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Sample records for aureus carriage predisposes

  1. A prospective cohort study of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage in neonates: the role of maternal carriage and phenotypic and molecular characteristics

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    Lin, Jialing; Wu, Chuanan; Yan, Chunrong; Ou, Qianting; Lin, Dongxin; Zhou, Junli; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2018-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), in mothers can cause serious outcomes in neonates. We aimed to elucidate the associations of S. aureus and MRSA carriage between mothers and neonates. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted between August and November 2015 in two hospitals in Shenzhen, China. Chinese pregnant women and their neonates who met the inclusion criteria were included in this study; samples and relevant information were collected. We assessed maternal–neonatal associations by using Poisson regression models. Results Overall, 1834 mothers and their neonates were included in this study. The prevalence of isolate carriage among the mothers was as follows: S. aureus (nasal, 25.8%; vaginal, 7.3%; and nasal and vaginal, 3.3%) and MRSA (nasal, 5.7%; vaginal, 1.7%; and nasal and vaginal, 0.5%). The incidences of S. aureus and MRSA carriage among neonates were 3.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Of the 21 maternal–neonatal pairs with S. aureus carriage, 14 were concordant pairs with the same phenotypic and molecular characteristics. After adjustment, the relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the S. aureus carriage of neonates and nasal S. aureus carriage, vaginal S. aureus carriage, and both nasal and vaginal S. aureus carriage of mothers were 2.8 (95% CI, 1.6–4.8), 7.1 (95% CI, 4.1–12.4), and 9.6 (95% CI, 4.2–22.4), respectively. Conclusion S. aureus carriage in mothers increases the risk for neonates. PMID:29731644

  2. Relationship and susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus infection diabetic foot ulcers with Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage.

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    Taha, Aza Bahadeen

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main cause of diabetic foot infection with the patient's endogenous flora as the principal source. Nasal carriage of S. aureus has been identified as an important risk factor for the acquisition of diabetic foot infections. The study assessment the associations of S. aureus with methicillin resistant S. aureus were isolation from diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage of the same patients and their antibiotic susceptibility profile. Diagnosis of S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus were carried out by using standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were determent by breakpoint dilution method. Out of 222 S. aureus isolation, 139 (62.61%) were isolated from the diabetic foot and 83 (37.39%) from the nasal carriage. Seventy one (30.87%) of the patients were S. aureus infection diabetic foot with nasal carriage. Among diabetic foot infection and nasal carriage patients, 40.85% of S. aureus were considered as methicillin resistant S. aureus. Rifampicin (96.40%) and Levofloxacin (91.44%) were active against S. aureus. Patients at strong risk for methicillin resistant S. aureus nasal carriage and subsequent diabetic foot infection with high resistance to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome sequencing and analysis reveals possible determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

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    Cole Alexander M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus. Results MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30 and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3 to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets. Conclusion Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.

  4. Faecal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital and community setting: a systematic review

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    Shantelle eClaassen-Weitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and rationale: Staphylococcus aureus faecal carriage has been identified as a potential source for nosocomial transmission and a risk factor for disease development. This systematic review determined the overall S. aureus (including methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates within the community and healthcare settings.Methodology: Peer-reviewed articles indexed in Medline, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Africa-Wide Information, CINAHL, and Web of Science were identified using applicable and controlled vocabulary through to 11 November 2015. Eligible studies were ascertained by three independent reviewers. Random-effects meta-analyses of proportions were performed to determine S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage rates reported by eligible studies.Results: Twenty six studies were included in this review. The pooled estimates for S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA faecal carriage were 26 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 16.8 % - 36.3 %, 86 % (95 % confidence interval (CI: 65.9 % - 97.9 % and 10 % (95 % CI: 0.7 % - 27.0 %, respectively. Faecal S. aureus carriage rates increased on average from 10 % to 65 % during the first eight weeks of life, followed by an average carriage rate of 64 % at six months and 46 % at one year of life. Genotyping techniques were employed mainly in studies conducted in developed countries and comprised largely of gel-based techniques. Six studies reported on the role of S. aureus faecal strains in diarrhoea (n = 2 and the risk for acquiring infections (n = 4. Eight of the 26 studies included in this review performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus faecal isolates.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that screening for S. aureus faecal carriage, at least in populations at high risk, could be an effective measure for the prevention of S. aureus transmission and infection in the healthcare and community setting. More well-structured studies need to be

  5. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food service workers].

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    Alarcón-Lavín, María Paula; Oyarzo, Carolina; Escudero, Carlos; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; Valenzuela, Francisco J

    2017-12-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Among these, 26% were toxin A producers. Conclusions Half of the sampled workers carried Staphylococcus aureus and a quarter of these produced type A enterotoxin.

  6. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

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    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

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    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  8. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis

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    Mohamed Yousif Atia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus exerts immunomodulatory effect in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We Aim to investigate the frequency of nasal S.aureus carriage in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis and its possible influence on their symptoms and immune markers. We chosed 20 non smoker patients with house dust mite (HDM allergy causing allergic rhinitis and 20 non smoker healthy subjects matched for age and sex. For all subjects rhinoscopy was done, skin prick test, nasal culture for S.aureus, nasal interleukin 4,nasal total IgE, serum total IgE and serum specific IgE(SSIgE for HDM. Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80% and 5/20 (25% in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference plt0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total IgE (r = 0.78, plt0.01 and significant positive correlation with SSIgE (HDM (r = 0.53, plt0.05, nasal total IgE (r = 0.39, plt0.05 and nasal IL-4 (r = 0.55, plt0.05. Nasal staph.aureus actively modulated the immune reaction in persistent allergic rhinitis patients by promoting local IgE production, so we recommend early detection and treatment of S.aureus carriage in patients

  9. Influence of Host Genetics and Environment on Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish Middle-Aged and Elderly Twins

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    Andersen, Paal Skytt; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Fode, Peder

    2012-01-01

    Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle-aged and elde......Background. Nasal carriage is a major risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Approximately, one-quarter of adults carry S. aureus. However, the role of host genetics on S. aureus nasal carriage is unknown. Methods. Nasal swabs were obtained from a national cohort of middle.......4%-34.5%), and opposite sex (21.4%; 95% CI, 12.0%-33.4%) dizygotic twins. Despite shared childhoods, only 1 of 617 pairs was concordant with respect to lineage. Although heritability increased for S. aureus and lineage persistency, no significant heritability was detected. Conclusion. In this study, host genetic factors...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in Ukraine: antibacterial resistance and virulence factor encoding genes.

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    Netsvyetayeva, Irina; Fraczek, Mariusz; Piskorska, Katarzyna; Golas, Marlena; Sikora, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Andrzej; Swoboda-Kopec, Ewa; Marusza, Wojciech; Palmieri, Beniamino; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-03-05

    The number of studies regarding the incidence of multidrug resistant strains and distribution of genes encoding virulence factors, which have colonized the post-Soviet states, is considerably limited. The aim of the study was (1) to assess the Staphylococcus (S.) aureus nasal carriage rate, including Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains in adult Ukrainian population, (2) to determine antibiotic resistant pattern and (3) the occurrence of Panton Valentine Leukocidine (PVL)-, Fibronectin-Binding Protein A (FnBPA)- and Exfoliative Toxin (ET)-encoding genes. Nasal samples for S. aureus culture were obtained from 245 adults. The susceptibility pattern for several classes of antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines. The virulence factor encoding genes, mecA, lukS-lukF, eta, etb, etd, fnbA, were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The S. aureus nasal carriage rate was 40%. The prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in adults was 3.7%. LukS-lukF genes were detected in over 58% of the strains. ET-encoding genes were detected in over 39% of the strains and the most prevalent was etd. The fnbA gene was detected in over 59% of the strains. All MRSA isolates tested were positive for the mecA gene. LukS-lukF genes and the etd gene were commonly co-present in MRSA, while lukS-lukF genes and the fnbA gene were commonly co-present in Methicillin Sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. No significant difference was detected between the occurrence of lukS-lukF genes (P > 0.05) and the etd gene (P > 0.05) when comparing MRSA and MSSA. The occurrence of the fnbA gene was significantly more frequent in MSSA strains (P aureus is a common cause of infection. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in our cohort of patients from Ukraine was 40.4%. We found that 9.1% of the strains were classified as MRSA and all MRSA isolates tested positive for the mecA gene

  11. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

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    Sharma Megha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5 out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007 or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P P = 0.03. The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  12. Nasal Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among college student athletes in northern Taiwan

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    Hong-Kai Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Of 259 college students in northern Taiwan surveyed, nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 22.4% and 1.54%, respectively and no significant difference was found between athlete students and non-athlete students. Three of four MRSA isolates belonged to sequence type 59, the endemic community clone.

  13. Determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus among S. aureus carriers in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals

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    E.S. Lestari (Endang Sri); D.O. Duerink (Offra); U. Hadi (Usman); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); H. Wahjono (Hendro); W. Gardjito (Widjoseno); A. Soejoenoes (Ariawan); P. van den Broek (Peterhans); M. Keuter (Monique); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To identify determinants of carriage of resistant Staphylococcus aureus in both hospitalized patients and individuals from the community in two urban centres in Indonesia. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus cultures and data on recent antibiotic use, demographic, socioeconomic,

  14. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

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    Eibach, Daniel; Nagel, Michael; Hogan, Benedikt; Azuure, Clinton; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Gajdiss, Mike; Brunke, Melanie; Sarpong, Nimako; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; May, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Nasal swabs were obtained from children aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing. Out of 544 children 120 (22.1%) were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007), in females aged 6-8 years (43.7%) and males aged 8-10 years (35.2%). The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST) with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25), t84 (n = 18), t939 (n = 13), corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2%) isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), classified as t1096 (ST152) and t4454 (ST45), and 16 (13%) were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58%) and 17 (14%) isolates respectively. S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones.

  15. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Children in the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

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    Daniel Eibach

    Full Text Available Nasal carriage with Staphylococcus aureus is a common risk factor for invasive infections, indicating the necessity to monitor prevalent strains, particularly in the vulnerable paediatric population. This surveillance study aims to identify carriage rates, subtypes, antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence markers of nasal S. aureus isolates collected from children living in the Ashanti region of Ghana.Nasal swabs were obtained from children < 15 years of age on admission to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital between April 2014 and January 2015. S. aureus isolates were characterized by their antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of genes encoding for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 and further differentiated by spa-typing and multi-locus-sequence-typing.Out of 544 children 120 (22.1% were colonized with S. aureus, with highest carriage rates during the rainy seasons (27.2%; p = 0.007, in females aged 6-8 years (43.7% and males aged 8-10 years (35.2%. The 123 isolates belonged to 35 different spa-types and 19 sequence types (ST with the three most prevalent spa-types being t355 (n = 25, t84 (n = 18, t939 (n = 13, corresponding to ST152, ST15 and ST45. Two (2% isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, classified as t1096 (ST152 and t4454 (ST45, and 16 (13% were resistant to three or more different antimicrobial classes. PVL and TSST-1 were detected in 71 (58% and 17 (14% isolates respectively.S. aureus carriage among Ghanaian children seems to depend on age, sex and seasonality. While MRSA rates are low, the high prevalence of PVL is of serious concern as these strains might serve not only as a source for severe invasive infections but may also transfer genes, leading to highly virulent MRSA clones.

  16. Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates and antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with acne vulgaris.

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    Delost, Gregory R; Delost, Maria E; Armile, James; Lloyd, Jenifer

    2016-04-01

    Overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, which are occurring more frequently within the community. We sought to determine whether long-term antibiotic therapy for acne alter the carriage rate and antibiotic resistance profiles of S aureus. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, quasiexperimental study. Samples of anterior nares were obtained from dermatology patients given a diagnosis of acne vulgaris (n = 263) who were treated with antibiotics (n = 142) or who were not treated with antibiotics (n = 121). Specimens were tested for the presence of S aureus by growth on mannitol salt agar and then isolated on 5% sheep blood agar. Identification was confirmed based on colonial morphology, Gram stain, catalase, and coagulase testing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France). The S aureus carriage rate was significantly lower in patients with acne treated with antibiotics (6.3%) compared with those not treated with antibiotics (15.7%; P = .016). The percentage of S aureus isolates resistant to 1 or more antibiotics did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (P = .434). Cross-sectional study, patient compliance, and effects of prior acne treatments are limitations. Treatment of patients with acne using antibiotics decreases the S aureus carriage rate but does not significantly alter the antibiotic resistance rates. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual predisposition to Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs based on quantification, carriage dynamics and serological profiles

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    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Dahl, Jan; Elvstrøm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on Staphylococcus aureus in pigs focused on livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and had qualitative cross-sectional design. This study aimed to elucidate frequency, load and stability of S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs over time and investigated possible...

  18. Low methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate among Italian dental students

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    Petti, S.; Kakisina, N.; Volgenant, C.M.C.; Messano, G.A.; Barbato, E.; Passariello, C.; de Soet, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage rate among dental students from an Italian university. A total of 157 subjects participated (67 preclinical students and 90 clinical students); samples were collected from the nose, mouth, and skin. Five preclinical students and

  19. Nasal and hand carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among health care workers in Mekelle Hospital, North Ethiopia.

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    Gebreyesus, Araya; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Mihert, Adane

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is significant major pathogen responsible for hospital and community based infections. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal and hand carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers of Mekelle Hospital The study was carried out during November 2010 to January 2011. Swab samples from both anterior nares and hands were taken. The samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar and incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as nmannitol fermenter and coagulase test positive. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for MRSA was done by disk diffusion method using oxacillin disks. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16 software. Out of the 177 health care workers screened, 36 (20.3%) of them were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers in their hand and anterior nares. More females, 25(14.1%) were colonized by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus than males 11 (6.2%) (P = 0.044). Nasal carriage of MRSA of 25 (14.1%) was higher than hand carriage 11 (6.2%) (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage rates of 26 (13.6%) and 4 (2.3%), respectively. The isolated MRSA were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The highest resistance was observed for ampicillin (88.9%) and tetracycline (86.1%). Two (5.6%) of the nasal isolates were vancomycin resistant. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among health care workers in this study was high. The carriage rate was higher among nurses and doctors. The MRSA isolates were multi drug resistant to other antibiotics. So, the result of this study emphasizes the need of regular surveillance of health care workers. It also calls a need for an effective infection prevention and control program.

  20. Nasal Carriage Rate of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Health Care Workers at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

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    Khatri, S; Pant, N D; Bhandari, R; Shrestha, K L; Shrestha, C D; Adhikari, N; Poudel, A

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. Due to its multidrug resistant nature; infections due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are often very difficult to treat. Colonized health care workers are the important sources of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The objectives of this study were to determine the nasal carriage rate of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Nepal and to assess their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A cross sectional study was conducted among 252 health care workers from July to November 2013. Mannitol salt agar was used to culture the nasal swabs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were confirmed by using cefoxitin disc and by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin by agar dilution method. Of 252 healthcare workers, 46(18.3%) were positive for Staphylococcus aureus among which 19(41.3%) were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers. Overall rate of nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 7.5% (19/252).The higher percentages of lab personnel were nasal carriers of S. aureus (31.6%) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10.5%).The percentages of nasal carriage of S. aureus (35.7%) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%) were highest in the health care workers from post operative department. Higher percentage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible toward amikacin (100%) and vancomycin (100%) followed by cotrimoxazole (84.2%). High rates of nasal carriage of S. aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were observed among the healthcare workers, which indicate the need of

  1. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in health care workers: First report from a major public hospital in Argentina.

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    Boncompain, Carina Andrea; Suárez, Cristian Alejandro; Morbidoni, Héctor Ricardo

    Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous mild to severe infections in humans, both in health facilities and in the community. Patients and health care workers (HCWs) may disseminate strains during regular medical examinations or hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus among health care workers at Hospital Provincial del Centenario, a public general hospital in Rosario, Argentina. A transversal study was conducted on 320 health care workers. Nasal swabs were taken and presumptive S. aureus colonies were isolated. Bacterial identity and methicillin resistance status were confirmed by amplification of the nuc and mec genes. Chi square test and Fisher exact test were used for statistical analysis. Of 320 HCWs, 96 (30%) were nasal carriers of S. aureus, 20 of whom (6.3%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 76 (23.7%) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Carriage was within thepublished values for physicians (30%) and higher for technicians (57%). Accompanying resistance (62/96, 64.6%) was detected, including resistance to fluoroquinolones (23/96, 24%), aminoglucosides (13/96, 13.5%) or to macrolides (33/96, 34.4%). All the strains were susceptible to vancomycin whereas only 3.1% (3/96), all of them on MSSA strains, were resistant to mupirocin. This study is the first one of its kind in Argentina and one of the few performed in South America, to highlight the relevance of nasal carriage of MRSA and MSSA in health care personnel and brings to light the need for consensus recommendations for regular S. aureus carriage screening as well as for decolonization strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduction of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage in health care professionals by treatment with a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic.

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    Steed, Lisa L; Costello, Justin; Lohia, Shivangi; Jones, Taylor; Spannhake, Ernst W; Nguyen, Shaun

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotics used to reduce nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in patients before admission are inappropriate for carriage reduction on a regular basis within a hospital community. Effective nonantibiotic alternatives for daily use in the nares will allow reduction of this bacterial source to be addressed. Our study tested the effectiveness of a nonantibiotic, alcohol-based antiseptic in reducing nasal bacterial carriage in health care professionals (HCPs) at an urban hospital center. HCPs testing positive for vestibular S aureus colonization were treated 3 times during the day with topical antiseptic or control preparations. Nasal S aureus and total bacterial colonization levels were determined before and at the end of a 10-hour workday. Seventy-eight of 387 HCPs screened (20.2%) tested positive for S aureus infection. Of 39 subjects who tested positive for S aureus infection who completed the study, 20 received antiseptic and 19 received placebo treatment. Antiseptic treatment reduced S aureus colony forming units from baseline by 99% (median) and 82% (mean) (P antiseptic was effective in reducing S aureus and total bacterial carriage, suggesting the usefulness of this approach as a safe, effective, and convenient alternative to antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and infection among patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

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    Lin, Shin-Yi; Lin, Nai-Yu; Huang, Yu-Yao; Hsieh, Chi-Chun; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2018-06-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. Nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA was similar between diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer (15.2% vs. 16.9% for S. aureus and 5.4% vs. 1.7% for MRSA). Nasal S. aureus colonization was an independent predictor for wound S. aureus infection (Odds ratio [OR]: 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-17.59), so did nasal MRSA colonization (OR: 19.09, 95% CI: 2.12-171.91). The levels of glycated hemoglobin, and the usage with immunosuppressant agent were associated with S. aureus nasal colonization while oral hypoglycemic agent usage a protective factor. Sequence type 59/staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec IV or V, the local endemic community-associated clone, accounted for 42% and 70% of the clinical and colonizing isolates, respectively. Six of 10 patients with paired colonizing and clinical isolates, either MRSA or methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, had a genetically identical strain from a single patient. Less than one-fifth of patients with DFU have nasal S. aureus, including MRSA, colonization; however, the colonization is significantly associated with S. aureus diabetic foot infection. Screening for S. aureus colonizing status in DFU patients might have a potential clinical implication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prevalence of nasal carriage and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus among inpatients and hospital staff at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2013-01-01

    %) was more common than for other agents (resistant S. aureus carriage was observed among IP compared with HS (P = 0.01). High genetic diversity was shown by spa typing, with 55 spa types found among 105 isolates; the predominant spa types were t355 (10%) and t084 (10......There is a paucity of data on Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology in Africa. Prevalence of nasal carriage and genetic diversity of S. aureus were determined among hospital staff (HS) and inpatients (IP) at the largest hospital in Ghana. In total, 632 nasal swabs were obtained from 452 IP and 180 HS...... in the Child Health Department (CHD) and Surgical Department (SD). S. aureus carriage prevalences were 13.9% in IP and 23.3% in HS. The chance of being a carrier was higher in HS (P = 0.005) and IP staying ≤7 days in hospital (P = 0.007). Resistance to penicillin (93%), tetracycline (28%) and fusidic acid (12...

  5. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; J. Brandt; P. Durkin; S. Santore; B. Bota; C. J. Stahl

    1992-01-01

    textabstractPatients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, which may lead to serious infections. Mupirocin ointment has been used intranasally to eradicate S. aureus carriage in health human volunteers and health care workers.

