had no significant difference between 7 d and 14 d (P > O.05).Logistic regression analysis showed negative correlation between gestational age,weight,and Apgar scores with MRSA skin colonization but positive correlation between surgery or invasive procedures and antibiotics exposure with MRSA skin colonization.Conclusions Newborns in NICU have high rate of MRSA skin colonization.With the prolongation of hospital stay,the rate of MRSA skin colonization has an increase within 7 days.Gestational age,weight,Apgar scores,surgery or invasive procedures and antibiotics exposure are risk factors of newborn MRSA skin colonization.%目的 分析NICU中耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)皮肤定植率和危险因素.方法 选取NICU收治新生儿1678例,其中男938例,女740例;日龄1~28 d,平均(5.9±6.4)d.使用无菌棉签采集新生儿鼻翼两侧和鼻腔底部标本,行金黄色葡萄球

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to staphylococcus aureus may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  3. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such device

  4. [Colonic balantidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Canales Simón, P; del Olmo Martínez, L; Cortejoso Hernández, A; Arranz Santos, T

    2000-03-01

    Balantidium coli is a Protozoa that is not usually pathogenic in man, although epidemics have been described in tropical areas. It mainly affects the colon and clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic forms to severe dysenteric syndromes. We present a case of endoscopically diagnosed colonic balantidiasis and review the most important characteristics of this parasite-induced disease. PMID:10804691

  5. The new first-line defense: the potential of nasopharyngeal colonization in vaccine strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan WY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Win-Yan Chan, Jonathan M Cohen, Jeremy S Brown Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK Abstract: Pathogens that can colonize the upper respiratory tract include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. While these pathogens commonly asymptomatically colonize the nasopharynx of healthy adults, disease progression may occur in some individuals. In addition to these respiratory pathogens, there are a large number of commensal species also found in the upper respiratory tract which only very rarely cause disease, creating a complex community of bacterial species in the nasopharynx. This review addresses the novel, potential strategies that utilize the interactions between both homologous and heterologous species in the nasopharynx to vaccinate individuals against pathogenic bacteria. These strategies include the mechanisms employed by colonizing bacteria to regulate the presence of other species in the nasopharynx and the effect that colonization of the nasopharynx has on the host immune response. Interventional strategies investigated so far include the introduction of nonpathogenic bacteria to the nasopharynx to immunize against a closely related species, controlled colonization using both wild-type and attenuated species, and the use of other nonpathogenic colonizers to express antigens from potential pathogens. All these approaches harness the ability of the colonization to induce a mucosal immune response that can protect against future infection. In this review, S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis colonization are used as case studies for this approach as the immunological effects of colonization have been widely studied in animal and human models. Colonization-based strategies have great potential, and, in particular, the attenuated strain approach has produced some encouraging data

  6. High Genetic Diversity among Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe: Results from a Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata; Empel, Joanna; Bouchami, Ons; Faria, Nuno A.; Tavares, Ana; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Fluit, Ad C.; de Lencastre, Hermínia

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this continent. Methods and Findings A total of 568 colonization and infection isolates, comprising both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), were recover...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans Bredsted; Andersen, KE; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the clonal dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection during 1 y in children with atopic dermatitis, and to correlate specific clones, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and production of virulence factors with eczema......, toxins, and were assigned to agr groups. S. aureus colonization patterns ranged from rare colonization over transient colonization to persistent colonization by a single clone or a dynamic exchange of up to five clones. Production of no single virulence factor including superantigens and toxins...... activity. Eleven children were examined every 6 wk with swaps taken from active eczema, anterior nose, axillae and perineum, and scoring of eczema activity by severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). Individual S. aureus clonal types were identified and examined for production of superantigens...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus clonal dynamics and virulence factors in children with atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the clonal dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection during 1 y in children with atopic dermatitis, and to correlate specific clones, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, and production of virulence factors with eczema...... activity. Eleven children were examined every 6 wk with swaps taken from active eczema, anterior nose, axillae and perineum, and scoring of eczema activity by severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). Individual S. aureus clonal types were identified and examined for production of superantigens......, toxins, and were assigned to agr groups. S. aureus colonization patterns ranged from rare colonization over transient colonization to persistent colonization by a single clone or a dynamic exchange of up to five clones. Production of no single virulence factor including superantigens and toxins...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen that causes a variety of severe diseases. The virulence of S. aureus is defined by a large repertoire of virulence factors, among which secreted toxins play a preeminent role. Many S. aureus toxins damage biological membranes, leading to cell death. In particular, S. aureus produces potent hemolysins and leukotoxins. Among the latter, some were recently identified to lyse neutrophils after ingestion, representing an especially powerful weapon against bacterial elimination by innate host defense. Furthermore, S. aureus secretes many factors that inhibit the complement cascade or prevent recognition by host defenses. Several further toxins add to this multi-faceted program of S. aureus to evade elimination in the host. This review will give an overview over S. aureus toxins focusing on recent advances in our understanding of how leukotoxins work in receptor-mediated or receptor-independent fashions.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of community carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Jeanesse; Monecke, Stefan; Borg, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75-11.87%), much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5) which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V) was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to hospitalized

  11. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Silva; Radcliff, Fiona J; Grumann, Dorothee; Read, Hannah; Johnson, Sarah; Monecke, Stefan; Ritchie, Stephen; Clow, Fiona; Goerke, Christiane; Bröker, Barbara M; Fraser, John D; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2013-01-01

    More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ) which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization. PMID:24023720

  12. Characterization of a mouse-adapted Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    Full Text Available More effective antibiotics and a protective vaccine are desperately needed to combat the 'superbug' Staphylococcus aureus. While in vivo pathogenicity studies routinely involve infection of mice with human S. aureus isolates, recent genetic studies have demonstrated that S. aureus lineages are largely host-specific. The use of such animal-adapted S. aureus strains may therefore be a promising approach for developing more clinically relevant animal infection models. We have isolated a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain (JSNZ which caused a severe outbreak of preputial gland abscesses among male C57BL/6J mice. We aimed to extensively characterize this strain on a genomic level and determine its virulence potential in murine colonization and infection models. JSNZ belongs to the MLST type ST88, rare among human isolates, and lacks an hlb-converting phage encoding human-specific immune evasion factors. Naive mice were found to be more susceptible to nasal and gastrointestinal colonization with JSNZ than with the human-derived Newman strain. Furthermore, naïve mice required antibiotic pre-treatment to become colonized with Newman. In contrast, JSNZ was able to colonize mice in the absence of antibiotic treatment suggesting that this strain can compete with the natural flora for space and nutrients. In a renal abscess model, JSNZ caused more severe disease than Newman with greater weight loss and bacterial burden. In contrast to most other clinical isolates, JSNZ can also be readily genetically modified by phage transduction and electroporation. In conclusion, the mouse-adapted strain JSNZ may represent a valuable tool for studying aspects of mucosal colonization and for screening novel vaccines and therapies directed at preventing colonization.

  13. Associated risk factors and pulsed field gel electrophoresis of nasal isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from medical students in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solayide A. Adesida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections are growing problems worldwide with important implications in hospitals. The organism is normally present in the nasal vestibule of about 35% of apparently healthy individuals and its carriage varies between different ethnic and age groups. Staphylococcal nasal carriage among health workers is particularly important to establish new clones and track origin of infections during outbreak situations. To determine the carriage rate and compare the pulsed field gel patterns of the strains, nasal swabs were collected from 185 medical students in a teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Isolates of S. aureus were tested for heamolysin production, methicillin sensitivity and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE was performed. The results showed S.aureus nasal carrier rate of 14% with significant rate among males compared to females. All the isolates produced heamolysin. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed that majority of the isolates was susceptible. Five strains (19% harboured resistant determinants to penicillin and tetracycline. None of the strains was resistant to methicillin. 44% of the isolates typed by PFGE had type B, the most predominant pulsotype. PFGE A clone exhibited a single resistance phenotype suggesting a strong clonal relationship that could punctual an outbreak in the hospital. The results speculate that nasal carriage among medical personnel could be a function of various risk factors. Personal hygiene and behaviour may however be the means to reducing colonization and spread of S.aureus in our hospitals.

  14. The microbiome of the middle meatus in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are multifactorial disease processes in which bacteria may play a role either in infection or stimulation of the inflammatory process. Rhinosinusitis has been historically studied with culture-based techniques, which have implicated several common pathogens in disease states. More recently, the NIH Human Microbiome Project has examined the microbiome at a number of accessible body sites, and demonstrated differences among healthy and diseased patients. Recent DNA-based sinus studies have suggested that healthy sinuses are not sterile, as was previously believed, but the normal sinonasal microbiome has yet to be thoroughly examined. Middle meatus swab specimens were collected from 28 consecutive patients presenting with no signs or symptoms of rhinosinusitis. Bacterial colonization was assessed in these specimens using quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. All subjects were positive for bacterial colonization of the middle meatus. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were the most prevalent and abundant microorganisms detected. Rich and diverse bacterial assemblages are present in the sinonasal cavity in the normal state, including opportunistic pathogens typically found in the nasopharynx. This work helps establish a baseline for understanding how the sinonasal microbiome may impact diseases of the upper airways.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli Ulcer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S.; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip; Rossen, John W.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present st

  16. Exploring the transcriptome of Staphylococcus aureus in its natural niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Medina, Eva; Oxley, Andrew Pa; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen and commensal, where the human nose is the predominant reservoir. To better understand its behavior in this environmental niche, RNA was extracted from the anterior nares of three documented S. aureus carriers and the metatranscriptome analyzed by RNAseq. In addition, the in vivo transcriptomes were compared to previously published transcriptomes of two in vitro grown S. aureus strains. None of the in vitro conditions, even growth in medium resembling the anterior nares environment, mimicked in vivo conditions. Survival in the nose was strongly controlled by the limitation of iron and evident by the expression of iron acquisition systems. S. aureus populations in different individuals clearly experience different environmental stresses, which they attempt to overcome by the expression of compatible solute biosynthetic pathways, changes in their cell wall composition and synthesis of general stress proteins. Moreover, the expression of adhesins was also important for colonization of the anterior nares. However, different S. aureus strains also showed different in vivo behavior. The assessment of general in vivo expression patterns and commonalities between different S. aureus strains will in the future result in new knowledge based strategies for controlling colonization. PMID:27641137

  17. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous, versatile and dangerous pathogen. It colonizes over 30% of the human population, and is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious agent. During S. aureus colonization and invasion, leukocytes are recruited to the site of infection. To combat S. aureus, leukocytes generate an arsenal of reactive species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypohalous acids that modify and inactivate cellular macromolecules, resulting in growth defects or death. When S. aureus colonization cannot be cleared by the immune system, antibiotic treatment is necessary and can be effective. Yet, this organism quickly gains resistance to each new antibiotic it encounters. Therefore, it is in the interest of human health to acquire a deeper understanding of how S. aureus evades killing by the immune system. Advances in this field will have implications for the design of future S. aureus treatments that complement and assist the host immune response. In that regard, this review focuses on how S. aureus avoids host-generated oxidative stress, and discusses the mechanisms used by S. aureus to survive oxidative damage including antioxidants, direct repair of damaged proteins, sensing oxidant stress and transcriptional changes. This review will elucidate areas for studies to identify and validate future antimicrobial targets.

  18. Neutrophil-generated oxidative stress and protein damage in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, William N; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous, versatile and dangerous pathogen. It colonizes over 30% of the human population, and is one of the leading causes of death by an infectious agent. During S. aureus colonization and invasion, leukocytes are recruited to the site of infection. To combat S. aureus, leukocytes generate an arsenal of reactive species including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypohalous acids that modify and inactivate cellular macromolecules, resulting in growth defects or death. When S. aureus colonization cannot be cleared by the immune system, antibiotic treatment is necessary and can be effective. Yet, this organism quickly gains resistance to each new antibiotic it encounters. Therefore, it is in the interest of human health to acquire a deeper understanding of how S. aureus evades killing by the immune system. Advances in this field will have implications for the design of future S. aureus treatments that complement and assist the host immune response. In that regard, this review focuses on how S. aureus avoids host-generated oxidative stress, and discusses the mechanisms used by S. aureus to survive oxidative damage including antioxidants, direct repair of damaged proteins, sensing oxidant stress and transcriptional changes. This review will elucidate areas for studies to identify and validate future antimicrobial targets. PMID:27354296

  19. Staphylococcus aureus Regulatory RNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Bloodstream Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeau, Valérie; Cady, Anne; Revest, Matthieu; Rostan, Octavie; Sassi, Mohamed; Tattevin, Pierre; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Felden, Brice

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal bacterium and pathogen. Identifying biomarkers for the transition from colonization to disease caused by this organism would be useful. Several S. aureus small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate virulence. We investigated presence and expression of 8 sRNAs in 83 S. aureus strains from 42 patients with sepsis or septic shock and 41 asymptomatic colonized carriers. Small pathogenicity island sRNAs sprB and sprC were clade specific. Six sRNAs had variable expression not correlated with clinical status. Expression of RNAIII was lower in strains from septic shock patients than in strains from colonized patients. When RNAIII was associated with expression of sprD, colonizing strains could be discriminated from strains in patients with bloodstream infections, including patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolates associated with colonization might have sRNAs with target expression different from those of disease isolates. Monitoring expression of RNAIII and sprD could help determine severity of bloodstream infections. PMID:27224202

  20. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian;

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines: Deviating from the carol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2016-08-22

    Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal of the human nasopharynx and skin, also causes invasive disease, most frequently skin and soft tissue infections. Invasive disease caused by drug-resistant strains, designated MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus), is associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and elevated mortality. Here we review polysaccharide-conjugate and subunit vaccines that were designed to prevent S. aureus infection in patients at risk of bacteremia or surgical wound infection but failed to reach their clinical endpoints. We also discuss vaccines with ongoing trials for combinations of polysaccharide-conjugates and subunits. S. aureus colonization and invasive disease are not associated with the development of protective immune responses, which is attributable to a large spectrum of immune evasion factors. Two evasive strategies, assembly of protective fibrin shields via coagulases and protein A-mediated B cell superantigen activity, are discussed as possible vaccine targets. Although correlates for protective immunity are not yet known, opsonophagocytic killing of staphylococci by phagocytic cells offers opportunities to establish such criteria. PMID:27526714

  2. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  3. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in the human nose after artificial inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Bibi C G C; Tavakol, Mehri; McCarthy, Alex J; Lindsay, Jodi A; Snijders, Susan V; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Belkum, Alex; Vos, Margreet C; Verbrugh, Henri A; van Wamel, Willem J B

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that MRSA ST398 of animal origin is only capable of temporarily occupying the human nose, and it is therefore, often considered a poor human colonizer.We inoculated 16 healthy human volunteers with a mixture of the human MSSA strain 1036 (ST931, CC8) and the bovine MSSA strain 5062 (ST398, CC398), 7 weeks after a treatment with mupirocin and chlorhexidine-containing soap. Bacterial survival was studied by follow-up cultures over 21 days. The human strain 1036 was eliminated faster (median 14 days; range 2-21 days) than the bovine strain 5062 (median 21 days; range 7-21 days) but this difference was not significant (p = 0.065). The bacterial loads were significantly higher for the bovine strain on day 7 and day 21. 4/14 volunteers (28.6%) showed elimination of both strains within 21 days. Of the 10 remaining volunteers, 5 showed no differences in bacterial counts between both strains, and in the other 5 the ST398 strain far outnumbered the human S. aureus strain. Within the 21 days of follow-up, neither human strain 1036 nor bovine strain 5062 appeared to acquire or lose any mobile genetic elements. In conclusion, S. aureus ST398 strain 5062 is capable of adequately competing for a niche with a human strain and survives in the human nose for at least 21 days. PMID:23155425

  4. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in the human nose after artificial inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi C G C Slingerland

    Full Text Available There is evidence that MRSA ST398 of animal origin is only capable of temporarily occupying the human nose, and it is therefore, often considered a poor human colonizer.We inoculated 16 healthy human volunteers with a mixture of the human MSSA strain 1036 (ST931, CC8 and the bovine MSSA strain 5062 (ST398, CC398, 7 weeks after a treatment with mupirocin and chlorhexidine-containing soap. Bacterial survival was studied by follow-up cultures over 21 days. The human strain 1036 was eliminated faster (median 14 days; range 2-21 days than the bovine strain 5062 (median 21 days; range 7-21 days but this difference was not significant (p = 0.065. The bacterial loads were significantly higher for the bovine strain on day 7 and day 21. 4/14 volunteers (28.6% showed elimination of both strains within 21 days. Of the 10 remaining volunteers, 5 showed no differences in bacterial counts between both strains, and in the other 5 the ST398 strain far outnumbered the human S. aureus strain. Within the 21 days of follow-up, neither human strain 1036 nor bovine strain 5062 appeared to acquire or lose any mobile genetic elements. In conclusion, S. aureus ST398 strain 5062 is capable of adequately competing for a niche with a human strain and survives in the human nose for at least 21 days.

  5. Healthy Mouth, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOR THE DENTAL PATIENT ... Healthy mouth, healthy body T he mouth is a window into the health of the body. It can show signs of nutri- tional ... Sjögren’s syndrome—may first become apparent because of mouth lesions or other oral problems. The mouth is ...

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totté, J E E; van der Feltz, W T; Bode, L G M; van Belkum, A; van Zuuren, E J; Pasmans, S G M A

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in patients versus controls and the prevalence of colonization in patients are reported. Fifteen articles about psoriasis and 13 about acne (12 having a control group) were included. No study in rosacea met our inclusion criteria. For psoriasis, one study out of three controlled studies showed increased skin colonization (OR 18.86; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.20-161.99). Three out of the five studies that reported on nasal colonization showed significant ORs varying from 1.73 (95 % CI 1.16-2.58) to 14.64 (95 % CI 2.82-75.95). For acne one of the three studies that evaluated skin colonization reported a significant OR of 4.16 (95 % CI 1.74-9.94). A relation between nasal colonization and acne was not found. Limitations in study design and low sample sizes should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. Colonisation with S. aureus seems to be increased in patients with psoriasis. This bacterial species, known for its potential to induce long-lasting inflammation, might be involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Information on acne is limited. Prospective controlled studies should further investigate the role of S. aureus in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27151386

  7. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sina, Haziz; Ahoyo, Theodora A.; Moussaoui, Wardi; Keller, Daniel; Bankole, Honore S.; Barogui, Yves; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Prevost, Gilles; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin produ

  8. Fibronectin-binding protein acts as Staphylococcus aureus invasin via fibronectin bridging to integrin alpha5beta1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; François, P P; Nüsse, O; Foti, M; Hartford, O M; Vaudaux, P; Foster, T J; Lew, D P; Herrmann, M; Krause, K H

    1999-01-01

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to invade mammalian cells may explain its capacity to colonize mucosa and to persist in tissues after bacteraemia. To date, the underlying molecular mechanisms of cellular invasion by S. aureus are unknown, despite its high prevalence and difficulties in treatmen

  9. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Drougka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST, spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Transmitted between Patients with Buruli Ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The wounds of most BU patients are colonized with different microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus.This study investigated possible patient-to-patient transmission events of S. aureus during wound care in a health care center. S. aureus isolates from different BU patients with overlapping visits to the clinic were whole-genome sequenced and analyzed by a gene-by-gene approach using SeqSphere(+ software. In addition, sequence data were screened for the presence of genes that conferred antibiotic resistance.SeqSphere(+ analysis of whole-genome sequence data confirmed transmission of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus among patients that took place during wound care. Interestingly, our sequence data show that the investigated MRSA isolates carry a novel allele of the fexB gene conferring chloramphenicol resistance, which had thus far not been observed in S. aureus.

  11. D-Test Method for Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Pak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of infections in children. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of nasal colonization of S. aureus in children and detection of inducible clindamycin resistance (ICR by disk approximation test (D-test. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Hamedan from 2007 to 2008. 520 nasal swabs were obtained from children under 12 years of age at the time of admission and 287 swabs at the time of discharge. Antibiogram was performed by method of disk diffusion for oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, cefazolin and vancomycin as well as D-test. Chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Findings:Out of 520 patients, 118 (22.3% were colonized with S. aureus as community-acquired (CA-S. aureus. Of 287 patients, 64 (22.3% were colonized with isolates of S. aureus at discharge time. Of these 64 patients, 32 cases were colonized with hospital acquired (HA-S. aureus isolates after admission. Only one CA-MRSA isolate was resistant to clindamycin, 5% of 118 CA-S. aureus isolates and 6.3% of HA-S. aureus isolates had inducible clindamycin resistance (D-test. Also 37.5% of CA-MRSA isolates at the time of admission and 22.2% of HA-MRSA isolates at discharge had positive D-test. Conclusion:We emphasize that D-test should be used routinely and clindamycin should not be used in patients with infections caused by inducible resistant S. aureus.

  12. The Current State of Screening and Decolonization for the Prevention of Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infection After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mitchell C; Moucha, Calin S

    2015-09-01

    The most common pathogens in surgical site infections after total hip and knee arthroplasty are methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Patients colonized with MSSA or MRSA have an increased risk for a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or knee arthroplasty. Most colonized individuals who develop a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or total knee arthroplasty have molecularly identical S. aureus isolates in their nares and wounds. Screening and nasal decolonization of S. aureus can potentially reduce the rates of staphylococcal surgical site infection after total hip and total knee arthroplasty.

  13. Tuberculosis: Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Tuberculosis Getting Healthy, Staying Healthy U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  14. Human commensals producing a novel antibiotic impair pathogen colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperer, Alexander; Konnerth, Martin C; Laux, Claudia; Berscheid, Anne; Janek, Daniela; Weidenmaier, Christopher; Burian, Marc; Schilling, Nadine A; Slavetinsky, Christoph; Marschal, Matthias; Willmann, Matthias; Kalbacher, Hubert; Schittek, Birgit; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Grond, Stephanie; Peschel, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard

    2016-07-28

    The vast majority of systemic bacterial infections are caused by facultative, often antibiotic-resistant, pathogens colonizing human body surfaces. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to invasive infection, but the mechanisms that permit or interfere with pathogen colonization are largely unknown. Whereas soil microbes are known to compete by production of antibiotics, such processes have rarely been reported for human microbiota. We show that nasal Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains produce lugdunin, a novel thiazolidine-containing cyclic peptide antibiotic that prohibits colonization by S. aureus, and a rare example of a non-ribosomally synthesized bioactive compound from human-associated bacteria. Lugdunin is bactericidal against major pathogens, effective in animal models, and not prone to causing development of resistance in S. aureus. Notably, human nasal colonization by S. lugdunensis was associated with a significantly reduced S. aureus carriage rate, suggesting that lugdunin or lugdunin-producing commensal bacteria could be valuable for preventing staphylococcal infections. Moreover, human microbiota should be considered as a source for new antibiotics. PMID:27466123

  15. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Melissa U.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2012-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent source of infections affecting premature and critically ill infants in neonatal intensive care units. Neonates are particularly vulnerable to colonization and infection with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and many studies have attempted to identify risk factors that predispose certain infants to its acquisition in order to discover potential areas for clinical intervention. In addition, epidemiologic assessment of transmi...

  16. Colon cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  17. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrissa Diawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes.Nasal swab specimens were obtained from 143 hemodialyzed outpatients and 32 medical staff from January to June 2012. Each participant completed a short questionnaire. Nasal carriage of S. aureus was demographically related (age, gender, hemodialysis duration, comorbidity (diabetes, malignancy and exposure to health care (dialysis staff, hospitalization. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction were used on all the isolates in the research of twelve staphylococcal enterotoxins genes. Also the PCR was used to investigate on the three factors epidermal cell differentiation inhibitors; three exfoliatin toxins; two leukotoxins; the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and the hemolysin beta genes.Nasal screening revealed 38.16%, 50% and 18.75% S. aureus carries in chronic, acute hemodialysis patients and medical staff, respectively. Only young participants were likely to be S. aureus carries (p = 0.002. But there were no gender differences between the isolate carriers and non-carriers or some comorbidity factors such as viral hepatitis B and C, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus infections, diabetes, chronic smoking, recent hospitalization or antibiotic therapy. Out of all isolates, only one (1.61% was methicillin-resistant and Twenty-one (33.87% had at least two virulence toxin genes.Knowledge and monitoring of antibiotic resistance profile and virulence of S. aureus carriage are essential in the treatment of infections generated by this pathogen, as well as in the control of clonal dissemination and prevent the spread of S. aureus resistance.