  6. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Australian (pre-clinical and clinical) Medical Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Stubbs; M. Pegler; A. Vickery; C. Harbour

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in 808 Australian medical students was studied. Five groups of students experienced varying degrees of clinical exposure in a hospital environment ranging from 0 to 42 months. The overall percentage of carriers among the five groups did not

  7. Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in a random sample of non-hospitalized adult population in northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishri Mehraj

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The findings from truly randomized community-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. Therefore we have examined point prevalence and risk factors of S. aureus nasal carriage in a non-hospitalized population of Braunschweig, northern Germany. METHODS: A total of 2026 potential participants were randomly selected through the resident's registration office and invited by mail. They were requested to collect a nasal swab at home and return it by mail. S. aureus was identified by culture and PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors of S. aureus carriage. RESULTS: Among the invitees, 405 individuals agreed to participate and 389 provided complete data which was included in the analysis. The median age of the participants was 49 years (IQR: 39-61 and 61% were females. S. aureus was isolated in 85 (21.9%; 95% CI: 18.0-26.2% of the samples, five of which were MRSA (1.29%; 95% CI: 0.55-2.98%. In multiple logistic regression, male sex (OR = 3.50; 95% CI: 2.01-6.11 and presence of allergies (OR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.39-4.24 were found to be associated with S. aureus nasal carriage. Fifty five different spa types were found, that clustered into nine distinct groups. MRSA belonged to the hospital-associated spa types t032 and t025 (corresponds to MLST CC 22, whereas MSSA spa types varied and mostly belonged to spa-CC 012 (corresponds to MLST CC 30, and spa-CC 084 (corresponds to MLST CC 15. CONCLUSION: This first point prevalence study of S. aureus in a non-hospitalized population of Germany revealed prevalence, consistent with other European countries and supports previous findings on male sex and allergies as risk factors of S. aureus carriage. The detection of hospital-associated MRSA spa types in the community indicates possible spread of these strains from hospitals into the community.

  8. Cutaneous Microenvironment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Individuals, with Special Reference to Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael; Smith, Kathleen J.; James, William D.; Giblin, Walter J.; Margolis, David J.; Foglia, Arlene N.; McGinley, Kenneth; Leyden, James J.

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional quantitative study of cutaneous bacterial and yeast flora at seven body sites in 99 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and 50 seronegative military personnel was performed. Statistically significant differences in carriage rates were only observed for Staphylococcus aureus on the foreheads of seropositive individuals. Seronegative individuals demonstrated staphylococcal carriage rates 1.3 to 2 times as great as those of historical controls (defined as healthy individuals not receiving any medications) at five of six body sites. We conclude that seropositive military personnel do not exhibit statistically significant elevations in densities and carriage rates of the microorganisms examined (except Staphylococcus aureus), relative to seronegative individuals. Seropositive individuals may be predisposed to staphylococcal carriage. The elevated staphylococcal carriage rates of military personnel undergoing basic training warrants a formal evaluation of the impact of training exercises on cutaneous flora. The information gained may serve to limit the spread of infection during training exercises and battlefield conditions. PMID:10970352

  9. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus treated with topical mupirocin (pseudomonic acid) in a children's hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Frank; W. Lenz; E. Damrath; I. Kappstein; F. D. Daschner

    1989-01-01

    textabstract2% mupirocin ointment applied intra-nasally for 5 days was assessed for elimination of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in 31 staff members in a children's hospital. Three volunteers failed to complete the trial because of side effects, i.e. buccal reddening and swelling, and

  10. Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Children in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Emma K.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kumar, Varun; Amornchai, Premjit; Wongdeethai, Nattavut; Chheng, Kheng; Chantratita, Narisara; Putchhat, Hor; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A prospective cohort study of MRSA carriage conducted over one month at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, identified MRSA carriage in 87 (3.5%) of 2,485 children who came to the outpatient department, and 6 (4.1%) of 145 inpatients, including at least two with cases of nosocomial acquisition. Genotyping of all 93 MRSA isolates resolved 5 genotypes. Most (91%) isolates were assigned to sequence type 834. Only 28 (32%) of 87 MRSA carriers identified in the outpatient department had no history of recent healthcare contact. The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited. PMID:21292906

  11. [Prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. An international view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita

    2016-07-03

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens of healthcare and long-term care-associated infections over the world, resulting high morbidity, mortality and extra costs in these settings. The authors analyze the prevalence and predisposing factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term care facilities. Systematic review using PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015 was performed. In the past ten years methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in European long-term care facilities (12.6%) was lower than in North America (33.9%). The most frequent predisposing factor was previous antimicrobial therapy, hospital admission and infection/colonisation, chronic wounds, and high care need. Based on the results, the prevention and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an important public health priority in the European and Hungarian long-term care facilities.

  12. Prospective Study of Infection, Colonization and Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in an Outbreak Affecting 990 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Coello; J. Jimenez (Jose); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Arroyo; D. Minguez; C. Fernandez; F. Cruzet; C. Gaspar

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the three years between November 1989 and October 1992, an outbreak of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) affected 990 patients at a university hospital. The distribution of patients with carriage, colonization or infection was investigated prospectively. Nosocomial

  13. Nasal carriage of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy population of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nasal colonisation with community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is being increasingly reported, especially in places where people are in close contact and where hygiene is compromised. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA colonising anterior nares of healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs of healthy subjects were collected aseptically and cultured using standard microbiological protocols. Antibiotic susceptibility was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Methicillin resistance was detected by cefoxitin disc diffusion method and confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and amplification of mecA gene by PCR. Strain typing of MRSA strains was done by PFGE. Results: Out of 820 samples, S.aureus was isolated from 229 (27.92% subjects. Of the 229 isolates, 15 were methicillin resistant. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Nasal carriage of MRSA was found to be 1.83% among healthy population. The isolates were found to be polyclonal by PFGE analysis. Conclusion: High prevalence of MRSA is a cause of concern and strategies to interrupt transmission should be implemented.

  14. Nasal carriers are more likely to acquire exogenous Staphylococcus aureus strains than non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh-Moghaddam, H; Neela, V; van Wamel, W; Hamat, R A; Shamsudin, M Nor; Hussin, N Suhaila Che; Aziz, M N; Haspani, M S Mohammad; Johar, A; Thevarajah, S; Vos, M; van Belkum, A

    2015-11-01

    We performed a prospective observational study in a clinical setting to test the hypothesis that prior colonization by a Staphylococcus aureus strain would protect, by colonization interference or other processes, against de novo colonization and, hence, possible endo-infections by newly acquired S. aureus strains. Three hundred and six patients hospitalized for >7 days were enrolled. For every patient, four nasal swabs (days 1, 3, 5, and 7) were taken, and patients were identified as carriers when a positive nasal culture for S. aureus was obtained on day 1 of hospitalization. For all patients who acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus via colonization and/or infection during hospitalization, strains were collected. We note that our study may suffer from false-negative cultures, local problems with infection control and hospital hygiene, or staphylococcal carriage at alternative anatomical sites. Among all patients, 22% were prior carriers of S. aureus, including 1.9% whom carried MRSA upon admission. The overall nasal staphylococcal carriage rate among dermatology patients was significantly higher than that among neurosurgery patients (n = 25 (55.5%) vs. n = 42 (16.1%), p 0.005). This conclusion held when the carriage definition included individuals who were nasal culture positive on day 1 and day 3 of hospitalization (p 0.0001). All MRSA carriers were dermatology patients. There was significantly less S. aureus acquisition among non-carriers than among carriers during hospitalization (p 0.005). The mean number of days spent in the hospital before experiencing MRSA acquisition in nasal carriers was 5.1, which was significantly lower than the score among non-carriers (22 days, p 0.012). In conclusion, we found that nasal carriage of S. aureus predisposes to rather than protects against staphylococcal acquisition in the nose, thereby refuting our null hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical

  15. Assessment of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and Axillar Flora in Patients With Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, Ramazan; Horasan, Elif Şahin; Çinkir, Ümit; Sezer, Kerem; Akbay, Esen

    2017-05-01

    Recent study showed that patients with acromegaly have typical skin findings including increased sebum secretion, decreased transepidermal water loss, more alkaline, and colder skin surface correlated with serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. Different anatomic localizations and texture of the skin differ in bacterial concentrations.Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and axillar flora in patients with acromegaly was compared with normal population with regard to duration of acromegaly as well as the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. This patient-control prospective study was conducted in university hospitals in Mersin, Turkey. The study consisted of 30 active acromegalic patients and 60 healthy adults who had no previously diagnosed chronic illness as a control group. A total of 90 volunteers were enrolled in this study; nasal and axillar cultures were obtained. Axillar and nasal specimens from anterior nares of the individuals were taken using sterile swabs. Nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.3% in acromegalic patients, but 43.4% in control group. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.004). Patients and control group compared according to axillar cultures, the authors determined proteus colonization 16.7% in patients with acromegaly but no proteus colonization in control group. This result was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Proteus colonization was negatively correlated only with disease duration in acromegalic patients (P = 0.017). The authors demonstrated that compared with healthy subjects, acromegalic patients had low percentage of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and more gram-negative basili in the axillar flora. These nasal and axillar flora changes should be considered for prophylactic antibiotics use before surgery and ampiric antibiotics use after surgery.

  16. Mupirocin Ointment with and without Chlorhexidine Baths in the Eradication of Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Carriage in Nursing Home Residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; C. Axelson; B. Bota; C. Stahl

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMupirocin ointment has been shown to be effective in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in residents of a long- term care facility. Antiseptic soaps have been used as adjunct to this therapy. We compared the efficacy of short-term intranasal mupirocin ointment with and

  17. Predictive value and cost-effectiveness analysis of a rapid polymerase chain reaction for preoperative detection of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabin K; Shermock, Kenneth M; Gordon, Steven M; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Cwynar, Roberta E; Banbury, Michael K; Longworth, David L; Isada, Carlos M; Mawhorter, Steven D; Procop, Gary W

    2003-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical specimens. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY: This occurred in a tertiary-care hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, and included 239 consecutive patients who were scheduled for a cardiothoracic surgical procedure. Conventional cultures and a PCR for S. aureus from nasal swabs were used as measurements. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS: Data sources were market prices and Bureau of Labor Statistics. The time horizon was the maximum period for availability of culture results (3 days). Interventions included universal mupirocin therapy without testing; initial therapy, with termination if PCR negative (treat-PCR); initial therapy, with termination if culture negative (treat-culture); treat PCR-positive carriers (PCR-guided treatment); and treat culture-positive carriers (culture-guided treatment). The perspective was institutional and costs and the length of time to treatment were outcome measures. Sixty-seven (28%) of the 239 swabs grew S. aureus. Rapid PCR was 97.0% sensitive and 97.1% specific for the detection of S. aureus. For populations with prevalences of nasal S. aureus carriage of up to 50%, the PCR assay had negative predictive values of greater than 97%. PCR-guided treatment had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (1.93 dollars per additional day compared with the culture strategy). Among immediate treatment strategies, treat-PCR was most cost-effective. The universal therapy strategy cost 38.19 dollars more per additional day gained with carrier identification compared with the PCR strategy. Rapid real-time PCR is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method for identifying S. aureus carriers for preoperative intervention.

  18. Nasal carriage of a single clone of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among kindergarten attendees in northern Taiwan

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    Lee Shih-Yi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To evaluate the prevalence and microbiological characterization of community-acquired (CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal carriage in a kindergarten. Methods: Point prevalence study. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy children younger than 7 years of age who were attending a kindergarten in Taipei, Taiwan. A parent questionnaire regarding MRSA risk factors was administered simultaneously. All CA-MRSA colonization isolates were archived for subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing. Results: Of the 68 children who participated in the study, 17 (25% had S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs. Nine (13.2% of the 68 children had CA-MRSA carriage, and none of them had any identified risk factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed all of the 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates had uniformly high resistance (100% to both clindamycin and erythromycin, the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-constitutive phenotype and the ermB gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed 8 (88.9% of 9 CA-MRSA colonization isolates were genetically related and multilocus sequence typing revealed all isolates had sequence type 59. All of the colonization isolates carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV, but none were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a single predominant CA-MRSA colonization strain featuring high clindamycin resistance circulated in this kindergarten. Additionally, due to the established transmissibility of colonization isolates, the high prevalence of nasal carriage of CA-MRSA among healthy attendees in kindergartens may indicate the accelerated spread of CA-MRSA in the community.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin‑resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage inpatients in a tertiary care hospital's chest clinic in Turkey. ... of the participants and risk factors for carriage. Fisher's exact test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. A P < 0.05 ...

  20. MRSA carriage in the equine community: an investigation of horse-caretaker couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eede, A; Martens, A; Floré, K; Denis, O; Gasthuys, F; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Abeele, A; Hermans, K

    2013-05-03

    Equine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage entails a risk of both equine and zoonotic transmission and infection. In Europe, CC398, the livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA is highly prevalent in horses and veterinary personnel at equine clinics. The extent of the MRSA reservoir created by healthy horses from the general population and associated health hazard for their daily caretakers is, however, unknown. This study aimed at screening healthy horse-caretaker couples from a broad range of home farms. At five equine gatherings, 166 couples were selected for MRSA screening in the anterior nares and participation in an epidemiologic survey. All MRSA isolates were subjected to genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Only 4 humans (2.4%) and 2 of their horses (1.2%) tested MRSA positive. Within the 2 couples where both partners were positive, man and horse carried isolates belonging to identical, livestock-associated spa types (t011 and t2330) and demonstrating equal antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. For all LA-MRSA positive humans (n=3) and animals (n=2) regular (in)direct contact with the veterinary sector was reported. A significant association between the horses' carriage status and transportation to an event could not be demonstrated (P=1.00). In conclusion, outside equine clinics, the extent of the MRSA reservoir in horses and their caretakers was low. Travel to an equine gathering could not be withheld as a risk factor for equine MRSA carriage, whereas indications were found that contact with veterinary care may predispose both healthy horses and their handlers to carriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan: prevalence rate, molecular characterization and de-colonization

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    Kang Yu-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin resistant (MRSA, is a common pathogen among patients receiving hemodialysis. To evaluate nasal carriage, molecular characterization and effectiveness of decolonization of MRSA among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan, we conducted this study. Methods From January to June 2011, two nasal samplings with a 3-month interval were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis in a medical center (CGMH, and in a local hospital (YMH and sent for detection of MRSA. For MRSA carriers, decolonization procedures were administered. All patients in CGMH were observed if MRSA infections occurred during the study period. Results A total of 529 nasal specimens (265 from CGMH and 264 from YMH were collected from 296 patients (161 from CGMH and 135 from YMH. 233 patients participated in both surveys. Average one-time point MRSA carriage rate was 3.8%, and the rate was up to 6.9% for those with two-time point surveys. No additional significant factor for MRSA carriage was identified. Seventy percent of the 20 colonizing MRSA isolates, though categorized as healthcare-associated strains epidemiologically, shared common molecular characteristics of the local community-associated strains. Only one of the 20 MRSA-colonized patients failed decolonization and had persistent colonization, while without any intervention, 17 (61% of 28 patients with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonization in the first survey had persistent colonization of a genetically indistinguishable strain. Within the study period, two patients (1.24% in CGMH, one with MRSA colonization (9.1%, developed MRSA infection. Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan had MRSA colonization, mostly genetically community strains. Decolonization procedures may effectively eliminate MRSA colonization and might reduce subsequent MRSA infection in these patients.

  2. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Mulat; Tiruneh, Moges; Moges, Feleke; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2012-10-02

    Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student's cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%). The majority (67.5%) of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18-39 years. One hundred ninety four (97%) of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5%) food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8%) was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%), Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5), Taenia species 1(0.5%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%). The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler's training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  3. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnew Mulat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food borne disease are major health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food establishments could be potential sources of disease due to pathogenic organisms. However; information on disease prevalence among food handlers working in University of Gondar cafeterias are very scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, their drug resistance pattern and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. Method A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in University of Gondar student’s cafeterias. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Nasal swab and stool were investigated for S. aureus and intestinal parasites; respectively as per the standard of the laboratory methods. Results Among 200 food handlers, females comprised 171(85.5%. The majority (67.5% of the food-handlers were young adults aged 18–39 years. One hundred ninety four (97% of the food handlers were not certified as a food handler. Forty one (20.5% food handlers were positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus, of these 4(9.8% was resistant for methicilin. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent parasites 22 (11%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 13(6.5%, Entamoeba histolytica 12 (6%, Strongyloides stercolaris (0.5, Taenia species 1(0.5% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.5%. Conclusion The finding stressed that food handlers with different pathogenic micro organisms may pose significant risk on the consumers. Higher officials should implement food handler’s training on food safety, periodic medical checkup and continuous monitoring of personal hygiene of food handlers.

  4. Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in urban and rural community settings in Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Segundo, Higinio; Monasterio, Joaquin; Rodriguez, Hugo; Cabezas, César; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in rural and urban community settings of Bolivia and Peru. MRSA nasal carriage was investigated in 585 individuals living in rural and urban areas of Bolivia and Peru (one urban area, one small rural village, and two native communities, one of which was highly isolated). MRSA isolates were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of virulence genes, characterization of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and genotyping (multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)). An overall very low prevalence of MRSA nasal carriage was observed (0.5%), with MRSA carriers being detected only in a small rural village of the Bolivian Chaco. The three MRSA isolates showed the characteristics of community-associated MRSA (being susceptible to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics and harboring the SCCmec type IV), were clonally related, and belonged to ST1649. This study provides an insight into the epidemiology of MRSA in community settings of Bolivia and Peru. Reliable, time-saving, and low-cost methods should be implemented to encourage continued surveillance of MRSA dissemination in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus carriage in older populations in community residential care homes: Prevalence and molecular characterization of MRSA isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; Pérez-Eslava, Maria; Machuca, Jesús; Trujillo-Soto, Teresa; Arca-Suarez, Jorge; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2018-06-20

    The epidemiology of S. aureus depends on conditions in specific populations. Few studies of S. aureus colonization in the older population have been performed in Spain. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization and its molecular epidemiological characteristics in an institutionalized population in community residential care homes in Cadiz, Spain. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in three residential care homes for older people. Axilla and nostril samples were tested. Identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were by MALDI-TOF and MicroScan panels. MRSA strains were subjected to SCCmec typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes was determined by PCR in all S. aureus strains. A total of 293 residents were included. Fifty-one residents (17.4%) were colonized with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 11 (3.8%) with MRSA. Resistance to at least two aminoglycosides was observed in 25.4% of MSSA and 90.9% and of MRSA isolates, and resistance to levofloxacin in 80.3% of MSSA and 100% of MRSA isolates. SCCmecIV was detected in all isolates and all except one (ST-125) were ST-8. None of the S. aureus isolates were positive for PVL. A low rate of S. aureus carriage was detected and the prevalence of MRSA was very low. ST8-MRSA-IVc was the dominant clone, and only one strain belonged to ST125-MRSA-IVc. We found MRSA transmission within the residential care homes and a very high rate of quinolone resistance in MSSA and MRSA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-30

    Dec 30, 2014 ... substantially enhancing nasal colonization, lung disease and abscess formation and promoting mechanisms of immune evasion.[7]. Antimicrobial ... nasal carriage, investigation of risk factors, and virulence traits among ...

  7. Staphylococcus aureus carriage and infections among patients in four haemo- and peritoneal-dialysis centres in Denmark. The Danish Study Group of Peritonitis in Dialysis (DASPID)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimakoff, J; Bangsgaard Pedersen, F; Bergen, L

    1996-01-01

    A three-month prospective surveillance study was undertaken in four dialysis centres to establish the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in a Danish population of patients on haemodialysis (HD) or on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). General data such as sex, age.......4 and 4.7%). Approximately one third (36.6 and 40.7%) of infections were caused by S. aureus. Although diabetics were not significantly more frequent carriers (60.5%) than non-diabetics (55.0%), the incidence of infection was much higher (26.3% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.004). In CAPD, peritonitis and tunnel...

  8. The microbiology of impetigo in indigenous children: associations between Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, scabies, and nasal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Chatfield, Mark D; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-12-31

    Impetigo is caused by both Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus; the relative contributions of each have been reported to fluctuate with time and region. While S. aureus is reportedly on the increase in most industrialised settings, S. pyogenes is still thought to drive impetigo in endemic, tropical regions. However, few studies have utilised high quality microbiological culture methods to confirm this assumption. We report the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of impetigo pathogens recovered in a randomised, controlled trial of impetigo treatment conducted in remote Indigenous communities of northern Australia. Each child had one or two sores, and the anterior nares, swabbed. All swabs were transported in skim milk tryptone glucose glycogen broth and frozen at -70°C, until plated on horse blood agar. S. aureus and S. pyogenes were confirmed with latex agglutination. From 508 children, we collected 872 swabs of sores and 504 swabs from the anterior nares prior to commencement of antibiotic therapy. S. pyogenes and S. aureus were identified together in 503/872 (58%) of sores; with an additional 207/872 (24%) sores having S. pyogenes and 81/872 (9%) S. aureus, in isolation. Skin sore swabs taken during episodes with a concurrent diagnosis of scabies were more likely to culture S. pyogenes (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 - 4.4, p = 0.03). Eighteen percent of children had nasal carriage of skin pathogens. There was no association between the presence of S. aureus in the nose and skin. Methicillin-resistance was detected in 15% of children who cultured S. aureus from either a sore or their nose. There was no association found between the severity of impetigo and the detection of a skin pathogen. S. pyogenes remains the principal pathogen in tropical impetigo; the relatively high contribution of S. aureus as a co-pathogen has also been confirmed. Children with scabies were more likely to have S. pyogenes detected. While clearance of S. pyogenes is the key

  9. Contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and its carriage by biomedical students: point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Â; Martins da Costa, P; Rego, D; Beça, N; Alves, C; Moreira, T; Conceição, T; Aires-de-Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the contamination of public transports by Staphylococcus aureus and assess its carriage by biomedical students, focussing on the point-prevalence, related risk factors and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant strains. Cross-sectional survey. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from handrails of buses (n = 112) and trains (n = 79) circulating in Porto and from nasal swabs of local university students (n = 475) were quantified, characterized by molecular typing methods and related to possible risk factors. The MRSA prevalence in buses (16.1%) was not significantly different from trains (8.9%). There was also no identifiable association between the counts of MSSA and MRSA in buses and trains and the number of travellers in each sampling day, specific routes (including those passing by main hospitals) or other risk factors. Of the students, 37.1% carried S. aureus, and having a part-time job or smoking were found to be risk factors for carriage. EMRSA-15 (ST22-SCCmecIVh) was the prevalent MRSA clonal lineage, found not only in the buses (n = 14) and trains (n = 2) but also in the single MRSA-carrier among the students. The characteristics of the community-associated Southwest Pacific MRSA clone were found in a single ST30-IVa isolate, which may suggest a recent SCCmec acquisition by an MSSA background in the community. The spread of EMRSA-15, a common hospital-associated lineage, among different public transports and as a nasal coloniser is of concern and warrants adequate public health control measures. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  11. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  12. Nasal carriage of mecA-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs exhibits dose-response to zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Scott, Harvey M; Nitikanchana, Sureemas; Vinasco, Javier; Tokach, Mike D; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Goodband, Robert D; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2015-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is often supplemented at elevated concentrations in swine diets, particularly in piglets, to prevent enteric infections and promote growth. Previous studies from Denmark have suggested a genetic linkage and a phenotypic association between Zn resistance, encoded by czrC, and methicillin-resistance conferred by mecA in Staphylococcus aureus. Such an association has not been reported in the U.S. swine population. We conducted an analysis of the effects of Zn, supplemented as zinc oxide (ZnO), on the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursery (n=40) and finisher pigs (n=40) enrolled in a nutritional study. Nasal swabs, collected from nursery and finisher pigs, were inoculated onto MRSA CHROMagar and presumptive MRSA colonies were tested for the presence of mecA and czrC genes by polymerase chain reaction. Zinc susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. The prevalence of mecA-positive MRSA was 10% (4/40) and 20% (8/40) among nursery and finisher pigs, respectively. Of the 12 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, 7 had the czrC gene (58.3%) compared to none among the 68 mecA-negative isolates. The presence of both mecA (p=0.002) and czrC (p=0.006) genes were positively associated with higher levels of Zn supplementation. The median minimum inhibitory concentrations of Zn for czrC-positive and czrC-negative isolates were 12 and 2 mM, respectively (presistance among S. aureus in pigs.

  13. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G

    2013-01-01

    on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  14. Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras, F; Guerrero, M C; Bouza, E; Blázquez, M J; Moreno, S; Menarguez, M C; Cercenado, E

    1995-01-01

    Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal carriers of MRSA. The eradication rates with mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days were 93 and of 93, 100 and 100, 97 and 94, 100 and 92, 96 and 95, and 78 and 71%, respectively, for nasal carriage. At 7, 14, and 28 days the eradication rates for extranasal carriage by the two regimens were 23 and 74, 83 and 76, and 45 and 69%, respectively. The efficacies and safety of both regimens were similar. The MRSA isolates were not resistant to the study drugs either at the baseline or at follow-up. These results suggest that mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid, both used in conjunction with a chlorhexidine soap bath, are equally effective and safe for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal MRSA carriers. Mupirocin was easier to use but was more expensive. PMID:7695302

  15. Longitudinal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in indigenous Australian and Alaska native children with bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M Hare

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. METHODS: Indigenous children aged 0.5-8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79 and Alaska (n = 41 were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004-8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005-6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children; these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004-6 to 11% in 2010. While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs, in a 'cumulative dose-response' relationship

  16. Nasal carriage of methicilli-resistant staphylococcus aureus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected from anterior nares of fifty healthy adults in Zaria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns determined. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while 20% were methicillin-susceptible. The isolates were generally resistant to multiple ...

  17. Naso- and oropharyngeal bacterial carriage in nursing home residents: Impact of multimorbidity and functional impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kwetkat

    Full Text Available From April 2013 to February 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cross-sectional study in 541 German nursing home residents. We determined pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (primary objective and other bacteria (secondary objective in naso- and oropharyngeal swabs by culture-based standard procedures and explored the influence of multimorbidity and functional status on bacterial carriage.Socio-demographic data, vaccination status, multimorbidity, nutrition and functional status defined by Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were evaluated. We estimated carriage rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI and explored potential risk factors by logistic regression analysis.Pneumococcal post-serotyping carriage rate was 0.8% (95%CI 0.2-1.9%; 4/526. Serotyping revealed serotypes 4, 7F, 23B and 23F and S. pseudopneumoniae in two other cases. Odds of carriage were higher in men (Odds ratio OR 5.3 (95%CI 0.9-29.4, in malnourished residents (OR 4.6 (0.8-25.7, residents living in shared rooms (OR 3.0 (0.5-16.5 or having contact with schoolchildren (OR 2.0 (0.2-17.6. The most frequent pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (prevalence 29.5% (25.6-33.6% with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence of 1.1%. Gram-negative bacteria (GNB were found in 22.5% (19.0-26.3% with a prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL producing bacteria of 0.8%. Odds of S. aureus carriage were higher for immobility (OR 1.84 (1.15-2.93 and cognitive impairment (OR 1.54 (0.98-2.40. Odds of GNB carriage were higher in residents with more severe comorbidity (OR 1.13 (1.00-1.28 and malnutrition (OR 1.54 (0.81-2.91.Given the observed data, at least long-term carriage of S. pneumoniae in nursing home residents seems to be rare and rather unlikely to cause nursing home acquired pneumonia. The low rate of colonization with multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria confirms that nursing home residency is not a risk factor for MDR pneumonia in Germany. For

  18. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus harboring the mecA or Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes in hospitals in Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Lestari, Endang S; Farida, Helmia; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Hadi, Purnomo; Winarto, Winarto; Milheiriço, Catarina; Maquelin, Kees; Willemse-Erix, Diana; van Belkum, Alex; Severin, Juliëtte A; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-04-01

    Data of Staphylococcus aureus carriage in Indonesian hospitals are scarce. Therefore, the epidemiology of S. aureus among surgery patients in three academic hospitals in Indonesia was studied. In total, 366 of 1,502 (24.4%) patients carried S. aureus. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage rate was 4.3%, whereas 1.5% of the patients carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Semarang and Malang city (odds ratio [OR] 9.4 and OR 9.0), being male (OR 2.4), hospitalization for more than 5 days (OR 11.708), and antibiotic therapy during hospitalization (OR 2.6) were independent determinants for MRSA carriage, whereas prior hospitalization (OR 2.5) was the only one risk factor for PVL-positive MSSA carriage. Typing of MRSA strains by Raman spectroscopy showed three large clusters assigned type 21, 24, and 38, all corresponding to ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III. In conclusion, MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA are present among patients in surgical wards in Indonesian academic hospitals.

  19. Nasal and hand carriage of bacteria in different groups of persons in a teaching hospital in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Ganguly

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available 275 persons of different categories were studiedfor nasal and hand carnage of different pathogenic bacteria. Overall carriage rate was 54.5%. Doc­tors and paramedical staff had higher bacterial carriage rate in comparison to other groups. Though Staphylococcus aureus iwu the commonest or­ganism isolated from both nose and skin, earners of Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas and Klebsiella group ofgramnegative bacilli was also observed. Nasal carrier were commonest than dermal carriage

  20. Nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Iranian healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaneini, Mohammad; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Rahdar, Hosseinali; Leeuwen, Willem B van; Beigverdi, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Globally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and the environment may act as reservoirs for the spread of MRSA to patients and other HCWs. Screening and eradication of MRSA colonization is an effective method of reducing the MRSA infection rate. There are limited data on the prevalence of MRSA among Iranian HCWs. We performed a systematic search by using different electronic databases including Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, and Iranian Databases (from January 2000 to July 2016). Meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Biostat V2.2) software. The meta-analyses showed that the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among HCWs were 22.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 19.3-26.6] and 32.8% (95% CI: 26.0-40.4) respectively. The high rate of nasal MRSA carriage among Iranian HCWs has been attributed to poor compliance to hand hygiene, injudicious use of antibiotics, and ineffective infection control and prevention measures. The rational use of antibiotics plus strict infection control are the main pillars for controlling multidrug resistant microorganisms such as MRSA in the hospital setting. These measurements should be applied nationally.

  1. A study of the intestinal carriage of antibiotic resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: 14.0% of the faecal samples yielded S. aureus with the carriage rate among the subjects being found to be highest at about 1 month approximately in subjected ages. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were found to be resistant to more than three different antibiotics with more than 50% being resistant to penicillin, ...

  2. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  3. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Rozemeijer

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8 conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA and manganese transporter C (MntC is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27 or bloodstream (24 infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  4. Evaluation of approaches to monitor Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor expression during human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, Wouter; Fink, Pamela; Rojas, Eduardo; Jones, C Hal; Pavliakova, Danka; Giardina, Peter; Murphy, Ellen; Liberator, Paul; Jiang, Qin; Girgenti, Douglas; Peters, Remco P H; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen of medical significance, using multiple virulence factors to cause disease. A prophylactic S. aureus 4-antigen (SA4Ag) vaccine comprising capsular polysaccharide (types 5 and 8) conjugates, clumping factor A (ClfA) and manganese transporter C (MntC) is under development. This study was designed to characterize S. aureus isolates recovered from infected patients and also to investigate approaches for examining expression of S. aureus vaccine candidates and the host response during human infection. Confirmation of antigen expression in different disease states is important to support the inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine. Hospitalized patients with diagnosed S. aureus wound (27) or bloodstream (24) infections were enrolled. Invasive and nasal carriage S. aureus isolates were recovered and characterized for genotypic diversity. S. aureus antigen expression was evaluated directly by real-time, quantitative, reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and indirectly by serology using a competitive Luminex immunoassay. Study isolates were genotypically diverse and all had the genes encoding the antigens present in the SA4Ag vaccine. S. aureus nasal carriage was detected in 55% of patients, and in those subjects 64% of the carriage isolates matched the invasive strain. In swab samples with detectable S. aureus triosephosphate isomerase housekeeping gene expression, RNA transcripts encoding the S. aureus virulence factors ClfA, MntC, and capsule polysaccharide were detected by qRT-PCR. Antigen expression was indirectly confirmed by increases in antibody titer during the course of infection from acute to convalescent phase. Demonstration of bacterial transcript expression together with immunological response to the SA4Ag antigens in a clinically relevant patient population provides support for inclusion of these antigens in a prophylactic vaccine.

  5. Mupirocin prophylaxis against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infections in nonsurgical patients: a randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Vos (Margreet); A. Ott (Alewijn); A. Voss (Andreas); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); M.H.M. Meester (Marlene); P.H.J. van Keulen (Peter); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is a major risk factor for nosocomial S. aureus infection. Studies show that intranasal mupirocin can prevent nosocomial surgical site infections. No data are available on the efficacy of mupirocin in nonsurgical

  6. Risk factors assessment for nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus and its methicillin resistant strains among pre-clinical medical students of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shamshul; Gautam, Rajendra; Shrestha, Sony; Ansari, Safiur Rahman; Subedi, Shankar Nanda; Chhetri, Muni Raj

    2016-04-12

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a normal flora of nasal cavity, can cause minor to life threatening invasive diseases and nosocomial infections. Methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus are causing a great challenge for treatment options. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, its methicillin resistant strains and risk factors in medical students prior to clinical exposure. The bacterial growth of S. aureus from nasal swab culture was identified by using standard microbiological methods recommended by American Society for Microbiology. Modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing and methicillin resistance was confirmed using cefoxitin and oxacillin disks. D-zone test method was used to determine the inducible clindamycin resistance. Among 200 participants, nasal carriage of S. aureus was detected from 30 (15%) subjects. Upper respiratory tract infections significantly (P aureus and their methicillin resistant strains. All of the isolates were reported to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. S. aureus strains detected from 8 (4%) students were confirmed to be methicillin resistant. The result of our study demands for strict policy to screen all the students for nasal carriage of S. aureus and its MRSA strains to minimize the transmission of this organism from community to hospital settings.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  8. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  9. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Wittink, Floyd R; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; van Putten, Jos P; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Fluit, Ad C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  10. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from personnel in a poultry hatchery and in broiler parent farms with those isolated from skeletal disease in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J D; McCullagh, J J; McNamee, P T; Smyth, J A; Ball, H J

    1999-09-15

    Personnel from one broiler hatchery, and workers on 18 separate broiler parent farms which supply the hatchery, were tested for hand and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. In both locations, nasal carriage of S. aureus was more common than hand carriage. A total of 63 S. aureus strains were characterised by biotyping, protein A analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Of these, 36 were recovered from broiler hatchery personnel, 14 from broiler parent farm personnel and 13 from cases of skeletal disease in commercial broilers. Biotyping and protein A analysis indicated that none of the strains recovered from hatchery personnel were of the poultry biotype, but that two strains recovered from the hands of two broiler parent farm personnel could be grouped together with 12/13 of strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers, as poultry biotypes. PFGE-typing could not distinguish 9/13 strains recovered from skeletal disease in broilers and one of the strains from the broiler parent farm personnel from isolate 24 (I. 24), which is the predominant S. aureus strain type associated with clinical disease in N. Ireland broiler flocks. The present study found no evidence of nasal carriage of S. aureus strains of poultry biotype by humans. The finding of hand carriage by broiler parent farm personnel, suggests that handling by personnel may contribute to the dissemination of I. 24 or other S. aureus strains associated with skeletal disease in broilers.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-05

    Sep 5, 2015 ... Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA/MRSA) carriage among patients admitted to a chest clinic of a .... transport swab and sent to Erciyes University Halil Bayraktar .... admission among patients cared for at a 1000‑bedded public.

  12. Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Stewart, Jill; Larsen, Jesper; Nachman, Keeve E; Love, Dave C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Strelitz, Jean; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. Methods Workers anticipating at least 24 h away from work were enrolled June–August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2–7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn. Results Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49 h; range >0–96 h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates. Conclusions Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. PMID:25200855

  13. Sustained low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus upon admission to hospital in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, L. G. M.; Wertheim, H. F. L.; Kluytmans, J. A. J. W.; Bogaers-Hofman, D.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.; Roosendaal, R.; Troelstra, A.; Box, A. T. A.; Voss, A.; van Belkum, A.; Verbrugh, H. A.; Vos, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage at hospital admission in The Netherlands was 0.03% in 1999-2000. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the prevalence of MRSA carriage in The Netherlands has changed over the last few years. In five Dutch

  14. Livestock-associated MRSA ST398 carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers related to quantitative environmental exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.; Bos, M.E.H.; Duim, B.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Heres, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage among workers in pig slaughterhouses and assess associated risk factors, including occupational exposure to LA-MRSA. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in three Dutch pig slaughterhouses was

  15. Hospital clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are carried by medical students even before healthcare exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Orlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains are prevalent in healthcare and the community. Few studies have examined MRSA carriage among medical students. The aim of this study is to examine Staphylococcus aureus (SA carriage, and particular MRSA, over time in cohort medical students Methods Prospective collection of nasal swabs from medical students in Israel and assessment of SA carriage. Three samples were taken per student in preclinical and clinical parts of studies. Antibiotic susceptibilities were recorded and MRSA typing was performed by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types, Panton Valentine Leukocidin (PVL encoding genes, and spa types. Clonality was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results Among 58 students, SA carriage rates increased from 33% to 38% to 41% at baseline (preclinical studies, 13 and 19 months (clinical studies, respectively (p = 0.07. Methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA carriage increased in the clinical studies period (22 to 41%, p = 0.01. Overall, seven students (12% carried 13 MRSA isolates. MRSA isolates were PVL negative and were characterized as SCCmecII-t002, SCCmecIV-t032, or t12435 with untypable SCCmec. MRSA carriage during the pre-clinical studies was evident in 4/7 students. Two students carried different MRSA clones at various times and persistent MRSA carriage was noted in one student. Simultaneous carriage of MRSA and MSSA was not detected. Conclusions MSSA carriage increased during the clinical part of studies in Israeli medical students. Compared with previous reports, higher rates of MRSA carriage were evident. MRSA strains were genotypically similar to Israeli healthcare-associated clones; however, carriage occurred largely before healthcare exposure, implying community-acquisition of hospital strains.

  16. Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Stewart, Jill; Larsen, Jesper; Nachman, Keeve E; Love, Dave C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Strelitz, Jean; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. Workers anticipating at least 24 h away from work were enrolled June-August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2-7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn. Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49 h; range >0-96 h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates. Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Implantation of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum for elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the nasal cavity in volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Kiryukhina, Nataliya

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a well-documented risk factor of infection and inflammation of the skin, soft tissues and bacteremia. It is also known that most often etiology of these disorders is associated with autoinfection. The present-day methods of opportunistic pathogens eradication from the nasal cavity are based principally on the use of antiseptic and antibacterial agents. For instance, a local antibiotic mupirocin in the form of nasal ointment is considered to be the gold standard for the treatment of S. aureus carriage. The literature describes investigations showing how mupirocin can strengthen antibiotic resistance in S. aureus strains, including those with methicillin resistance (MRSA). It is also common knowledge that recolonization of the nasal mucous membrane takes place within several months after mupirocin treatment. This circumstance dictates the necessity to look for alternative ways of preventing the S. aureus carriage and methods of elimination. One of the methods of nasal S. aureus elimination is implantation of nonpathogenic microorganisms which will extrude opportunistic pathogens without impinging the symbiotic microbiota. Effectiveness of saline suspension of Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum containing spray was assessed in a several chamber experiments with simulation of some spaceflight factors (dry immersion, isolation). Various schemes of application of preparations were applied. In all cases of corynebacteria application the strong inhibiting effect against S. aureus was detected. This fact opens a prospect of using nonpathogenic corynebacteria as a nasal probiotic. Administration of the nasal corynebacteria spray possibly prevented cross-infection by MRSA and appearance of staphylococcal infection. Further pre-clinical and clinical study of this bacterial therapy method is under development.