  18. Healthy shiftwork, healthy shiftworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2001-12-01

    Reflecting diversifying shift systems, extensive effort is put into managing shiftwork and reducing safety and health risks. It is accepted that shiftworkers are exposed to particular risks inherent in their irregular work schedules. This raises the question of how and to what extent we can ensure healthy work life for shiftworkers. In answering the question, we need to identify effective measures to improve both shiftworking conditions and the health of shiftworkers. Based on recent experiences in managing shiftwork, we note three directions of such measures: (a) comprehensive action to avoid risk-enhancing conditions based on general guidelines, (b) risk control as to workload, worksite ergonomics and risk reduction, and (c) support for flexible and restful working life. International standards are obviously relevant to these three aspects. Our own experiences in applying a set of ergonomic checkpoints to plant maintenance shiftwork demonstrate the usefulness of focusing on flexible work schedules and on multiple job-related factors such as night workload, ergonomic environment, resting conditions and training. There is a strong need for participatory planning and implementation of multi-area improvements as well as for relying on flexible schedules and autonomic teamwork. We may conclude that healthy shiftwork and healthy shiftworkers are compatible with each other only when certain conditions are met. In achieving this end, we need to combine (a) comprehensive measures to improve work schedules and job life, (b) strict risk management and (c) locally adjusted participatory steps for continual improvement.

  19. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Aguayo, S.; Donos, N.; Spratt, D.; Bozec, L.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for max...

  20. Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a meticilina (SARM positivos para PVL aislados en individuos sanos de Montería-Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pineda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PVL positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSAs strains isolated from healthy individuals in Montería,Córdoba. Objective. To study SARM and PVL producing strains in healthy individuals of Montería city. Materials and methods.This was a descriptive, prospective and transversal study. A total of 253 samples from pharyngeal swabs in three communities werestudied: 91 prisoners of the jail of Montería (19-58 years old, 100 young adult students of the University of Cordoba (17-30 years oldand 62 children in school age (4-9 years old of the primary school of the University of Cordoba. Individuals analyzed had not beenhospitalized, had not received any antimicrobial treatment and did not show any clinical signs or symptoms in the last months. Theisolates were identified by conventional microbiological tests and the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for different antibioticswith MicroScan™ kit 1A (SIEMENS. For the detection of the nuc, mecA and PVL genes, we followed the protocols of Brakstad et al.,Oliveira et al. and Gerard et al. respectively. Results. Of the 253 analyzed samples, 62 (24.5% were positive for S. aureus, out of those4 (6.45% were resistant to methicillin and 2 (25% of them were PVL positive; 58 (93.54% were sensitive to methicillin and 6 (75%positive for PVL. Conclusions. Results obtained in this study show the colonization by SARM-AC of healthy individuals. Colonizationwas higher in young adults and children in school-age.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists.

  3. Assessment of adhesion, invasion and cytotoxicity potential of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Ben Nejma, Mouna; Helali, Imen; Hentati, Hajer; Bongiovanni, Antonino; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2015-09-01

    The oral cavity is regarded as a relevant site for Staphylococcus aureus colonization. However, characterization of virulence mechanisms of oral S. aureus remains to be uncovered. In this study, twenty one S. aureus strains isolated from the oral cavity of Tunisian patients were screened for adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. In addition, the presence of adhesins (icaA, icaD, can, fnbA and fnbB) and α-hemolysin (hla) genes in each strain was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our finding revealed that oral S. aureus strains were able to adhere and invade epithelial cells, with variable degrees (P toxin was found in 52.4% of the isolates. All these virulence factors give to S. aureus the right qualities to become a redoubtable pathogen associated to oral infections.

  4. Nasal Carriage of Multi-Drug Resistant Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Children in Tripoli-Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Al-haddad, Omaima H.; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized children are at an increased risk of developing infections than methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonized children. Nasal specimens from inpatient children, mothers of inpatient children, healthcare workers, and outpatient children at Tripoli Children Hospital (TCH) were examined for MRSA by chromogenic MRSA ID medium. Susceptibility of MRSA isolates to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The nasal carriage rate...

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers at a University Hospital of Recife-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Brandão Ferreira da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the main human pathogen that colonizes individuals in general population. The objective of the study was evaluate the epidemiological and sensitivity profile of S. aureus lineage, isolated in health care workers (HCW of a University Hospital in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Biological samples of hands and nasal cavities were sown in agar sheep blood. Colonies under suspicion of being S. aureus were identified using Gram staining, catalase test and coagulase, mannitol-salty agar fermentation and DNAse agar. The resistance to mupirocin was analyzed through the Kirby Bauer technique. In relation to methicillin and vancomycin the determination was by the minimum inhibitory concentration method (E-test. From the 202 HCW evaluated, 52 were colonized by S. aureus (25,7%. The factors associated to the colonization by S. aureus were: age-group, professional category, use of individual protection equipments (frequency and numbers. All S. aureus isolate lineages were sensitive to mupirocin and vancomycin, and three of them were identified as methicillin-resistant. The prevalence of MSSA and MRSA among HCW was considered low and was below the results described in the literature. The isolate S. aureus lineages have shown low resistance profile.

  6. Comparative effects of enoxacin and norfloxacin on human colonic microflora.

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, C; Lidbeck, A.; Kager, L; Nord, C E

    1987-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received 400 mg of enoxacin and another ten healthy volunteers received 200 mg of norfloxacin orally twice a day for 7 days. Fecal specimens were collected before, during, and after drug administration to study the impact of enoxacin and norfloxacin on the normal colonic microflora. On day 7, the mean concentrations of enoxacin and norfloxacin were 350 and 950 mg/kg of feces, respectively. Enoxacin and norfloxacin affected the colonic microflora in similar ways. The num...

  7. Oropharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children from Taubaté (São Paulo), prior to the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program in Brazil Colonização da orofaringe de crianças saudáveis de Taubaté (São Paulo) por Haemophilus influenzae, antes da introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae do tipo b no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Ferro Bricks; Caio Márcio Figueredo Mendes; Bianca Rezende Lucarevschi; Carmem Paz Oplustil; Zanella, Rosemeire C.; Adriana Bori; Ciro João Bertoli

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is one of the most important bacterial agents of otitis and sinusitis. H. influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the main causes of meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in nonvaccinated children under 6 years of age. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. influenzae and Hib oropharyngeal colonization prior to the onset of the Hib vaccination program in Brazil in previously healthy children and to assess the susceptibility profile of this microorganism...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis: a rare cause of chest pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is a common presenting symptom with a broad differential. Life-threatening cardiac and pulmonary etiologies of chest pain should be evaluated first. However, it is critical to perform a thorough assessment for other sources of chest pain in order to limit morbidity and mortality from less common causes. We present a rare case of a previously healthy 45 year old man who presented with focal, substernal, reproducible chest pain and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia who was later found to have primary Staphylococcus aureus sternal osteomyelitis.

  9. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

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    Full Text Available ... shall we say, not easy to talk about. Well, the good news is that colon cancer can often be prevented or it can be found and removed ... Away from Tobacco Eat Healthy and Get Active Be Safe in the Sun Other Ways to Protect ... and Calculators Information for Health Care Professionals ...

  10. Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Healthy Eating KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Eating Print A A A Text Size What's in ... new foods and to be role models for healthy eating. Teens may turn up their noses at the ...

  11. Are gym surfaces reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus? A point prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, John Daniel; Edmond, Michael B; Major, Yvette; Bearman, Gonzalo; Stevens, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    We sought to identify staphylococcal contamination of gymnasium surfaces. Various environmental surfaces were cultured at a university fitness center. Ten out of 99 samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus, all of which were methicillin-susceptible. Gym surfaces may be colonized with staphylococci and could play a role in community transmission of staphylococcal species.

  12. Evidence for Human Adaptation and Foodborne Transmission of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal S;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the evolution and epidemiology of a novel livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, which colonizes and infects urban-dwelling Danes even without a Danish animal reservoir. Genetic evidence suggests both poultry and human adaptation, with poultry mea...

  13. Risk Factors for Nosocomial Bacterremia Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pujol (Miquel); C. Pena; R. Pallares (Roman); J. Ayats (Josefina); J. Ariza (Javier); F. Gudiol (Francesc)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn a prospective surveillance study (February 1990–December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n=103; 33 %) or infected (n=206; 67 %

  14. Increased Risk of Pneumonia and Bronchiolitis after Bacterial Colonization of the Airways as Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Chawes, Bo Lk; Bisgaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The frequency of pneumonia and bronchiolitis exhibits considerable variation in otherwise healthy children, and suspected risk factors explain only a minor proportion of the variation. We hypothesized that alterations in the airway microbiome in early life may be associated with suscep......Rationale: The frequency of pneumonia and bronchiolitis exhibits considerable variation in otherwise healthy children, and suspected risk factors explain only a minor proportion of the variation. We hypothesized that alterations in the airway microbiome in early life may be associated...... with susceptibility to pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children. Objectives: To investigate the relation between neonatal airway colonization and pneumonia and bronchiolitis during the first three years of life. Methods: Participants comprised children of the COPSAC2000 cohort; a prospective birth cohort study...... of 411 children born to asthmatic mothers. Aspirates from the hypopharynx at age four weeks were cultured for S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M.catarrhalis, and S.aureus. Clinical information on pneumonia and bronchiolitis within the first three years of life was prospectively collected by the research...

  15. Identification of Bacillus spp. colonizing the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area using the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosikowska Urszula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. can be regarded as a rare component of the nasal mucosa microflora. The aim of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. from the nasal mucosa of healthy adults living in the suburban area near Lublin using the matrix-assisted laser desorptionionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS system.

  16. Prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children with diabetes mellitus: Trends between 2005 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Gonc, Nazli; Altay, Ozlem; Cengiz, Ali Bulent; Ozon, Alev; Pinar, Ahmet; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Akyon, Yakut; Kandemir, Nurgun; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Kara, Ates

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to establish the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization rates in pediatric outpatients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, while also evaluating changes in colonization rates over time. There was no significant difference between 2005 and 2013 patients in terms of demographic and clinical findings. MRSA colonization rates were 0.7% (in 101 patients) and 0.9% (in 134 patients) (P = .84). Although increased MRSA colonization has become a significant problem worldwide, it does not seem to be a major issue in our diabetic outpatient population. PMID:26050099

  17. Clonal Complex 398 Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: A Frequent Unspecialized Human Pathogen with Specific Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Chroboczek; Sandrine Boisset; Jean-Philippe Rasigade; Anne Tristan; Michele Bes; Helene Meugnier; François Vandenesch; Jerome Etienne; Frederic Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Clonal complex 398 livestok-associated-MRSA (CC398 LA-MRSA) clone is described as a major animal pathogen that can also colonize and infect humans. CC398 methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (CC398 MSSA) is less described. We identified 126 CC398 MSSA strains of human origin within 6380 S. aureus isolates gathered between 2009 and 2011, from the French National Reference Centre for Staphylococci. They were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA micr...

  18. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with Isolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2% MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2% isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  20. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, V.; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Guardabassi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human...... interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin -producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin......-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. Clinical...

  1. Low Fluid Shear Culture of Staphylococcus Aureus Represses hfq Expression and Induces an Attachment-Independent Biofilm Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Castro, S. L.; Nickerson, C. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, experiences fluctuations in fluid shear during infection and colonization of a human host. Colonization frequently occurs at mucus membrane sites such as in the gastrointestinal tract where the bacterium may experience low levels of fluid shear. The response of S. aureus to low fluid shear remains unclear. Methods: S. aureus was cultured to stationary phase using Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors which produce a physiologically relevant low fluid shear environment. The bacterial aggregates that developed in the RWV were evaluated by electron microscopy as well as for antibiotic resistance and other virulence-associated stressors. Genetic expression profiles for the low-shear cultured S. aureus were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Planktonic S. aureus cultures in the low-shear environment formed aggregates completely encased in high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances. In addition, these aggregates demonstrated increased antibiotic resistance indicating attachment-independent biofilm formation. Carotenoid production in the low-shear cultured S. aureus was significantly decreased, and these cultures displayed an increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and killing by whole blood. The hfq gene, associated with low-shear growth in Gram negative organisms, was also found to be down-regulated in S. aureus. Conclusions: Collectively, this data suggests that S. aureus decreases virulence characteristics in favor of a biofilm-dwelling colonization phenotype in response to a low fluid shear environment. Furthermore, the identification of an Hfq response to low-shear culture in S. aureus, in addition to the previously reported responses in Gram negative organisms, strongly suggests an evolutionarily conserved response to mechanical stimuli among structurally diverse prokaryotes.

  2. Utility of a single nasal polymerase chain reaction assay in predicting absence of skin and environmental contamination in hospitalized patients with past methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Dubert M; Wagner, Matthew; Carson, Grace; Hanish, Christine; Thompson, Jody; Orr, Megan; Roth, Felix; Carson, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated hospitalized patients with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for persistent colonization and need for contact precautions. Up to 3 daily cultures of nares, skin, and any present wounds were compared with a single nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Most patients (76.2%) were no longer colonized with MRSA. A single PCR assay was sufficient to exclude persistent colonization and environmental contamination and remove the contact precautions.

  3. Colonization of Yankauer suction catheters with pathogenic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa; Willms, David

    2005-10-01

    Oral suction devices may be fomites for nosocomial infections. This study was designed to evaluate the rate of contamination of Yankauer suction catheters. Among the 20 catheters tested, 16 (80%) yielded cultures for pathogens. Seven (35%) were colonized with multiple pathogens. Among the organisms encountered included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). These devices should be handled and stored with appropriate care.

  4. Phytochemical Analysis, Antibacterial Activity of Marrubium vulgare L against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Saeide Saeidi; Mohammad Bokaeian; Elham Saboori; Abbas Ali Niazi; Negar Amini-Borojeni; Hamde Khaje; Saphora Bazi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicines are the major remedy in traditional medical systems and made a great contribution in maintaining human health and in preventing many infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the potential antibacterial effect of ethanol extracts and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. against Staphylococcus aureus which is antibiotic resistant. Materials and Methods: All 17 strains of S. aureus isolated from nose and throat sample from 160 healthy s...

  5. Solonamide B Inhibits Quorum Sensing and Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Mediated Killing of Human Neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Bojer, Martin S.;

    2014-01-01

    that a cyclodepsipeptide termed Solonamide B isolated from the marine bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans strongly reduces expression of RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. Here we show that Solonamide B interferes with the binding of S. aureus autoinducing peptides (AIPs) to sensor......A controlled virulence gene expression in S. aureus.......Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a serious human pathogen, and particularly the spread of community associated (CA)-MRSA strains such as USA300 is a concern, as these strains can cause severe infections in otherwise healthy adults. Recently, we reported...

  6. Risk factors of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care staff in a teaching hospital in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Humaidan, Ohoud S.; El-Kersh, Talat A.; Al-Akeel, Raid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate possible risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage associated with various health troubles among healthcare workers (HCWs) at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Method: This prospective study was conducted between May 2012 and January 2013 in KKUH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected from HCWs. Identification was carried out based on morphology, Gram stain, catalase and coagulase test, Staphaurex PlusH test, chromogenic medium, oxacillin, and cefoxitin test using disc diffusion method. Characterization was carried out using disk diffusion method and E-test. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to confirm using GeneXpert® Dx System (Cepheid) to detect mecA gene. Results: Among the 200 isolates, 80 (40%) were S. aureus carriers, and 36 (18%) of all HCWs were identified as MRSA carriers. There was a significant difference of S. aureus according to gender with male carriers (p=0.012), occupation particularly among nurses (p=0.006), and duration of working years in the hospital among 4-6 years group (p=0.002). Moreover, none of the risk factors assessed were significantly associated with the carriage rate of MRSA (p>0.05). Conclusion: The current study revealed that nursing staff was the potential colonizers of S. aureus and MRSA compared with other HCWs. Regular screening of carriers is required for prevention of nosocomial infections. PMID:26318466

  7. Fatal pneumoni med Panton-Valentine-leukocidinproducerende Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Peter Hedelund; Dessau, Ram Benny; Warnecke, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of fatal pneumonia in a previously healthy 14-year-old boy. The patient was severely affected at the time of admission with high fever, tachypnea, tachycardia and peripheral cyanosis. The condition worsened despite treatment with antibiotics as well as respiratory and pressure ...... support. Acidosis and critical leucopenia supervened and the patient died just short of 24 hours after admission. Subsequent bacterial cultivation showed Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-producing Staphylococcus aureus....

  8. Prophylactic Effect of Vancomycin on Infection after Cranioplasty in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Carriers with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jin Hyuk; Cho, Keun-Tae; Park, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) are major causes of neurosurgical infection. Nasal colonization of MRSA is the most important risk factor and MRSA screening can be a screening method to identify MRSA and MRCNS colonization. We retrospectively evaluated prophylactic effect of vancomycin on MRSA or MRCNS surgical site infection (SSI) after cranioplasty following decompressive craniectomy (DC) after t...

  9. Clinical impact of Achromobacter xylosoxidans colonization/infection in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Firmida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of diagnosis of colonization/infection of the airways with Achromobacter xylosoxidans has increased in cystic fibrosis patients, but its clinical significance is still controversial. This retrospective, case-control study aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of A. xylosoxidans colonization/infection in cystic fibrosis patients. Individuals who were chronically colonized/infected (n=10, intermittently colonized/infected (n=15, and never colonized/infected with A. xylosoxidans (n=18 were retrospectively evaluated during two periods that were 2 years apart. Demographic characteristics, clinical data, lung function, and chronic bacterial co-colonization data were evaluated. Of the total study population, 87% were pediatric patients and 65.1% were female. Individuals chronically colonized/infected with A. xylosoxidans had decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 s (51.7% in the chronic colonization/infection group vs 82.7% in the intermittent colonization/infection group vs 76% in the never colonized/infected group. Compared with the other two groups, the rate of co-colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was higher in individuals chronically colonized/infected with A. xylosoxidans (P=0.002. Changes in lung function over 2 years in the three groups were not significant, although a trend toward a greater decrease in lung function was observed in the chronically colonized/infected group. Compared with the other two groups, there was a greater number of annual hospitalizations in patients chronically colonized/infected with A. xylosoxidans (P=0.033. In cystic fibrosis patients, there was an increased frequency of A. xylosoxidans colonization/infection in children, and lung function was reduced in patients who were chronically colonized/infected with A. xylosoxidans. Additionally, there were no differences in clinical outcomes during the 2-year period, except for an increased number of hospitalizations in patients with A

  10. Healthy Sexuality

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    Full Text Available ... upbringing. Sex is an important part of your life and sexual concerns should be taken seriously. When ... Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying sex life that they deserve. Looking for Additional Information? Visit ...

  11. Healthy Sexuality

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    Full Text Available ... t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  12. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The ... the Label, Mabel Easy Steps to Better Health! Skin Wise All about an important part of your ...

  13. Healthy Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, Cees van der

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie gehouden bij de bijeenkomst voor het Regionaal Genootschap Fysiotherapie Het Noorden op 10 februari te Marum, over het belang van fysieke activiteit voor healthy ageing en de rol van de fysiotherapeut hierin

  14. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from remote African Babongo Pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Schaumburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pandemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates (CA-MRSA predominantly encode the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL, which can be associated with severe infections. Reports from non-indigenous Sub-Saharan African populations revealed a high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates. The objective of our study was to investigate the S. aureus carriage among a remote indigenous African population and to determine the molecular characteristics of the isolates, particularly those that were PVL-positive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal S. aureus carriage and risk factors of colonization were systematically assessed in remote Gabonese Babongo Pygmies. Susceptibility to antibiotics, possession of toxin-encoding genes (i.e., PVL, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins, S. aureus protein A (spa types and multi-locus sequence types (MLST were determined for each isolate. The carriage rate was 33%. No MRSA was detected, 61.8% of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Genes encoding PVL (55.9%, enterotoxin B (20.6%, exfoliative toxin D (11.7% and the epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor B (11.7% were highly prevalent. Thirteen spa types were detected and were associated with 10 STs predominated by ST15, ST30, ST72, ST80, and ST88. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of PVL-positive isolates among Babongo Pygmies demands our attention as PVL can be associated with necrotinzing infection and may increase the risk of severe infections in remote Pygmy populations. Many S. aureus isolates from Babongo Pygmies and pandemic CA-MRSA-clones have a common genetic background. Surveillance is needed to control the development of resistance to antibiotic drugs and to assess the impact of the high prevalence of PVL in indigenous populations.

  15. Colon capsule endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Fernandez-Urien; Cristina Carretero; Ana Borda; Miguel Mu(n)oz-Navas

    2008-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy has become the first imaging tool for small bowel examination.Recently,new capsule endoscopy applications have been developed,such as esophageal capsule endoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy.Clinical trials results have shown that colon capsule endoscopy is feasible,accurate and safe in patients suffering from colonic diseases.It could be a good alternative in patients refusing conventional colonoscopy or when it is contraindicated.Upcoming studies are needed to demonstrate its utilty for colon cancer screening and other indications such us ulcerative colitis.Comparative studies including both conventional and virtual colonoscopy are also required.

  16. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus among Residents of Seven Nursing Homes in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    Full Text Available Residents in nursing homes (NHs always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China.Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, spa and SCCmec typing.Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%, 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%, and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%. Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1% to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%, CC188 (13.5% and CC5 (12.8%. The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%, followed by t14383 (12.8% and t002 (10.6%.A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin

  17. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  18. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  19. Characterization of colonic dendritic cells in normal and colitic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheena M Cruickshank; Nicholas R English; Peter J Felsburg; Simon R Carding

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies demonstrating the direct involvement of dendritic cells (DC) in the activation of pathogenic T cells in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease identify DC as important antigen presenting cells in the colon. However, very little is known about the properties of colonic DC.METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and flow cytometry we have characterized and compared colonic DC in the colon of healthy animals and interleukin-2-deficient (IL2-/-) mice that develop colitis.RESULTS: In the healthy colon, DC resided within the lamina propria and in close association with the basement membrane of colonic villi. Type 1 myeloid (CD11c+, CD11b+,B220-, CD8α-) DC made up the largest (40-45%) population and all DC expressed low levels of CD80, CD86, and CD40,and had high endocytic activity consistent with an immature phenotype. In colitic IL2-/- mice, colonic DC numbers increased four- to five-fold and were localized within the epithelial layer and within aggregates of T and B cells. They were also many more DC in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN).The majority (>85%) of DC in the colon and MLN of IL2-/-mice were type 1 myeloid, and expressed high levels of MHC class Ⅱ, CD80, CD86, CD 40, DEC 205, and CCR5molecules and were of low endocytic activity consistent with mature DC.CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate striking changes in the number, distribution and phenotype of DC in the inflamed colon. Their intimate association with lymphocytes in the colon and draining lymph nodes suggest that they may contribute directly to the ongoing inflammation in the colon.

  20. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  1. LEAKAGE OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS AFTER COLON RESECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanellos I; Pramateftakis MG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To present the diagnosis and management of anastomotic leakage after colon resection. Methods Early diagnosis and urgent therapeutic intervention are required in order to avert life-threatening conditions that may be caused by anastomotic leakage. Results The diagnosis of anastomotic leakage is based on clinical features, peripheral blood investigations and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. Major leaks are defined by symptoms of peritonitis and septicaemia due to leakage. Major leaks should be managed operatively. Minor leaks can be managed conservatively with successful outcomes. Conclusion Leakage of colonic anastomosis remains the most serious complication after colon resection. It is a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required in order to detect early, nonspecific signs of a leakage and urgent surgical intervention is usually required to avert life-threatening events.

  2. Spread of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Large Tertiary NICU: Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Alon; Wright, Sharon B.; Baldini, Linda M.; Smallcomb, Jane A.; Safran, Charles

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in NICUs increases the risk of nosocomial infection. Network analysis provides tools to examine the interactions among patients and staff members that put patients at risk of colonization. METHODS: Data from MRSA surveillance cultures were combined with patient room locations, nursing assignments, and sibship information to create patient- and unit-based networks. Multivariate models were constructed to quantify the risk of incident MRSA colonization as a function of exposure to MRSA-colonized infants in these networks. RESULTS: A MRSA-negative infant in the NICU simultaneously with a MRSA-positive infant had higher odds of becoming colonized when the colonized infant was a sibling, compared with an unrelated patient (odds ratio: 8.8 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.3–14.8]). Although knowing that a patient was MRSA-positive and was placed on contact precautions reduced the overall odds of another patient becoming colonized by 35% (95% CI: 20%–47%), having a nurse in common with that patient still increased the odds of colonization by 43% (95% CI: 14%–80%). Normalized group degree centrality, a unitwide network measure of connectedness between colonized and uncolonized patients, was a significant predictor of incident MRSA cases (odds ratio: 18.1 [95% CI: 3.6–90.0]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite current infection-control strategies, patients remain at significant risk of MRSA colonization from MRSA-positive siblings and from other patients with whom they share nursing care. Strategies that minimize the frequency of staff members caring for both colonized and uncolonized infants may be beneficial in reducing the spread of MRSA colonization. PMID:22007011

  3. Staphylococcus aureus triggered reactive arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siam, A R; M. Hammoudeh

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To report two patients who developed reactive arthritis in association with Staphylococcus aureus infection. METHODS--A review of the case notes of two patients. RESULTS--Two adult female patients have developed sterile arthritis in association with Staph aureus infection. The first patient has had two episodes of arthritis; the first followed olecranon bursitis, the second followed infection of a central venous catheter used for dialysis. The second patient developed sterile arth...