  18. Carriage frequency, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dental health-care personnel, patients, and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairalla, Ahmed S; Wasfi, Reham; Ashour, Hossam M

    2017-08-07

    There is limited data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in dental clinics. 1300 specimens from patients, health personnel, and environmental surfaces of a dental clinic in Egypt were tested for MRSA. Antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, SCCmec typing, and PCR-based assays were used to detect mecA, mecC, vanA, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin toxin (PVL), and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst) genes. Among 34 mecA-positive MRSA isolates, five (14.7%) were PVL-positive, seventeen (50%) were tst-positive, ten (29.4%) were vanA-positive, while none harboured mecC. MRSA hand carriage rates in patients, nurses, and dentists were 9.8%, 6.6%, and 5%. The respective nasal colonization rates were 11.1%, 6.7%, and 9.7%. 1.3% of the environmental isolates were MRSA-positive. Strong and moderate biofilm-forming isolates represented 23.5% and 29.4% of MRSA isolates. 24 MRSA isolates (70.6%) were multi-resistant and 18 (52.9%) harboured SCCmec IV. Among eight spa types, t223 (26.5%), t267 (23.5%), and t14339 (23.5%) were predominant. We noted an alarming genetic relatedness between 7 (20.6%) MRSA isolates and the epidemic EMRSA-15 clone, as well as a combined occurrence of tst and PVL in 3 (8.8%) isolates. Results suggest high MRSA pathogenicity in dental wards highlighting the need for more efficient surveillance/infection control strategies.

  19. Prevalence of nasal portal of Staphylococcus aureus in disabled children.

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    Clotilde Molin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colonization of the nasal mucosa by Staphylococcus aureus set a carrier state. Which is recognized as a potential source of infection and a high risk factor for subsequent invasive infections. The prevalence of nasal carriage of this germ in disabled children in Paraguay is not known, thus contributing to the knowledge of their frequency and evaluate the profile of sensitivity to common antimicrobials was conducted this study, from May to July 2015.  Objective: to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and profile of antimicrobial resistance in disabled children. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in which 80 nasal swabs of children, who attended the service laboratory of SENADIS (Secretaria Nacional por los Derechos Humanos de las Personas con Discapacidad. The identification and sensitivity of germ was accomplished by conventional testing.  Results: 80 pediatric patients, 46 boys and 34 girls. 18 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained, corresponding to a prevalence of 22,5%. Susceptibility testing indicated that 14 strains were MSSA (Methicillin – Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and 4 RMSA ( Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in a population with its own characteristics provides valuable data for the epidemiology, reflecting the need for continued vigilance and take steps to reduce associated infections. The detection of RMAR evidences their progress; it is important to evaluate the empirical treatment to primary care.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of nasal isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Jordan

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    Amin A. Aqel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Asymptomatic carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can predispose the host to a wide range of infections. To inform public health strategies, this study sought to determine the prevalence and the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA from nasal swabs of health care workers (HCWs and other healthy individuals in Jordan. Overall, 716 nasal swabs were collected from 297 HCWs, 141 adults and 278 children in the community. MRSA was recovered from 56 (7.8% nasal swabs, which represented carriage rates of 10.1%, 4.3% and 7.2% among HCWs, adults and children, respectively. The MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin (100%, erythromycin (42.8%, tetracycline (37.5%, clindamycin (5.3%, fucidin (5.3%, and ciprofloxacin (3.5%. A total of 17 different spa types belonging to eight different clonal complexes (CCs were identified. All isolates were mecA positive, and mecC-MRSA was not detected. Analysis of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec elements revealed that the majority (54; 96.4% of the samples harbored the smaller type IV and V elements (the most common were SCCmec IVa or IVc, and there were two each of the IVg and V elements, and two were nontypable. The genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (luk-PV were detected in 5.4% of the study isolates. A tst-positive, CC22-MRSA-SCCmecIVa clone (spa type t223 was identified as the dominant MRSA lineage among the nasal carriage isolates from both HCWs and other individuals (adults and children in the community. These findings provide important information for public health personnel for the formulation of effective infection prevention and control strategies. Studies to further our understanding of the distribution, pathogenicity, transmissibility and fitness of this lineage would be prudent. Keywords: MRSA, Healthcare workers, Healthy individuals, SCCmecIVa

  1. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates That Colonize Medical Students in a Hospital of the City of Cali, Colombia

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    Luis Fernando Collazos Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA represents a risk for the spread of bacteria. This study characterized the S. aureus isolated from medical students, who were in their clinical rotation at a hospital in the city of Cali. Materials and Methods. 216 students participated in the study and 63 isolates of S. aureus were evaluated for susceptibility and PCR amplification of agr and mecA genes. The origin of MRSA isolates was established by analyzing agr polymorphisms. Results. A total of 29.2% of students were colonized by S. aureus and nasal carriage rate was 23.6% and 14.3% MRSA. Three agr groups (agr II, and agr III were identified; the agr I group was the most common, with a 35% prevalence; this group is from community origin. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that medical students carry S. aureus strains, with the threat of spreading them both to community and hospital environments.

  2. Psoriasis and staphylococcus aureus skin colonization in Moroccan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriatic lesions are rarely complicated by recurrent infections. The aim of our study is to determine skin colonisation and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with psoriasis and in healthy persons. Patients and methods: a comparative study that include 33 patients with psoriasis and 33 healthy persons.

  3. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among secondary school students at Duhok City-Iraq

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    Ary Habeeb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA widely distributed in hospitals around the world. There is strong relationship between disease development and S. aureus nasal carriage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of nasal colonization with S. aureus and MRSA in the community of Duhok city, Iraq. Methods: 489 students aged 16 to18 years were included. Nasal swab samples were collected followed by antimicrobial susceptibility test. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for the mecA gene. Also the prevalence of PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL gene was also studied. Results: A total of 90 (18.4% out of 489 (18.4% of the students were found to be colonized by S. aureus . Only 10 (2.04% of the students were found to be MRSA carrier. All MRSA isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin. PLV gene was detected in one MRSA strain. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating S. aureus colonization in students in the Duhok city. Nasal carriage of S. aureus and MRSA is comparable with reports from elsewhere. Fortunately, all trains included in our study were sensitive to vancomycin. Further research is needed to examine the SCCmec elements and the evolution of MRSA over the time. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(2: 59-63

  4. Low anti-staphylococcal IgG responses in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients despite long-term Staphylococcus aureus exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Stobernack, Tim; Omansen, Till F; Raangs, Gerwin; Rossen, John W; de Goffau, Marcus C; Arends, Jan P; Kampinga, Greetje A; Koedijk, Danny; Neef, Jolanda; Buist, Girbe; Tavakol, Mehri; van Wamel, Willem J B; Rutgers, Abraham; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cornelis; Heeringa, Peter; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Chronic nasal carriage of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in patients with the autoimmune disease granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a risk factor for disease relapse. To date, it was neither known whether GPA patients show similar humoral immune responses to S. aureus as healthy

  5. Low anti-staphylococcal IgG responses in granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients despite long-term Staphylococcus aureus exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Glasner (Corinna); M.M. Van Timmeren (Mirjan M.); T. Stobernack (Tim); T.F. Omansen (Till F.); E.C. Raangs (Erwin C.); J.W. Rossen (John); M.C. De Goffau (Marcus C.); J.P.A. Arends (Jan); G.A. Kampinga (Greetje); D.G.A.M. Koedijk (Denny); J. Neef (Jolanda); G. Buist (Girbe); M. Tavakol (Mehri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); A. Rutgers (Abraham); C.A. Stegeman; C.G.M. Kallenberg (Cees G. M.); P. Heeringa (Peter); J.M. Dijl (Jan Maarten)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChronic nasal carriage of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in patients with the autoimmune disease granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a risk factor for disease relapse. To date, it was neither known whether GPA patients show similar humoral immune responses to S. aureus as

  6. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and ...

  7. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other respiratory bacterial pathogens in low and lower-middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Richard A Adegbola

    Full Text Available Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low income countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are still underused. In countries where PCVs have been introduced, much of their efficacy has resulted from their impact on nasopharyngeal carriage in vaccinated children. Understanding the epidemiology of carriage for S. pneumoniae and other common respiratory bacteria in developing countries is crucial for implementing appropriate vaccination strategies and evaluating their impact.We have systematically reviewed published studies reporting nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria meningitidis in children and adults in low and lower-middle income countries. Studies reporting pneumococcal carriage for healthy children <5 years of age were selected for a meta-analysis. The prevalences of carriage for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were generally higher in low income than in lower-middle income countries and were higher in young children than in adults. The prevalence of S. aureus was high in neonates. Meta-analysis of data from young children before the introduction of PCVs showed a pooled prevalence estimate of 64.8% (95% confidence interval, 49.8%-76.1% in low income countries and 47.8% (95% confidence interval, 44.7%-50.8% in lower-middle income countries. The most frequent serotypes were 6A, 6B, 19A, 19F, and 23F.In low and lower-middle income countries, pneumococcal carriage is frequent, especially in children, and the spectrum of serotypes is wide. However, because data are limited, additional studies are needed to adequately assess the impact of PCV introduction on carriage of respiratory bacteria in these countries.

  8. Persistence of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Field Workers after Short-Term Occupational Exposure to Pigs and Veal Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleef, B.A.G.L.; Graveland, H.; Haenen, A.P.J.; van de Giessen, A.W.; Heederik, D.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in pig and veal calf farmers in the Netherlands is estimated at 25 to 35%. However, no information is available about MRSA carriage in humans after short-term occupational exposure to pigs or veal calves. This study

  9. Oral Candida spp carriage and periodontal diseases in HIV-infected patients in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan Grupioni; Ribeiro, Ana Elisa Rodrigues Alves; Nakao, Cristiano; Motta, Ana Carolina Fragoso; Antonio, Luana Grupioni Lourenço; Machado, Alcyone Artioli; Komesu, Marilena Chinali

    2017-06-01

    The majority of HIV-infected patients develop Candida spp-associated clinical oral lesions. Studies have shown that asymptomatic oral colonization of Candida spp may lead to oral lesions or become a source of disseminated infections. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of periodontal conditions on Candida spp prevalence and Candida spp carriage in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. Twenty-five patients not infected with HIV and 48 HIV-infected patients were classified according to periodontal conditions as being periodontal healthy or with periodontal disease. Candida spp carriage and classification were performed in oral rinse samples. Viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4+L) counts were performed in blood samples from HIV-infected patients. No differences in Candida spp prevalence related to HIV status or periodontal condition were detected. However, Candida spp carriage was increased in periodontally affected HIV-infected patients when compared to periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients (p= 0.04). Periodontally healthy HIV-infected patients presented Candida spp carriage in similar levels as healthy or periodontally affected non-HIV-infected patients. Candida spp carriage was correlated with CD4+L counting in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that periodontal disease is associated with increased Candida spp carriage in HIV-infected patients and may be a predisposing factor to clinical manifestations of candidiasis.

  10. Decrease in Staphylococcus aureus colonization and hospital-acquired infection in a medical intensive care unit after institution of an active surveillance and decolonization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Thomas G; Fatica, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Michele; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Guzman, Jorge; Shrestha, Nabin K; Hixson, Eric; Rosenblatt, Miriam; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of an active surveillance program for Staphylococcus aureus linked to a decolonization protocol on the incidence of healthcare-associated infection and new nasal colonization due to S. aureus. Retrospective quasi-experimental study. An 18-bed medical intensive care unit at a tertiary care center in Cleveland, Ohio. From January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007, all patients in the medical intensive care unit were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage at admission and weekly thereafter. During the preintervention period, January 1 through September 30, 2006, only surveillance occurred. During the intervention period, January 1 through December 31, 2007, S. aureus carriers received mupirocin intranasally. Beginning in February 2007, carriers also received chlorhexidine gluconate baths. During the preintervention period, 604 (73.7%) of 819 patients were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage, yielding 248 prevalent carriers (30.3%). During the intervention period, 752 (78.3%) of 960 patients were screened, yielding 276 carriers (28.8%). The incidence of S. aureus carriage decreased from 25 cases in 3,982 patient-days (6.28 cases per 1,000 patient-days) before intervention to 18 cases in 5,415 patient-days (3.32 cases per 1,000 patient-days) (P=.04; relative risk [RR], 0.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.28-0.97]) and from 9.57 to 4.77 cases per 1,000 at-risk patient-days (P=.02; RR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.27-0.91]). The incidence of S. aureus hospital-acquired bloodstream infection during the 2 periods was 2.01 and 1.11 cases per 1,000 patient-days, respectively (P=.28). The incidence of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia decreased from 1.51 to 0.18 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P=.03; RR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01-0.83]). The total incidence of S. aureus hospital-acquired infection decreased from 3.52 to 1.29 cases per 1,000 patient-days (P=.03; RR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.14-0.90]). Active surveillance for S. aureus nasal carriage combined with

  11. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

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    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  12. Livestock-Associated Methicillin and Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Is Present among Industrial, Not Antibiotic-Free Livestock Operation Workers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Price, Lance B.; Larsen, Jesper; Stegger, Marc; Stewart, Jill; Heaney, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO) and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO) workers and household members in North Carolina. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting S. aureus isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multi-locus sequence type, and absence of the scn gene (a marker of livestock association). Results Among 99 ILO and 105 AFLO participants, S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was 41% and 40%, respectively. Among ILO and AFLO S. aureus carriers, MRSA was detected in 7% (3/41) and 7% (3/42), respectively. Thirty seven percent of 41 ILO versus 19% of 42 AFLO S. aureus-positive participants carried MDRSA. S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 was observed only among workers and predominated among ILO (13/34) compared with AFLO (1/35) S. aureus-positive workers. Only ILO workers carried scn-negative MRSA CC398 (2/34) and scn-negative MDRSA CC398 (6/34), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant. Conclusions Despite similar S. aureus and MRSA prevalence among ILO and AFLO-exposed individuals, livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA (tetracycline-resistant, CC398, scn-negative) were only present among ILO-exposed individuals. These findings support growing concern about antibiotics use and confinement in livestock production, raising questions about the potential for occupational

  13. Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus is present among industrial, not antibiotic-free livestock operation workers in North Carolina.

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    Jessica L Rinsky

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO workers and household members in North Carolina. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting S. aureus isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multi-locus sequence type, and absence of the scn gene (a marker of livestock association. RESULTS: Among 99 ILO and 105 AFLO participants, S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was 41% and 40%, respectively. Among ILO and AFLO S. aureus carriers, MRSA was detected in 7% (3/41 and 7% (3/42, respectively. Thirty seven percent of 41 ILO versus 19% of 42 AFLO S. aureus-positive participants carried MDRSA. S. aureus clonal complex (CC 398 was observed only among workers and predominated among ILO (13/34 compared with AFLO (1/35 S. aureus-positive workers. Only ILO workers carried scn-negative MRSA CC398 (2/34 and scn-negative MDRSA CC398 (6/34, and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar S. aureus and MRSA prevalence among ILO and AFLO-exposed individuals, livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA (tetracycline-resistant, CC398, scn-negative were only present among ILO-exposed individuals. These findings support growing concern about antibiotics use and confinement in livestock production, raising questions about the potential for

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in post-earthquake northern Haiti

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    Marnie E. Rosenthal

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We found a low S. aureus carriage rate with complete vancomycin susceptibility and high tetracycline resistance, which has important public health implications with regard to treatment. Additionally, the finding of PVL-positive MSSA isolates, including the expansion of a previously described limited ‘divergent’ clone, ST152, warrants further evaluation.

  15. Altered gene expression of Staphylococcus aureus upon interaction with human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesema, A.J.M.; Beekhuizen, H.; Hamdi, M.; Soufan, A.; Lammers, A.; Willekens, B.; Bakker, O.; Veltrop, M.H.A.M.; Gevel, van de J.S.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from a substantial number of patients with infective endocarditis who are not known to have predisposing heart abnormalities. It has been suggested that the infection is initiated by the direct binding of S. aureus to human vascular endothelium. To determine the

  16. Altered gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus upon interaction with human endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesema, A. J.; Beekhuizen, H.; Hamdi, M.; Soufan, A.; Lammers, A.; Willekens, B.; Bakker, O.; Welten, A. G.; Veltrop, M. H.; van de Gevel, J. S.; Dankert, J.; Zaat, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is isolated from a substantial number of patients with infective endocarditis who are not known to have predisposing heart abnormalities. It has been suggested that the infection is initiated by the direct binding of S. aureus to human vascular endothelium. To determine the

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of CvfB, SEK and SEQ genes among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bing-Shao; Huang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Yin-Shuang; Dong, Hui; Mai, Jia-Liang; Xie, Yong-Qiang; Zhong, Hua-Min; Deng, Qiu-Lian; Long, Yan; Yang, Yi-Yu; Gong, Si-Tang; Zhou, Zhen-Wen

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China). Of the 53 isolates, 43.4% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and resistance rates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin of 92.5, 66.0, 62.3, 13.2, 20.8 and 1.9% were recorded, respectively. However, no resistance to nitrofurantoin, dalfopristin/quinupristin, rifampicin, gentamicin, linezolid or vancomycin was detected. Resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline in the MRSA group was significantly higher than that in the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) group. No significant differences in antimicrobial resistance patterns were noted between two age groups (≤1 year and >1 year). The proportion of S. aureus isolates positive for CvfB, SEQ and SEK was 100, 34.0 and 35.8%, respectively, with 24.5% (13/53) of strains carrying all three genes. Compared with those in MSSA isolates, the rates of SEK, SEQ and SEK + SEQ carriage among MRSA isolates were significantly higher. Correlations were identified between the carriage of SEQ, SEK and SEQ + SEK genes and MRSA (contingency coefficient 0.500, 0.416, 0.546, respectively; Pstudy clarified the characteristics of BSI-associated S. aureus and enhanced the current understanding of the pathogenicity and treatment of MRSA.

  18. Carriage frequency, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dialysis and kidney tranplant patients at a hosptial in northern Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Giarola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among dialysis and kidney transplant patients, to identify the antimicrobial resistance profile of these strains and to verify their genetic profiles with the RW3A primer. The study included 159 individuals, comprising 111 dialysis and 48 kidney transplant patients. Of the 48 transplant patients, 75% were positive for S. aureus, whereas 49% of the 111 dialysis patients were carriers. Two samples yielded conflicting results for oxacillin sensitivity between the disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays: both were sensitive by the disk diffusion assay and resistant by MIC (4 μg/ml. In the antibiogram by disk diffusion, ten samples were resistant to cefoxitin, among which eight were also resistant to oxacillin. The resistance of the ten samples to cefoxitin by the disk diffusion assay was confirmed by MIC. Of the ten oxacillin-resistant samples, eight harbored the mecA gene. All samples were sensitive to vancomycin, and most were resistant to penicillin and demonstrated high rates of resistance to the other antimicrobials tested. The samples from dialysis patients exhibited a more homogenous genetic profile. Among the samples with a high percent similarity, no correlation with sensitivity or resistance to oxacillin was observed. According to the results of this study, the implementation of prevention and control measures, such as increased restrictions on prescriptions for antimicrobial drugs and nasal decontamination prior to high-risk procedures, is recommended.

  19. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates That Colonize Medical Students in a Hospital of the City of Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Collazos Marín, Luis Fernando; Estupiñan Arciniegas, Gina; Chavez Vivas, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a risk for the spread of bacteria. This study characterized the S. aureus isolated from medical students, who were in their clinical rotation at a hospital in the city of Cali. Materials and Methods. 216 students participated in the study and 63 isolates of S. aureus were evaluated for susceptibility and PCR amplification of agr and mecA genes. The origin of MRSA isolates was established by analyzing...

  20. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schonning, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium...... microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate...

  1. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna; de Goffau, Marcus C; van Timmeren, Mirjan M; Schulze, Mirja L; Jansen, Benita; Tavakol, Mehri; van Wamel, Willem J B; Stegeman, Coen A; Kallenberg, Cees G M; Arends, Jan P; Rossen, John W; Heeringa, Peter; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at comparing the

  2. Genetic loci of Staphylococcus aureus associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Glasner (Corinna); M.C. De Goffau (Marcus C.); M.M. Van Timmeren (Mirjan M.); Schulze, M.L. (Mirja L.); Jansen, B. (Benita); M. Tavakol (Mehri); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); C.A. Stegeman; C.G.M. Kallenberg (Cees G. M.); J.P.A. Arends (Jan); J.W. Rossen (John); P. Heeringa (Peter); J.M. Dijl (Jan Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) has been associated with chronic nasal S. aureus carriage, which is a risk factor for disease relapse. The present study was aimed at

  3. Cutaneous Microenvironment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Individuals, with Special Reference to Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Michael; Smith, Kathleen J.; James, William D.; Giblin, Walter J.; Margolis, David J.; Foglia, Arlene N.; McGinley, Kenneth; Leyden, James J.