  4. Interspecific small molecule interactions between clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus from adult cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fugère

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are the most prevalent pathogens in airway infections of cystic fibrosis (CF patients. We studied how these pathogens coexist and interact with each other. Clinical isolates of both species were retrieved from adult CF patients. Culture supernatants from 63 P. aeruginosa isolates triggered a wide range of biofilm-stimulatory activities when added to the culture of a control S. aureus strain. The extent of biofilm formation by S. aureus was positively correlated to the levels of the 2-alkyl-4-(1H-quinolones (AQs Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy quinoline N-oxide (HQNO produced by the P. aeruginosa isolates. Supernatants from P. aeruginosa isogenic mutants deficient in PQS and HQNO production stimulated significantly less biofilm formation by S. aureus than that seen with the parental strain PA14. When studying co-isolated pairs of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus retrieved from patients showing both pathogens, P. aeruginosa supernatants stimulated less biofilm production by the S. aureus counterparts compared to that observed using the control S. aureus strain. Accordingly, some P. aeruginosa isolates produced low levels of exoproducts and also some of the clinical S. aureus isolates were not stimulated by their co-isolates or by PA14 despite adequate production of HQNO. This suggests that colonization of the CF lungs promotes some type of strain selection, or that co-existence requires specific adaptations by either or both pathogens. Results provide insights on bacterial interactions in CF.

  5. Does nasal cocolonization by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains occur frequently enough to represent a risk of false-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus determinations by molecular methods?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Karsten; Pagnier, Isabelle; Schuhen, Brigitte; Wenzelburger, Frauke; Friedrich, Alexander W; Kipp, Frank; Peters, Georg; von Eiff, Christof

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the colonization of the anterior nares in cardiothoracic surgery patients on admission, nasal cocolonization by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci was detected in 8/235 (3.4%) specimens. Consequently, in a low-methici

  6. Colonización nasal y vaginal por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en mujeres embarazadas en Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Correa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The host niche for Staphylococcus aureus (SA are the anterior nares; however, vaginal colonization rates between 14% and 17.1% in pregnant women have been recently reported, raising interest about the potential risk in postpartum women and in neonates from colonized mothers.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nasal and vaginal colonization of SA and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates in pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Cartagena, Colombia.Methods: Nasal and vaginal swabs were obtained from participants and subjected to microbiological and molecular assays. A post discharge follow-up was performed for up to four weeks.Results: From 100 pregnant women enrolled in the study, 34 were colonized with SA; 29 only in the nares, three only in the vagina, and two at both sites. Colonization of pregnant women with SA was more common in the nares than in the vagina or at both sites [29/34 (85.3% vs 3/34 (8.8% and 2/34 (5.9%; p<0.05]. We obtained 36 SA isolates, nine (25% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, one was from the vagina; thus, the overall MRSA colonization rate among pregnant women was 9%. Molecular analysis showed that Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes were carried by the vaginal MRSA, seven of the nasal MRSA, and two of the Methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA isolates. Two MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type I and seven carried SCCmec type IV.Conclusions: Nasal colonization rate for SA in the study population was similar to previous reports. However, the frequency of nasal colonization of MRSA was higher while vaginal colonization of SA was lower than previouslyreported in other studies for similar populations. The MRSA isolates obtained showed a community profile.

  7. Cat Scratch Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lourdes Ruiz-Rebollo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, we have read several publications regarding the term “cat scratch colon.” This neologism was developed to define some bright red linear markings seen in the colonic mucosa that resemble scratches made by a cat. We would like to communicate a recent case attended at our institution.

  8. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  9. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  10. THE COLONIC TRANSIT TEST IN THE ASSESSMENT OF CHRONIC CONSTIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to assess colonic motility of chronic constipation, colonic transit test was carried out in 34 patients with chronic constipation and in 20 healthy subjects. 20 radiopaque markers are ingested at 8 am before the day test, and plain abdominal films were obtained at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. The normal value of colonic transit test was 16(80%), or more markers passed after 72 h. By means of transit time study, 34 constipated patients were classified into 2 groups: 12 normal transit patients and 22 slow transit patients. There was no difference in colonic transit time between normal transit patients and controls (P>0.05). Patients with slow transit had more markers left in right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid colon at 48 h (P<0.01, respectively) and 72 h (P<0.01, respectively). According to the transit index, 22 slow transit patients were divided into 3 types: 10 cases colonic stasis, 8 cases outlet obstruction and 4 cases colorectal stasis. The study suggests that chronic constipated patients have abnormalbilities of colonic transit.

  11. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Detection of alpha-toxin and other virulence factors in biofilms of staphylococcus aureus on polystyrene and a human epidermalmodel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Den Reijer (P. Martijn); J.A. Haisma (Janneke); N. Lemmens-den Toom; J. Willemse (José); R.A. Koning; J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); D.H. Dekkers (Dick); E.J. Rijkers; A. El Ghalbzouri (Abdoelwaheb); P.H. Nibbering (Peter); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aim: The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (a)biotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as al

  13. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and Cross-Contamination in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit: Efficacy of Mupirocin Ointment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Talon; C. Rouget; V. Cailleaux; P. Bailly; M. Thouverez; F. Barale; Y. Michel-Briand

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA six month prospective study was carried out in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a university hospital to assess the incidence and routes of exogenous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 157 patients were included in the study. One thousand one hundred and eleven s

  14. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  15. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. One hypothesis to explain the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. To invest...

  16. The adherens junctions control susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Lauren M; Marceau, Caleb D; Starkl, Philipp M; Lumb, Jennifer H; Shah, Jimit; Guerrera, Diego; Cooper, Rachel L; Merakou, Christina; Bouley, Donna M; Meng, Wenxiang; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Takeichi, Masatoshi; Galli, Stephen J; Bagnoli, Fabio; Citi, Sandra; Carette, Jan E; Amieva, Manuel R

    2015-11-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is both a transient skin colonizer and a formidable human pathogen, ranking among the leading causes of skin and soft tissue infections as well as severe pneumonia. The secreted bacterial α-toxin is essential for S. aureus virulence in these epithelial diseases. To discover host cellular factors required for α-toxin cytotoxicity, we conducted a genetic screen using mutagenized haploid human cells. Our screen identified a cytoplasmic member of the adherens junctions, plekstrin-homology domain containing protein 7 (PLEKHA7), as the second most significantly enriched gene after the known α-toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). Here we report a new, unexpected role for PLEKHA7 and several components of cellular adherens junctions in controlling susceptibility to S. aureus α-toxin. We find that despite being injured by α-toxin pore formation, PLEKHA7 knockout cells recover after intoxication. By infecting PLEKHA7(-/-) mice with methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 LAC strain, we demonstrate that this junctional protein controls disease severity in both skin infection and lethal S. aureus pneumonia. Our results suggest that adherens junctions actively control cellular responses to a potent pore-forming bacterial toxin and identify PLEKHA7 as a potential nonessential host target to reduce S. aureus virulence during epithelial infections.

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri protects epidermal keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death by competitive exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Tessa; McBain, Andrew J; O'Neill, Catherine A

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the α5β1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection. PMID:22582077

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Price

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB is commonly complicated by metastatic infection or relapse after treatment. Objectives. The study aim was to determine the role of bacterial, host, and management factors in development of complicated SAB. Methods. A prospectively-conducted observational study gathered data on predisposition, management and outcome of 100 consecutive SAB cases. Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic lineage of bacterial isolates were determined. Further clinical and microbiological data were gathered on two retrospective series from 1999–2000 (n=57 and 2004 (n=116. Results. In the prospective cases, 27% met our definition of complicated disease. Expressed as RR and 95% CI, complicated disease was associated with diabetes (1.58, 1.00–2.48, injecting-drug use (5.48, 0.88–33.49, community-onset of symptoms (1.4, 1.02–1.92, and symptom duration ≥48 hours prior to starting effective antibiotic therapy (2.10, 1.22–3.61. Uncomplicated disease was associated with the presence of a central line (0.69, 0.55–0.88 and prompt removal of a primary focus (0.71, 0.57–0.90. Neither methicillin resistance nor genetic lineage was associated with complicated disease, but methicillin resistance was associated with higher mortality. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that clinical rather than microbial factors are the major determinants of SAB outcome and underscores the importance of early treatment.

  19. Review on Panton Valentine leukocidin toxin carriage among Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B

    2013-09-01

    Panton Valentine leukocidin is a toxin making pores in the polymorphonuclear cells which is a virulence factor of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Initially it was produced by methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus only. Later with the acquisition of mecA gene has lead it to be PVL positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Since MRSA are resistant to many antibiotics and further they produce a toxin the infections by PVL positive MRSA has become a challenge. PVL positive MRSA a virulent strain of drug resistant superbug MRSA that has spread around the world, has claimed many lives in UK, Europe, USA and Australia. Some strains of superbug attack the healthy young people and kill within 24 hrs. PVL positive Staphylococcus aureus has been reported to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections however they also cause invasive infections and necrotizing pneumonia. These microorganisms known to be community associated have spread to hospitals. Hospital acquired infection by such microorganisms lead to an increase in mortality hence should be controlled before they become prevalent in hospitals. PMID:24908537

  20. Community prevalence of methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in and around Bangalore, southern India Prevalência de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e à vancomicina em comunidade no entorno de Bangalore, Índia do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Goud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is a known colonizer in humans and has been implicated in community acquired soft tissue infections. However emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA has aroused great concern worldwide. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA in the community of Bangalore, southern India. METHODS: Swabs were collected from anterior nares, forearm, dorsum and palm of the hands of 1,000 healthy individuals residing in and around Bangalore, belonging to different socioeconomic strata and age groups. RESULTS: Analysis verified that 22.5% and 16.6% of the individuals presented Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA, respectively, at any of the three sites. Vancomycin resistance was observed in 1.4% of the S. aureus isolates, which was confirmed by detection of the vanA gene. It was interesting to note that 58.8% of the children in the age group 1-5 years-old presented MRSA, the highest percentage compared to other age groups of 40 (11% years-old and 20-40 (9.9% years-old. Among the population of various socioeconomic strata, maximum MRSA colonization was observed among doctors (22.2%, followed by upper economic class (18.8%, lower economic class (17.7%, apparently healthy hospital in-patients (16.5%, nurses (16% and middle economic class (12.5%. Most of the MRSA isolates were capsular polysaccharide antigen type 8 (57.1%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of the presence of MRSA in the community and a clearer understanding of the dynamics of the spread of MRSA will assist in controlling its dissemination.INTRODUÇÃO: O Staphylococcus aureus é conhecido por ser um colonizador em humanos sendo implicado em infecções comunitárias dos tecidos moles. Contudo, a resistência à meticilina e emergência de S. aureus meticilina resistentes (MRSA têm despertado preocupação em todo o mundo. O presente estudo visa encontrar a prevalência de MRSA na comunidade de Bangalore, sul da

  1. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... don’t be afraid to talk with a health care professional. Everyone can achieve the healthy and satisfying ... provider site at www.asrm.org Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive ...

  2. Healthy Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese economic dragon is healthy and dynamic. The dragorthead,Shanghai, is developing at a pace never before seen in world history, The dragon's body is also doing well, not least because there is tremendous competition across the country. Thus, four cities along the central Yangtze River Region are trying to strengthen their competitiveness.

  3. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Healthy Sexuality Sexuality is the experience and/or ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  4. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Healthy Sexuality Sexuality is the experience and/ ... the course of a lifetime. The World Health Organization has defined sexual health as “…a state of ...

  5. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Healthy Sexuality Sexuality is the experience and/or expression of ... is an important part of his or her sexuality. Let’s talk about how a woman’s body responds ...

  6. Pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in asymptomatic neonates stimulates topical inflammatory mediator release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følsgaard, Nilofar Vahman; Schjørring, Susanne; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Bacterial colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial species, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae, is associated with later development of childhood asthma. Objectives: To study a possible association between colonization....... Colonization of the hypopharynx with M. catarrhal's, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed simultaneously. The association between immune signatures and bacterial colonization or noncolonized controls was analyzed using conventional statistical methods supplemented...... by a multivariate approach for pattern identification. Measurements and Main Results: Colonization with M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae induced a mixed T helper cell (Th) type 1/Th2/Th17 response with high levels of IL-1 beta (M. catarrhalis, P = 2.2 x 10(-12); H. influenzae, P = 7.1 X 10(-10)), TNF-alpha (M...

  7. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Köck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99% susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.

  8. Active immunization with an octa-valent Staphylococcus aureus antigen mixture in models of S. aureus bacteremia and skin infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each, and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 10(5 CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 10(5 CFU. In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection.

  9. Colon anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Colon anastomotic leakage remains a serious and common surgical complication. Animal models are valuable to determine the pathophysiological mechanisms and to evaluate possible methods of prevention. The aim of this study was to develop an optimal model of clinical colon anastomotic...... group [0.49 N ± 0.15] (p = 0.091). CONCLUSIONS: This mouse model closely mimics clinical colon anastomotic leakage in humans. The model is of high clinical relevance, since anastomotic leakage has a similar cause, incidence and manifestations in humans....

  10. Antibody Responses in Patients with Staphylococcal Septicemia against Two Staphylococcus aureus Fibrinogen Binding Proteins: Clumping Factor and an Extracellular Fibrinogen Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Palma, Marco; Söderquist, Bo; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Möllby, Roland

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the serum antibody responses against two Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding proteins, the cell-bound clumping factor (Clf) and an extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb). The material consisted of 105 consecutive serum samples from 41 patients suffering from S. aureus septicemia and 72 serum samples from healthy individuals. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. Healthy individuals showed variable levels of antibodies against the studied antigens...

  11. Prevalence of Chlorhexidine-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus following Prolonged Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schlett, Carey D.; Millar, Eugene V.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Cui, Tianyuan; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Tribble, David R.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has been increasingly utilized in outpatient settings to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and as a component of programs for MRSA decolonization and prevention of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of chlorhexidine resistance in clinical and colonizing MRSA isolates obtained in the context of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for SSTI prevention, during which...

  12. Predictive Value of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Nasal Swab PCR Assay for MRSA Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, Benjamin; Chung, Andrew; Webb, Brandon; Seville, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor outcomes and frequently merits empirical antibiotic consideration despite its relatively low incidence. Nasal colonization with MRSA is associated with clinical MRSA infection and can be reliably detected using the nasal swab PCR assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the nasal swab MRSA PCR in predicting MRSA pneumonia. A retrospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary care cente...

  13. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  14. Laparoscopic Colon Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inches to complete the procedure. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Colon Resection? Results may vary depending ... type of procedure and patient’s overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain May shorten hospital stay ...

  15. Mild Staphylococcus aureus skin infection improves the course of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van den Berg (Sanne); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and ev

  16. S. pneumoniae isolados da nasofaringe de crianças sadias e com pneumonia: taxa de colonização e suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos Nasopharyngeal isolates of S. pneumoniae from healthy carriers and children with pneumonia: colonization rates and antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Rey

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar as taxas de colonização e a resistência antimicrobiana de pneumococos em nasofaringe de crianças sadias e com pneumonia. Métodos: estudo de tipo transversal. As crianças sadias foram recrutadas em centros de vacinação (CV e creches públicas (CP, selecionados aleatoriamente, e aquelas com pneumonia em emergências pediátricas. Foram utilizados swabs flexíveis de alginato para a colheita do material de nasofaringe. O isolamento e a identificação dos pneumococos seguiram procedimentos padronizados. As concentrações inibitórias mínimas (CIM foram determinadas por microdiluição em placas. Resultados: foram estudadas 911 crianças, 429 sadias (60% portadoras de pneumococo, sendo 72% destas recrutadas em CP e 49% em CV e 482 com pneumonia (50% de portadoras (p=0,002. De 441 isolados com CIM determinadas, 198 (45% apresentavam resistência intermediária, e 16 (4% apresentavam resistência plena à penicilina. As taxas de resistência dos pneumococos isolados de portadores sadios e com pneumonia, respectivamente, foram: penicilina 48% (CV 37% e CP 55% e 50% (p>0,05; eritromicina: 28% e 19% (p=0,05; cotrimoxazol 81% e 76% (p>0,05; cloranfenicol 6% e 7% (p>0,05, rifampicina 5% e 3% (p>0,05, ceftriaxone 2 e 4% (p>0,05 e vancomicina 0%, para ambos grupos. Foi constatada associação entre as resistências do pneumococo à penicilina, eritromicina e ao cotrimoxazol. Conclusões: a taxa de portador de pneumococos foi maior em crianças sadias do que naquelas com pneumonia. As resistências dos pneumococos à penicilina e ao cotrimoxazol foram elevadas, sobretudo entre os usuários de creches públicas.Objectives: to compare colonization rates and antimicrobial resistance of nasopharyngeal pneumococci in healthy carriers and children with pneumonia. Methods: a cross-sectional study. Healthy subjects of this study were selected from randomly chosen immunization centers and day-care centers, and those with pneumonia were

  17. Adenocarcinoma in Colonic Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Grunner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female with dysphagia presented to our clinic. In childhood, she underwent colonic interposition due to anastomotic stricture after a previous proximal gastrectomy for gastric ulcer perforation. Imaging studies revealed a space-occupying lesion obstructing the distal interposed colon. At surgery, completion gastrectomy with segmental colectomy was carried out, and Roux-en-Y coloenterostomy and enteroenterostomy were performed.

  18. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Punica granatum Linn. em linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. R. Silva; Jane S. Higino; Jozinete V. Pereira; José P. Siqueira-Júnior; Maria S.V. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of ...

  19. Host-adaptive evolution of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Lowder, Bethan Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious human pathogen associated with severe nosocomial and community-acquired infections. In addition, S. aureus is a major cause of animal diseases including skeletal infections of poultry and bovine and ovine mastitis, which are a large economic burden on the broiler chicken and dairy farming industries. The population structure of S. aureus associated with humans has been well studied. However, despite the prevalence of S. aureus infections in ...

  20. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented.

  1. Community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in south Florida hospital and recreational environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a frequent human pathogen, may also be found in the flora of healthy persons and in the environments that they frequent. Strains of MRSA circulating in the community classified as USA 300 are now found not only in the community but also...

  2. Preventing Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" among Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Patricia S.

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (MRSA) was once thought to be a bacterium causing infections in only hospitalized patients. However, a new strain of MRSA has emerged among healthy individuals who have not had any recent exposure to a hospital or to medical procedures. This new strain is known as "community-associated MRSA". Studies…

  3. Scintigraphic measurement of colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Kim, C. K. [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate usefulness of scintigraphic measurement of total and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation. 25 patients who were complained chronic constipation underwent scintigraphic measurement of the total and regional colon transit. Of them 10 patients were diagnosed as idiopathic constipation, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. Ten healthy volunteers were also studied. 67 Gallium-labelled Amberlite resin particles were ingested in a coated capsule with methacrylate that dispersed in the ileocecal region. Images were obtained using a gamma camera at regular intervals for the 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the initial counting of the radioactivity in the cecum. We determined the geometric center in four regions of interest in the colon (ascending, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid). Ten patients with colonic inertia showed significant retention of solid residue in the ascending and transverse colon over a 48-hour period. The median values for the healthy subjects at 2, 4, 8, and 24, and 48 hours were 1.44{+-}0.2 (midway through ascending), 1.71{+-}0.45 (midway through transverse), 2.64{+-}0.95 (midway through descending), 3.94{+-}0.89 (midway through rectosigmoid), and 4.52{+-}0.76 (midway through the stool compartment). On the contrary, the values of ten patients with colonic inertia were 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending), 1.0{+-}0.0 (midway through ascending). 1.02 {+-}0.06 (midway through ascending), 1.70{+-}0.36 (midway through transverse), and 2.33{+-}0.31(midway through descending) at the same time (p<0.001). In patients with idiopathic constipation is characterized by exaggerated reservoir factions of the ascending and transverse colons. Scintigraphy using 67 Gallium-labelled pellets seems to be a useful tool to demonstrate the delayed colonic transit in patients with colonic inertia.

  4. Stress Responses in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aures are prominent members of the normal flora of humans and animals, but are also a major cause of mild and severe infections. To persist and disseminate in the human host, and to survive in environmental settings, such as hospitals, S. aureus have developed a plethora of cellular...

  5. Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa influences biofilm formation and surface protein expression of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Ting, Yen Peng

    2015-11-01

    Although Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can individually colonize and infect their hosts, the commensalistic effect of the two is more tenacious and lethal. In this study, it was shown that in co-culture with P. aeruginosa, a sub-population of S. aureus exhibited improved resistance to kanamycin by selection of small colony variant (SCV) phenotype. Additionally, biofilm formation by the two bacteria was denser in the co-culture, compared with biofilm formed in individual pure cultures. Using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) force spectroscopy for single cells, it was demonstrated that S. aureus cultured in the presence of P. aeruginosa bound more tenaciously to substrates. Surface-shaved peptides were isolated and identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight and a homology search program spider. Results indicated that serine-rich adhesin, extracellular matrix binding protein and other putative adhesion proteins could be responsible for the enhanced attachment of S. aureus in the co-culture. Besides, several other proteins were differentially expressed, indicating the occurrence of a range of other interactions. Of particular interest was a multidrug resistant protein named ABC transporter permease which is known to expel xenobiotics out of the cells. Positive regulation of this protein could be involved in the SCV selection of S. aureus in the co-culture. PMID:25925222

  6. Filaments in curved flow: Rapid formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Young; Drescher, Knut; Pak, On Shun; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated conglomerates of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. These bacterial communities can cause chronic infections in humans by colonizing, for example, medical implants, heart valves, or lungs. Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, causes some of the most common biofilm-related infections. Despite the clinical importance of S. aureus biofilms, it remains mostly unknown how physical effects, in particular flow, and surface structure influence biofilm dynamics. Here we use model microfluidic systems to investigate how environmental factors, such as surface geometry, surface chemistry, and fluid flow affect biofilm development in S. aureus.We discovered that S. aureus rapidly forms flow-induced, filamentous biofilm streamers, and furthermore if surfaces are coated with human blood plasma, streamers appear within minutes and clog the channels more rapidly than if the channels are uncoated. To understand how biofilm streamer filaments reorient in curved flow to bridge the distances between corners, we developed a mathematical model based on resistive force theory and slender filaments. Understanding physical aspects of biofilm formation in S. aureus may lead to new approaches for interrupting biofilm formation of this pathogen.

  7. Filaments in curved streamlines: rapid formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung Kevin; Drescher, Knut; Pak, On Shun; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-06-01

    Biofilms are surface-associated conglomerates of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. These bacterial communities can cause chronic infections in humans by colonizing, for example, medical implants, heart valves, or lungs. Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, causes some of the most common biofilm-related infections. Despite the clinical importance of S. aureus biofilms, it remains mostly unknown how physical effects, in particular flow, and surface structure influence biofilm dynamics. Here we use model microfluidic systems to investigate how environmental factors, such as surface geometry, surface chemistry, and fluid flow affect biofilm development of S. aureus. We discovered that S. aureus rapidly forms flow-induced, filamentous biofilm streamers, and furthermore if surfaces are coated with human blood plasma, streamers appear within minutes and clog the channels more rapidly than if the channels are uncoated. To understand how biofilm streamer filaments reorient in flows with curved streamlines to bridge the distances between corners, we developed a mathematical model based on resistive force theory of slender filaments. Understanding physical aspects of biofilm formation of S. aureus may lead to new approaches for interrupting biofilm formation of this pathogen.

  8. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus directly attacks Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus Cystic fibrosis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio eIebba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predator bacterial species found in the environment and within the human gut, able to attack Gram-negative prey. Cystic fibrosis (CF is a genetic disease which usually presents lung colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Here, we investigated the predatory behaviour of B. bacteriovorus against these two pathogenic species with: i broth culture; ii ‘static’ biofilms; iii field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; iv ‘flow’ biofilms; v zymographic technique. We had the first evidence of B. bacteriovorus survival with a Gram-positive prey, revealing a direct cell-to-cell contact with S. aureus and a new ‘epibiotic’ foraging strategy imaged with FESEM. Mean attaching time of HD100 to S. aureus cells was 185s, while ‘static’ and ‘flow’ S. aureus biofilms were reduced by 74% (at 24h and 46% (at 20h, respectively. Furthermore, zymograms showed a differential bacteriolytic activity exerted by the B. bacteriovorus lysates on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The dual foraging system against Gram-negative (periplasmic and Gram-positive (epibiotic prey could suggest the use of B. bacteriovorus as a ‘living antibiotic’ in CF, even if further studies are required to simulate its in vivo predatory behaviour.