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional quantitative study of cutaneous bacterial and yeast flora at seven body sites in 99 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and 50 seronegative military personnel was performed. Statistically significant differences in carriage rates were only observed for Staphylococcus aureus on the foreheads of seropositive individuals. Seronegative individuals demonstrated staphylococcal carriage rates 1.3 to 2 times as great as those of historical controls (defined as healthy individu...

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of

  6. Carriage of Staphylococcus species in the veterinary visiting dog population in mainland UK: molecular characterisation of resistance and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedley, Amy L; Dawson, Susan; Maddox, Thomas W; Coyne, Karen P; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Clegg, Peter; Jamrozy, Dorota; Fielder, Mark D; Donovan, David; Nuttall, Tim; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-05-14

    This study investigated the prevalence of nasal carriage of staphylococci in dogs and determined the characteristics of the isolates. A total of 724 dogs from 87 veterinary practices across the mainland UK were screened for carriage of Staphylococcus spp. All isolates were examined for meticillin resistance (MR) and the presence of the mecA gene investigated in those isolates showing resistance. All coagulase-positive staphylococci and MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Spa typing and DNA microarray analysis of resistance and virulence genes was carried out on all MR S. aureus (MRSA) and a subset of meticillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Staphylococci were isolated from 399 (55.1%) of the dogs; only seven (1%) carried MRSA, all of which were identified as the dominant UK healthcare-associated strain (EMRSA-15, ST22). MSSA was identified in 47 (6.5%) dogs, the sequence types of which have been suggested as precursors to successful MRSA clones. Forty (5.5%) dogs carried MRCoNS, while no dogs carried MR S. pseudintermedius, although this is increasingly reported in mainland Europe. Resistance to antimicrobials among the isolates varied between species, with multidrug resistance (MDR) in 87.5% of MRCoNS and 21.8% of coagulase positive staphylococci. Microarray analysis of MRSA and a subset of MSSA isolates identified numerous virulence genes associated with pathogenesis, which are commonly identified in isolates of human origin. However, no isolates carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. This study suggests that MRSA carriage is low in the vet visiting dog population, but there is a diverse range of virulence and resistance determinants in canine S. aureus and MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dialysis catheter-related septicaemia--focus on Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Ladefoged, S D; Kolmos, H J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dialysis catheters are a common cause of nosocomial septicaemia in haemodialysis units usually due to staphylococci, of which Staphylococcus aureus is the most pathogenic. In this study, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dialysis catheter-related infections were studied, and methods...... to infection were measured. After catheter insertion, all patients were screened for nasal carriage of S. aureus, and a culture was taken from the skin overlying the catheter insertion site. Once a week, cultures were taken from the insertion site and from the hub, and aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were...... drawn from the catheter. If clinical signs of septicaemia occurred, peripheral blood cultures were also performed, when it was possible. RESULTS: The incidence of septicaemia was 49% (21/43) in patients, and 56% of all cases were caused by S. aureus. The mortality was 14% (3/21) and the incidence...

  8. Genotypic and Phenotypic Markers of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC9 in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaohua; Wang, Xiaolin; Fan, Yanping; Peng, Yang; Li, Ling; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong

    2016-07-01

    Use of antimicrobials in industrial food animal production is associated with the presence of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among animals and humans. The livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 9 (CC9) is associated with animals and related workers in Asia. This study aimed to explore the genotypic and phenotypic markers of LA-MRSA CC9 in humans. We conducted a cross-sectional study of livestock workers and controls in Guangdong, China. The study participants responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. The resulting isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type, and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes. Livestock workers had significantly higher rates of S. aureus CC9 (odds ratio [OR] = 30.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.06 to 236.39) and tetracycline-resistant S. aureus (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 2.12 to 5.00) carriage than controls. All 19 S. aureus CC9 isolates from livestock workers were MRSA isolates and also exhibited the characteristics of resistance to several classes of antibiotics and absence of the IEC genes. Notably, the interaction analyses indicated phenotype-phenotype (OR = 525.7; 95% CI, 60.0 to 4,602.1) and gene-environment (OR = 232.3; 95% CI, 28.7 to 1,876.7) interactions associated with increased risk for livestock-associated S. aureus CC9 carriage. These findings suggest that livestock-associated S. aureus and MRSA (CC9, IEC negative, and tetracycline resistant) in humans are associated with occupational livestock contact, raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus This study adds to existing knowledge by giving insight into the genotypic and phenotypic markers of LA-MRSA. Our findings suggest that livestock-associated S. aureus and MRSA (CC9, IEC negative, and tetracycline resistant) in humans are associated with occupational livestock contact. Future studies should direct more

  9. Because of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezan Harman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant risk factor in the development of nosocomial Staphylococcal infections is bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureuscolonized in the nose of health personnel. The meticilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA was detected in the repeated blood cultures of two babies who had been followed for about 20 days in neonatal intensive care due to premature birth. Because of the failure to find the source in the assesment of the infants of whom MRSA reproduction continue, despite the appropriate treatment according to the results of antibiograms, examinations were performed fort he environment and the healtyh personnel. Cultures were taken from the total parenteral nutrition (TPN solution given to the babies. S. aureus growth was detected in the received culture. Therefore cultures were obtained from the places where there will be source in the division where TPN was prepared and nsal cultures were taken from the personnel. Because of growth of S. aureus only in the nasal cultures of the personnel, considering that the source was the personnel, the personnel were given the treatment of mupirocin pomad for five days, and during this period the work of the staff were replaced. There was not any growth in the TPN received at the and of the treatment an in the blood cultures of the patients. These facts showed us the necessity of making the necessary screening by considering the health personnel can also be the source in case of any S. aureus growth. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(4.000: 382-384

  10. Staphylococcus aureus MnhF mediates cholate efflux and facilitates survival under human colonic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sannasiddappa, Thippeswamy; Hood, Graham; Hanson, Kevan; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Clarke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to the innate defenses of the intestine is crucial for the survival and carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, a common colonizer of the human gut. Bile salts produced by the liver and secreted into the intestines are one such group of molecules with potent antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms by which S. aureus is able to resist such defenses in order to colonize and survive in the human gut are unknown. Here we show that mnhF confers resistance to bile salts, which can be abrogated...

  11. Prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus Aureus and associated risk factors on admission to a specialist care eye hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Sara I.; Moore, C.

    2002-01-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is known to be a frequent pathogen in hospital settings, with its well-known and resistant forms to the anti-staphylococcal penicillins. Reports on community carriage outside hospital settings have been feared to be on the increase due to the due to the frequency of reported cases on admission to hospitals. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of and to establish predictors for, nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) at the time of admission to a specialist care eye hospital. A prospective survey was conducted at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh during the three differing weeks randomly selected from the year 1999. The first 100 patients admitted during those three weeks were selected according to inclusion criteria. The hospital is a 220-bed tertiary ophthalmic care facility, with an average 7,500admission per year. Nasal bacterial swabs were taken within 48 hours of admission and tested for all strains of S.aureus and sensitivity to methicillin. Detailed interviews were conducted about medical history and habitual environment. Of 306 nasal cultures tested, none was isolated for MRSA and 102 (33%) were sensitive to methicillin (MSSA).We found 0% nasal carriage rate for MRSA. Respondents have difficulty with questions related to antibiotic administration. No identifiable medical or environmental risk factors could be found. Nasal swabs of patients admitted to KKESH did not reveal MRSA colonization, indicating that MRSA may not be prevalent in the community at present. (author)

  12. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, Abdul S.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    . aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial......Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Methodology: Nasal swabs were taken...... from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing...

  13. NP108, an Antimicrobial Polymer with Activity against Methicillin- and Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvars, Laura K.; Hewitt, Fiona; Smith, Daniel W.; Robertson, Jennifer; O'Neil, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a clinically significant human pathogen that causes infectious diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and health care-associated infections (HAI) to potentially fatal bacteremia and endocarditis. Nasal carriage of S. aureus, especially for persistent carriage, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent infection, particularly nosocomial and surgical site infections (SSI), usually via autoinfection. NP108 is a cationic antimicrobial polymer composed of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) amino acid building blocks. NP108 is broad spectrum and rapidly bactericidal (3-log kill in ≤3 h), killing bacteria by membrane disruption and cell lysis. NP108, contrary to many antibiotics, shows equally effective antimicrobial activity against a variety of S. aureus (MIC100 = 8 to 500 mg/liter) and S. epidermidis (MIC100 = 4 to 8 mg/liter) isolates, whether exponentially growing or in stationary phase. NP108 is antimicrobially active under nutrient-limiting conditions similar to those found in the anterior nares (MIC100 = 8 mg/liter) and kills antibiotic-resilient small colony variants (MIC100 = 32 mg/liter) and S. aureus biofilms (prevention, MIC100 = 1 to 4 mg/liter; eradication, MIC100 ≥ 31.25 mg/liter). NP108 is active against isolates of S. aureus resistant to the current standard-of-care decolonization agent, mupirocin, with no significant increase in the MIC100. NP108 is water soluble and has been formulated into compatible aqueous gel vehicles for human use in which antimicrobial efficacy is retained (2.0% [wt/vol]). NP108 is a potential nonantibiotic antimicrobial alternative to antibiotics for the nasal decolonization of S. aureus, with clear advantages in its mechanism of action over the existing gold standard, mupirocin. PMID:28607014

  14. Decolonization of patients and health care workers to control nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurieva, T.; Bootsma, M.C.; Bonten, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission has been unsuccessful in many hospitals. Recommended control measures include isolation of colonized patients, rather than decolonization of carriage among patients and/or health care workers. Yet, the potential

  15. Assessing oral candidal carriage with mixed salivary glucose levels as non-invasive diagnostic tool in type-2 diabetics of davangere, karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Rashmi; Mujib B R, Ahmed; Raaju, U R; Telagi, Neethu

    2014-07-01

    The health of oral tissues is known to be related to salivary flow and its composition which may be altered in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to correlate mixed salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage and to assess the prevalence of candidal carriage in diabetics and controls. Thirty adults with type-2 diabetes and 30 without diabetes (control subjects), aged 30-60 yr, participated in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected and investigated for glucose levels (using glucose oxidase method) and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida, this was stained with two stains, periodic acid-schiff stain and Grocott Gomori stain. In the present study mixed salivary glucose concentration in diabetics was significantly higher (pCandida was not isolated. The diabetics without intraoral candidal carriage had lower salivary glucose levels (mean = 5.36±2.24 mg/dl). This relationship could be seen in controls (non-diabetics) also. Diabetics showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 80% which was significantly higher compared to nondiabetics who showed an oral candidal carriage rate of 40%. Mixed salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in diabetics. The possible high salivary glucose level could predispose to oral candidal infection. So saliva can be used as a quick, non-invasive tool to assess the oral candidal status and possible infection.

  16. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture.MethodsThis was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.ResultsPathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  17. Characterization of colonizing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from surgical wards' patients in a Nigerian university hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboye O Kolawole

    Full Text Available In contrast to developed countries, only limited data on the prevalence, resistance and clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus are available for African countries. Since S. aureus carriage is a risk factor for postoperative wound infection, patients who had been hospitalized in surgical wards in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital were screened for S. aureus carriage. All S. aureus isolates were genotyped (spa, agr and assigned to multilocus sequence types (MLST. Species affiliation, methicillin-resistance, and the possession of pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAg, exfoliative toxins (ETs and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL were analyzed. Of 192 patients screened, the S. aureus carrier rate was 31.8 % (n = 61. Of these isolates, 7 (11.5% were methicillin-resistant (MRSA. The isolates comprised 24 spa types. The most frequent spa types were t064, t084, t311, and t1931, while the most prevalent MLST clonal complexes were CC5 and CC15. The most frequent PTSAg genes detected were seg/sei (41.0% followed by seb (29.5%, sea (19.7%, seh (14.7% and sec (11.5. The difference between the possession of classical and newly described PTSAg genes was not significant (63.9% versus 59.0% respectively; P = 0.602. PVL encoding genes were found in 39.3% isolates. All MRSA isolates were PVL negative, SCCmec types I and VI in MLST CC 5 and CC 30, respectively. Typing of the accessory gene regulator (agr showed the following distribution: agr group 1 (n = 20, group II (n = 17, group III (n = 14 and group IV (n = 10. Compared to European data, enterotoxin gene seb and PVL-encoding genes were more prevalent in Nigerian methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, which may therefore act as potential reservoir for PVL and PTSAg genes.

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis on Staphylococcus aureus carriage in psoriasis, acne and rosacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Totté (Joan); W.T. van der Feltz; L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); E.J. Van Zuuren; S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStaphylococcus aureus might amplify symptoms in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. This study evaluates skin and mucosal colonization with S. aureus in patients with psoriasis, acne and rosacea. A systematic literature search was conducted. Both odds ratios (OR) for colonization in

  19. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Portación y caracterización de Staphylococcus aureus en manipuladores de alimentos Carriage and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela B Jordá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus es una causa de intoxicaciones alimentarias por su capacidad de producir enterotoxinas. Los manipuladores de alimentos que portan S. aureus productores de enterotoxinas pueden provocar intoxicaciones alimentarias. Se estudiaron muestras tomadas de fosas nasales de 88 manipuladores de alimentos en la provincia de Misiones. El 37,5 % de los individuos analizados eran portadores de S. aureus. Mediante técnicas de amplificación (PCR, se detectaron genes que codifican la producción de enterotoxinas en 13 de los 33 aislamientos obtenidos (39,4 % y en el 14,7 % de los manipuladores. De estos aislamientos, 10 portaban el gen sea y 3 el gen sec. El estudio de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mostró un 100 % de sensibilidad a teicoplanina, gentamiclna y rifampicina; 2 aislamientos fueron resistentes a clindamicina y a eritromicina y 4 resultaron resistentes a la meticilina. Estos resultados son un alerta e indicarían la necesidad de desarrollar medidas racionales para reducir el riesgo potencial de intoxicaciones alimentarias.Staphylococcus aureus causes food poisoning due to its ability to produce enterotoxins. Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing S. aureus can contaminate food, thus leading to food poisoning. Samples were obtained from 88 food handlers in the Province of Misiones, Argentina. S. aureus was isolated from nasal swaps and PCR amplification was performed for genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins. A total of 37.5 % food handlers were positive for S. aureus. Expression of enterotoxin genes was found in 13 of the 33 (39.4 % S. aureus isolates studied, accounting for 14.7 % of food handlers. Gene sea was detected in 10 isolates followed by gene sec in 3 isolates. All isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin, gentamicin and rifampicin. Four isolates were resistant to methicillin whereas 2 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin. These results constitute a critical alert and indicate the need

  1. Genome-wide association study reveals a locus for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in Danish crossbred pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important human opportunistic pathogen residing on skin and mucosae of healthy people. Pigs have been identified as a source of human colonization and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and novel measures are needed to control......-pathogen interaction seems to be independent of S. aureus genotype. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest it may be possible to select pigs genetically resistant to S. aureus nasal colonization as a tool to control transmission of livestock-associated MRSA to humans....

  2. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

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    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  3. Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus from maternity unit staff members to newborns disclosed through spa typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, Andreas; Taipalensuu, Jan; Einemo, Ing-Marie; Tiefenthal, Malena; Löfgren, Sture

    2007-03-01

    We observed previously that newborn infants are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, even if their mothers do not carry S aureus. This observation indicated a cross colonization, and, thus, a risk for nosocomial infection, although the infants are roomed in with their mothers. The S aureus colonization of infants, their parents, and staff members was measured at 3 maternity units. Possible transmission routes were determined using spa typing of S aureus isolates. Infants had the highest S aureus carriage (45%) compared with fathers (39%), mothers (27%), and staff members (27%). In 13 out of 44 colonized infants, transmission from staff members was indicated. This transmission was more frequent than was transmission from their own parents (11 cases), and occurred even in cases when parents were colonized with S aureus of other spa types. We confirm a high level of transmission of S aureus from staff members to infants, indicating a risk for patient safety, which necessitates continuing work with implementing scientific evidence for infection control. The spa typing is a rapid and valuable epidemiological tool, and it can be used in improving hospital hygiene control programs.

  4. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

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    Jimei Du

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935 S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935 MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%, ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%. 82%, (23/28 of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116 of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs, as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779 and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

  5. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among Portuguese nursing students: A longitudinal cohort study over four years of education.

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    Teresa Conceição

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that can colonize healthy people mainly in the anterior nares. The aim of the present study was to evaluate S. aureus nasal colonization over time among Portuguese nursing students, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA.In this longitudinal cohort study, we collected 280 nasal swabs from nursing students at 14 time points over four years of schooling (2012-2016. The isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and SCCmec typing for MRSA. Among 47 students, 20 (43% carried methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA at admission, but none was colonized with MRSA. A total of 19 students (40% became colonized after exposure during the nursing training, out of which five carried MRSA. Overall, 39 students (83% had S. aureus detected at least once during the study period. Among the 97 MSSA isolates, most (65% belonged to four clones: PFGE A-ST30 (21%, B-ST72 (20%, C-ST508 (13%, and D-ST398 (11%. Three of the five MRSA carriers were colonized with the predominant clone circulating in Portuguese hospitals (ST22-IVh and two with ST3162-II. Colonization of nursing students was highly dynamic with continuous appearance of strains with distinct PFGE types in the same individual.A considerable proportion of students became colonized by S. aureus, including MRSA, during the nursing education, evidencing this population represents an important reservoir of S. aureus. Therefore, education on infection control measures in nursing schools is of major importance.

  6. Metastatic Spreading of Community Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

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    Giovanna Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman presented to the Fondazione IRCCS “Cà Granda” Ospedale Maggiore, a tertiary care university hospital in Milan (Italy, with skin lesions, fever, myalgia, joint pain and swelling, and a one-week history of low back pain. The diagnosis was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus bacteraemia spreading to skin, bones, and joints and a lumbosacral epidural abscess L5-S2. Neither initial focus nor predisposing conditions were apparent. The antibiotic therapy was prolonged for six-weeks with the resolution of fever, skin lesions, articular inflammation, and the epidural abscess. Community-acquired S. aureus infections can affect patients without traditional healthcare-associated risk factors, and community acquisition is a risk-factor for the development of complications. Raised awareness of S. aureus bacteraemia, also in patients without healthcare-associated risk factors, is important in the diagnosis, management, and control of this infection, because failure to recognise patients with serious infection and lack of understanding of empirical antimicrobial selection are associated with a high mortality rate in otherwise healthy people.

  7. The carriage of potentially pathogenic β-haemolytic streptococci (β-HS in healthy adult inhabitants of Wielkopolska, Poland

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    Maciej Bura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Acute pharyngitis is a common disease in primary health care patients. Beta-hemolytic streptococci (β-HS are a frequent etiological agent, while swab culture from the throat and palatine tonsils is the gold standard for diagnosis. Objectives. The evaluation of the prevalence of potentially pathogenic β-HS carriage in young adult inhabitants of Wielkopolska. Material and methods. The study included 205 healthy young adult (18–44 years old (29.0 ± 6.4 inhabitants (M – 95, F – 110 of Wielkopolska (Poland. Two swabs were taken from the throat: the first one was used to perform a rapid antigenic diagnostic test (RAD T for group A streptococci (GAS and the second to grow a conventional culture. If β-HS grew, isolates were serotyped according to Lancefield. In addition, simple demographic and medical data were collected from the subjects. The study was financed from funds granted within the first edition of the “Give a hand” project (Karol Marcinkowski Poznan University of Medical Sciences. Results . Positive throat cultures were obtained in 15.6% out of 205 persons (n = 32. The distribution of β-HS serogroup results was as follows: group C (GCS – 17 cases (53.1% of cases where β-HS was positive, group F (GFS – 9 cases (28.1%, GAS – 3 people (9.4% and group G (GGS – 3 subjects (9.4%. The growth of the discussed bacteria in cultures was moderate or high in 53% of these cases. RAD T was positive in 5 cases (but only one person had GAS in throat culture. The positive culture result was significantly more frequent in men (62.5% out of 32 cases with β-HS growth, p = 0.0460. Conclusions . 1. The possibility of β-HS carriage must be taken into account when analysing the results of throat swab cultures. 2. GAS carriage is significantly lower than non-GAS carriage. 3. GCS were the most prevalent among non-GAS. 4. Being male may predispose individuals to β-HS carriage.