  9. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic

  10. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G.; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains. PMID:27679613

  11. High Nasal Carriage Rate of Staphylococcus aureus Containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin- and EDIN-Encoding Genes in Community and Hospital Settings in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Kissou, Aimée; Sanou, Soufiane; Poda, Armel; Kyelem, Carole G; Solassol, Jérôme; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Van De Perre, Philippe; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Jean-Pierre, Hélène; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Godreuil, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the rate of S.aureus nasal carriage and molecular characteristics in hospital and community settings in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Nasal samples (n = 219) were collected from 116 healthy volunteers and 103 hospitalized patients in July and August 2014. Samples were first screened using CHROMagar Staph aureus chromogenic agar plates, and S. aureus strains were identified by mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method on Müller-Hinton agar. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped using DNA microarray. Overall, the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage was 32.9% (72/219) with 29% in healthy volunteers and 37% in hospital patients. Among the S. aureus isolates, only four methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified and all in hospital patients (3.9%). The 72 S. aureus isolates from nasal samples belonged to 16 different clonal complexes, particularly to CC 152-MSSA (22 clones) and CC1-MSSA (nine clones). Two clones were significantly associated with community settings: CC1-MSSA and CC45-MSSA. The MRSA strains belonged to the ST88-MRSA-IV or the CC8-MRSA-V complex. A very high prevalence of toxinogenic strains 52.2% (36/69), containing Panton-Valentine leucocidin- and EDIN-encoding genes, was identified among the S. aureus isolates in community and hospital settings. This study provides the first characterization of S. aureus clones and their genetic characteristics in Burkina Faso. Altogether, it highlights the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, high diversity of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clones and high frequency of toxinogenic S. aureus strains.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... was used for severity assessment. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was found on the hands in 24 patients with HE and four controls (P aureus was found to be related to increased severity of the eczema (P aureus types on the hands...

  13. Assessment of nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus in patients with acne vulgaris

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    Betül Demir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Systemic antibiotics, such as tetracycline and doxycycline are used in the treatment of inflammatory forms of moderate acne, or acne that is resistant to topical treatment. Oral isotretinoin treatment is the most effective treatment option in severe papulopustular and nodular forms of acne. Dose-related nasal carrier state of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, has been reported in 90% of patients using isotretinoin. Long-term oral and/or topical antibiotic use in the treatment of acne causes changes in antibiotic susceptibility and emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA pathogens. The present retrospective study examined the colonization rates of S. aureus in patients who had an increase in acneiform lesions while taking medications for the treatment of acne and whose nasal swap samples were obtained and also investigated their relationship with treatment options. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 patients with moderate acne who attended our dermatology outpatient clinic with the complaints of acne and in whom nasal swap samples were obtained due to increased pustules during acne therapy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the treatment methods as patients receiving topical treatment, patients treated with oral doxycycline, and patients treated with oral isotretinoin. The results of the cultures were evaluated in three groups: no growth, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, and MRSAisolated. Results: 39.5% culture positivity (S. aureus were determined in 34 patients. Thirty two (94.1% culture positivity were MSSA, and 2 (5.9% culture positivity were MRSA. Twenty nine (58% culture positivity were found in the patients using the oral isotretinoin. There was statistically significant culture positivity in the patients using oral isotretinoin compared to patients receiving other treatments (p<0.001. Conclusion: We observed that S. aureus colonization increased in patients using systemic

  14. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  15. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine and human Staphylococcus aureus collected in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J E; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of infection in people and is increasingly recognized in dogs. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is complicating the treatment of these infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic syndromes in people may be partially responsible for the rise of MRSA. Canine and human S. aureus from the same geographic area are genetically similar, indicating a common population and likely transmission. The implications of increasing antimicrobial resistance complicated by interspecies transmission, necessitates including both dogs and humans in S. aureus resistance surveillance studies. A collection of 126 S. aureus isolates from people (n = 99) and dogs (n = 27) were included, minimum inhibitor concentrations to a panel of 33 antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine were determined. No resistance to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin or nitrofurantoin was found. A wide range of antibiograms were found; including resistance to 0-12 drugs (0-6 drug classes). Outstanding antibiograms included a canine MRSA resistant to rifampin and a human MRSA resistant to chloramphenicol. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found among 78% and 4% of canine and human MRSA and 17% and 25% of canine colonizing and human methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. Resistance to mupirocin was only found among human isolates including 20% of MRSA and 4% of MSSA. While no canine isolates were PVL positive, 39% of human MRSA and 2% of MSSA carried the gene. The bidirectional transmission of S. aureus between people and dogs necessitates the inclusion of isolates from both species in future studies. PMID:21824346

  17. Intracellular persisting Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen in recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E Zautner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two major indications for tonsillectomy are recurrent tonsillitis (RT and peritonsillar abscess (PTA. Unlike PTAs, which are primarily treated surgically, RT is often cured by tonsillectomy only after a series of failed drug therapy attempts. Although the bacteriological background of RT has been studied, the reason for the lack of success of conservative therapeutic approaches is not well understood. METHODS: In a prospective study, tonsil specimens from 130 RT patients and 124 PTA patients were examined for the presence of extra- and intracellular bacteria using antibiotic protection assays. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from RT patients were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing and MSCRAMM-gene-PCR. Their ability for biofilm formation was tested and their cell invasiveness was confirmed by a flow cytometric invasion assay (FACS, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: S. aureus was the predominant species (57.7% in RT patients, whereas Streptococcus pyogenes was most prevalent (20.2% in PTA patients. Three different assays (FACS, FISH, antibiotic protection assay showed that nearly all RT-associated S. aureus strains were located inside tonsillar cells. Correspondingly, the results of the MSCRAMM-gene-PCRs confirmed that 87% of these S. aureus isolates were invasive strains and not mere colonizers. Based upon PFGE analyses of genomic DNA and on spa-gene typing the vast majority of the S. aureus isolates belonged to different clonal lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that intracellular residing S. aureus is the most common cause of RT and indicate that S. aureus uses this location to survive the effects of antibiotics and the host immune response. A German translation of the Abstract is provided as supplementary material (Abstract S1.

  18. Identification of Infantile Diarrhea Caused by Breast Milk-Transmitted Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Pan, Wei-Guang; Xian, Wei-Yi; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; Hu, Qing-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known organism which is responsible for a variety of human infectious diseases including skin infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Few of the microorganisms can be transmitted from mother to the newborn or infant by milk breastfeeding. This study aims to identify transmission of S. aureus from healthy, lactating mothers to their infants by breastfeeding. Stool specimens of diarrheal infants and breast milk of their mother (totally three pairs) were collected and six Staphylococcus aureus isolates were cultured positively. Homology and molecular characters of isolated strains were tested using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa typing, and multilocus sequence typing. Furthermore, toxin genes detection was also performed. Each pair of isolates has the same PFGE type and spa type. Four Sequence types (STs) were found among all the isolates; they are ST15, ST188, and ST59, respectively. Among the strains, seb, sec, and tst genes were found, and all were negative for pvl gene. The homology of the S. aureus strains isolated from the infants' stool and the mothers' milk was genetically demonstrated, which indicated that breastfeeding may be important in the transmission of S. aureus infection, and the character of S. aureus needed to be further evaluated. PMID:27344596

  19. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Ludmila; Rault, Lucie; Almeida, Sintia; Legembre, Patrick; Edmond, Valérie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Even, Sergine; Taieb, Frédéric; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick; Le Loir, Yves; Berkova, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and carrier strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the hospital settings of north India

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    Dar Mohammad J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was conducted between 2000 and 2003 on 750 human subjects, yielding 850 strains of staphylococci from clinical specimens (575, nasal cultures of hospitalized patients (100 and eye & nasal sources of hospital workers (50 & 125 respectively in order to determine their epidemiology, acquisition and dissemination of resistance genes. Methods Organisms from clinical samples were isolated, cultured and identified as per the standard routine procedures. Susceptibility was measured by the agar diffusion method, as recommended by the Nat ional Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. The modified method of Birnboin and Takahashi was used for isolation of plasmids from staphylococci. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE typing of clinical and carrier Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains isolated during our study was performed as described previously. Results It was shown that 35.1% of Staphylococcus aureus and 22.5% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were resistant to methicillin. Highest percentage of MRSA (35.5% was found in pus specimens (n = 151. The multiple drug resistance of all MRSA (n = 180 and Methicillin resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (MRCNS (n = 76 isolates was detected. In case of both methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive Saphylococcal isolates zero resistance was found to vancomycin where as highest resistance was found to penicillin G followed by ampicillin. It was shown that the major reservoir of methicillin resistant staphylococci in hospitals are colonized/infected inpatients and colonized hospital workers, with carriers at risk for developing endogenous infection or transmitting infection to health care workers and patients. The results were confirmed by molecular typing using PFGE by SmaI-digestion. It was shown that the resistant markers G and T got transferred from clinical S. aureus (JS-105 to carrier S. aureus (JN-49

  2. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends -- flax meal; Healthy food trends -- flax seeds; Healthy food trends -- linseeds ... acids, which is the hardest to get from foods. Eating flaxseeds can ... is healthy fat that helps boost your "good cholesterol." The ...

  3. Healthy colon, healthy life (colon sano, vida sana): colorectal cancer screening among Latinos in Santa Clara, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Judith M E; Salazar, René; Kaplan, Celia; Nguyen, Lamkieu; Hwang, Jimmy; Pasick, Rena J

    2010-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among Latinos. To identify factors associated with CRC screening, we conducted a telephone survey of Latino primary care patients aged 50-79 years. Among 1,013 participants, 38% were up-to-date (UTD) with fecal occult blood test (FOBT); 66% were UTD with any CRC screening (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). Individuals less than 65, females, those less acculturated, and patients of female physicians were more likely to be UTD with FOBT. CRC screening among Latinos is low. Younger patients, women, and patients of female physicians receive more screening.

  4. The use of desiccation to treat Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-infected wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eugene; Long, Sarah A; Seth, Akhil K; Geringer, Matthew; Xu, Wei; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Leung, Kai; Hong, Seok Jong; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Chronic wounds colonized with biofilm present a major burden to our healthcare system. While the current paradigm for wound healing is to maintain a moist environment, we sought to evaluate the effects of desiccation, and the ability of honey to desiccate wounds, on wound healing characteristics in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm wounds. In vivo biofilm wound healing after exposure to open-air desiccation, honey, molasses, and saline was analyzed using a rabbit ear model of S. aureus biofilm wounds previously developed by our group. Wound morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and granulation tissue deposition was measured using light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Viable bacterial counts in rabbit ear biofilm wounds and scabs were measured using a drop dilution method. In vitro S. aureus growth curves were established using tryptic soy broth containing honey and glycerol. Gene expression analysis of rabbit ear wounds was performed using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Rabbit ear S. aureus biofilm wounds exposed to open-air desiccation, honey, and molasses developed a dry scab, which displaced the majority of biofilm bacteria off of the wound bed. Wounds treated with open-air desiccation, honey, and molasses expressed lower levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β at postoperative day 12 compared with wounds treated with saline, and had increased levels of granulation tissue formation. In vitro growth of S. aureus in tryptic soy broth was inhibited by the presence of honey to a greater extent than by the presence of osmolality-matched glycerol. Desiccation of chronic wounds colonized with biofilm via exposure to open air or honey leads to improved wound healing by decreasing bacterial burden and inflammation, and increasing granulation tissue formation. The ability of honey to help heal chronic wounds is at least in part due to its ability to desiccate bacterial biofilm, but other

  5. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  7. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  8. Colonic interposition: radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, F P; Orringer, M B

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the clinical and radiographic features of 40 patients who underwent visceral esophageal substitution with colon for benign or malignant lesions of the esophagus. The incidence and radiographic identification of complications are discussed. All patients were routinely examined with barium esophagrams on postoperative day 10. If an anastomotic leak was suspected clinically before this time, studies were performed using water-soluble iodinated contrast material. Follow-up barium esophagrams were obtained 1-96 months after operation (average, 60 months) in 24 patients. Eight patients (21%) demonstrated asymptomatic "jejunization" of the colonic mucosa with no attributable clinical manifestations; this finding resolved in 1-3 months, without sequelae, and has not been reported before. The spectrum of ischemic changes in the colonic segment included mucosal edema, spasm, ulceration, loss of haustration, and frank necrosis. Radiographically detectable early postoperative complications included anastomotic leak in six (three pharyngocolic, three cervical esophagocolic) and aspiration of barium into the tracheobronchial tree due to incoordinated swallowing in eight. Late postoperative complications included anastomotic narrowing (12) malfunctioning of the colon due to impaired emptying (five), recurrent aspiration pneumonia (three), small bowel obstruction (three), transhiatal herniation of small bowel through the diaphragmatic hiatus (one), and reflux into the retained bypassed esophagus (one). PMID:6608225

  9. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  10. Impact of strain typing methods on assessment of relationship between paired nares and wound isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Clarridge III (Jill); R.A. Harrington (Robert Alex); M.C. Roberts (Marilyn); O.O. Soge (Olusegun); K. Maquelin (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe anterior nares are the site of choice for the Veterans Administration methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance program; however, a correlation between nares colonization and concomitant wound infections has not been well established. The purpose of this study w

  11. 5 years of experience implementing a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus search and destroy policy at the largest university medical center in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Vos (Margreet); M.D. Behrendt (Myra); D.C. Melles (Damian); F.P.N. Mollema (Femke); W. de Groot (Woutrinus); G. Parlevliet (Gerard); A. Ott (Alewijn); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a rigorous search and destroy policy for controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization. DESIGN: Hospital-based observational follow-up study. SETTING: Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, a 1,2

  12. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  13. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Peres, Adam G.; Andreea C. Damian; Joaquín Madrenas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and d...

  14. Postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections in Medicare beneficiaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus infections are important because of their increasing frequency, resistance to antibiotics, and high associated rates of disabilities and deaths. We examined the incidence and correlates of S. aureus infections following 219,958 major surgical procedures in a 5% random sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries from 2004-2007. Of these surgical patients, 0.3% had S. aureus infections during the hospitalizations when index surgical procedures were performed; and 1.7% and 2.3%, respectively, were hospitalized with infections within 60 days or 180 days following admissions for index surgeries. S. aureus infections occurred within 180 days in 1.9% of patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 2.3% following hip surgery, and 5.9% following gastric or esophageal surgery. Of patients first hospitalized with any major infection reported during the first 180 days after index surgery, 15% of infections were due to S. aureus, 18% to other documented organisms, and no specific organism was reported on claim forms in 67%. Patient-level predictors of S. aureus infections included transfer from skilled nursing facilities or chronic hospitals and comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease. In a logarithmic regression, elective index admissions with S. aureus infection stayed 130% longer than comparable patients without that infection. Within 180 days of the index surgery, 23.9% of patients with S. aureus infection and 10.6% of patients without this infection had died. In a multivariate logistic regression of death within 180 days of admission for the index surgery with adjustment for demographics, co-morbidities, and other risks, S. aureus was associated with a 42% excess risk of death. Due to incomplete documentation of organisms in Medicare claims, these statistics may underestimate the magnitude of S. aureus infection

  15. Immunomodulation and Disease Tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often part of the human nasal microbiome without causing any apparent disease. In this review, we explore the immunomodulation and disease tolerance mechanisms that promote commensalism to S. aureus.

  16. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Leonardo da Cunha; Joaquim César Teixeira Fernandes; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; Adriana Rhoden; Elsio Wunder Jr.; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  18. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory of Bacteriology Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA) Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information ...

  19. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  20. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus: microbiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Sadoyma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Although central vascular catheters (CVC are indispensable in modern medicine, they are an important risk factor for primary bacteremias. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI caused by Staphylococcus aureus in surgical patients. A prospective study was carried out in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (HC-UFU from September 2000 to December 2002. The skin insertion site, catheter tip, and blood were microbiologically analyzed. Demographics and risk factors were recorded for each patient, and cultures were identified phenotypically. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen, with an incidence rate of 4.9 episodes of CR-BSIs per 1,000 catheter/days. Based on logistic regression, the independent risk factors were: colonization on the insertion site =200 colony forming units (CFU/20 cm² (p=0.03; odds ratio (OR =6.89 and catheter tip (p=0.01; OR=7.95. The CR-BSI rate was high; it was mainly associated with S. aureus, and skin colonization at the insertion site and on the catheter tip were important risk factors for CR-BSI.

  1. [Colonic microbial biocenosis in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul'neva, M Iu; Noskov, S M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study colonic microbial biocenosis and colonizing ability of opportunistic bacteria in 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 30 healthy subjects. RA was diagnosed based on the American Rheumatism Association criteria (1987). Qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora was detected by a bacteriological method. StatSoft Statistics 6.0 was used to treat the data obtained. RA was associated with significant modification of the intestinal flora, viz. decrease in lactobacteria and significant increase of enterococci, clostridia, colibacteria showing reduced enzymatic activity, and opportunistic species. Also, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms altered. The fraction of bifidobacteria, bacteroids, and lactopositive colibacteria reduced while the abundance of opportunistic enterobacteria and staphylococci was elevated. Opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae were present in urine and nasal mucosa which suggested their translocation from the intestines. It is concluded that changes in intestinal microflora and colonization by opportunistic bacteria enhance the risk of development of co-morbid conditions in patients with RA. PMID:21932563

  2. Antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles along with protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahat Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in dairy ruminants which is also found in healthy carriage and can be a major cause of mastitis. Various mastitis control programs have been used to combat the problem but have not always been efficient. In most countries, antibiotic resistance is extremely common. Silver nanoparticles have shown antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. In the present study the effect of silver nanoparticles on S. aureus isolated from cattle mastitis along with antibiotics of operative on protein bacterial synthesis investigated. Materials and methods: Three hundred eleven milk samples were collected from the cow farms. Each milk sample was cultured on mannitol salt agar and was incubated. A total of 72 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from the bovine mastitis milk samples. S. aureus DNA extracted by DNA purification kit according to the manufacturer protocol. 58 isolates were confirmed as S. aureus by biochemical tests as well as nuc gene detection. MIC and MBC determined for silver nanoparticles with antibiotics on 50 isolates. Results: The resistance of S. aureus isolates against erythromycin, gentamicin, streptomycin and doxycycline were 100, 22, 100 and 8%, respectively. 8 of all isolates were sensitive to 25 µg/ml concentration of silver nanoparticles. The 92% growth of the samples were inhibited at concentrations between 50-100 µg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that antibiotics which can inhibit protein synthesis have significant synergistic effect along with silver nanoparticles.

  3. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Dreyer, Z.S.; Makgotlho, E.; Oosthuysen, W.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the local epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, we characterised blood culture isolates using molecular methods and prospectively collected clinical data to determine the occurrence of community-acquired, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA). Consecutive S. aureus blood cu

  4. A randomized controlled trial of topical tea tree preparation for MRSA colonized wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow L.P. Lee; Polly H.M. Leung; Wong, Thomas K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) colonized wounds in home care residents is expected to grow continuously as a result of the substantial proportion of older people requiring institutionalized care due to chronic disease and declining functional status, which contribute to more frequent skin breakdown and wound formation. Tea tree oil has been claimed to have anti-bacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that have been suggested in many...

  5. Coagulase-negative staphylococci as reservoirs of genes facilitating MRSA infection: Staphylococcal commensal species such as Staphylococcus epidermidis are being recognized as important sources of genes promoting MRSA colonization and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that Staphylococcus epidermidis is a reservoir of genes that, after horizontal transfer, facilitate the potential of Staphylococcus aureus to colonize, survive during infection, or resist antibiotic treatment, traits that are notably manifest in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a dangerous human pathogen and notorious for acquiring antibiotic resistance. MRSA in particular is one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and death in hospitalized patients. S. aureus is an extremely versatile pathogen with a multitude of mechanisms to cause disease and circumvent immune defenses. In contrast, most other staphylococci, such as S. epidermidis, are commonly benign commensals and only occasionally cause disease. Recent findings highlight the key importance of efforts to better understand how genes of staphylococci other than S. aureus contribute to survival in the human host, how they are transferred to S. aureus, and why this exchange appears to be uni-directional.

  6. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  7. Vancomycin modifies the expression of the agr system in multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates

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    Vicenta eCázares-Domínguez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes human hosts and causes a wide variety of diseases. Two interacting regulatory systems called agr (accessory gene regulator and sar (staphylococcal accessory regulator are involved in the regulation of virulence factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vancomycin on hld and spa gene expression during the exponential and post-exponential growth phases in multidrug resistant (MDR S. aureus. Methods. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by the standard microdilution method. The phylogenetic profile was obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Polymorphisms of agr and SCCmec were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of hld and spa were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay was performed to detect protein A, and biofilm formation was analyzed via crystal violet staining. Results. In total, 60.60% (20/33 of S. aureus clinical isolates were MDR. Half (10/20 of the MDR S. aureus isolates were distributed in subcluster 10, with > 90% similarity among them. In the isolates of this subcluster, a high prevalence (100% for the agrII and the cassette SCCmec II polymorphisms was found. Our data showed significant increases in hld expression during the post-exponential phase in the presence and absence of vancomycin. Significant increases in spa expression, protein A production and biofilm formation were observed during the post-exponential phase when the MDR S. aureus isolates were challenged with vancomycin. Conclusion. The polymorphism agrII, which is associated with nosocomial isolates, was the most prevalent polymorphism in MDR S. aureus. Additionally, under our study conditions, vancomycin modified hld and spa expression in these clinical isolates. Therefore, vancomycin may regulate alternative systems that jointly participate in the regulation of these virulence factors.

  8. On Justification of Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Skov, Stig; Schrøder, Ulrikke; Mortensen, Marianne; Memic, Inda; Asmussen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The project concerns the justification of the Spanish colonization in America during the 16th and 17th century, examined through the Spanish philosopher Francisco de Vitoria’s (1485 – 1546) Political Writings and the British philosopher John Locke’s (1632- 1704) Two Treatises of Government, in a historical as well as a philosophical context. The main problem has been the dispossession of the Indians and how the philosophers defended the occupation of the lands of America. Vitoria’...

  9. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  10. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  11. Giant colon lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, İsmail; Derici, Hayrullah; Demirpolat, Gülen

    2015-01-01

    Colon lipomas are rare, non-epithelial tumors. They are generally smaller than two centimeters and asymptomatic, they are incidentally diagnosed and do not require treatment. Large and symptomatic colon lipomas are rather rare. Its differential diagnosis is generally made by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. A fifty-year-old female patient presented with the symptoms of abdominal pain, swelling in the abdomen and loss of weight. During colonoscopy, there was a submucosal mass of 8×6 cm, which almost completely obstructed the lumen in the hepatic flexure and was covered by a mucosa that was sporadically ulcerated and necrotic in nature. In magnetic resonance imaging, an ovoid mass with a diameter of 8.5 cm at its widest dimension was detected, which had signal intensity similar to that of adipose tissue. Since the patient was symptomatic and differential diagnosis could not be made, she underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. A submucosal lipoma was detected on histopathological examination of the specimen. The patient was discharged without any problems on post-operative day 7. Definite diagnosis of lipomas before surgery is challenging; they may be mistaken for malignancy, especially if the lesion is large and ulcerated. For large and symptomatic colon lipomas, surgery is required to both prevent complications and rule out malignancy.

  12. Drug-resistant human Staphylococcus aureus in sanctuary apes pose a threat to endangered wild ape populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Mugisha, Lawrence; Peck, Bruce; Becker, Karsten; Gillespie, Thomas R; Peters, Georg; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2012-12-01

    Reintroduction of sanctuary apes to natural habitat is considered an important tool for conservation; however, reintroduction has the potential to endanger resident wild apes through the introduction of human pathogens. We found a high prevalence of drug-resistant, human-associated lineages of Staphylococcus aureus in sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from Zambia and Uganda. This pathogen is associated with skin and soft tissue diseases and severe invasive infections (i.e. pneumonia and septicemia). Colonization by this bacterium is difficult to clear due to frequent recolonization. In addition to its pathogenic potential, human-related S. aureus can serve as an indicator organism for the transmission of other potential pathogens like pneumococci or mycobacteria. Plans to reintroduce sanctuary apes should be reevaluated in light of the high risk of introducing human-adapted S. aureus into wild ape populations where treatment is impossible. PMID:22907634

  13. Evaluation of Two New Chromogenic Media, CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID, for Identifying Staphylococcus aureus and Screening Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Hedin, Göran; Fang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates with diverse genetic backgrounds and two reference strains were correctly identified as S. aureus on CHROMagar MRSA and S. aureus ID media. Growth inhibition on CHROMagar MRSA was noted. A combination of cefoxitin disk and S. aureus ID was found suitable for rapid MRSA screening.

  14. Characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis in two Uruguayan dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R de los Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify and to characterise Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with subclinical mastitis obtained from milk of lactating cows showing a California Mastitis Test (CMT score result of traces, 1, 2, or 3. Coagulase, hemolysis, presence of capsule, slime formation, biofilm production, autoaggregation, hemagglutination and antibiotic susceptibility were assessed to evaluate S. aureus virulence factors expression potentially associated to bovine subclinical mastitis isolates. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis along the study was low and did not correlate with months or climatic variables. Most of S. aureus (20 were isolated from milk samples showing a CMT score result of 1. Formation of capsule, slime, biofilms and the occurrence of bacteria aggregation in all the tested isolates converged in the bacterial ability of adherence and persistence in the mammary gland and probably contribute to the further chronicity of the infection and even the colonization of dairy installations. Resistance against a set of commonly used antibiotics was low. The evaluation of virulence factors of S. aureus isolates in the context of subclinical mastitis in dairy farms may be useful to develop precise actions and treatments to control mastitis and to improve animal health and milk production in dairy bovine herds.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Aggregation and Coagulation Mechanisms, and Their Function in Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, H A; Kwiecinski, J; Horswill, A R

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Staphylococcus aureus can cause a wide range of infections ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to invasive diseases like septicemia, endocarditis, and pneumonia. Muticellular organization almost certainly contributes to S. aureus pathogenesis mechanisms. While there has been considerable focus on biofilm formation and its role in colonizing prosthetic joints and indwelling devices, less attention has been paid to nonsurface-attached group behavior like aggregation and clumping. S. aureus is unique in its ability to coagulate blood, and it also produces multiple fibrinogen-binding proteins that facilitate clumping. Formation of clumps, which are large, tightly packed groups of cells held together by fibrin(ogen), has been demonstrated to be important for S. aureus virulence and immune evasion. Clumps of cells are able to avoid detection by the host's immune system due to a fibrin(ogen) coat that acts as a shield, and the size of the clumps facilitates evasion of phagocytosis. In addition, clumping could be an important early step in establishing infections that involve tight clusters of cells embedded in host matrix proteins, such as soft tissue abscesses and endocarditis. In this review, we discuss clumping mechanisms and regulation, as well as what is known about how clumping contributes to immune evasion. PMID:27565579

  16. In vitro phagocytosis of methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium that causes a number of diseases such as abscesses, infective endocarditis, septic arthritis, etc. It is acquiring resistance against many antibiotics like methicillin; therefore its control is becoming increasingly difficult. Peripheral blood phagocytes particularly polymorphonuclear leucocytes play an important role in the protective mechanisms against these organisms. Phagocytes interact with bacteria and phagocytose these microorganisms to kill them. Phenotypically different isolates of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were collected from various hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. Fresh polymorphonuclaer leucocytes were obtained from healthy individuals by centrifugation using Ficol-Hypaque gradient combined with dextran sedimentation. Microbiological method was used for the determination of phagocytic index of phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus. A significant difference was observed between the phagocytic index of both bacterial groups. MSSA group showed the Mean+-SD of 79.46%+-3.9 while MRSA group showed 72.35%+-2.5. Significant difference in phagocytic index indicates that it can be one of the mechanisms of MRSA to evade host immune system as compare to MSSA. (author)

  17. Immunogenicity of toxins during Staphylococcus aureus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verkaik (Nelianne); O. Dauwalder (Olivier); K. Antri (Kenza); I. Boubekri (Ilhem); C.P. de Vogel (Corné); C. Badiou (Cédric); M. Bes (Michèle); F. Vandenesch (François); M. Tazir (Mohammed); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); J. Etienne (Jerome); G. Lina (Gérard); N. Ramdani-Bouguessa (Nadjia); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAB - BACKGROUND: Toxins are important Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors, but little is known about their immunogenicity during infection. Here, additional insight is generated. METHODS: Serum samples from 206 S. aureus-infected patients and 201 hospital-admitted control subjects we

  18. The cell surface proteome of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a wide spread opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of life-threatening diseases. To obtain a better understanding of the global mechanisms for pathogenesis and to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions, the S. aureus proteom

  19. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance again

  20. Diffuse lymphoid follicles of the colon associated with colonic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronen, R A; Glick, S N; Teplick, S K

    1984-01-01

    In four patients aged 59-75 years, colonic carcinoma was associated with diffuse lymphoid follicles in the colon. In one case, the prominence and distribution of the lymphoid follicles corresponded to the progression and regression of the tumor bulk. It is extremely unusual to demonstrate lymphoid follicles, particularly diffuse, on barium enema in patients in this age range. The colonic carcinomas and lymphoid follicles are directly related, possibly representing an immune response. PMID:6606941

  1. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors can have a major impact ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center. Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  2. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Women Published April 11, 2014 Print Email ... Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy Eating Healthy Aging For Women Latest Content 1 2 ...

  3. Healthy Eating for Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Healthy Eating for Men Published June 23, 2014 Print Email ... June 2014 Tags Health Wellness Nutrition Healthy Aging Healthy Eating Preventing Illness Your Health and Your Weight Heart ...

  4. The antimicrobial effect of Octenidine-dihydrochloride coated polymer tracheotomy tubes on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard Matthias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface of polymeric tracheotomy tubes is a favourable environment for biofilm formation and therefore represents a potential risk factor for the development of pneumonia after tracheotomy. The aim of this in-vitro study was to develop octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT coated polymer tracheotomy tubes and investigate any effects on Staphylococcus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa colonization. Additionally the resistance of the OCT coating was tested using reprocessing procedures like brushing, rinsing and disinfection with glutaraldehyde Results Contamination with S. aureus: Before any reprocessing, OCT coated tracheotomy tubes were colonized with 103 cfu/ml and uncoated tracheotomy tubes with 105 cfu/ml (P = 0.045. After reprocessing, no differences in bacterial concentration between modified and conventional tubes were observed. Contamination with P. aeruginosa: Before reprocessing, OCT coated tubes were colonized with 106 cfu/ml and uncoated tubes with 107 cfu/ml (P = 0.006. After reprocessing, no significant differences were observed. Conclusion OCT coating initially inhibits S. aureus and P. aeruginosa colonisation on tracheotomy tubes. This effect, however, vanishes quickly after reprocessing of the tubes due to poor adhesive properties of the antimicrobial compound. Despite the known antimicrobial effect of OCT, its use for antimicrobial coating of tracheotomy tubes is limited unless methods are developed to allow sustained attachment to the tube.

  5. Antibiotic Exposure and Other Risk Factors for Antimicrobial Resistance in Nasal Commensal Staphylococcus aureus: An Ecological Study in 8 European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    van Bijnen, Evelien M. E.; John Paget; de lange-de Klerk, Elly S.M.; den Heijer, Casper D. J.; Ann Versporten; Ellen E Stobberingh; Herman Goossens; Schellevis, François G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a global public health concern which threatens the effective treatment of bacterial infections. Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) increasingly appears in individuals with no healthcare associated risks. Our study assessed risk factors for nasal carriage of resistant S. aureus in a multinational, healthy, community-based population, including ecological exposure to antibiotics. Methods: Data were collected in eight European c...

  6. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Velasco; Esra Buyukcangaz; Sherwood, Julie S.; Ryan M Stepan; Koslofsky, Ryan J.; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and ...

  7. Colonization, competition, and dispersal of pathogens in fluid flow networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryaporn, Albert; Kim, Minyoung Kevin; Shen, Yi; Stone, Howard A; Gitai, Zemer

    2015-05-01

    The colonization of bacteria in complex fluid flow networks, such as those found in host vasculature, remains poorly understood. Recently, it was reported that many bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis [1], Escherichia coli [2], and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [3, 4], can move in the opposite direction of fluid flow. Upstream movement results from the interplay between fluid shear stress and bacterial motility structures, and such rheotactic-like behavior is predicted to occur for a wide range of conditions [1]. Given the potential ubiquity of upstream movement, its impact on population-level behaviors within hosts could be significant. Here, we find that P. aeruginosa communities use a diverse set of motility strategies, including a novel surface-motility mechanism characterized by counter-advection and transverse diffusion, to rapidly disperse throughout vasculature-like flow networks. These motility modalities give P. aeruginosa a selective growth advantage, enabling it to self-segregate from other human pathogens such as Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus that outcompete P. aeruginosa in well-mixed non-flow environments. We develop a quantitative model of bacterial colonization in flow networks, confirm our model in vivo in plant vasculature, and validate a key prediction that colonization and dispersal can be inhibited by modifying surface chemistry. Our results show that the interaction between flow mechanics and motility structures shapes the formation of mixed-species communities and suggest a general mechanism by which bacteria could colonize hosts. Furthermore, our results suggest novel strategies for tuning the composition of multi-species bacterial communities in hosts, preventing inappropriate colonization in medical devices, and combatting bacterial infections. PMID:25843031

  8. Fungal infection of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat S

    2014-01-01

    Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its con...

  9. Methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers and medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Breves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Cross-contamination by Staphylococcus aureus among patients, professionals and medical supplies in health facilities is a constant concern, leading many researchers to study the prevalence of this pathogen in asymptomatic carriers. Objective: We investigated the colonization and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. on surfaces of medical articles and in professionals from two basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine samples resulted in 49 isolates which underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of coa, mecA and femA genes. Results: According to the phenotypes, the isolates were identified as S. aureus (n = 35, 71.42% and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS (n = 14, 28.57%. Among these 14 isolates, 42.85% were methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS. Among the 35 S. aureus, 31.42% were methicillin resistant (MRSA, and 2.8% were vancomycin resistant, characterized as VRSA. Sixty-eight percent were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA. Genes coa, femA and mecA were amplified from 75.51%, 71.42% and 30.61% of the isolates, respectively. After amplification of the mecA gene, 20.41% were characterized as MRSA, and 10.20% as MRCoNS. The vancomycin-resistant strain was characterized as VRSA after detection of the vanB gene. Conclusion: Our results show a higher frequency of MSSA and MRCoNS among S. aureus and CoNS respectively, colonizing devices and health professionals. However, the already described transfer of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec from MRCoNS to MSSA may alter these results, increasing the frequency of MRSA strains.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria protect human intestinal epithelial cells from Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhan, S; Dachang, W; Xin, Y; Shang, D

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and food-borne infections. They promote intestinal diseases. Gastrointestinal colonization by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa has rarely been researched. These organisms spread to extra gastrointestinal niches, resulting in increasingly progressive infections. Lactic acid bacteria are Gram-positive bacteria that produce lactic acid as the major end-product of carbohydrate fermentation. These bacteria inhibit pathogen colonization and modulate the host immune response. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on enteric infections caused by the paradigmatic human pathogens S. aureus ATCC25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC27853. The effect of whole cells and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the lactobacilli on LoVo human carcinoma enterocyte (ATCC CCL-229) infection was analyzed by co-exposure, pre-exposure, and post-exposure studies. Simultaneous application of whole cells and CFS of the lactobacilli significantly eradicated enterocyte infection (P 0.05). This result could be attributed to interference by extracellular polymeric substances and cell surface hydrophobicity, which resulted in the development of a pathogen that did not form colonies. Furthermore, results of the plate count and LIVE/ DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining attributed this inhibition to a non-bacteriocin-like substance, which acted independently of organic acid and H2O2 production. Based on these results, the cell-free supernatant derived from lactobacilli was concluded to restrain the development of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa enteric infections. PMID:26681052

  11. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  12. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in the Human Nose after Artificial Inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.G.C. Slingerland (Bibi); M. Tavakol (Mehri); A.J. McCarthy (Alex); J.A. Lindsay (Jodi); S.V. Snijders (Susan); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.C. Vos (Margreet); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere is evidence that MRSA ST398 of animal origin is only capable of temporarily occupying the human nose, and it is therefore, often considered a poor human colonizer. We inoculated 16 healthy human volunteers with a mixture of the human MSSA strain 1036 (ST931, CC8) and the bovine MSS

  13. Synchronous colonic malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Dasharath Hake

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous colorectal neoplasias, defined as 2 or more primary tumors identified in the same patient and at the same time, are caused by common genetic and environmental factors. Since intraoperative palpation can miss up to 69% of the SN, currently, synchronous neoplastic lesions are usually diagnosed at a preoperative staging by colonoscopy or virtual colonoscopy; according to data from literature, 3% of the patients with SN are affected by different types of malignant lesions while 33-55% shows villous adenomas. Literature also confirms the presence of primitive synchronous cancers; malignant synchronous lesions are very rare, showing the following incidence: between 0,17% and 0.69% in case of 2-3 synchronous lesions, 0.19% in case of 4-5 synchronous lesions. The most voluminous synchronous cancer is called "first primitive" or "index" cancer. When the index cancer is located in the caecum, the incidence of left colon synchronous cancers is higher than when the index cancer is located in the left colon. Colorectal adenomas standard treatment is usually represented by endoscopic polypectomy; indeed only 5% of synchronous colorectal lesions require a surgical treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4212-4215

  14. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from pig carcasses in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, J.; O'Donoghue, M.; Guardabassi, Luca;

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from slaughtered pigs sampled from local markets in Hong Kong. The nares of 400 slaughtered pigs were cultured and MRSA isolates characterized for the presence of antibiotic......-resistance determinants, toxins and SCCmec and spa types using PCR. Clonality was investigated using PFGE and MLST. The prevalence of MRSA colonization of slaughter pigs was 39.3%, the majority (92%) harbouring SCCmec type IVb. Of the 157 samples yielding MRSA, 13 had two distinct MRSA strains present. Spa type t899...

  15. Two epidemics of pseudobacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus and Aerococcus viridans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivack, M L; Shannon, R; Natsios, G A; Wood, J

    1980-01-01

    Two epidemics of pseudobacteremia are reported. The first, due to Staphyloccus aureus, was caused by a physician who had active staphylococcal skin infection and nasal colonization. Because the blood culture system in use at the time was open, and used screw cap bottles, we assume that the physician contaminated the bottles at the time of inoculation. The second outbreak, caused by Aerococcus viridans, was traced to contamination of the blood culture bottle tops as they were received from the manufacturer. We assume that there was inadequate disinfection of the bottle tops by the physicians prior to their use. PMID:6904394

  16. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Harrison, Ewan M; Fisher, Elizabeth A; Graham, Elizabeth M; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  17. Heart Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease fact sheet Heart health and stroke Heart-healthy eating Heart-healthy eating is an important way to lower your risk ... and unhealthy fats. Expand All Why is heart-healthy eating important? Heart-healthy eating, along with regular exercise ...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3700 - Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. 866... Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Staphylococcus aureus serological reagents are... epidemiological information on these diseases. Certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce an...

  19. Exfoliative Toxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bukowski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of humans and livestock. It causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. Among multiple virulence factors, staphylococci secrete several exotoxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. These include toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1, enterotoxins, and exfoliative toxins (ETs. The latter are particularly interesting as the sole agents responsible for staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS, a disease predominantly affecting infants and characterized by the loss of superficial skin layers, dehydration, and secondary infections. The molecular basis of the clinical symptoms of SSSS is well understood. ETs are serine proteases with high substrate specificity, which selectively recognize and hydrolyze desmosomal proteins in the skin. The fascinating road leading to the discovery of ETs as the agents responsible for SSSS and the characterization of the molecular mechanism of their action, including recent advances in the field, are reviewed in this article.

  20. [Staphylococcus aureus and antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu

    2011-07-01

    After the report of first case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 1961, MRSA become a major problem worldwide. Over the last decade MRSA strains have emerged as serious pathogens in nosocomial and community settings. Glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are still the current mainstay of therapy for infections caused by MRSA. In the last decade dramatic changes have occurred in the epidemiology of MRSA infections. The isolates with reduced susceptibility and in vitro resistance to vancomycin have emerged. Recently, therapeutic alternatives such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin have been introduced into clinical practice for treating MRSA infections. Nevertheless, these drugs are only approved for certain indication and resistance has already been reported. In this review, the new information on novel drugs for treating MRSA infections and the resistance mechanisms of these drugs were discussed. PMID:21935792

  1. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acid...

  2. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, C. B.; Fitzgerald, A; Reese, G.; Goldin, R; Tekkis, P; O Kelly, P. S.; Pickwell-MacPherson, E.; Gibson, A. P.; Wallace, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured...

  3. Streptococcus pyogenes sternoclavicular septic arthritis in a healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcic-Kos, Radmila M; Mali, Padmavati; Abraham, Ajit; Issa, Meltiady; Rangu, Venu; Nasser, Rana

    2014-12-01

    Sternoclavicular septic arthritis is a rare infection, accounting for approximately 1% of septic arthritis in the general population. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant etiologic agent, and it usually occurs in relatively young adults with some type of predisposition to infection. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of group A streptococcal, sternoclavicular arthritis in a previously healthy 62-year-old male patient. We present a detailed history and physical examination, with laboratory findings, imaging studies, cultures, and therapy.

  4. Streptococcus pyogenes Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis in a Healthy Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Savcic-Kos, Radmila M.; Mali, Padmavati; Abraham, Ajit; Issa, Meltiady; Rangu, Venu; Nasser, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Sternoclavicular septic arthritis is a rare infection, accounting for approximately 1% of septic arthritis in the general population. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant etiologic agent, and it usually occurs in relatively young adults with some type of predisposition to infection. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of group A streptococcal, sternoclavicular arthritis in a previously healthy 62-year-old male patient. We present a detailed history and physical examina...

  5. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  6. [Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to β-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission.

  7. Colonic Saturated Fatty Acid Concentrations and Expression of COX-1, but not Diet, Predict Prostaglandin E2 in Normal Human Colon Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Patel, Arsh; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Djuric, Zora

    2016-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the colon is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In this study, expression of genes in the PGE2 pathway were quantified in colon biopsies from a trial of a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet in 113 individuals at high risk for colon cancer. Colon biopsies were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention. Quantitative, real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of prostaglandin H synthases (PTGS1 and 2), prostaglandin E synthases (PTGES1 and 3), prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4). The most highly expressed genes were HPGD and PTGS1. In multivariate linear regression models of baseline data, both colon saturated fatty acid concentrations and PTGS1 expression were significant, positive predictors of colon PGE2 concentrations after controlling for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, gender, age, and smoking status. The effects of dietary intervention on gene expression were minimal with small increases in expression noted for PTGES3 in both arms and in PTGER4 in the Mediterranean arm. These results indicate that short-term dietary change had little effect on enzymes in the prostaglandin pathway in the colon and other factors, such as differences in fatty acid metabolism, might be more influential. PMID:27548026

  8. Post-discharge mortality in patients hospitalized with MRSA infection and/or colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Rogers, C; Rimland, D; Stafford, C; Satola, S; Crispell, E; Gaynes, R

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is known to increase in-hospital mortality, but little is known about its association with long-term health. Two hundred and thirty-seven deaths occurred among 707 patients with MRSA infection at the time of hospitalization and/or nasal colonization followed for almost 4 years after discharge from the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA. The crude mortality rate in patients with an infection and colonization (23·57/100 person-years) was significantly higher than the rate in patients with only colonization (15·67/100 person-years, P = 0·037). MRSA infection, hospitalization within past 6 months, and histories of cancer or haemodialysis were independent risk factors. Adjusted mortality rates in patients with infection were almost twice as high compared to patients who were only colonized: patients infected and colonized [hazard ratio (HR) 1·93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·31-2·84]; patients infected but not colonized (HR 1·96, 95% CI 1·22-3·17). Surviving MRSA infection adversely affects long-term mortality, underscoring the importance of infection control in healthcare settings.

  9. Role of biofilm-associated protein bap in the pathogenesis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucarella, Carme; Tormo, M Angeles; Ubeda, Carles; Trotonda, M Pilar; Monzón, Marta; Peris, Critòfol; Amorena, Beatriz; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2004-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of intramammary infections, which frequently become chronic, associated with the ability of the bacteria to produce biofilm. Here, we report a relationship between the ability to produce chronic bovine mastitis and biofilm formation. We have classified bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates into three groups based on the presence of particular genetic elements required for biofilm formation: group 1 (ica(+) bap(+)), group 2 (ica(+), bap negative), and group 3 (ica negative, bap negative). Overall, animals naturally infected with group 1 and 2 isolates had a lower milk somatic cell count than those infected with isolates of group 3. In addition, Bap-positive isolates were significantly more able to colonize and persist in the bovine mammary gland in vivo and were less susceptible to antibiotic treatments when forming biofilms in vitro. Analysis of the structural bap gene revealed the existence of alternate forms of expression of the Bap protein in S. aureus isolates obtained under field conditions throughout the animal's life. The presence of anti-Bap antibodies in serum samples taken from animals with confirmed S. aureus infections indicated the production of Bap during infection. Furthermore, disruption of the ica operon in a bap-positive strain had no effect on in vitro biofilm formation, a finding which strongly suggested that Bap could compensate for the deficiency of the PIA/PNAG product (a biofilm matrix polysaccharide). Altogether, these results demonstrate that, in the bovine intramammary gland, the presence of Bap may facilitate a biofilm formation connected with the persistence of S. aureus.

  10. Co-colonization by multidrug-resistant bacteria in two Greek intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Spiliopoulou, I; Christofidou, M; Logothetis, D; Manolopoulou, P; Dodou, V; Fligou, F; Marangos, M; Anastassiou, E D

    2015-10-01

    Our goal was to identify the risk factors for co-colonization by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and during stay. Rectal and nasal samples were taken from each patient upon admission at two Greek ICUs and each week afterwards, and were inoculated onto chromogenic agar. Representative colonies were characterized with standard methods and Vitek-2 technology. The presence of the bla KPC gene (K. pneumoniae isolates), vanA and vanB (Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis isolates), and mecA (S. aureus isolates) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Upon ICU admission, among 481 patients, 59 (12%), 63 (13%), and 20 (4%) were colonized by KPC-Kp, VRE, or MRSA, respectively. Simultaneous colonization by KPC-Kp and VRE upon admission (34 patients) was associated with the number of co-morbidities [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.5; confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.5], administered antibiotics (aOR: 1.7; CI 1.3-2.3), and prior KPC-Kp infection (aOR: 24.4; CI 1.5-396.0). Among patients with an ICU stay of more than 6 days, 181 (73%), 31 (13%), and 9 (4%) became KPC-Kp, VRE, or MRSA colonized during ICU stay, respectively. KPC-Kp colonization was an independent risk factor for VRE colonization upon admission (aOR: 2.7; CI 1.0-7.2) and during stay (aOR: 7.4; CI 2.0-27.4), whereas VRE colonization was a risk factor for KPC-Kp upon admission (aOR: 5.1; CI 1.9-13.9) and MRSA colonization upon admission (aOR: 3.5; CI 1.2-10.1) and during ICU stay (aOR: 14.5; CI 2.1-100.1). Colonization by a multidrug pathogen could promote colonization by another. PMID:26173689

  11. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Latin American Variant in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and HIV Infected in a Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Carvajal, Lina P.; Rincón, Sandra; Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A.; Tres Palacios, Alba A.; Mercado, Marcela; Palomá, Sandra L.; Rayo, Leidy X.; Acevedo, Jessica A.; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; García-Padilla, Paola; Alvarez, Carlos; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization and examine the molecular characteristics of colonizing isolates in patients receiving hemodialysis and HIV-infected in a Colombian hospital. Patients on hemodialysis and HIV-infected were prospectively followed between July 2011 and June 2012 in Bogota, Colombia. Nasal and axillary swabs were obtained and cultured. Colonizing S. aureus isolates were identified by standard and molecular techniques. Molecular typing was performed by using pulse-field gel electrophoresis and evaluating the presence of lukF-PV/lukS-PV by PCR. A total of 29% (n = 82) of HIV-infected and 45.5% (n = 15) of patients on hemodialysis exhibited S. aureus colonization. MSSA/MRSA colonization was observed in 28% and 3.6% of the HIV patients, respectively and in 42.4% and 13.3% of the hemodialysis patients, respectively. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing showed that four MRSA isolates harbored the type IV cassette, and one type I. In the hemodialysis group, two MRSA isolates were classified as belonging to the USA300-LV genetic lineage. Conversely, in the HIV infected group, no colonizing isolates belonging to the USA300-Latin American Variant (UDA300-LV) lineage were identified. Colonizing isolates recovered from the HIV-infected group belonged to the prevalent hospital-associated clones circulating in Latin America (Chilean [n = 1] and Pediatric [n = 2]). The prevalence of MRSA colonization in the study groups was 3.6% (HIV) and 13.3% (hemodialysis). Surveillance programs should be implemented in this group of patients in order to understand the dynamics of colonization and infection in high-risk patients. PMID:26474075

  12. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Close + - Text Size Get Tested for Colon Cancer [Video] This free video explains the most commonly ... re like most people, the thought of getting colon cancer or even going for a colon cancer test ...

  13. Colonization and Immunomodulation by Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Valeur, Nana; Engel, Peter; Carbajal, Noris; Connolly, Eamonn; Ladefoged, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 is a probiotic (health-promoting) bacterium widely used as a dietary supplement. This study was designed to examine local colonization of the human gastrointestinal mucosa after dietary supplementation with L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and to determine subsequent immune responses at the colonized sites. In this open clinical investigation, 10 healthy volunteers and 9 volunteers with ileostomy underwent gastroscopy or ileoscopy and biopsy samples were taken from the s...

  14. Depth-Dependent Differences in Community Structure of the Human Colonic Microbiota in Health

    OpenAIRE

    Aonghus Lavelle; Grainne Lennon; Neil Docherty; Aine Balfe; Mulcahy, Hugh E.; Glen Doherty; Diarmuid O Donoghue; John M Hyland; Fergus Shanahan; Kieran Sheahan; J Calvin Coffey; Desmond C. Winter; P Ronan O Connell

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Objective: The aims of this study were to develop techniques for spatial microbial assessment in humans and to establish colonic luminal and mucosal spatial ecology, encompassing longitudinal and cross-sectional axes. Design: A microbiological protected specimen brush was used in conjunction with a biopsy forceps to sample the colon in nine healthy volunteers undergoing colonoscopy. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis was used to determine t...