  8. Clinical aspects of Candida species carriage in saliva of xerotomic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, S R; Peixoto, C B; Caldas, D M; Silva, E B; Magalhães, F A C; Uzeda, M; Nucci, M

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the clinical factors that might influence the diversity and the degree of Candida species carriage in saliva, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 133 patients with complaints of xerostomia. Anamnesis, oral examination and collection of chewing-stimulated whole saliva were performed. The samples of saliva were kept refrigerated until they were plated onto CHROMagar Candida; cfu were counted and Candida species were identified by standard methods. There was a high prevalence of mixed Candida colonization. No relationship was found between total Candida cfu counts and variables like gender, age, place of origin, underlying diseases, exposure to medications (except antibiotics), daily habits and salivary flow rates. Oral candidiasis, antibiotic exposure and dental prosthesis wearing were associated with relatively high Candida counts in saliva. Low salivary flow rates predisposed to intense colonization by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis.

  9. Insights into nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in an urban and a rural community in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Esson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    of strains isolated from the two communities. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy individuals living in an urban community situated in the suburb of the capital city, Accra (n = 353) and in a rural community situated in the Dangme-West district (n = 234). The overall prevalence of nasal carriage was 21...

  10. Staphylococcus aureus carriage among participants at the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E.; Gould, I.; MacKenzie, F.; Deplano, A.; Cookson, B.; Alp, E.; Bouza, E.; Voss, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the rate of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among attendees of the 13th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), particularly with regard to methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. The 31.4% rate of Staphylococcus aureus

  11. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Methicillin?Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, A.G.; Rankin, S.C.; Duffee, L.A.; Morris, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Methicillin?resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. Hypothesis/Objective MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horse...

  13. Nasal Colonization rate of Staphylococcus aureus strains among Health Care Service Employee’s of Teaching University Hospitals in Yazd

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    Khalili Mohammad Bagher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to find the extent of staphylococcal carriages including Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA in employee's of teaching university hospitals in Yazd. Nasal swabs of 742 employees in four different medical teaching hospitals in Yazd were collected, and tested for detection of staphylococci strains. Out of 742 employees, 94 (12.7% were carrier of staphylococcus aurus and 57 (11.38% for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA respectively. Prevalence of Staphylococci aureus and MRSA in individual hospitals and wards were different. In general the highest carriers were personnel of dialysis ward and the lowest pediatrics wards. Resistance rate of MRSA against Ciprofloxacin, Vancomycin, and Rifampin were found to be as 28.1%, 10.5% and 35.1% respectively.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Central Nervous System Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Jesus G; Cain, Alexandra N; Mason, Edward O; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Hultén, Kristina G

    2017-10-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus are uncommon in pediatric patients. We review the epidemiology, clinical features and treatment in 68 patients with a S. aureus CNS infection evaluated at Texas Children's Hospital. Cases of CNS infection in children with positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures or spinal epidural abscess (SEA) for S. aureus at Texas Children's Hospital from 2001 to 2013 were reviewed. Seventy cases of S. aureus CNS infection occurred in 68 patients. Forty-nine cases (70%) were secondary to a CNS device, 5 (7.1%) were postoperative meningitis, 9 (12.8%) were hematogenous meningitis and 7 (10%) were SEAs. Forty-seven (67.2%) were caused by methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 23 (32.8%) by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Community-acquired infections were more often caused by MRSA that was clone USA300/pvl. Most patients were treated with nafcillin (MSSA) or vancomycin (MRSA) with or without rifampin. Among patients with MRSA infection, 50% had a serum vancomycin trough obtained with the median level being 10.6 μg/mL (range: 5.4-15.7 μg/mL). Only 1 death was associated with S. aureus infection. The epidemiology of invasive of S. aureus infections continues to evolve with MSSA accounting for most of the infections in this series. The majority of cases were associated with neurosurgical procedures; however, hematogenous S. aureus meningitis and SEA occurred as community-acquired infections in patients without predisposing factors. Patients with MRSA CNS infections had a favorable response to vancomycin, but the beneficial effect of combination therapy or targeting vancomycin trough concentrations of 15-20 μg/mL remains unclear.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage between healthy students of medical and nonmedical universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroo, Soleiman; Hosseini Jazani, Nima; Sharifi, Yaeghob

    2017-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a challenge for public health, and community-acquired (CA) infections seem to be increasing among people in different areas. A total of 700 healthy student volunteers residing in dormitories of universities in Urmia, Iran, were enrolled in this study. After identification of the isolates, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and pvl genes, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were evaluated. Nasal screening identified 137 (19.6%) carriers of S aureus, and 18 (13.14%) were MRSA isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates revealed high resistance to penicillin (93.4%). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin. The SCCmec typing showed that most MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec type IV (n = 14; 77.8%). Only 1 (5.56%) MRSA isolates carried the pvl gene. Our findings revealed the relatively high frequency of S aureus nasal carriers and the advent of multidrug resistance among these isolates. Most MRSA isolates were SCCmec type IV; the transfer of such MRSA strains from carriers to other individuals in crowded living conditions such as dormitories can act as a risk factor for outbreak of CA MRSA and is a serious threat for the study groups. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Nasopharyngeal Density and Concurrent Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Are Associated with Pneumonia in Febrile Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochua, Sopio; D'Acremont, Valérie; Hanke, Christiane; Alfa, David; Shak, Joshua; Kilowoko, Mary; Kyungu, Esther; Kaiser, Laurent; Genton, Blaise; Klugman, Keith P; Vidal, Jorge E

    2016-01-01

    We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI) of the upper (URTI) or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania. NP swabs collected from children (N = 960) aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify bacterial density of S. pneumoniae (Sp), H. influenzae (Hi), M. catarrhalis (Mc), S. aureus (Sa), and N. meningitidis (Nm). We determined associations between presence of individual species, densities, or concurrent carriage of all species combination with respiratory diseases including clinical pneumonia, pneumonia with normal chest radiography (CXR) and endpoint pneumonia. Individual carriage, and NP density, of Sp, Hi, or Mc, but not Sa, or Nm, was significantly associated with febrile ARI and clinical pneumonia when compared to febrile non-ARI episodes. Density was also significantly increased in severe pneumonia when compared to mild URTI (Sp, p<0.002; Hi p<0.001; Mc, p = 0.014). Accordingly, concurrent carriage of Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+, in the absence of Sa- and Nm-, was significantly more prevalent in children with ARI (p = 0.03), or clinical pneumonia (p<0.001) than non-ARI, and in children with clinical pneumonia (p = 0.0007) than URTI. Furthermore, Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+ differentiated children with pneumonia with normal CXR, or endpoint pneumonia, from those with URTI, and non-ARI cases. Concurrent NP carriage of Sp, Hi, and Mc was a predictor of clinical pneumonia and identified children with pneumonia with normal CXR and endpoint pneumonia from those with febrile URTI, or non-ARI episodes.

  17. Increased Nasopharyngeal Density and Concurrent Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis Are Associated with Pneumonia in Febrile Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopio Chochua

    Full Text Available We assessed nasopharyngeal (NP carriage of five pathogens in febrile children with and without acute respiratory infection (ARI of the upper (URTI or lower tract, attending health facilities in Tanzania.NP swabs collected from children (N = 960 aged 2 months to 10 years, and with a temperature ≥38°C, were utilized to quantify bacterial density of S. pneumoniae (Sp, H. influenzae (Hi, M. catarrhalis (Mc, S. aureus (Sa, and N. meningitidis (Nm. We determined associations between presence of individual species, densities, or concurrent carriage of all species combination with respiratory diseases including clinical pneumonia, pneumonia with normal chest radiography (CXR and endpoint pneumonia.Individual carriage, and NP density, of Sp, Hi, or Mc, but not Sa, or Nm, was significantly associated with febrile ARI and clinical pneumonia when compared to febrile non-ARI episodes. Density was also significantly increased in severe pneumonia when compared to mild URTI (Sp, p<0.002; Hi p<0.001; Mc, p = 0.014. Accordingly, concurrent carriage of Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+, in the absence of Sa- and Nm-, was significantly more prevalent in children with ARI (p = 0.03, or clinical pneumonia (p<0.001 than non-ARI, and in children with clinical pneumonia (p = 0.0007 than URTI. Furthermore, Sp+, Hi+, and Mc+ differentiated children with pneumonia with normal CXR, or endpoint pneumonia, from those with URTI, and non-ARI cases.Concurrent NP carriage of Sp, Hi, and Mc was a predictor of clinical pneumonia and identified children with pneumonia with normal CXR and endpoint pneumonia from those with febrile URTI, or non-ARI episodes.

  18. Genomic evolution of Staphylococcus aureus isolates colonizing the nares and progressing to bacteremia.

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    Jeanne B Benoit

    Full Text Available Nasal colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is a key risk factor for bacteremia. The objective of this study is to identify genomic modifications occurring in nasal carriage strains of S. aureus as they progress to bacteremia in a cohort of hospitalized patients.Eight patients with S. aureus bacteremia were identified. Genomic sequences of the bloodstream isolates were compared with 57 nasal isolates collected longitudinally prior to the occurrence of bacteremia, which covered a timespan of up to 326 days before bacteremia.Within each subject, nasal colonizing strains were closely related to bacteremia strains. Within a subject, the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs observed between time points was greater than within a single time point. Co-colonization and strain replacement were observed in one case. In all cases colonization progressed to bacteremia without addition of new virulence genes. In one case, a mutation in the accessory gene regulator gene caused abrogation of agr function.S. aureus evolves in the human nares at a variable rate. Progression of S. aureus nasal colonization to nosocomial infection is seldom associated with acquisition of new virulence determinants. Mutation in the agr gene with abrogation of function was associated with progression to bacteremia in one case.

  19. US gas line contract carriage on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America reports contract carriage moved 84% of the gas delivered to U.S. markets in 1991, up from 79% the previous year. Carriage for market transportation for distributors, end users, and marketers totaled 15.2 quadrillion BTU, a 13% increase from the 13.4 quads reported at the end of 1990. Ingaa the growth in carriage volumes has slowed. This year's 13% increase is lower than the 28% growth in carriage volumes from 1988 to 1989 and the 72% from 1986 to 1987. Total natural gas delivered to market was 18 quads in 1991, an increase of 5% from the 1990 level of 17.1 quads. Pipeline sales accounted for only 16% of the gas delivered to market in 1991. They dropped 0.8 quads, or 22%, from 1990 levels. Ingaa the while the market relies heavily on carriage throughout the year, reliance on carriage is somewhat heavier as has been the case since 1986 during the off peak season in April-September

  20. Increasing rate of daptomycin non-susceptible strains of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis

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    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus , including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA strains. Daptomycin exerts its antimicrobial effect by a calcium-dependent interaction with the cytoplasmic membrane resulting in depolarization, ion loss and rapid cell death. Unfortunately, loss of daptomycin susceptibility in S. aureus in the clinical setting has been noted. Aim : To evaluate the susceptibility profile to daptomycin among S. aureus strains isloted from patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. Another point was to correlate the results obtained by broth microdilution method and Etest, which is commonly applied in clinical setting. Material and methods : One hundred patients with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using broth-microdilution (BMD and Etests for daptomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (73% or the anterior nares (75%. Six of the 100 nasal swabs (6% and 5 of the 100 skin swabs (5% were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. A total of 81 of 148 (54.7% daptomycin non-susceptible isolates of S. aureus were identified by BMD. Only 19 of 81 were also classified as non-susceptible by Etest. Conclusions : Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of the possibility of the emergence of daptomycin non-susceptibility (or increase in minimal inhibitory concentration during prolonged therapy and closely monitor the susceptibility of persisting isolates that might be recovered during therapy.

  1. A study of Staphylococcus aureusnasal carriage, antibacterial resistance and virulence factor encoding genes in a tertiary care hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzkaya-Artan, M; Artan, C; Baykan, Z; Sakalar, C; Turan, A; Aksu, H

    2015-01-01

    This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. The nasal samples of the in-patients (431) and out-patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and Research Hospital's Chest Clinic, Kayseri, Turkey, were cultured on CHROMagar (Biolife, Italiana) S. aureus, and subcultured on sheep blood agar for the isolation of S. aureus. Disc diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The occurrence of the staphylococcal virulence encoding genes (enterotoksins [sea, seb, sec, see, seg, seh, sei, sej], fibronectin-binding proteins A, B [fnbA, fnbB], toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 [tst]) were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Forty-five of the 55 (81.8%) S. aureus isolates from inpatients, and 319 (90.6%) isolates from tested 352 out-patient's isolates were suspected to all the antibiotics tested. methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 1.2% of S. aureus isolates. Rifampin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin resistance rates were 1.2%, 1.7%, 2.0%, 8.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The isolates were susceptible to teicoplanin and vancomycin. The genes most frequently found were tst (92.7%), seg (85.8%), sea (83.6%), fnbA (70.9%). There was no statistical significance detected between MRSA and mecA-negative S. aureus isolates in encoding genes distribution (P > 0.05). Our results show that virulence factor encoding genes were prevalent in patients with S. aureus carriage, whereas antibiotic resistance was low. These virulence determinants may increase the risk for subsequent invasive infections in carriers.

  2. Detection of Methicillin Resistance and Various Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Nasal Carriers

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    Hatice Türk Dağı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococus aureus can be found as a commensal on skin and nasal flora or it may cause local and invasive infections. S. aureus has a large number of virulence factors. Aims: To investigate the methicillin resistance and frequency of various virulence factors in S. aureus nasal isolates. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: Nasal samples collected from university students were cultured in media. S. aureus was identified by conventional methods and the Staphyloslide latex test (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, USA. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were conducted, and the methicillin resistance was determined. The mecA, nuc, pvl and staphylococcal toxin genes were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: S. aureus was isolated in 104 of 600 (17.3% nasal samples. In total, 101 (97.1% S. aureus isolates were methicillin-sensitive and the remaining 3 (2.9% were methicillin-resistant. Furthermore, all but five isolates carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin gene, with seg being predominant. The tst and eta genes were determined in 29 (27.9%, and 3 (2.9% isolates, respectively. None of the S. aureus isolates harbored see, etb, and pvl genes. Conclusion: A moderate rate of S. aureus carriage and low frequency of MRSA were detected in healthy students. S. aureus isolates had a high prevalence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and the tst gene. In this study, a large number of virulence factors were examined in S. aureus nasal isolates, and the data obtained from this study can be used for monitoring the prevalence of virulence genes in S. aureus strains isolated from nasal carriers.

  3. Successful treatment for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and importance of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.N. Mollema (Femke); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); A. Ott (Alewijn); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A. Voss (Andreas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWith this prospective observational follow-up study of 165 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive individuals (23 health care workers and 142 patients), we determined that our MRSA eradication therapy protocol results in a high success rate (81%). Five or more

  4. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Comprehensive Review and a Plastic Surgeon's Approach to the Occult Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Cedric; Rosenfield, Lorne; Silverstein, Elena; Petrou-Zeniou, Panayiota

    2016-08-01

    Up to 20 percent of the general population is persistently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, and 1 to 3 percent of the population is colonized with community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Currently, the knowledge of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage sites other than the nose, and their effect on surgical site infections in cosmetic surgery, is lacking. A comprehensive literature review using the PubMed database to analyze prevalence, anatomical carrier sites, current screening and decontamination protocols and guidelines, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in cosmetic surgery was performed. The senior author's (L.R.) methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection experience and prevention protocols were also reviewed. Nasal swabs detect only 50.5 percent of methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization, and broad screening has noted the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in the ear canal and umbilicus. Decolonization protocols within the orthopedic and cardiothoracic surgery literature have reduced rates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus surgical-site infections. There are no decolonization guidelines for plastic surgeons. Since instituting their decolonization protocol, the authors have had no cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in nearly 1000 cosmetic surgery procedures. There are very limited, if any, Level I or II data regarding methicillin-resistant S. aureus screening and decolonization. As the sequelae of a surgical-site infection can be disastrous, expert opinions recommend that plastic surgeons vigorously address methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization and infection. The authors have developed and recommend a simple decolonization protocol that includes treatment of the umbilicus, ear canal, and nares to limit surgical-site infection and improve surgical outcomes.

  6. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in pigs and related personnel in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Wei Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A livestock-associated (LA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain sequence type 398 (ST398 is found related to animals and humans in Europe and North America. To evaluate the nasal carriage of MRSA among pigs and related workers in Taiwan, we conducted this study. METHODS: From June 25 to October 1 2012, a total of 641 and 100 nasal swabs were obtained from pigs and related workers, respectively, from 22 pig farms nationwide and 2 pig auction markets in Taiwan. All MRSA isolates were molecularly characterized. RESULTS: Overall, the nasal carriage rate of MRSA was 14.4% for pigs and 13% for humans. The carriage rate for pigs younger than 3 months was significantly higher than those older than 3 months (25.4% vs. 5.8%, p<.001. Percentage of MRSA-positive pig farms was 59.1% (13/22. The carriage rate for pigs in large-scale herds (≥ 10000 pigs was significantly higher than that in small-scale (34.3% vs. 7.0%, p<.001 and that in auction markets (3.8%. The carriage rate was 19.2% (10/52 for pig farm workers, and the rate in large-scale farms was significantly higher than that in small-scale (36.8% vs. 9.1%, p = .014. Except for 3 isolates from humans, the other 99 isolates belonged to sequence type (ST 9. 83 of 89 isolates from pigs shared a common pulsotype, which was also shared by 6 isolates from humans. CONCLUSION: More than 10% of pigs and related workers in Taiwan carried LA-MRSA ST9 in nares and cross-species transmission of LA-MRSA was documented by molecular methods.

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X L; Li, L; Li, S M; Huang, J Y; Fan, Y P; Yao, Z J; Ye, X H; Chen, S D

    2017-07-01

    Pig farmers and veterinarians have high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) due to the occupational livestock exposure, while few reported this association on slaughterhouse workers. We conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of S. aureus and MRSA in slaughterhouse pig-related workers and control workers in Guangdong Province, China. Participants were interviewed and provided two nasal swabs. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates were further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes and multi-locus sequence typing. Compared with control workers, pig-related workers have significantly higher prevalence of MRSA carriage (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) 3·70, 95% CI 1·63-8·40). The proportions of MRSA resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline or chloromycetin were significantly higher in pig-related workers than in control workers. The predominant phenotypes of S. aureus were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Three MRSA CC9 isolates with livestock-associated characteristics (resistance to tetracycline and absence of immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes) were detected in pig-related workers but not in control workers. For human-associated CCs (CC7, CC59, CC6, and CC188), there was no significant difference in IEC profile or antimicrobial resistance between the groups. These findings reveal that there may be a potential risk for livestock-to-human transmission of LA-MRSA and human-to-human transmission of human-associated MRSA.

  8. Epidemiology of Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in a Neonatology Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achermann, Yvonne; Seidl, Kati; Kuster, Stefan P; Leimer, Nadja; Durisch, Nina; Ajdler-Schäffler, Evelyne; Karrer, Stephan; Senn, Gabriela; Holzmann-Bürgel, Anne; Wolfensberger, Aline; Leone, Antonio; Arlettaz, Romaine; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Sax, Hugo

    2015-11-01

    In-hospital transmission of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) among neonates remains enigmatic. We describe the epidemiology of MSSA colonization and infection in a 30-bed neonatal ward. Multimodal outbreak investigation A public 800-bed tertiary care university hospital in Switzerland Investigations in 2012-2013, triggered by a MSSA infection cluster, included prospective MSSA infection surveillance, microbiologic screening of neonates and environment, onsite observations, and a prospective cohort study. MSSA isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and selected isolates were examined for multilocus sequence type (MLST) and virulence factors. Among 726 in 2012, 30 (4.1%) patients suffered from MSSA infections including 8 (1.1%) with bacteremia. Among 655 admissions in 2013, 13 (2.0%) suffered from MSSA infections including 2 (0.3%) with bacteremia. Among 177 neonates screened for S. aureus carriage, overall 77 (44%) tested positive. A predominant PFGE-1-ST30 strain was identified in 6 of 30 infected neonates (20%) and 30 of 77 colonized neonates (39%). This persistent clone was pvl-negative, tst-positive and belonged to agr group III. We found no environmental point source. MSSA carriage was associated with central vascular catheter use but not with a particular midwife, nurse, physician, or isolette. Observed healthcare worker behavior may have propagated transmission via hands and fomites. Despite multimodal interventions, clonal transmission and colonization continued and another clone, PFGE-6-ST5, became predominant. Hospital-acquired MSSA clones represent a high proportion of MSSA colonization but not MSSA infections in neonate inpatients. In contrast to persisting MSSA, transmission infection rates decreased concurrently with interventions. It remains to be established whether eradication of hospital-acquired MSSA strains would reduce infection rates further.