  15. Comparative host specificity of human- and pig- associated Staphylococcus aureus clonal lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshnee Moodley

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step in colonization of the skin. In this study, we investigated the differential adherence to human and pig corneocytes of six Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to three human-associated [ST8 (CC8, ST22 (CC22 and ST36(CC30] and two pig-associated [ST398 (CC398 and ST433(CC30] clonal lineages, and their colonization potential in the pig host was assessed by in vivo competition experiments. Corneocytes were collected from 11 humans and 21 pigs using D-squame® adhesive discs, and bacterial adherence to corneocytes was quantified by a standardized light microscopy assay. A previously described porcine colonization model was used to assess the potential of the six strains to colonize the pig host. Three pregnant, S. aureus-free sows were inoculated intravaginally shortly before farrowing with different strain mixes [mix 1 human and porcine ST398; mix 2 human ST36 and porcine ST433; and mix 3 human ST8, ST22, ST36 and porcine ST398] and the ability of individual strains to colonize the nasal cavity of newborn piglets was evaluated for 28 days after birth by strain-specific antibiotic selective culture. In the corneocyte assay, the pig-associated ST433 strain and the human-associated ST22 and ST36 strains showed significantly greater adhesion to porcine and human corneocytes, respectively (p<0.0001. In contrast, ST8 and ST398 did not display preferential host binding patterns. In the in vivo competition experiment, ST8 was a better colonizer compared to ST22, ST36, and ST433 prevailed over ST36 in colonizing the newborn piglets. These results are partly in agreement with previous genetic and epidemiological studies indicating the host specificity of ST22, ST36 and ST433 and the broad-host range of ST398. However, our in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed an unexpected ability of ST8 to adhere to porcine corneocytes and persist in the nasal cavity of pigs.

  16. Explant cultures of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barrett, L.A.; Jackson, F.E.;

    1978-01-01

    Human colonic epithelium has been cultured as explants in a chemically defined medium for periods of 1 to 20 days. The viability of the explants was shown by the preservation of the ultrastructural features of the colonic epithelial cells and by active incorporation of radioactive precursors...... into cellular DNA and protein. A progressive decrease in the number of goblet cells, decrease in the depth of the crypts, and a change from a columnar to a cuboidal epithelium were observed. After 20 days in culture the colonic mucosa consisted of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells and a few glands....... The ability to maintain colonic mucosa in culture was subject to both intra- and interindividual variation. Cultured human colonic mucosa also activated a chemical procarcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, into metabolites which bound to cellular DNA. A 100-fold interindividual variation in this binding was observed....

  17. Laboratory Maintenance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas P Vitko; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen in the hospital and community settings, especially Staphylococcus aureus clones that exhibit methicillin-resistance (MRSA). Many strains of S. aureus are utilized in the laboratory, underscoring the genetic differences inherent in clinical isolates. S. aureus grows quickly at 37°C with aeration in rich media (e.g. BHI) and exhibits a preference for glycolytic carbon sources. Furthermore, S. aureus has a gold pigmentation, exhibits β-hem...

  18. [Irritable colon and constipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyenberger, C

    1993-04-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a very common clinical problem with a broad spectrum of severity. The management includes a combination of positive diagnosis of typical symptoms with limited investigations to exclude underlying structural or biochemical disorders. Therapeutic trials focus on the relief of predominant symptoms. Identification and modification of factors exacerbating symptoms, behavioural techniques and pharmacologic agents directed to the presumed gastrointestinal motor dysfunction are required. Psychological support by the physician is the most important part of treatment. Chronic constipation may be the predominant symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. Underlying organic disorders must be excluded by clinical examination and endoscopy. Severe chronic constipation requires further investigation of colonic motility and defecation. High fibre diet, osmotic laxatives and procinetic agents may lead to an improvement. In rare cases surgery may be indicated. PMID:8488351

  19. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Cunha Leonardo da; Fernandes Joaquim César Teixeira; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Rhoden Adriana; Wunder Jr. Elsio; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador e...

  20. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joanne Wai Ling; Ceranic, Borka; Harris, Robert; Timehin, Elwina

    2015-09-14

    This case highlights the diagnostic challenges in patients presenting with bilateral sudden sensorinueral hearing loss (SNHL). The aetiology of bilateral sudden SNHL may span several medical disciplines. Therefore, clinicians should be mindful of such presentations, and consider aetiologies beyond otological and neurological causes. We present a case of a previously healthy 51-year-old woman who presented with coryzal symptoms and sudden audiovestibular failure. Examination revealed fever, tachycardia, bilateral profound hearing loss and nystagmus. Following investigations, an initial working diagnosis of vasculitis was made. Later, blood cultures revealed methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and a transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed endocarditis. The patient made a good recovery, but the hearing loss was permanent and managed with a cochlear implant.

  1. Functionalized polyanilines disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija R; Pagnon, Joanne C; Ali, Naseem; Sum, Reuben; Davies, Noel; Roddam, Louise F; Ambrose, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of functionalized polyanilines (fPANIs) against stationary phase cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using homopolymer of sulfanilic acid (poly-SO3H) as a model. The chemically synthesized poly-SO3H was characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The molecular weight (Mw) and elemental analysis of homopolymer poly-SO3H were also examined. We found that poly-SO3H was bactericidal against stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at a concentration of 20 mgml(-1). Surprisingly, we discovered that the same concentration (20 mgml(-1)) of poly-SO3H significantly disrupted and killed bacterial cells present in pre-established forty-eight hour static biofilms of these organisms, as shown by crystal violet and bacterial live/dead fluorescence staining assays. In support of these data, poly-SO3H extensively diminished the expression of bacterial genes related to biofilm formation in stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa, and seemed to greatly reduce the amount of the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) able to be recovered from biofilms of this organism. Furthermore, we found that poly-SO3H was able to effectively penetrate and kill cells in biofilms formed by the P. aeruginosa (AESIII) isolate derived from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. Taken together, the results of the present study emphasise the broad antimicrobial activities of fPANI, and suggest that they could be developed further and used in some novel ways to construct medical devices and/or industrial equipment that are refractory to colonization by biofilm-forming bacteria.

  2. Functionalized polyanilines disrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija R; Pagnon, Joanne C; Ali, Naseem; Sum, Reuben; Davies, Noel; Roddam, Louise F; Ambrose, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of functionalized polyanilines (fPANIs) against stationary phase cells and biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using homopolymer of sulfanilic acid (poly-SO3H) as a model. The chemically synthesized poly-SO3H was characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The molecular weight (Mw) and elemental analysis of homopolymer poly-SO3H were also examined. We found that poly-SO3H was bactericidal against stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus at a concentration of 20 mgml(-1). Surprisingly, we discovered that the same concentration (20 mgml(-1)) of poly-SO3H significantly disrupted and killed bacterial cells present in pre-established forty-eight hour static biofilms of these organisms, as shown by crystal violet and bacterial live/dead fluorescence staining assays. In support of these data, poly-SO3H extensively diminished the expression of bacterial genes related to biofilm formation in stationary phase cells of P. aeruginosa, and seemed to greatly reduce the amount of the quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) able to be recovered from biofilms of this organism. Furthermore, we found that poly-SO3H was able to effectively penetrate and kill cells in biofilms formed by the P. aeruginosa (AESIII) isolate derived from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient. Taken together, the results of the present study emphasise the broad antimicrobial activities of fPANI, and suggest that they could be developed further and used in some novel ways to construct medical devices and/or industrial equipment that are refractory to colonization by biofilm-forming bacteria. PMID:26496473

  3. Nanoadhesion of Staphylococcus aureus onto Titanium Implant Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, S; Donos, N; Spratt, D; Bozec, L

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to dental implant surfaces is the critical initial step in the process of biofilm colonization; however, the specific nanoadhesive interactions occurring during the first contact between bacterial cells and biomaterial substrates remain poorly understood. In this report, we utilize single-cell force spectroscopy to characterize the dynamics of the initial interaction between living Staphylococcus aureus cells and machined titanium surfaces at the nanoscale. Values for maximum adhesion force were found to increase from 0-s (-0.27 ± 0.30 nN) to 60-s (-9.15 ± 0.78 nN) surface delays, with similar results observed for total adhesion work (7.39 ± 2.38 and 988.06 ± 117.08 aJ, respectively). Single unbinding events observed at higher surface delays were modeled according to the wormlike chain model, obtaining molecular contour-length predictions of 314.06 ± 9.27 nm. Average single-bond rupture forces of -0.95 ± 0.04 nN were observed at increased contact times. Short- and long-range force components of bacterial adhesion were obtained by Poisson analysis of single unbinding event peaks, yielding values of -0.75 ± 0.04 and -0.58 ± 0.15 nN, respectively. Addition of 2-mg/mL chlorhexidine to the buffer solution resulted in the inhibition of specific adhesive events but an increased overall adhesion force and work. These results suggest that initial attachment of S. aureus to smooth titanium is mostly mediated by short-range attractive forces observed at higher surface delays. PMID:26130256

  4. Naturally occurring IgG antibody levels to the Staphylococcus aureus protein IsdB in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorman, Julie K; Esser, Mark; Raedler, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A A; Kartsonis, Nicholas; Smugar, Steven S; Anderson, Annaliesa S; McNeely, Tessie; Arduino, Jean Marie

    2013-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a well-recognized, clinically important cause of nosocomial infections, and as such, a vaccine to prevent S. aureus infections would be an important achievement. A Phase IIB/III study of V710, a vaccine containing iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB), demonstrated significant sero-conversion rates in cardiovascular surgery patients following a single pre-surgery immunization. However, the vaccine was not efficacious in preventing bacteremia or deep sternal wound infection post-surgery, thus raising the possibility that IsdB might not be available for immune recognition during infection. The purpose of the work described herein was to evaluate and quantify the naturally occurring anti-IsdB levels at baseline and over time during infection, to understand whether IsdB is expressed during a S. aureus infection in hospitalized non-vaccinated patients. We evaluated baseline and follow-up titers in 3 populations: (1) healthy subjects, (2) hospitalized patients with non-S. aureus infections, and (3) hospitalized patients with S. aureus infections. Baseline anti-IsdB levels generally overlapped between the 3 groups, but were highly variable within each group. In healthy subjects, baseline and follow-up levels were highly correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.93), and the geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) in anti-IsdB levels between study entry and last value was 0.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 to 1.0 ; p = 0.09), showing no trend over time. The convalescent GMFR in anti-IsdB levels from baseline was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3 to 2.2, p = 0.0008) during S. aureus infection, significantly different from the 1.0-fold GMFR (95% CI: 0.9-1.2, p = 0.60) in non-S. aureus infection, p = 0.005. Additionally, S. aureus isolates (51) obtained from the hospitalized patient group expressed the IsdB protein in vitro. Collectively, these data suggest that IsdB expression levels rise substantially following infection with S. aureus, but not with other pathogens

  5. Colon interposition for oesophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pascal A; Gilardoni, Adrian; Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier B; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The choice of the colon as an oesophageal substitute results primarily from the unavailability of the stomach. However, given its durability and function, colon interposition keeps elective indications in patients with benign or malignant oesophageal disease who are potential candidates for long survival. The choice of the colonic portion used for oesophageal reconstruction depends on the required length of the graft, and the encountered colonic vascular anatomy, the last being characterised by the near-invariability of the left colonic vessels, in contrast to the vascular pattern of the right side of the colon. Accordingly, the transverse colon with all or part of the ascending colon is the substitute of choice, positioned in the isoperistaltic direction, and supplied either from the left colic vessels for long grafts or middle colic vessels for shorter grafts. Technical key points are: full mobilisation of the entire colon, identification of the main colonic vessels and collaterals, and a prolonged clamping test to ensure the permeability of the chosen nourishing pedicle. Transposition through the posterior mediastinum in the oesophageal bed is the shortest one and thereby offers the best functional results. When the oesophageal bed is not available, the retrosternal route is the preferred alternative option. The food bolus travelling mainly by gravity makes straightness of the conduit of paramount importance. The proximal anastomosis is a single-layer hand-fashioned end-to-end anastomosis to prevent narrowing. When the stomach is available, the distal anastomosis is best performed at the posterior part of the antrum for the reasons of pedicle positioning and reflux prevention, and a gastric drainage procedure is added when the oesophagus and vagus nerves have been removed. In the other cases, a Roux-en-Y jejunal loop is preferable to prevent bile reflux into the colon. Additional procedures include re-establishment of the colonic continuity, a careful closure of

  6. Transmissible mupirocin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Noble, W. C.; Cookson, B

    1989-01-01

    The spread of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus with high level resistance to mupirocin is described. The resistance proved to be easily transferred to other S. aureus strains by filter mating experiments and on the skin of mice. No plasmid band corresponding to the resistance could be demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis or by caesium chloride gradient centrifugation but cleavage of 'chromosomal' DNA from resistant recipients showed bright bands of DNA absent from sensitive controls.

  7. Quantification and variability in colonic volume with a novel magnetic resonance imaging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, M; Sandberg, Thomas Holm; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    /ascending colon, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid colon) between two observations (separated by 52 ± 10) days was assessed in 25 healthy males and the effect of defecation on segmental colorectal volumes was studied in another seven healthy males.Key ResultsNo significant differences between the two......Background: Segmental distribution of colorectal volume is relevant in a number of diseases, but clinical and experimental use demands robust reliability and validity. Using a novel semi-automatic magnetic resonance imaging-based technique, the aims of this study were to describe: (i) inter...

  8. Colonic lymphangiomatosis associated with anemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woo Chul Chung; Hye-Kang Kim; Jin Young Yoo; Jeong Rok Lee; Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; U-Im Jang; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    lymphangioma is an uncommon malformation of lymphatic system.Multiple colonic lymphangioma named as lymphangiomatosis is considered an extremely rare disease.Although lymphangioma is a benign tumor and most colonic lymphangiomas do not cause symptoms and do not require treatment,resection of lymphangioma is necessary in the presence of symptoms such as abdominal pain,bleeding,intussusceptions.We report a case of colonic lymphangiomatosis in a man who presented with abdominal discomfort and anemia,which was diagnosed and treated with endoscopic snare polyperctomy.

  9. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years...... unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established......., small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time was...

  10. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Sexual health Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health ... to discuss with your doctor. Sexual Health and Aging: Keep the Passion Alive (Copyright © Mayo Foundation) - This ...

  11. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  12. Carotenoid Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ray K.; White, David C.

    1970-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments of Staphylococcus aureus U-71 were identified as phytoene; ζ-carotene; δ-carotene; phytofluenol; a phytofluenol-like carotenoid, rubixanthin; and three rubixanthin-like carotenoids after extraction, saponification, chromatographic separation, and determination of their absorption spectra. There was no evidence of carotenoid esters or glycoside ethers in the extract before saponification. During the aerobic growth cycle the total carotenoids increased from 45 to 1,000 nmoles per g (dry weight), with the greatest increases in the polar, hydroxylated carotenoids. During the anaerobic growth cycle, the total carotenoids increased from 20 nmoles per g (dry weight) to 80 nmoles per g (dry weight), and only traces of the polar carotenoids were formed. Light had no effect on carotenoid synthesis. About 0.14% of the mevalonate-2-14C added to the culture was incorporated into the carotenoids during each bacterial doubling. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The total carotenoids did not lose radioactivity when grown in the absence of 14C for 2.5 bacterial doublings. The incorporation and turnover of 14C indicated the carotenes were sequentially desaturated and hydroxylated to form the polar carotenoids. PMID:5423369

  13. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  14. Bellagio report on healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-02-05

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  15. Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Faergeman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  16. Bellagio report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simopoulos Artemis P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bellagio Report on Healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October–2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD’s worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  17. [Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P; Bourne, Peter G; Faergeman, Ole

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People is the result of the meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Lake Como, Italy, 29 October-2 November 2012. The meeting was science-based but policy-oriented. The role and amount of healthy and unhealthy fats, with attention to the relative content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, sugar, and particularly fructose in foods that may underlie the epidemics of non-communicable diseases (NCD's) worldwide were extensively discussed. The report concludes that sugar consumption, especially in the form of high energy fructose in soft drinks, poses a major and insidious health threat, especially in children, and most diets, although with regional differences, are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and too high in omega-6 fatty acids. Gene-nutrient interactions in growth and development and in disease prevention are fundamental to health, therefore regional Centers on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health should be established worldwide. Heads of state and government must elevate, as a matter of urgency, Nutrition as a national priority, that access to a healthy diet should be considered a human right and that the lead responsibility for Nutrition should be placed in Ministries of Health rather than agriculture so that the health requirements drive agricultural priorities, not vice versa. Nutritional security should be given the same priority as food security.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. PMID:25377701

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923

    OpenAIRE

    Todd J. Treangen; Maybank, Rosslyn A.; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F.; Karaolis, David K. R.; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Rosovitz, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid.

  20. Triple-acting Lytic Enzyme Treatment of Drug-Resistant and Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen C.; Roach, Dwayne R.; Chauhan, Vinita S.; Shen, Yang; Foster-Frey, Juli; Powell, Anne M.; Bauchan, Gary; Lease, Richard A.; Mohammadi, Homan; Harty, William J.; Simmons, Chad; Schmelcher, Mathias; Camp, Mary; Dong, Shengli; Baker, John R.; Sheen, Tamsin R.; Doran, Kelly S.; Pritchard, David G.; Almeida, Raul A.; Nelson, Daniel C.; Marriott, Ian; Lee, Jean C.; Donovan, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over used conventional antibiotics. Here we describe engineered triple-acting staphylolytic peptidoglycan hydrolases wherein three unique antimicrobial activities from two parental proteins are combined into a single fusion protein. This effectively reduces the incidence of resistant strain development. The fusion protein reduced colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat nasal colonization model, surpassing the efficacy of either parental protein. Modification of a triple-acting lytic construct with a protein transduction domain significantly enhanced both biofilm eradication and the ability to kill intracellular S. aureus as demonstrated in cultured mammary epithelial cells and in a mouse model of staphylococcal mastitis. Interestingly, the protein transduction domain was not necessary for reducing the intracellular pathogens in cultured osteoblasts or in two mouse models of osteomyelitis, highlighting the vagaries of exactly how protein transduction domains facilitate protein uptake. Bacterial cell wall degrading enzyme antimicrobials can be engineered to enhance their value as potent therapeutics. PMID:27121552

  1. Colon polyps and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, O

    2004-01-01

    Screening for colorectal neoplasia still is the best method of reducing the mortality due to colorectal cancer, and it is to be hoped that fecal occult blood test programs will expand in the near future and be combined with appropriate endoscopy. There are substantial problems with compliance in large programs with occult blood tests as well as endoscopy. Colonography and DNA testing in feces are not yet suitable for population screening. Diagnostic strategies in symptomatic patients are becoming more selective, in the hope of avoiding many superfluous examinations without increasing the risk of missing cancers. New results have confirmed the preventive effect of long-term aspirin use on adenoma recurrence, but the most cost-effective dosage is not clear; the mechanism of action is also uncertain, but seems to involve cyclooxygenase-2. The risk of adenomas does not appear to be associated with low consumption of folate, but with low intake of fiber. A number of biomarkers have been evaluated in polyp patients, but so far surveillance is still based on endoscopic experience, which is less than optimal. Attempts have been made to restrict the number of surveillance endoscopies and reduce the pathologist's workload. The place of argon plasma coagulation has been clearly defined in connection with piecemeal removal of large sessile adenomas. Advances have been achieved in surgery and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and acute surgery for colonic cancer with severe obstruction will be less common after the introduction of the metal stent. PMID:14722849

  2. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  3. Healthy Drinks for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Healthy Drinks for Kids KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Drinks for Kids Print A A A Text Size What's in ... población infantil We know it's important to get kids to eat healthy foods, but what about getting ...

  4. Bactericidal effects of silver plus titanium dioxide-coated endotracheal tubes on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko M Tarquinio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiko M Tarquinio1, Nikhil K Kothurkar2, Dharendra Y Goswami3, Ronald C Sanders Jr4, Arno L Zaritsky5, Ann Marie LeVine61Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Amrita School of Engineering, Ettimadai, Coimbatore, India; 3Clean Energy Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Section of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children’s Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA; 5Executive Medical Director, Children’s Hospital of The King’s Daughters, Norfolk, VA, USA; 6Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a nosocomial infection resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus are pathogens associated with VAP. Silver (Ag coating of endotracheal tubes (ETTs reduces bacterial colonization, however titanium dioxide (TiO2 coating has not been studied.Methods: Five types of ETT coatings were applied over silica layer: Ag, solgel TiO2, solgel TiO2 with Ag, Degussa P25 TiO2 (Degussa TiO2, and Degussa TiO2 with Ag. After ETTs were incubated with P. aeruginosa or S. aureus; colonization was determined quantitatively.Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus grew for 5 days on standard ETTs. Compared to standard ETTs, P. aeruginosa growth was significantly inhibited by solgel TiO2 with Ag at 24 hours, and by Degussa TiO2 with Ag at 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. No significant difference in S. aureus growth was observed between the control and any of the five coatings for 5 days.Conclusion: In vitro, solgel TiO2 with Ag and Degussa TiO2 with Ag both

  5. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C; Thapaliya, Dipendra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures. PMID:24804250

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhalka Kadariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures.

  7. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  8. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing? Bugging my dad to save his life Music Therapy Helps People With Cancer Diary of a colon ... Cancer Patients Health Literacy Tests Underutilized; May Improve Elderly Cancer Patients’ Care and Outcomes Majority of Nurses ...

  9. Spinal epidural abscess with a rapid course in young healthy infantry recruits with multiple skin lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Asaf; Or, Omer; Barzilay, Yair; Fraifeld, Shifra; Pikkel, Yoav Y; Eliahou, Ruth; Cohen, José E; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, there has been high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection among soldiers in the Israeli military, with devastating sequelae in several cases. Emergency department physicians have developed a high level of suspicion for spinal epidural abscess (SEA) in patients presenting known risk factors; however, SEA is a particularly elusive diagnosis in young healthy adults with no history of drug abuse. We review three cases of SEA secondary to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection in young healthy soldiers without known risk factors. We retrospectively reviewed clinical files of soldiers treated at our Medical Center from 2004-2015 to identify patients diagnosed with SEA. Those aged less than 30years with no history of intravenous drug use, spine surgery or spine trauma were included in the study. Three young army recruits met the inclusion criteria. These young men developed SEA through extension of MSSA infection to proximal skin and soft tissue from impetigo secondary to skin scratches sustained during "basic" training. All presented with mild nuchal rigidity and severe persistent unremitting lancinating radicular pain. Although healthy at baseline, they had a severe, rapidly progressive course. Following urgent surgery, two patients recovered after rehabilitation; one remained with paraparesis at late follow-up. Neurological deficits and systemic evidence of S. aureus infection progressed rapidly in these young healthy SEA patients with no history of drug abuse, emphasizing the critical role of timely MRI, diagnosis, and surgery. PMID:27364320

  10. Evolution of a fatal septic arthritis caused by a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafai, Mostafa; Abouelalaa, Khalil; Skhsoukh, Yassine; Balkhi, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen; Dimou, M'barek

    2013-10-01

    We report the observation of a septic arthritis of the knee complicated within first 36 hours by multiorgan failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), heart failure, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A diagnosis of staphylococcal arthritis was suspected confirmed by direct examination, and culture showed a Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to methicillin. The sample sent to the National Reference Centre for Staphylococci (Lyon, France) for genetic analysis confirmed the isolate positive for the PVL gene expression. The fulminating evolution of a septic S. aureus arthritis in an otherwise healthy man should probably evoke the possibility of LPV strain. Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain.

  11. A variant epidemic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus-15 cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis: A rare occurrence with unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Kumari H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST is an uncommon clinical syndrome. Although Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus is the most common bacterial pathogen causing CST, it is infrequent as a cause of meningitis. We report the first case of CST and meningitis from Bengaluru, Karnataka, caused by community-acquired epidemic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus-15 (EMRSA-15, in a previously healthy individual without known risk factors; the patient recovered following treatment with vancomycin. The isolate was genotyped as belonging to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV and sequence type 22 and carried the panton-valentine leucocidin gene. It is the first Indian EMRSA-15 disease isolate from a case of meningitis. EMRSA-15 has been a major problem in hospitals in UK and it is a cause for great concern in Indian hospitals too.

  12. Impact of imipenem treatment on colonic mycobiota in rats with double-hit sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jun; LIU Shao-ze; LIN Zhao-fen; LI Wen-fang; LIU Xue-feng; CHEN De-chang

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad-spectrum antibiotic administration promotes intestinal colonization of exogenous fungal pathogens in healthy animals and has been recognized as one of the risk factors of invasive fungal infection in clinical settings.It is unclear whether broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment would change the intestinal mycobiota without exogenous fungal challenge in the context of sepsis.Methods We established a rat model of double-hit sepsis using burn injury and endotoxin challenge.Rats with burn injury or double-hit sepsis received imipenem treatment for 3 days or 9 days,and their colon contents were sampled for selective fungal culture and isolation counts.Results Imipenem treatment promoted the overgrowth of the commensal fungus Geotrichum capitatum in rats with burn injury.Imipenem treatment also promoted colon colonization by exogenous fungi in rats with burn injury and double-hit sepsis,including Trichosporon cutaneum,Candida albicans,Candida krusei,and Candida glabrata.A longer duration of imipenem treatment had a stronger impact on colon colonization by exogenous fungi.Conclusion Imipenem treatment facilitates the overgrowth of commensal fungi and colonization by exogenous,potentially pathogenic fungi in the colons of rats with burn injury or double-hit sepsis.