  9. Factors Associated with Worse Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Persistent Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Sibylle Junge

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF. However, it is not clear which factors are associated with worse lung function in patients with persistent S. aureus airway cultures. Our main hypothesis was that patients with high S. aureus density in their respiratory specimens would more likely experience worsening of their lung disease than patients with low bacterial loads.Therefore, we conducted an observational prospective longitudinal multi-center study and assessed the association between lung function and S. aureus bacterial density in respiratory samples, co-infection with other CF-pathogens, nasal S. aureus carriage, clinical status, antibiotic therapy, IL-6- and IgG-levels against S. aureus virulence factors.195 patients from 17 centers were followed; each patient had an average of 7 visits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and generalized linear mixed models. Our main hypothesis was only supported for patients providing throat specimens indicating that patients with higher density experienced a steeper lung function decline (p<0.001. Patients with exacerbations (n = 60, S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs, n = 84 and co-infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 44 had worse lung function (p = 0.0068; p = 0.0011; p = 0.0103. Patients with SCVs were older (p = 0.0066 and more often treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p = 0.0078. IL-6 levels positively correlated with decreased lung function (p<0.001, S. aureus density in sputa (p = 0.0016, SCVs (p = 0.0209, exacerbations (p = 0.0041 and co-infections with S. maltophilia (p = 0.0195 or A. fumigatus (p = 0.0496.In CF-patients with chronic S. aureus cultures, independent risk factors for worse lung function are high bacterial density in throat cultures, exacerbations, elevated IL-6 levels, presence of S. aureus SCVs and co-infection with S. maltophilia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669760.

  10. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in veal calf farming: human MRSA carriage related with animal antimicrobial usage and farm hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveland, Haitske; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Heesterbeek, Hans; Mevius, Dik; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Heederik, Dick

    2010-06-08

    Recently a specific MRSA sequence type, ST398, emerged in food production animals and farmers. Risk factors for carrying MRSA ST398 in both animals and humans have not been fully evaluated. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated factors associated with MRSA colonization in veal calves and humans working and living on these farms. A sample of 102 veal calf farms were randomly selected and visited from March 2007-February 2008. Participating farmers were asked to fill in a questionnaire (n = 390) to identify potential risk factors. A nasal swab was taken from each participant. Furthermore, nasal swabs were taken from calves (n = 2151). Swabs were analysed for MRSA by selective enrichment and suspected colonies were confirmed as MRSA by using slide coagulase test and PCR for presence of the mecA-gene. Spa types were identified and a random selection of each spa type was tested with ST398 specific PCR. The Sequence Type of non ST398 strains was determined. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Human MRSA carriage was strongly associated with intensity of animal contact and with the number of MRSA positive animals on the farm. Calves were more often carrier when treated with antibiotics, while farm hygiene was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA. This is the first study showing direct associations between animal and human carriage of ST398. The direct associations between animal and human MRSA carriage and the association between MRSA and antimicrobial use in calves implicate prudent use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  11. A common variant of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IVa in isolates from Copenhagen, Denmark, is not detected by the BD GeneOhm methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rohde, Susanne Mie

    2009-01-01

    Rapid tests for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage are important to limit the transmission of MRSA in the health care setting. We evaluated the performance of the BD GeneOhm MRSA real-time PCR assay using a diverse collection of MRSA isolates, mainly from Cop...

  12. Optimalisatie Draagsysteem (Optimization of the Load Carriage System)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koerhuis, C. L; Rensink, P; Schijndel, J. van

    2008-01-01

    Besides positive effects of an earlier developed load carriage system in which the load was carried predominantly on the hips, mobility was increased and protection and load carriage was integrated into one system (ILCS...

  13. Identification of a PVL-negative SCCmec-IVa sub-lineage of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC80 lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edslev, Sofie Marie; Westh, Henrik Torkil; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2018-01-01

    of the CC80 S. aureus lineage was conducted from whole-genome sequences of 217 isolates (23 MSSA and 194 MRSA) from 22 countries. All isolates were further genetically characterized in regard to resistance determinants and PVL carriage, and epidemiological data was obtained for selected isolates. RESULTS....... CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the emergence of a novel CC80 CA-MRSA sub-lineage, showing that the CC80 lineage is more diverse than previously assumed....

  14. Colonization With Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Upon Intensive Care Unit Admission: Incidence and Risk Factors

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    Abbasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Since earlier identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-colonized patients could be helpful for reducing the overall frequency of S. aureus infections, the investigation of persons colonized with MRSA is considered to be a key component of MRSA infection prevention programs, particularly among ICU patients. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of nasal and extra-nasal carriers of MRSA and risk factors associated with MRSA colonization among adult patients admitted to the ICU. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 164 adult patients who were admitted to the ICU of a teaching hospital were screened for nasal and extra-nasal carriage of MRSA. In addition, the ICU-hospitalized patients were evaluated for MRSA acquisition during their ICU stay. Results Out of the 164 patients admitted to the ICU, 12 (7.3% patients were methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA carriers, and 12 (7.3% patients carried MRSA. Four (16.6% patients were colonized at single or multiple extra-nasal sites based on negative nares screening. Of the 15 remaining patients hospitalized at the ICU, one (6.7% patient acquired MRSA. The patients colonized with MRSA had more advanced ages (P = 0.008, longer hospital stays before being transferred to the ICU (P > 0.001, more underlying diseases with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (P = 0.028, and had undergone surgery (P = 0.003. Patients transferred from the surgical wards to the ICU were found to have significantly higher carriage rates of MRSA (P = 0.041. Conclusions The prevalence of MRSA colonization upon ICU admission at our hospital was relatively high, and routine MRSA screening is suggested, especially for patients who have certain risk factors. In addition, extra-nasal MRSA screenings upon ICU admission will help in the early detection of MRSA.

  15. Methicillin resistant S. aureus in human and bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous organism that causes a variety of diseases including mastitis in cattle and humans. High-level resistance of S. aureus to β-lactams conferred by a mecA gene encoding a modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) was first observed in the early 1960's. These methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been responsible for both hospital acquired infections (HA-MRSA) and, more recently, community acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA). A small number of human MRSA mastitis cases and outbreaks in maternity or neonatal units have been reported which are generally the result of CA-MRSA. The establishment of the sequence type 398 (ST398) in farm animals, primarily pigs, in the early 2000's has provided a reservoir of infection for humans and dairy cattle, particularly in continental Europe, described as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Prior to the emergence of ST398 there were sporadic reports of MRSA in bovine milk and cases of mastitis, often caused by strains from human associated lineages. Subsequently, there have been several reports describing bovine udder infections caused by ST-398 MRSA. Recently, another group of LA-MRSA strains was discovered in humans and dairy cattle in Europe. This group carries a divergent mecA gene and includes a number of S. aureus lineages (CC130, ST425, and CC1943) that were hitherto thought to be bovine-specific but are now also found as carriage or clinical isolates in humans. The emergence of MRSA in dairy cattle may be associated with contact with other host species, as in the case of ST398, or with the exchange of genetic material between S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus species, which are the most common species associated with bovine intramammary infections and commonly carry antimicrobial resistance determinants.

  16. Strategies for Prevention of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections and Decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Wagner, Cassie; Consoer, Hollie; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-12-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) invasive infections can be severe in the pediatric population with high morbidity and mortality. MRSA colonization can predispose to recurrent skin and soft tissue infections and invasive MRSA disease and is a frequent challenge faced by clinicians. This article reviews the importance of MRSA as a pathogen, MRSA colonization and various MRSA decolonization strategies. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  18. The evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus found on healthcare workers correlated with local consumption of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Roberto Busato

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Correlate the evolution of the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus collected from healthcare workers with the local consumption of antibiotics. MATERIAN AND METHODS: Open prospective research.Study Site. General Reference Hospital with 200 beds in a 700,000 inhabitant region, in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. RESULTS: Two collections (samples of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from healthcare-workers during an approximate four-year interval. Samples 1 (n= 200 and 2 (n= 270 had this bacterium in 63 (32% and 90 (33% of the patients, respectively. At the same time, the annual consumption of antibiotics in DDD/1,000 patient-days was determined. The variation of resistance was significantly smaller (m.s.d.=12.11 for gentamycin (p<0.01 and (m.s.d.=9.22 for Tobramycin (p<0.05. The correlation between variation in resistance and antibiotic consumption was not significant. Workers studied in the two samples showed a significant (p<0.01 frequency (c²=10.44 for persistent nasal carriage and for non carriage. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found in 12 (6% patients of sample 1 and 11 patients (4% of sample 2. CONCLUSION: Stability of resistance allows us to maintain therapeutic outlines. The variation in bacterial resistance in the twice-sampled population (n=105 indicated the selection pressure of the hospital environment. The resistance that was found is representative of the hospital microbiota; this relationship represents a biological model, based on the healthcare-workers' interaction with colonizing bacteria and nosocomial infections. New studies could improve this model for other bacteria, to determine the tendency for resistance and help guide the antibiotic use.

  19. Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in Luanda, Angola: first description of the spread of the MRSA ST5-IVa clone in the African continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Teresa; Coelho, Céline; Santos-Silva, Isabel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Aires-de-Sousa, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major human pathogen worldwide, and although surveillance studies are available in the most developed countries, data from Angola are inexistent. In June 2012, 295 inpatients and 199 healthcare workers from three hospitals in Luanda, Angola were nasal swabbed for S. aureus and MRSA carriage. A total of 117 individuals (23.7%) were S. aureus nasal carriers, out of which 68 (58.1%) were colonized with MRSA. The majority of the MRSA isolates (74%) belonged to a single clonal lineage, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) A-ST5-IVa associated with three spa types (spa types t105/t311/t11657), followed by PFGE C-ST88-IVa (spa types t186/t325/t786/t1951/t3869) (n=9; 12%); the other 11 MRSA isolates were representatives of 4 additional lineages. Almost half (49%) of the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates belonged to three major clones: PFGE B-ST508 (spa types t050/t861/t1346/t1574/t2626/t12218), PFGE D-ST45 (spa types t939/t11656), and PFGE E-ST30 (spa types t1202/t9118). MSSA isolates presented a high variability of virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine leukocidine (7.9%). MRSA carriage in Luanda is considerably high, and the major clone corresponds to a worldwide epidemic lineage, so far scarcely reported in Africa. Additional infection control measures in this metropolis are mandatory for a global MRSA control.

  20. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakweba, Abdul Sekemani; Muhairwa, Amandus Pachificus; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Guardabassi, Luca; Mtambo, Madundo M A; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2016-02-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Nasal swabs were taken from 100 humans, 100 pigs and 100 dogs in Morogoro Municipal. Each swab was enriched in Mueller Hinton broth with 6.5% NaCl and subcultured on chromogenic agar for S. aureus detection. Presumptive S. aureus colonies were confirmed to the species level by nuc PCR and analysed by spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined by disc diffusion method. S. aureus was isolated from 22% of humans, 4% of pigs and 11% of dogs. A total of 21 spa types were identified: 13, 7 and 1 in human, dogs, and pigs, respectively. Three spa types (t314, t223 and t084) were shared between humans and dogs. A novel spa type (t10779) was identified in an isolate recovered from a colonized human. Antimicrobials tested revealed resistance to ampicillin in all isolates, moderate resistances to other antimicrobials with tetracycline resistance being the most frequent. S. aureus carrier frequencies in dogs and humans were within the expected range and low in pigs. The S. aureus spa types circulating in the community were generally not shared by different hosts and majority of types belonged to known clones. Besides ampicillin resistance, moderate levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed irrespective of the host species from which the strains were isolated.

  1. The prevalence of carriage of meticillin-resistant staphylococci by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O; Boston, Raymond C; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C

    2010-08-01

    It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Breast Milk Is a Potential Reservoir for Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is the first choice in feeding newborn infants and provides multiple benefits for their growth and development. Staphylococcus aureus usually exists in breast milk and is considered one of the most important causative infective agents. To be effective in preventing and controlling S. aureus infections among infants, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus isolated from 1102 samples of breast milk between 2015 and 2016 in Shanghai, China. Out of 71 S. aureus strains isolated, 15 (21.1%, 15/71 were MRSA and all the strains were characterized by spa typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCCmec typing, antibiotic resistance testing and virulence-associated genes. A total of 18 distinct sequence types (STs and 36 spa types were identified within the 71 isolates, among which the most frequently represented was ST398 (19.7%, 14/71, followed by ST7 (18.3%, 13/71, ST59 (16.9%, 12/71. The three predominant STs accounted for more than one half of all S. aureus isolates. The most prevalent spa types were t091 (12.7%, 9/71, followed by t571 (8.5%, 6/71, t189 (7.0%, 5/71, t034 (5.6%, 4/71, t437 (5.6%, 4/71, and t701 (4.2%, 3/71. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec IV and V, accounting for 66.7 and 33.3% respectively. Notably, 23 (32.4% S. aureus strains were multidrug resistance (MDR, including 4 (5.6% MRSA and 19 (26.8% MSSA strains, and MDR isolates were mostly resistant to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. All isolates exhibited simultaneous carriage of at least 5 of 33 possible virulence genes and the most prevalent genes detected were icaA (100%, clfA (100%, hla (100%, sdrC (94.4%, hlg2 (88.7%, lukE (57.8%. 39 (54.9%, 39/71 isolates, including 9 (12.7% of MRSA isolates, harbored ≥10 tested virulence genes evaluated in this study. The pvl gene was detected in 8 strains, which represented 5 different STs, with ST59 being the most one. Overall, our findings showed that S. aureus

  3. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in swine and swine workplace environments on industrial and antibiotic-free hog operations in North Carolina, USA: A One Health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Meghan F; Pisanic, Nora; Rhodes, Sarah M; Brown, Alexis; Keller, Haley; Nadimpalli, Maya; Christ, Andrea; Ludwig, Shanna; Ordak, Carly; Spicer, Kristoffer; Love, David C; Larsen, Jesper; Wright, Asher; Blacklin, Sarah; Flowers, Billy; Stewart, Jill; Sexton, Kenneth G; Rule, Ana M; Heaney, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    Occupational exposure to swine has been associated with increased Staphylococcus aureus carriage, including antimicrobial-resistant strains, and increased risk of infections. To characterize animal and environmental routes of worker exposure, we optimized methods to identify S. aureus on operations that raise swine in confinement with antibiotics (industrial hog operation: IHO) versus on pasture without antibiotics (antibiotic-free hog operation: AFHO). We associated findings from tested swine and environmental samples with those from personal inhalable air samplers on worker surrogates at one IHO and three AFHOs in North Carolina using a new One Health approach. We determined swine S. aureus carriage status by collecting swab samples from multiple anatomical sites, and we determined environmental positivity for airborne bioaerosols with inhalable and impinger samplers and a single-stage impactor (ambient air) cross-sectionally. All samples were analyzed for S. aureus, and isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, absence of scn (livestock marker), and spa type. Seventeen of twenty (85%) swine sampled at the one IHO carried S. aureus at >1 anatomical sites compared to none of 30 (0%) swine sampled at the three AFHOs. All S. aureus isolates recovered from IHO swine and air samples were scn negative and spa type t337; almost all isolates (62/63) were multidrug resistant. S. aureus was recovered from eight of 14 (67%) ambient air and two (100%) worker surrogate personal air samples at the one IHO, whereas no S. aureus isolates were recovered from 19 ambient and six personal air samples at the three AFHOs. Personal worker surrogate inhalable sample findings were consistent with both swine and ambient air data, indicating the potential for workplace exposure. IHO swine and the one IHO environment could be a source of potential pathogen exposure to workers, as supported by the detection of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) with livestock-associated spa

  4. Low Efficacy of Antibiotics Against Staphylococcus aureus Airway Colonization in Ventilated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulik, Lukas; Hudcova, Jana; Craven, Donald E; Nagy, Gabor; Nagy, Eszter

    2017-04-15

    Airway-colonization by Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to the development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Despite extensive antibiotic treatment of intensive care unit patients, limited data are available on the efficacy of antibiotics on bacterial airway colonization and/or prevention of infections. Therefore, microbiologic responses to antibiotic treatment were evaluated in ventilated patients. Results of semiquantitative analyses of S. aureus burden in serial endotracheal-aspirate (ETA) samples and VAT/VAP diagnosis were correlated to antibiotic treatment. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of relevant antibiotics using serially collected isolates were evaluated. Forty-eight mechanically ventilated patients who were S. aureus positive by ETA samples and treated with relevant antibiotics for at least 2 consecutive days were included in the study. Vancomycin failed to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) burden in the airways. Oxacillin was ineffective for MSSA colonization in approximately 30% of the patients, and responders were typically coadministered additional antibiotics. Despite antibiotic exposure, 15 of the 39 patients (approximately 38%) colonized only by S. aureus and treated with appropriate antibiotic for at least 2 days still progressed to VAP. Importantly, no change in antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus isolates was observed during treatment. Staphylococcus aureus colonization levels inversely correlated with the presence of normal respiratory flora. Antibiotic treatment is ineffective in reducing S. aureus colonization in the lower airways and preventing VAT or VAP. Staphylococcus aureus is in competition for colonization with the normal respiratory flora. To improve patient outcomes, alternatives to antibiotics are urgently needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of

  5. Genetic relatedness and virulence factors of bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolated from teat skin and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Hoet, A; Seo, K S; Fogt, K; Moon, B S

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of teat skin colonization in Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections (IMI) by evaluating genetic relatedness of Staph. aureus isolates from milk and teat skin of dairy cows using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and characterizing the isolates based on the carriage of virulence genes. Cows in 4 known Staph. aureus-positive herds were sampled and Staph. aureus was detected in 43 quarters of 20 cows, with 10 quarters positive in both milk and skin (20 isolates), 18 positive only in milk, and 15 only on teat skin. Quarters with teat skin colonized with Staph. aureus were 4.5 times more likely to be diagnosed with Staph. aureus IMI than quarters not colonized on teat skin. Three main clusters were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using a cutoff of 80% similarity. All 3 clusters included both milk and skin isolates. The majority of isolates (72%) belonged to one predominant cluster (B), with 60% of isolates in the cluster originating from milk and 40% from teat skin. Genotypic variability was observed within 10 pairs (formed by isolates originating from milk and teat skin of the same quarter), where isolates in 5 out of the 10 pairs belonged to the same cluster. Forty-two virulence factors were screened using PCR. Some virulence factors were carried more frequently by teat skin isolates than by milk isolates or isolates from quarters with high somatic cell counts. Isolates in the predominant cluster B carried virulence factors clfA and clfB significantly more often than isolates in the minor clusters, which may have assisted them in becoming predominant in the herds. The present findings suggest that teat skin colonization with Staph. aureus can be an important factor involved in Staph. aureus IMI. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and nasal carriage isolates from bovines and its antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic resistance pattern. Materials and Methods: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab from cattle and buffalo were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The isolates were further analyzed for the presence of mecA gene by PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiling was performed by disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of MRSA in the current study was 28.57% and 34.28% in cattle nasal and skin swab, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 31.43% MRSA among cattle. Buffalo nasal and skin sample showed MRSA prevalence of 54.55% and 39.4%, respectively, with 46.9% overall prevalence. PCR could detect mecA gene in 36.4% and 58% MRSA isolates from cattle and buffalo, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility test found MRSA resistant to penicillin and oxytetracycline (88% each, cefoxitin (75%, cotrimoxazole (62%, and amoxyclav (50%. 100% sensitivity was observed against ciprofloxacin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin. Three (16.7% MRSA isolates from buffalo were found resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Cattle and buffalo were identified as a potential carrier of MRSA in Bihar (India. The isolation of vancomycinresistant S. aureus (VRSA in the current study indicates the emergence of VRSA in animal population which may be transmitted to the human beings working in close contact to the animals.