  13. Effects of oral pinaverium bromide on colonic response to food in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, M; Faye, A; Devroede, G; Arsac, M

    2000-08-01

    We have recently developed a simple method to investigate the colonic response to food (CRF). This study describes the modifications of CRF induced by treatment with oral pinaverium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Thirty healthy subjects and 43 patients suffering from IBS were studied. Colonic transit time (CTT) was measured in fasting conditions and after eating a standard test meal. Colonic response to food was quantified by calculating the variation in number of markers in each zone of interest of the large bowel between the X-ray films of the abdomen taken before and after eating. CRF is characterized by caudal propulsion of colonic contents in the two groups. In controls, there is emptying of the caecum-ascending colon region and filling of the rectosigmoid. In IBS patients, only the left transverse colon and the splenic flexure empty. Pinaverium bromide exerts no effect in controls but reverses the CRF of the right colon in IBS patients by inhibiting right colon emptying. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of pinaverium bromide on CRF may support the clinical efficacy of this calcium channel blocker in the treatment of IBS. PMID:10989977

  14. Screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers among patients and health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathanraj S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 subjects were screened for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA at different sites using oxacillin blood agar and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin. Overall carriage rate was 8.5%, with the highest rate in inpatients (15.6% while the lowest was seen in health care workers (1.8%. The commonest site of colonization was the anterior nares. Oxacillin blood agar was found to be superior to mannitol salt agar with oxacillin for the isolation of MRSA. Male sex and prolonged hospital stay were found to be the major risk factors for MRSA colonization.

  15. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  16. Pore-forming virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus destabilize epithelial barriers-effects of alpha-toxin in the early phases of airway infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Hildebrandt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human commensal and an opportunistic pathogen that may affect the gastrointestinal tract, the heart, bones, skin or the respiratory tract. S. aureus is frequently involved in hospital- or community-acquired lung infections. The pathogenic potential is associated with its ability to secrete highly effective virulence factors. Among these, the pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and hemolysin A (Hla are the important virulence factors determining the prognosis of pneumonia cases. This review focuses on the structure and the functions of S. aureus hemolysin A and its sub-lethal effects on airway epithelial cells. The hypothesis is developed that Hla may not just be a tissue-destructive agent providing the bacteria with host-derived nutrients, but may also play complex roles in the very early stages of interactions of bacteria with healthy airways, possibly paving the way for establishing acute infections.

  17. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  18. Exacerbation of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation by Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusselle Guy G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke (CS is a major risk factor for the development of COPD. CS exposure is associated with an increased risk of bacterial colonization and respiratory tract infection, because of suppressed antibacterial activities of the immune system and delayed clearance of microbial agents from the lungs. Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus results in release of virulent enterotoxins, with superantigen activity which causes T cell activation. Objective To study the effect of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB on CS-induced inflammation, in a mouse model of COPD. Methods C57/Bl6 mice were exposed to CS or air for 4 weeks (5 cigarettes/exposure, 4x/day, 5 days/week. Endonasal SEB (10 μg/ml or saline was concomitantly applied starting from week 3, on alternate days. 24 h after the last CS and SEB exposure, mice were sacrificed and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and lung tissue were collected. Results Combined exposure to CS and SEB resulted in a raised number of lymphocytes and neutrophils in BAL, as well as increased numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes and granulocytes in lung tissue, compared to sole CS or SEB exposure. Moreover, concomitant CS/SEB exposure induced both IL-13 mRNA expression in lungs and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway wall. In addition, combined CS/SEB exposure stimulated the formation of dense, organized aggregates of B- and T- lymphocytes in lungs, as well as significant higher CXCL-13 (protein, mRNA and CCL19 (mRNA levels in lungs. Conclusions Combined CS and SEB exposure aggravates CS-induced inflammation in mice, suggesting that Staphylococcus aureus could influence the pathogenesis of COPD.

  19. Antibacterial activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic Acid A) against, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonized patients and health care workers are the main source of spread of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The elimination of nasal colonized MRSA plays a crucial role in infection control protocols. Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A) is used for eradication of MRSA nasal carriage. Increasing use of pseudomonic acid A (mupirocin) has led to emergence of resistance. Objective To determine low and high level resistance of MRSA isolates from clinical specimens against mupirocin. Place and duration of study: Study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2006 to June 2007. Material and methods Three hundred methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were studied. All clinical specimens were processed for culture and sensitivity. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for methicillin resistance using 1 micro g oxacillin disk. The isolates were further tested by PCR for the presence of mecA gene. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of mupirocin against MRSA isolates was determined using agar dilution technique. Results Out of 300 MRSA isolates, 98% were found to have MlC against mupirocin as smaller than 4 micro g/mL. Remaining 2% isolates revealed low level resistance (MIC greater than 8 micro g/mL to 256 micro g/mL), no high level resistance (MIC greater than 512 micro g/mL) against mupirocin was detected. Conclusions: High level mupirocin resistance has not emerged so far in our setup. Due to increasing use of mupirocin, emergence of resistance against mupirocin among MRSA is a strong possibility. Strategy encompassing rational use of antimicrobials, hospital infection control, surveillance for the detection of mupirocin resistance and judicious use of this agent is required. (author)

  20. Resistência à mupirocina entre isolados de Staphylococcus aureus de profissionais de enfermagem Resistencia al mupirocin en cepas aisladas de Staphylococcus aureus de profesionales de enfermería Mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in samples belonging to professional nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2010-06-01

    resistentes a al mupirocina (18,9%. La resistencia al mupirocina fue observada de forma pronunciada en los Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la metacilina (MRSA; de los 24 MRSA, 17 (70,8% se presentaron resistentes a este antimicrobiano. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados indicaron que la resistencia a la mupirocina es un importante problema, ya que ese antibiótico es un excelente aliado en las medidas de control de las infecciones de servicios de salud.OBJECTIVES: To assess colonization by Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to methicillin found in the saliva of nurses and, to recognize the mupirocin profile of resistance. METHODS: It was collected three saliva samples of 356 (94.2% professional research participants, totaling 1068 samples processed. All ethical aspects were covered. Microbiological analysis included the phenotypic identification, according to the standards of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. RESULTS: In the first collection were obtained 73 individuals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus, 48 in the second and 37 in the third, totaling 158 samples of Staphylococcus aureus. Of these, 24 (15.2% were resistant to oxacillin and 30 resistant to mupirocin (18.9%. Mupirocin resistance was observed sharply in the Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin (MRSA; of 24 MRSA, 17 (70.8% were resistant to this antibiotic. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that mupirocin resistance is a major problem since this antibiotic is an excellent ally in the measures taken to control infection in health services.

  1. Comparative genome-scale modelling of Staphylococcus aureus strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Emanuele; Monk, Jonathan M.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Fondi, Marco; Nizet, Victor; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a preeminent bacterial pathogen capable of colonizing diverse ecological niches within its human host. We describe here the pangenome of S. aureus based on analysis of genome sequences from 64 strains of S. aureus spanning a range of ecological niches, host types, and antibiotic resistance profiles. Based on this set, S. aureus is expected to have an open pangenome composed of 7,411 genes and a core genome composed of 1,441 genes. Metabolism was highly conserved in this core genome; however, differences were identified in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways between the strains. Genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism were constructed for the 64 strains of S. aureus. These GEMs enabled a systems approach to characterizing the core metabolic and panmetabolic capabilities of the S. aureus species. All models were predicted to be auxotrophic for the vitamins niacin (vitamin B3) and thiamin (vitamin B1), whereas strain-specific auxotrophies were predicted for riboflavin (vitamin B2), guanosine, leucine, methionine, and cysteine, among others. GEMs were used to systematically analyze growth capabilities in more than 300 different growth-supporting environments. The results identified metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenic traits and virulence acquisitions. Such traits can be used to differentiate strains responsible for mild vs. severe infections and preference for hosts (e.g., animals vs. humans). Genome-scale analysis of multiple strains of a species can thus be used to identify metabolic determinants of virulence and increase our understanding of why certain strains of this deadly pathogen have spread rapidly throughout the world. PMID:27286824

  2. Phenotypic Variation Is Almost Entirely Independent of the Host-Pathogen Relationship in Clinical Isolates of S. aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D Land

    Full Text Available A key feature of Staphylococcus aureus biology is its ability to switch from an apparently benign colonizer of ~30% of the population to a cutaneous pathogen, to a deadly invasive pathogen. Little is known about the mechanisms driving this transition or the propensity of different S. aureus strains to engender different types of host-pathogen interactions. At the same time, significant weight has been given to the role of specific in vitro phenotypes in S. aureus virulence. Biofilm formation, hemolysis and pigment formation have all been associated with virulence in mice.To determine if there is a correlation between in vitro phenotype and the three types of host-pathogen relationships commonly exhibited by S. aureus in the context of its natural human host, we assayed 300 clinical isolates for phenotypes implicated in virulence including hemolysis, sensitivity to autolysis, and biofilm formation. For comparative purposes, we also assayed phenotype in 9 domesticated S. aureus strains routinely used for analysis of virulence determinants in laboratory settings.Strikingly, the clinical strains exhibited significant phenotypic uniformity in each of the assays evaluated in this study. One exception was a small, but significant, correlation between an increased propensity for biofilm formation and isolation from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. In contrast, we observed a high degree of phenotypic variation between common laboratory strains that exhibit virulence in mouse models. These data suggest the existence of significant evolutionary pressure on the S. aureus genome and highlight a role for host factors as a strong determinant of the host-pathogen relationship. In addition, the high degree of variation between laboratory strains emphasizes the need for caution when applying data obtained in one lab strain to the analysis of another.

  3. No difference in small bowel microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aldona Dlugosz; Björn Winckler; Elin Lundin; Katherina Zakikhany; Gunnar Sandström; Weimin Ye; Lars Engstrand; Greger Lindberg

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that colonic microbiota may exhibit important differences between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls. Less is known about the microbiota of the small bowel. We used massive parallel sequencing to explore the composition of small bowel mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with IBS and healthy controls. We analysed capsule biopsies from the jejunum of 35 patients (26 females) with IBS aged 18-(36)-57 years and 16 healthy voluntee...

  4. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental results of the colonization, process and their consequences are analyzed in the local, national and international order, the activities through which the acts on the means and the nature of these. It is examined the meaning of the sustainable development, the phenomenon of the exhaustion of the ecosystems and their responsible ones. It discusses the importance of the Orinoquia in the mark of the environmental problems in the international order, the region has been intensely exploded by means of intensive production systems, what has led to the exhaustion of these areas in the world environment. The colonist's paper is exposed in the environmental deterioration, in front of the function of the tropical humid forest and it confirms a focus that it approaches the environmental problem from a perspective that makes emphasis in the social component of that problem, in opposition to the conservators where the ecosystem is the only valid reason and the social groups that intervene him, they should simply disappear. It is necessary the necessity to focus of integral way, the colonist's nature like element of a social group, the list that completes in the mark of the nation and their development model, the political economic system and the nationality inside which makes their economic decisions and of production. It is recognized that they are not enough solutions of technical order to impact on the use and sustainable handling of the Orinoquia, but rather it should be contemplated the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of the problem simultaneously, as well as the growing and resolved participation of the social group in their group

  5. Action plan for healthy agriculture, healthy nutrition, healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, the World Council on Genetics, Nutrition and Fitness for Health promoted a scientific meeting in Ancient Olympia, Greece, on the theme Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People. The meeting focused on evolutionary aspects of human diet through the life cycle in terms of genetic predisposition, overall health, prevention of disease and of unhealthy behaviors, such as poor physical activity, and dietary changes caused by the introduction of modern agriculture, from the Agribusiness to systems of food production, from climate changes to the needs imposed by urban agriculture and architecture. Nutritional medical (mostly cardiological and political aspects of disease prevention through healthy dietary habits and physical activity have always been seen in isolation. The meeting, the first of its kind, treated such aspects together, recognizing the importance of integrating and initiating a dialogue between these disciplines. The meeting gathered together experts in cardiovascular prevention, nutrition, as well as politicians, for a global discussion of these themes. A summary statement was then compiled, focusing on the main themes on which a consensus had been reached. I strongly believe that such themes have great relevance for public health, raising the need for disseminating them as widely as possible. I am thankful to the Editor of the Italian Journal of Medicine for allowing this summary document to be made available for the first time in Italy.Raffaele De Caterina

  6. Anal gas evacuation and colonic microbiota in patients with flatulence: effect of diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Roca, Joaquim; Azpiroz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterise the influence of diet on abdominal symptoms, anal gas evacuation, intestinal gas distribution and colonic microbiota in patients complaining of flatulence. Design Patients complaining of flatulence (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=20) were instructed to follow their usual diet for 3 days (basal phase) and to consume a high-flatulogenic diet for another 3 days (challenge phase). Results: During basal phase, patients recorded more abdominal symptoms than healthy subject...

  7. Clearance of an epidemic clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a drug-use network: A follow-up study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Carlo; Senn, Gabriela; Bürgel, Anne; Ruef, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background: A single clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was observed in a drug-use network starting in 1994, and was found to persist throughout 2001, with up to 19% MRSA colonization of intravenous drug users (IDUs). Recent clinical observations have shown low prevalences of this endemic drug clone among MRSA isolates. The goal of this study was to assess the evolution of MRSA carriage among IDUs. Methods: The survey took place from November 2008 to September 2009. T...

  8. The Increasing Problem of Wound Bacterial Burden and Infection in Acute and Chronic Soft-Tissue Wounds Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Demling, Robert H.; Waterhouse, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions. Methods: Methods used include a literature review on the growth o...

  9. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  10. Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization Dynamics by Different Enterococcus faecium Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Maria Camila; Singh, Kavindra V; Murray, Barbara E

    2016-06-15

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) generally precedes infection with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecium We used a mouse GIT colonization model to test differences in the colonization levels by strains from different E. faecium lineages: clade B, part of the healthy human microbiota; subclade A1, associated with infections; and subclade A2, primarily associated with animals. After mono-inoculation, there was no significant difference in colonization (measured as the geometric mean number of colony-forming units per gram) by the E. faecium clades at any time point (P > .05). However, in competition assays, with 6 of the 7 pairs, clade B strains outcompeted clade A strains in their ability to persist in the GIT; this difference was significant in some pairs by day 2 and in all pairs by day 14 (P < .0008-.0283). This observation may explain the predominance of clade B in the community and why antibiotic-resistant hospital-associated E. faecium are often replaced by clade B strains once patients leave the hospital. PMID:26671890

  11. Bap, a biofilm matrix protein of Staphylococcus aureus prevents cellular internalization through binding to GP96 host receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Jaione; Latasa, Cristina; Gil, Carmen; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Solano, Cristina; Penadés, José R; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections.

  12. Omics Approaches for the Study of Adaptive Immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and the Selection of Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous pathogen both in hospitals and in the community. Due to the crisis of antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need for new strategies to combat S. aureus infections, such as vaccination. Increasing our knowledge about the mechanisms of protection will be key for the successful prevention or treatment of S. aureus invasion. Omics technologies generate a comprehensive picture of the physiological and pathophysiological processes within cells, tissues, organs, organisms and even populations. This review provides an overview of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and immunoproteomics to the current understanding of S. aureus‑host interaction, with a focus on the adaptive immune response to the microorganism. While antibody responses during colonization and infection have been analyzed in detail using immunoproteomics, the full potential of omics technologies has not been tapped yet in terms of T-cells. Omics technologies promise to speed up vaccine development by enabling reverse vaccinology approaches. In consequence, omics technologies are powerful tools for deepening our understanding of the “superbug” S. aureus and for improving its control.

  13. Microbiological safety of Minas Frescal Cheese (MFC) and tracking the contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in MFC processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosangela; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Nero, Luís Augusto; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Minas Frescal cheese (MFC) is a traditional food produced and consumed in Brazil, characterized by its soft texture, low sodium, and high moisture content. This study characterized the microbiological contamination by coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in 99 MFC samples obtained in retail sale and produced by three distinct industrial procedures. Dairy processors were selected to investigate the key points of E. coli and S. aureus contamination during cheese processing. MFC samples produced by the addition of lactic culture presented higher counts of coliforms and E. coli, when compared to other samples (pculture presented E. coli counts higher than 5 × 10(2) colon-forming units/g. The processing steps after pasteurization were identified as the main sources of E. coli and S. aureus contamination of MFC. Based on the results, MFC was characterized as a potential hazard for consumers due to the high frequency of samples contaminated with E. coli and S. aureus counts in noncompliance with Brazilian standards for sanitary quality and safety.

  14. Bap, a biofilm matrix protein of Staphylococcus aureus prevents cellular internalization through binding to GP96 host receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaione Valle

    Full Text Available The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections.

  15. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research. PMID:27482738

  16. Genomics of Natural Populations of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J Ross; Holden, Matthew T G

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and an important cause of livestock infections. The first S. aureus genomes to be published, 15 years ago, provided the first view of genome structure and gene content. Since then, thousands of genomes from a wide array of strains from different sources have been sequenced. Comparison of these sequences has resulted in broad insights into population structure, bacterial evolution, clone emergence and expansion, and the molecular basis of niche adaptation. Furthermore, this information is now being applied clinically in outbreak investigations to inform infection control measures and to determine appropriate treatment regimens. In this review, we summarize some of the broad insights into S. aureus biology gained from the analysis of genomes and discuss future directions and opportunities in this dynamic field of research.

  17. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable ...

  18. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin;

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  19. Propionibacterium acnes biofilm - A sanctuary for Staphylococcus aureus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Harmony; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of combined culture of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus on biofilm formation under different oxygen concentrations. We measured planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. acnes and S. aureus alone and together under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Both P. acnes and S. aureus grew under anaerobic conditions. When grown under anaerobic conditions, P. acnes with or without S. aureus formed a denser biomass biofilm than did S. aureus alone. Viable S. aureus was recovered from a16-day old combined P. acnes and S. aureus biofilm, but not a monomicrobial S. aureus biofilm.

  20. Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Høst, Ulla; Arpi, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    Aims Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. Methods...

  1. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolaia, V; Espinosa-Gongora, C; Guardabassi, L

    2016-02-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis lineages such as sequence type ST16. Enterococcus faecium lineages occurring in poultry meat products are distantly related to those causing hospital-acquired infections but may act as donors of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance and other resistance determinants of clinical interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin-producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. PMID:26706616

  2. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  3. Long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment reduces the incidence but increases macrolide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Danish CF patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.R.; Pressler, T.; Høiby, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 2001, long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment has been used for CF patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Copenhagen CF centre. Our study investigates changes in incidence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophi......BACKGROUND: Since 2001, long-term, low-dose azithromycin treatment has been used for CF patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Copenhagen CF centre. Our study investigates changes in incidence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae......, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis and changes in macrolide sensitivity in these microorganisms during azithromycin treatment. METHODS: CF patients treated continuously with azithromycin for at least 3 months were included. Results of microbiological examination, including phage typing results...... of S. aureus, obtained during treatment were compared to results obtained 2 years before treatment. RESULTS: 70 patients (median age 29.1 years) treated for a median of 4 years (range 0.7-5.1) were included. Before treatment, 44 patients had at least one culture positive for S. aureus compared to 25...

  4. Mastite com lesões sistêmicas por Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus em coelhos Mastitis with systemic lesions due to Staphylococus aureus subesp. aureus in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma criação composta por 1800 coelhos, 33% das matrizes apresentaram mastite e lesões cutâneas crostosas e purulentas. Estes animais apresentavam-se entre 10 a- 12 meses de idade e em segunda parição. Quinze coelhos afetados foram sacrificados e necropsiados. Na necropsia, além das lesões cutâneas haviam microabscessos em diversos órgãos. Das amostras coletadas isolou-se Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus. S. aureus subesp. aureus também foi isolado de "swab" nasal coletado do tratador encarregado de fazer o diagnóstico de gestação nas coelhas. Histologicamente, havia formação de múltiplos abscessos, presença de bactérias gram positivas em vasos sangüíneos e linfáticos, além de êmbolos bacterianos nos tecidos. Nas mamas, observou-se tecido glandular normal associado a abscessos multifocais delimitados.At a commercial rabbitry which was composed of 1800 New Zealand White rabbits, 30% of the does had presented mastitis and purulent cutaneal lesions. The age of the animals ranged from 10 to 12 months and were at the second parturition. At necropsy, microabscesses were observed in several organs. Bacteriological samples collected from affected animals resulted Staphylococcus aureus subesp. aureus.. Additionally, the same agent has been isolated from a nasal swab collected from the person responsible for the pregnancy diagnosis. Histologically, there were multiple abscesses, gram positive bacteria within blood and lymphatic vessels, and bacterial emboli scattered in the tissues. In the mammas, normal glandular tissue associated with multifocal abscesses were observed.

  5. Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Originating from a Bartholin's Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL-producing Staphylococcus aureus is emerging as a serious problem worldwide. There has been an increase in the incidence of necrotizing lung infections in otherwise healthy young people with a very high mortality associated with these strains. Sporadic severe infectious complications after incision of Bartholin's abcesses have been described but involvement of S. aureus is rare. Case report. We present a 23-year-old apparently healthy female patient without any typical predisposing findings who developed severe sepsis with necrotizing pneumonia and multiple abscesses following incision of a Bartholin's abscess. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus harbouring Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes were cultured from the abscess fluid, multiple blood cultures and a postoperative wound swab. Aggressive antibiotic therapy with flucloxacillin, rifampicin and clindamycin, drainage and intensive supportive care lead finally to recovery. Conclusions. S. aureus, in particular PVL-positive strains, should be considered when a young, immunocompetent person develops a fulminant necrotizing pneumonia. Minor infections—such as Bartholin's abscess—can precede this life-threating syndrome. Bactericidal antistaphylococcal antibiotics are recommended for treatment, and surgical procedures may become necessary.

  6. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Stefania; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lindsay, Jodi A;

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent findings on the global epidemiology of healthcare-acquired/associated (HA), community-acquired/associated (CA) and livestock-associated (LA) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and aims to reach a consensus regarding the harmonisation of typing methods...... health. Continuous efforts to understand the changing epidemiology of S. aureus infection in humans and animals are therefore necessary, not only for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and effective infection control but also to monitor the evolution of the species. The group made several consensus...

  7. Therapeutic Management of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Todosi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem worldwide, and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Correct pretherapeutic staging has the role of guiding the management of colon cancer patients. The diagnosis is guided by the clinical symptoms. Chemotherapy is an important part of colon cancer treatment. Chemotherapy regimens are adapted to tumor stage and patient status and have various side effects and variable survival outcomes. International guidelines recommend different treatments depending on the presence or absence of metastases. The primary goal of treatment in nonmetastatic colon cancer is surgical removal of the tumor which could be the first step of the complex therapy or preceded by neoadjuvant therapy, depending on pretherapeutic staging. In resectable nonmetastatic tumors the preferred surgical procedure is colectomy with en bloc removal of regional lymph nodes. The extent of colectomy should be based on tumor location. The management of metastatic colon cancer also targets the therapeutic approach of the metastatic disease. Therapy is standardized and applied according to tumor stage. Surveillance has a major role in therapeutic success, reason why a time schedule and a protocol adapted to the primary lesion are essential. The goal of implementing the recommendations of international guidelines for the treatment of colon cancer is to provide a uniform treatment for this disease in view of improving overall survival of patients.

  8. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime....... Therefore in designing school meal programs aiming at being supportive for healthy eating, it is necessary to try to integrate the food provision in the life of the school....

  9. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid shall be prepared from toxoided broth cultures of selected toxogenic strains...

  10. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O. L.; Iburg, T.; Aalbæk, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus....... aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock....

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Andrew E.; Contente-Cuomo, Tania; Buchhagen, Jordan; Liu, Cindy M.; Watson, Lindsey; Pearce, Kimberly; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, Jolene; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul S; Lance B Price

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus among US meat and poultry samples (n = 136). S. aureus contaminated 47% of samples, and multidrug resistance was common among isolates (52%). S. aureus genotypes and resistance profiles differed significantly among sample types, suggesting food animal–specific contamination.

  12. Risk factors for the appearance of central venous catheters colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioljević Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Intravascular device placement (IVD is a part of everyday medical practice, however, its application is associated with a high risk of onset of nosocomial infections (NI and increased mortality and morbidity. Nosocomial blood infections (NBIs account for 10% of all the registered NI. NBIs are more frequent in patients with a placed IVD and it present an important risk factor for the onset of NBI, i.e. catheter-associated NBIs (CANBIs. Pathogenesis of CANBIs is complex and conditioned by the presence of different characteristics related to a catheter, patient and a specific causative organism. The most common CRBSI causes include coagulase-negative staphylococcus, S. aureus, Enterobacter spp, Candida spp, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterococcus spp. Methods. All the patients hospitalized at the Intensive Care Department of the Clinic of Digestive Diseases over the period January 1, 2004-September 1, 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. The study included 107 patients in whom central venous catheter (CVC was placed for more than 48 h. All the causes isolated from a CVC segment were recorded. Culture, isolation and identification of the causative organisms were performed using standard microbiological methods in the Bacteriological Laboratory within the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia. Catheter segment samples (tip of the CVC 3-5 cm long were analyzed. Based on the insight into medical documentation, patients’ examination and medical staff interview, catheter and patient-related characteristics were recorded. Results. A total of 107 CVCs were analyzed, out of which 56 (52% were sterile while 51 (48% were colonized. The results of our study evidenced that total parenteral nutrition (TPN (p < 0.05, number of catheterization days (p < 0.05, and central venous pressure measurement (p < 0.05 were significantly associated with CVC colonization. In this study, no statistically significant difference in catheter

  13. Evaluation of bacterial colonization in patients with the diagnosis of mycosis fungoides

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Nisa Akay; Nehir Parlak; Hatice Şanlı; Alpay Azap

    2014-01-01

    Background and Design: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Bacterial infections are a common complication of MF/Sezary syndrome (SS). Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causes of skin infections in patients with MF/SS. However, the role of infectious agents and their effects on the clinical course is controversial. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the colonization of bacterial pathogens among individuals with MF/SS in co...

  14. Gene profiles between non-invasive and invasive colon cancer using laser microdissection and polypeptide analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Zhu; Hua Guo; Ming-Quan Song; Guo-Qiang Chen; Qun Sun; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of differential gene expression profiles of target cell between non-invasive submucosal and invasive advanced tumor in colon carcinoma using laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with polypeptide analysis.METHODS: Normal colon tissue samples from 20 healthy individuals and 30 cancer tissue samples from early non-invasive colon cancer cells were obtained. The cells from these samples were used LMD independently after P27-based amplification. aRNA from advanced colon cancer cells and metastatic cancer cells of 40 cases were applied to LMD and polypeptide analysis, semiquantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical assays were used to verify the results of microarray and further identify differentially expressed genes in non-invasive early stages of colon cancer.RESULTS: Five gene expressions were changed in colon carcinoma cells compared with that of controls. Of the five genes, three genes were downregulated and two were upregulated in invasive submucosal colon carcinoma compared with non-invasive cases. The results were confirmed at the level of aRNA and gene expression. Five genes were further identified as differentially expressed genes in the majority of cases (50%, 25/40) in progression of colon cancer, and their expression patterns of which were similar to tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes.CONCLUSION: This study suggested that combined use of polypeptide analysis might identify early expression profiles of five differential genes associated with the invasion of colon cancer. These results reveal that this gene may be a marker of submucosal invasion in early colon cancer.

  15. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions Allergies and Intolerances Wellness Pregnancy Topics Travel Your Health and Your Weight Kidney Disease Food Allergies Healthy ... ready to help you create the change to improve your life. Search Now Food Fitness Health Learn More About Us What an RDN Can ...

  16. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Entrance into the Dairy Chain: Tracking S. aureus from Dairy Cow to Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Judith; Stessl, Beatrix; Gonano, Monika; Walcher, Georg; Bereuter, Othmar; Fricker, Martina; Grunert, Tom; Wagner, Martin; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. one thousand hundred seventy six one thousand hundred seventy six quarter milk (QM) samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294) and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM) of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing), dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day 14 of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej) of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus, our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires

  18. Colon,rectum and anus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008303 MicroRNA expression profiling in hydrox-ycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line by microarray.TONG Jinlu(童锦禄), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Renji Hosp, Med Sch, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai Instit Dig Dis, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Dig 2008;28(4):246-249.Objective To explore the role of a novel regulatory molecule-microRNA in the hydroxycamptothecin-resistant human colon cancer cell line SW1116/HCPTin order to provide a new reversal target for multidrug resistance.

  19. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  20. Medullary carcinoma of the colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Grauslund, Morten; Glenthøj, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the colon is a rare variant of colorectal cancer claimed to have a more favorable prognosis than conventional adenocarcinomas. The histopathologic appearance may be difficult to distinguish from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic...... differences in CK20 (p = 0.005) expression and in the rate of BRAF mutations (p = 0.0035). In conclusion, medullary carcinomas of the colon are difficult to discriminate from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma even with the help of immunohistochemical and molecular analyses. This raises the question whether...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SARM)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-22

    Datos importantes sobre las infecciones por SARM en Estados Unidos, en las escuelas y los entornos médicos. (Title: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)Created: 10/2007).  Created: 10/22/2007 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/9/2007.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Nielsen, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of nosocomial infections, it may often be difficult to evaluate the exact route of transmission. METHODS: In this study, we describe four cases of nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a hospital with a low...

  3. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. M. Parnaby; G. O'Dwyer; H. A. Monsey; M. S. Shafi

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe point prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and -resistant) carriage by inpatients on acute elderly care wards was estimated. The relationship to body site and to previous admissions to hospital or other institutions was determined. Fifty-five patie

  4. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Daum, T E; Schaberg, D R; Terpenning, M S; Sottile, W S; Kauffman, C A

    1990-01-01

    We demonstrated the marked emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin among Staphylococcus arueus strains isolated at the Ann Arbor Veterans Administration Medical Center. All S. aureus isolates tested from 1984 to 1985 were susceptible, whereas 55.1% of methicillin-resistant and 2.5% of methicillin-susceptible strains from 1989 had high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of colon-specific pH and time-dependent flurbiprofen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

    2015-09-01

    Present research deals with the development of compression-coated flurbiprofen colon-targeted tablets to retard the drug release in the upper gastro intestinal system, but progressively release the drug in the colon. Flurbiprofen core tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were compression coated using sodium alginate and Eudragit S100. The formulation is optimized based on the in vitro drug release study and further evaluated by X-ray imaging and pharmacokinetic studies in healthy humans for colonic delivery. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release (4.33 ± 0.06 %) in the initial lag period followed by progressive release (100.78 ± 0.64 %) for 24 h. The X-ray imaging in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The C max of colon-targeted tablets was 12,374.67 ng/ml at T max 10 h, where as in case of immediate release tablets the C max was 15,677.52 ng/ml at T max 3 h, that signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. Development of compression-coated tablets using combination of time-dependent and pH-sensitive approaches was suitable to target the flurbiprofen to colon.

  6. High fecal IgA is associated with reduced Clostridium difficile colonization in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, Sarah L; Konya, Tedd; Azad, Meghan B; Guttman, David S; Sears, Malcolm R; Becker, Allan B; Turvey, Stuart E; Mandhane, Piush J; Subbarao, Padmaja; Scott, James A; Field, Catherine J; Kozyrskyj, Anita L

    2016-09-01

    Colonization of infants with Clostridium difficile is on the rise. Although better tolerated by infants than adults, it is a risk factor for future allergic disease. The present study describes associations between infant fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and colonization with C. difficile in 47 infants enrolled in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study. C. difficile colonization was observed in over half (53%) of the infants. Median IgA was lower in infants colonized with C. difficile (10.9 μg versus 25.5 μg per g protein; p = 0.18). A smaller proportion of infants with IgA in the highest tertile were colonized with C. difficile compared to the other tertiles (31.3% versus 64.5%, p = 0.03). In unadjusted analysis, odds of colonization with C. difficile was reduced by 75% (OR 0.25 95% CI 0.07, 0.91 p = 0.04) among infants with IgA in the highest tertile compared to those in the other tertiles. Following adjustment for parity, birth mode and breastfeeding, this association was even stronger (aOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03, 0.94, p = 0.04). Our study provides evidence that high fecal IgA, independent of breastfeeding, is associated with reduced likelihood of C. difficile colonization in infancy.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of colon-specific pH and time-dependent flurbiprofen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

    2015-09-01

    Present research deals with the development of compression-coated flurbiprofen colon-targeted tablets to retard the drug release in the upper gastro intestinal system, but progressively release the drug in the colon. Flurbiprofen core tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were compression coated using sodium alginate and Eudragit S100. The formulation is optimized based on the in vitro drug release study and further evaluated by X-ray imaging and pharmacokinetic studies in healthy humans for colonic delivery. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release (4.33 ± 0.06 %) in the initial lag period followed by progressive release (100.78 ± 0.64 %) for 24 h. The X-ray imaging in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The C max of colon-targeted tablets was 12,374.67 ng/ml at T max 10 h, where as in case of immediate release tablets the C max was 15,677.52 ng/ml at T max 3 h, that signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. Development of compression-coated tablets using combination of time-dependent and pH-sensitive approaches was suitable to target the flurbiprofen to colon. PMID:24916715

  8. Cellular Localization, Invasion, and Turnover Are Differently Influenced by Healthy and Tumor-Derived Extracellular Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Genovese, Luca; Zawada, Lidia; Tosoni, Antonella; Ferri, Angelita; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Nebuloni, Manuela; Alfano, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between tumor cells and the microenvironment has been recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer biology. To assess the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the modulation of tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis, we developed a protocol for the purification of tissue-derived ECM using mucosae from healthy human colon, perilesional area, and colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Matched specimens were collected from the left colon of patients undergoing CRC resection surgery. ECMs were ...

  9. Healthy Life Style

    OpenAIRE

    Donát, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with a healthy life style and its influence on the most frequent civilization diseases. In the subsequent parts there has been elaborated a questionnaire with the main topic -- healthy life style. Based on this questionnaire are also the results which confirm or contradict the hypotheses formulated in the process of the presented diploma thesis.

  10. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of hu

  11. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  12. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  13. Healthy ageing through music

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Rosie; Bisschop Boele, E.H.; Smilde, Rineke

    2012-01-01

    Presentation in session ‘Healthy Ageing through Music’. Presentations: - Rineke Smilde: Music and Dementia - Evert Bisschop Boele: Creative Workshops with the Elderly - Rosie Burt-Perkins: Healthy ageing through instrumental music learning World Conference ISME, Thessaloniki, Greece, 20/7/2012

  14. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B.J.; Hardardottir, H.; Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi;

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is continuously changing. Iceland has a low incidence of MRSA. A "search and destroy" policy (screening patients with defined risk factors and attempting eradication in carriers) has been implemented since 1991. Clinical......, and screening for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Two hundred twenty-six infected (60%) or colonized (40%) individuals were detected (annual incidence 2.5 to 16/100,000). From 2000 to 2003, two health care-associated outbreaks dominated (spa types t037 and t2802), which were successfully controlled...

  15. Pediatric foreign body aspiration: A nidus for Aspergillus colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Candace A; Kreiger, Portia; Goff, Christopher; Shah, Udayan K

    2015-06-01

    We describe an immunocompetent child with bronchial fungus following foreign body aspiration. A two-year-old male presented with cough. Workup revealed air trapping and bronchoscopy showed aspirated foreign material in the right mainstem bronchus. Histopathology revealed fungal organisms suggestive of Aspergillus within an ulcer of the adjacent bronchial mucosa. Foreign body aspiration has been posited as a nidus for aspergilloma formation but is not yet described in the available English-language pediatric literature. Here, the foreign body provided a site for fungal growth in the bronchus of an otherwise healthy child. This case suggests that bronchial foreign body may pose risk of fungal colonization even in immunocompetent children.

  16. Oropharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children from Taubaté (São Paulo, prior to the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program in Brazil Colonização da orofaringe de crianças saudáveis de Taubaté (São Paulo por Haemophilus influenzae, antes da introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae do tipo b no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae is one of the most important bacterial agents of otitis and sinusitis. H. influenzae type b (Hib is one of the main causes of meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in nonvaccinated children under 6 years of age. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. influenzae and Hib oropharyngeal colonization prior to the onset of the Hib vaccination program in Brazil in previously healthy children and to assess the susceptibility profile of this microorganism to a selected group of antimicrobials that are used to treat acute respiratory infections. METHOD: Cultures of Haemophilus influenzae were made from oropharynx swabs from 987 children under 6 years of age who were enrolled in 29 day-care centers in Taubaté (a city of São Paulo state, Brazil between July and December 1998. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. influenzae carriers was 17.4%, and only 5.5% of the strains were beta-lactamase producers. The prevalence of Hib carriers was high, 7.3% on average (range, 0.0 - 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of colonization by penicillin-resistant strains indicates that it is not necessary to substitute ampicilin or amoxicilin to effectively treat otitis and sinusitis caused by H. influenzae in Taubaté.Haemophilus influenzae é um dos mais importantes agentes bacterianos de otites e sinusites. Em crianças menores de seis anos de idade não vacinadas contra o H. influenzae do tipo b (Hib, essa bactéria é uma das principais causadoras de meningite, pneumonia e sepse. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência da colonização da orofaringe de crianças previamente saudáveis por H. influenzae e Hib e avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade desses microorganismos a um grupo seleto de antimicrobianos, que habitualmente são utilizados para tratar as infecções respiratórias agudas. MÉTODO: Foram colhidos swabs da orofaringe de 987 crianças menores de seis anos de idade que freqüentavam 29 creches da

  17. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  18. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examine the lining by filling the colon with air or with an x-ray blocking liquid and ... virtual colonoscopy. The radiologist fills your colon with air then scans it. The advantages: the procedure takes ...

  19. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... power to keep colon cancer out of your life. Let me tell you how. Most colon cancers ... the cancer and going on with a normal life. More good news: you have many choices of ...

  20. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer This page ... and rectal cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Colon Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Camptosar ( ...

  1. Get Tested for Colon Cancer: Here's How

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a look at the entire colon. While some family doctors and internists perform colonoscopy, the test is ... be used whenever possible. If you have a family history of colon cancer or if you have ...

  2. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  3. Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159556.html Five New Genes Linked to Colon Cancer But researchers say it's ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have identified five new gene mutations that may be tied to colon cancer. ...

  4. Spontaneous Bacterial Pericarditis and Coronary Sinus Endocarditis Caused by Oxacillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício N. Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case of a 44-year-old male patient previously healthy admitted with an unusual spontaneous acute bacterial pericarditis associated with coronary sinus mass. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed large loculated pericardial effusion with signs of diastolic restriction and an image suggesting vegetation in topography of the right atrium coronary sinus. Pericardial drainage, coronary sinus vegetation resection, and antibiotic therapy with Oxacillin were performed due to Oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus identified on the pericardial effusion and blood culture. This is a rare condition and a unique combination of a spontaneous acute bacterial pericarditis with coronary sinus endocarditis without cardiac valve compromise.

  5. Nosocomial transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetem, David J; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit;

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has changed the epidemiology of MRSA infections worldwide. In contrast to hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), CA-MRSA more frequently affects healthy individuals, both with and without recent healthcare...... exposure. Despite obvious epidemiological differences, it is unknown whether differences in nosocomial transmissibility exist. We have, therefore, quantified the transmissibility, expressed by the single admission reproduction number (R(A)), of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA in hospital settings in Denmark....

  6. Vitamin D and colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidija; Klampfer

    2014-01-01

    Calcitriol, 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3), the most active form of vitamin D, is a pleotropic hormone with a wide range of biological activities. Due to its ability to regulate calcium and phosphate metabolism, 1,25D3 plays a major role in bone health. In addition, 1,25D3 binds to the vitamin D receptor and thereby regulates the expression of a number of genes which control growth, differentiation and survival of cancer cells. In agreement, the levels of vitamin D3 appear to be an essential determinant for the development and progression of colon cancer and supplementation with vitamin D3 is effective in suppressing intestinal tumorigenesis in animal models. Vitamin D3 has been estimated to lower the incidence of colorectal cancer by 50%, which is consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. Several studies confirmed that increasing vitamin D3 lowers colon cancer incidence, reduces polyp recurrence, and that sufficient levels of vitamin D3 are associated with better overall survival of colon cancer patients. Vitamin D regulates the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium by modulating the oncogenic Wnt signaling pathway and by inhibiting tumor-promoting inflammation. Both activities contribute to the ability of 1,25D3 to prevent the development and progression of colon cancer.

  7. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  8. Boron absorption imaging in rat lung colon adenocarcinoma metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, S.; Bortolussi, S.; Bruschi, P.; Fossati, F.; Vittor, K.; Nano, R.; Facoetti, A.; Chiari, P.; Bakeine, J.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Salvucci, O.

    2006-05-01

    Given the encouraging results from our previous work on the clinical application of BNCT on non-resectable, chemotherapy resistant liver metastases, we explore the possibility to extend our technique to lung metastases. A fundamental requirement for BNCT is achieving higher 10B concentrations in the metastases compared to those in healthy tissue. For this reason we developed a rat model with lung metastases in order to study the temporal distribution of 10B concentration in tissues and tumoral cells. Rats with induced lung metastases from colon adenocarcinoma were sacrificed two hours after intraperitoneal Boronphenylalanine infusion. The lungs were harvested, frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently histological sections underwent neutron autoradiography in the nuclear reactor Triga Mark II, University of Pavia. Our findings demonstrate higher Boron uptake in tumoral nodules compared to healthy lung parenchyma 2 hours after Boronphenylalanine infusion.

  9. Distribution of toxin genes among different spa types and phage types of animal Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Katarzyna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Mroczkowska, Aneta

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed distribution of toxin genes (sea-seo, eta, etb, tst, lukS/lukF-PV) among spa types and phage types of 39 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from healthy and diseased animals. All isolates turned out to be mecA negative (MSSA). Nine spa types were identified: t144 and t723 (dogs), t084 (dogs and pigs), t5447 (cat), t1491 and t008 (pigs), t002, t127 and t3478 (poultry). Seven phage types were detected, enclosed within four phage groups: I (cat), II (dogs), III (pigs) and mixed group (dogs and pigs). Three poultry spa types proved to be non-typeable by phages. Toxin genes were detected in 33 out of the 39 animal isolates. Our analysis revealed that the incidence of some toxin genes in S. aureus is host specific. Canine isolates t144 of phage group II harbored exfoliative toxin gene (eta), and porcine isolates type t1491 representing phage group III showed enterotoxin A gene (sea). The enterotoxin gene cluster (egc1) and enterotoxin gene seh were found in non-typeable isolates from chicken and in one feline isolate type t5447.

  10. Specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from elderly subjects inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J; Jalonen, Lotta; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Salminen, Seppo J

    2007-06-10

    Cell-free, pH-controlled supernatants of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy elderly subjects were subjected to antimicrobial activity assay. Bioluminescent indicator strains Staphylococcus aureus RN4220, Escherichia coli K-12, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 were used as targets of antimicrobial activity. The effect of nutrient depletion on the inhibition was eliminated with spent-culture controls. Three out of thirty-eight Bifidobacterium strains were capable of inhibiting the growth of S. aureus. The inhibition was equal to 23.2+/-19.1% to 50.4+/-26.7% of the inhibition caused by 50 IU/ml nisin. Reuterin-producing positive strain Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112 was capable of 86.0+/-24.6% inhibition, but Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12, a known probiotic strain, showed no inhibition. None of the strains was capable of inhibiting the growth of E. coli or S. enterica. The observed inhibition by bifidobacteria was related to hydrogen peroxide formation and possible production of heat-stable proteinaceous compounds. The results suggest that production of antimicrobial substances other than organic acids is not common among Bifidobacterium strains typical of elderly subjects. However, specific strains were identified which showed considerable inhibitory activity against S. aureus. PMID:17462772

  11. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akobi Babatunji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats (Chiroptera are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results One hundred and seven (107 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9% were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%, type II (3; 4.3%, type III (1; 1.4% and type IV (53; 75.7%. On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST, nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple

  12. Longitudinal survey of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis patients using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French paediatric CF centre. Results During a 30 months period, 108 patients, aged 2 to 21 years, regularly followed up at the centre, provided sputum for culture. From 79 patients, a total of 278 isolates were genotyped by MLVA, resolving into 110 genotypes and 19 clonal complexes (CC composed of similar or closely related isolates. 71% of the strains were distributed into four main CCs, in term of number of isolates and number of genotypes. Spa (Staphylococcus protein A typing was performed on representative samples, showing an excellent concordance with MLVA. In 17 patients, strains from two to four different CCs were recovered over time. On six occasions, S. aureus isolates with the same genotype were shared by 2 different patients and they belonged to one of the four main clusters. Methicillin-resistance was observed in 60% of the isolates, 90% of which belonged to the main clonal complexes CC8, CC45 and CC5. In 5 patients, methicillin-resistance of S. aureus isolates was not associated with the mecA gene: for four patients, it was due to overproduction of β-lactamase, leading to BOR-SA (borderline S. aureus isolates, while a strain showing probably a new modified penicillin-binding capacity (MOD-SA was observed from one patient. Conclusion Systematic genotyping of S. aureus isolates recovered from sputum of CF children allows a thorough analysis of the strains responsible for sporadic as well as chronic colonization and the follow up of their evolution over time

  13. Sampling, prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dewaele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the spread of MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on two Belgian pig farms. Pigs of different ages (from farrowing to slaughter age and sows as well as the barn environment were screened extensively on two occasions three months apart. A subset of MRSA isolates was tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and was further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Ninety-five percent and 77% of the tested pigs on farm A and farm B, respectively, were colonized with MRSA. MRSA positive animals were detected in all age categories sampled on each sampling day. Piglets were already colonized in the farrowing unit with the same or other MRSA strains than their mother. The prevalence of MRSA colonized pigs increased significantly after weaning and decreased during the fattening period. Pigs carried MRSA mainly in the nares, followed by the perineum and skin and to a lesser degree the rectum. A pig could be contaminated or colonized with different MRSA strains at the same time. The barn environment was also found to be contaminated with different MRSA strains, including the air inlet and outlet. All isolates tested on both farms were resistant to both tetracycline and trimethoprim, while they were susceptible to rifampicin, mupirocin and linezolid. There was a significant difference in resistance prevalence between the two farms for the antibiotics gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, tylosin, lincomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Furthermore, several antibiotic resistance profiles were observed within one farm. This study clearly indicates that several MRSA strains circulate on one farm, from the nursery unit to the fattening unit. This is important to consider when attempts are made to remediate these farms.

  14. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Anti- and Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids, Epithelial Proliferation, and Nuclear Morphology in Biopsies of Normal Colon Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Zora; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Neilson, Andrew; Plegue, Missy; Waters, Ian G; Chan, Alexander; Askew, Leah M; Ruffin, Mack T; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the effects of intervention with either a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean diet on colon biomarkers in 120 healthy individuals at increased colon cancer risk. The hypothesis was that eicosanoids and markers of proliferation would be favorably affected by the Mediterranean diet. Colon epithelial biopsy tissues and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 mo of intervention. Colonic eicosanoid concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-MS-MS, and measures of epithelial proliferation and nuclear morphology were evaluated by image analysis of biopsy sections. There was little change in proinflammatory eicosanoids and in plasma cytokine concentrations with either dietary intervention. There was, however, a 50% increase in colonic prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), which is formed from eicosapentanoic acid, in the Mediterranean arm. Unlike PGE2, PGE3, was not significantly affected by regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at baseline, and normal weight subjects had significantly higher colon PGE3 than overweight or obese subjects. Increased proliferation in the colon at baseline, by Ki67 labeling, was associated with morphological features that defined smaller nuclei in the epithelial cells, lower colon leukotriene concentrations and higher plasma cytokine concentrations. Dietary intervention had little effect on measures of epithelial proliferation or of nuclear morphology. The increase in PGE3 with a Mediterranean diet indicates that in normal colon, diet might affect protective pathways to a greater extent than proinflammatory and proliferative pathways. Hence, biomarkers from cancer models might not be relevant in a true prevention setting.

  15. Getting Healthy Scientifically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,Zhao Zhixin,a Beijing-based instructor on scientific bodybuilding and public sport,was interviewed by China Youth Daily,sharing his views on how to get healthy scientifically.Edited excerpts follow:

  16. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxseeds contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, protein, healthy plant-based fats, and antioxidants that help prevent cell damage. Flaxseeds are a good source of soluble and insoluble fiber which help ...

  17. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with ethnic foods. Here's a sample of healthy food choices (lower in calories and fat) and terms to look for when making your selection: Chinese Zheng (steamed) Jum (poached) Kao (roasted) Shao (barbecued) ...

  18. Disparities -- Healthy People 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Tools for Professionals Public Health 3.0 Webinars & Events Webinars & Events Archive About ...

  19. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Menopause: A Woman's Change of Life Staying Healthy After Menopause Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents ... changed. Read More "Menopause: A Woman's Change of Life" Articles Understanding ... After Menopause Spring 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 1 ...

  20. Making Healthy Sexual Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right reasons? (It shouldn’t be based on peer pressure, a need to fit in or make your ... ready! Tags: birth control , condoms , contraception , healthy sex , peer pressure Related Content Talking With Your Partner about Condoms ...