  7. Comprehensive review of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: screening and preventive recommendations for plastic surgeons and other surgical health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eamon B; Johnson, Mark D; Rohrich, Rod J

    2014-11-01

    Up to 2.3 million people are colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the United States, causing well-documented morbidity and mortality. Although the association of clinical outcomes with community and hospital carriage rates is increasingly defined, less is reported about asymptomatic colonization prevalence among physicians, and specifically plastic surgeons and the subsequent association with the incidence of patient surgical-site infection. A review of the literature using the PubMed and Cochrane databases analyzing provider screening, transmission, and prevalence was undertaken. In addition, a search was completed for current screening and decontamination guidelines and outcomes. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage prevalence of surgical staff is 4.5 percent. No prospective data exist regarding transmission and interventions for plastic surgeons. No studies were found specifically looking at prevalence or treatment of plastic surgeons. Current recommendations by national organizations focus on patient-oriented point-of-care testing and intervention, largely ignoring the role of the health care provider. Excellent guidelines exist regarding screening, transmission prevention, and treatment both in the workplace and in the community. No current such guidelines exist for plastic surgeons. No Level I or II evidence was found regarding physician screening, treatment, or transmission. Current expert opinion, however, indicates that plastic surgeons and their staff should be vigilant for methicillin-resistant S. aureus transmission, and once a sentinel cluster of skin and soft-tissue infections is identified, systematic screening and decontamination should be considered. If positive, topical decolonization therapy should be offered. In refractory cases, oral antibiotic therapy may be required, but this should not be used as a first-line strategy.

  8. Histopathological analysis of Salmonella chronic carriage in the mouse hepatopancreatobiliary system.

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    Geoffrey Gonzalez-Escobedo

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhi asymptomatic chronic carriage represents a challenge for the diagnosis and prevention of typhoid fever in endemic areas. Such carriers are thought to be reservoirs for further spread of the disease. Gallbladder carriage has been demonstrated to be mediated by biofilm formation on gallstones and by intracellular persistence in the gallbladder epithelium of mice. In addition, both gallstones and chronic carriage have been associated with chronic inflammation and the development of gallbladder carcinoma. However, the pathogenic relationship between typhoid carriage and the development of pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions in the hepatopancreatobiliary system as well as the host-pathogen interactions occurring during chronic carriage remains unclear. In this study, we monitored the histopathological features of chronic carriage up to 1 year post-infection. Chronic cholecystitis and hepatitis ranging from mild to severe were present in infected mice regardless of the presence of gallstones. Biliary epithelial hyperplasia was observed more commonly in the gallbladder of mice with gallstones (uninfected or infected. However, pre-malignant lesions, atypical hyperplasia and metaplasia of the gallbladder and exocrine pancreas, respectively, were only associated with chronic Salmonella carriage. This study has implications regarding the role of Salmonella chronic infection and inflammation in the development of pre-malignant lesions in the epithelium of the gallbladder and pancreas that could lead to oncogenesis.

  9. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs--a longitudinal study

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    Windahl Ulrika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius strains (MRSP are reported with increasing frequency in bacterial cultures from dogs. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MRSP could be found in dogs several months after a clinically apparent infection and whether the length of carriage varied depending on systemic antimicrobial treatment, diagnosis at time of the first positive MRSP culture and the presence of skin disease or wounds. Thirty-one dogs previously diagnosed with a clinical infection were sampled repeatedly for a minimum of eight months or, with the exception of two dogs, until two consecutive negative results were obtained. Five specified locations were sampled, and the results were evaluated to determine future recommendations concerning sample strategies when screening for MRSP carriage. Information was collected from medical records and questionnaires to evaluate factors that may influence length of carriage. Results The overall median length of MRSP carriage was 11 months (48 weeks. The presence of wounds and signs of dermatitis did not influence length of carriage. Systemic treatment for three weeks or longer with antimicrobial agents to which the bacterium was resistant was associated with prolonged carriage compared to dogs treated for a shorter period of time. Three of five dogs treated with an antimicrobial to which their MRSP-isolates were susceptible (tetracycline were found to still be MRSP-positive when sampled after the end of treatment. Wound samples had the highest positive MRSP yield (81% for the positive sample sites, compared to less than 70% for each of the other four sample sites. Cultures from the nostrils were less likely to detect MRSP carriage relative to the pharynx, perineum, wounds and the corner of the mouth. Conclusions Dogs can carry MRSP for more than a year after a clinically apparent infection. Systemic antimicrobial treatment of infections with antimicrobial agents

  10. Microarray based study on virulence-associated genes and resistance determinants of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Kuhnert, Peter; Hotzel, Helmut; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf

    2007-11-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen which can colonise and infect not only man, but also domestic animals. Especially, infection of cattle is of high economic relevance as S. aureus is an important causal agent of bovine mastitis. In the present contribution, a DNA microarray was applied for the study of 144 different gene targets, including resistance genes and genes encoding exotoxins, in S. aureus isolated from cows. One hundred and twenty-eight isolates from Germany and Switzerland were tested. These isolates were assigned to 20 different strains and nine clonal complexes. The majority of isolates belonged either to apparently closely related clonal complexes 8, 25, and 97 (together 34.4%) or were related to the sequenced bovine strain RF122 (48.4%). Notable characteristics of S. aureus of bovine origin are the carriage of intact haemolysin beta (in 82% of isolates tested), the absence of staphylokinase (in 89.1%), the presence of allelic variants of several exotoxins such as toxic shock syndrome toxin and enterotoxin N, and the occurrence of the leukocidin lukF-P83/lukM (in 53.1%). Two isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). One of them was a clonal complex 8 MRSA related to the epidemic MRSA strain Irish 01. The other one belonged to ST398/spa-type 34 resembling a newly emerging MRSA strain which has been described to occur in humans as well as in domestic animals. The presence of these two strains highlights the possibility of transfers of S. aureus strains between different host species.

  11. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Klugman, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community interactions at mucosal surfaces between viruses, like influenza virus, and respiratory bacterial pathogens are important contributors toward pathogenesis of bacterial disease. What has not been considered is the natural extension of these interactions to live attenuated immunizations, and in particular, live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs). Using a mouse-adapted LAIV against influenza A (H3N2) virus carrying the same mutations as the human FluMist vaccine, we find that LAIV vaccination reverses normal bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx and significantly increases bacterial carriage densities of the clinically important bacterial pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 19F and 7F) and Staphylococcus aureus (strains Newman and Wright) within the upper respiratory tract of mice. Vaccination with LAIV also resulted in 2- to 5-fold increases in mean durations of bacterial carriage. Furthermore, we show that the increases in carriage density and duration were nearly identical in all aspects to changes in bacterial colonizing dynamics following infection with wild-type (WT) influenza virus. Importantly, LAIV, unlike WT influenza viruses, had no effect on severe bacterial disease or mortality within the lower respiratory tract. Our findings are, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that vaccination with a live attenuated viral vaccine can directly modulate colonizing dynamics of important and unrelated human bacterial pathogens, and does so in a manner highly analogous to that seen following wild-type virus infection. PMID:24549845

  12. Oral yeast carriage in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A N; Brailsford, S; Broadley, K; Beighton, D

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral yeast carriage amongst patients with advanced cancer. Oral rinse samples were obtained from 120 subjects. Yeasts were isolated using Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CHROMagar Candida, and were identified using a combination of the API 20 C AUX yeast identification system, species-specific PCR and 26S rDNA gene sequencing. Oral yeast carriage was present in 66% of subjects. The frequency of isolation of individual species was: Candida albicans, 46%; Candida glabrata, 18%; Candida dubliniensis, 5%; others, yeast carriage was associated with denture wearing (P = 0.006), and low stimulated whole salivary flow rate (P = 0.009). Identification of these risk factors offers new strategies for the prevention of oral candidosis in this group of patients.

  13. Screening of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during admission of patients to Frantz Fanon Hospital, Blida, Algeria

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    Mohamed Amine Ouidri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains isolated from nasal preoperative samples. Of 663 samples assessed, staphylococcus was detected in 143 (21.57%. The disc diffusion method (cefoxitin 30 μg, a screening test (oxacillin 6 μg/mL and a search for Protein Binding Additional Penicillin 2 (PLP2a allowed the detection and confirmation of resistance to methicillin for 36 strains, a rate of 5.43% of the total population studied. Eight MRSA carriers received care in the trauma service, 14 in cardiology, five in ear, nose and throat, four in neurosurgery and paediatrics, and one in SCI. Thirty-six methicillin-resistant of the nasal portage strains are in their great majority, 27 of 36, rather limited multi-R character (two to three families namely resistance: tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, macrolides. One of the MRSA strains was found to have intermediate sensitivity to vancomycin. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Healthy volunteers, MRSA, Prevalence, Staphylococcus aureus

  14. Cefotaxime-heparin lock prophylaxis against hemodialysis catheter-related sepsis among Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers

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    Anil K Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers undergoing hemodialysis (HD through tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs form a high-risk group for the development of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI and ensuing morbidity. The efficacy of antibiotic-locks on the outcomes of TCCs among S. aureus nasal carriers has not been studied earlier. Persistent nasal carriage was defined by two or more positive cultures for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA or methicillin-resistant (MRSA S. aureus of five standardized nasal swabs taken from all the participants dialyzed at a large out-patient HD center affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Of 218 participants, 82 S. aureus nasal carriers dialyzed through TCCs (n = 88 were identified through April 2005 to March 2006 and randomized to two groups. Group I comprised of 39 nasal carriers who had TCCs (n = 41 "locked" with cefotaxime/heparin while group II included 43 patients with TCCs (n = 47 filled with standard heparin. The CRBSI incidence and TCC survival at 365 days were statistically compared between the two groups. A significantly lower CRBSI incidence (1.47 vs. 3.44/1000 catheter-days, P <0.001 and higher infection-free TCC survival rates at 365 days (80.5 vs. 40.4%, P <0.0001 were observed in the cefotaxime group compared with the stan-dard heparin group. However, no significant difference in MRSA-associated CRBSI incidence was observed between the two groups. Cefotaxime-heparin "locks" effectively reduced CRBSI-incidence associated with gram-positive cocci, including MSSA, among S. aureus nasal carriers. There remains a compelling requirement for antibiotic-locks effective against MRSA.

  15. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

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    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  16. Supplement to the approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ADR and RID Framework Directives require EC member states' arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods on domestic road and rail journeys to align with the existing ADR and RID agreements which cover international journeys by road and rail. Because ADR and RID are updated every two years in line with technical and scientific developments, the ADR/RID Framework Directives are also revised on a two-year cycle, to require member states to amend their implementing legislation accordingly. In Great Britain, these two Directives were initially implemented on 1 September 1996 via regulations (usually referred to as the 'carriage regulations'), containing the general legal duties, supported by approved documents, and an Approved Code of Practice containing the detailed technical requirements. The following approved documents have been updated: (a) Approved Vehicle Requirements (AVR) - L89; (b) Approved Requirements and test methods for the classification and packaging of dangerous goods for carriage (ARTM) - L88; (c) Approved Requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail (ARCRR) - L94; (d) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (AEVR) - L92; and (e) Approved Carriage List (ACL) - L90

  17. Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by Panton-Valentine Leucocidin-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Originating from a Bartholin's Abscess

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    N. Jung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL-producing Staphylococcus aureus is emerging as a serious problem worldwide. There has been an increase in the incidence of necrotizing lung infections in otherwise healthy young people with a very high mortality associated with these strains. Sporadic severe infectious complications after incision of Bartholin's abcesses have been described but involvement of S. aureus is rare. Case report. We present a 23-year-old apparently healthy female patient without any typical predisposing findings who developed severe sepsis with necrotizing pneumonia and multiple abscesses following incision of a Bartholin's abscess. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus harbouring Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes were cultured from the abscess fluid, multiple blood cultures and a postoperative wound swab. Aggressive antibiotic therapy with flucloxacillin, rifampicin and clindamycin, drainage and intensive supportive care lead finally to recovery. Conclusions. S. aureus, in particular PVL-positive strains, should be considered when a young, immunocompetent person develops a fulminant necrotizing pneumonia. Minor infections—such as Bartholin's abscess—can precede this life-threating syndrome. Bactericidal antistaphylococcal antibiotics are recommended for treatment, and surgical procedures may become necessary.

  18. Prevalence and characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus causing community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections on Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosaningsih, Dewi; Santoso, Sanarto; Setijowati, Nanik; Rasyid, Harun A; Budayanti, Nyoman S; Suata, Ketut; Widhyatmoko, Dicky B; Purwono, Priyo B; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Damayanti, Damayanti; Prakoeswa, Cita R S; Laurens, Mitchell; van Nierop, Josephine W I; Nanninga, Geraldine L; Oudenes, Neline; de Regt, Michelle; Snijders, Susan V; Verbrugh, Henri A; Severin, Juliëtte A

    2018-01-01

    To define the role of Staphylococcus aureus in community settings among patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Indonesia. Staphylococcus aureus were cultured from anterior nares, throat and wounds of 567 ambulatory patients presenting with SSTI. The mecA gene and genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL; lukF-PV and lukS-PV) and exfoliative toxin (ET; eta and etb) were determined by PCR. Clonal relatedness among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and PVL-positive S. aureus was analysed using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for a subset of isolates. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) was determined for all MRSA isolates. Moreover, determinants for S. aureus SSTI, and PVL/ET-positive vs PVL/ET-negative S. aureus were assessed. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from SSTI wounds of 257 (45.3%) patients, eight (3.1%) of these were MRSA. Genes encoding PVL and ETs were detected in 21.8% and 17.5% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. PVL-positive MRSA was not detected. Nasopharyngeal S. aureus carriage was an independent determinant for S. aureus SSTI (odds ratio [OR] 1.8). Primary skin infection (OR 5.4) and previous antibiotic therapy (OR 3.5) were associated with PVL-positive MSSA. Primary skin infection (OR 2.2) was the only factor associated with ET-positive MSSA. MLVA typing revealed two more prevalent MSSA clusters. One ST1-MRSA-SCCmec type IV isolate and a cluster of ST239-MRSA-SCCmec type III were found. Community-acquired SSTI in Indonesia was frequently caused by PVL-positive MSSA, and the hospital-associated ST239-MRSA may have spread from the hospital into the community. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage... carriage. The contracts excluded from the reach of the Act by this exemption are typically those where... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. 4...

  20. Interspecies spread of Staphylococcus aureus clones among companion animals and human close contacts in a veterinary teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drougka, Eleanna; Foka, Antigoni; Koutinas, Christos K; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Farmaki, Ourania; Sarrou, Styliani; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence among companion animals and veterinary personnel (VP) was investigated. Strains' molecular characteristics were evaluated in order to assess S. aureus transmission. Specimens (224) from colonized and infected sites of 102 animals (92 dogs, 10 cats) and 18 VP were collected during 2012 and 2013. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disk diffusion method and Etest. mecA, mecC, tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin) and lukF/lukS-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) genes were investigated by PCR. Genotypes were identified by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), accessory gene regulator group (agr), spa and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). S. aureus prevalence among pets and VP was 36.3% (37/102) and 38.9% (7/18), respectively. Younger companion animals, those living in rural areas, having a disease upon admission or Coagulase-negative staphylococci co-carriage showed significantly higher prevalence of S. aureus isolation (panimals and VP. Companion animals harbor PVL-positive clones constituting a possible source for transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Colonization of butchers with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, M; Ho, J; Guardabassi, L; O'Donoghue, M

    2013-12-01

    Reports have documented colonization of swine in Europe, North America and more recently in China with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Contamination of pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers with these strains has been observed. However, although contamination levels of 10% of retail pork were reported from the Netherlands and Canada, there are limited data of contamination rates of workers handling raw meat. We investigated the rates of MRSA contamination of local butchers working in wet markets, where recently slaughtered pigs are cut up. Nasal swabs collected from 300 pork butchers at markets throughout Hong Kong were enriched in brain heart infusion broth with 5% salt and cultured on MRSASelect(®) . Isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and susceptibility testing performed. The presence of mecA was confirmed, SCCmec and spa type determined and relatedness investigated by PFGE. Subjects completed a questionnaire on MRSA carriage risk factors. Seventeen samples (5.6%) yielded MRSA, 15 harbouring SCCmec IVb. Ten strains were t899 (CC9), previously reported from local pig carcasses. Five strains were healthcare associated: SCCmec type II, t701(CC6), colonizing two subjects at the same establishment, and single isolates of t008 (CC8), t002 (CC5) and t123 (CC45). The remaining isolates were t359 (CC97), previously reported from buffaloes, and t375 (CC5), reported from bovine milk. None of these butchers reported recent hospitalization or a healthcare worker in the family. Two had recently received antibiotics, one for a skin infection. Four reported wound infections within the last year. All were exposed to meat for >9 h per day. Carriage of MRSA was higher in butchers than in the general community. Although five strains were probably of healthcare origin, the high incidence of t899 (CC9) suggests that cross-contamination from pork occurs frequently. Washing of hands after touching raw pork is advised

  2. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Carriage State among Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Beirut

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    M. A. Jallad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can cause severe infections, but they are also isolated from the stool of asymptomatic subjects. Faecal carriage of such organism is poorly understood. Methods. First phase of the study was cross-sectional with prevalence and epidemiology of ESBL faecal carriage in two nursing homes in Beirut: 57 residents in the first (NH1 and 151 residents in the second (NH2. In second phase, faecal swabs from cohort of NH1 residents were examined for carriage at six-week intervals over three-month period. Residents’ charts were reviewed to assess carriage risk factors. Results. Over 3 consecutive samplings at NH1, 81% of residents were at least one-time carriers with 50% at the first round, 60.4% at the second, and 74.5% at the last one. At NH2, 68.2% of residents were carriers. Constipation (in NH1 and antibiotic intake (in NH2 were significantly associated with higher ESBL faecal carriage while the length of stay at the nursing home (in NH2 was associated with less carriage. Conclusion. Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is high among nursing home patients in Beirut. The rate of carriage changes rapidly and significantly over time either with multiple factors playing a possible role like outbreak spreading, antibiotic, and health care system exposure.

  3. A Nosocomial Outbreak of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Healthy Newborns and Postpartum Mothers

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    Andrea Saunders

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA has increasingly been isolated from individuals with no predisposing risk factors; however, such strains have rarely been linked to outbreaks in the hospital setting. The present study describes the investigation of an outbreak of CA-MRSA that occurred in the maternal-newborn unit of a large community teaching hospital in Toronto, Ontario.

  4. Predisposing cardiac conditions, interventional procedures, and antibiotic prophylaxis among patients with infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirillo, Fabio; Faggiano, Pompilio; Cecconi, Moreno; Moreo, Antonella; Squeri, Angelo; Gaddi, Oscar; Cecchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    Efficacy and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with predisposing cardiac condition (PCC) undergoing invasive procedures is still debated. We sought to assess the prevalence of PCC, the type of interventional procedures preceding the onset of symptoms, and the usefulness of AP in a large cohort of consecutive patients with definite IE. We examined 677 (median age 65.34 years; male 492 [73%]) consecutive patients with IE enrolled from July 2007 through 2010 into the Italian Registry of Infective Endocarditis. Predisposing cardiac condition was present in 341 patients (50%).Thirty-two patients (4.7%) underwent dental procedures. Of 20 patients with PCC undergoing dental procedure, 13 had assumed AP. Viridans group streptococci were isolated from blood cultures in 8 of 20 patients with PCC and prior dental procedure. Nondental procedures preceded IE in 139 patients (21%). They were significantly older and had more comordibities compared with patients undergoing dental procedures. Predisposing cardiac condition was identified in 91 patients. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered to 67 patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent causative agent. Cardiac surgery was necessary in 85 patients (20 with prior dental and 65 with nondental procedure). Surgical mortality (12% vs 0%, P = .03) and hospital mortality (23% vs 3%, P = .001) were significantly larger among patients with nondental procedures. In a large unselected cohort of patients with IE, the incidence of preceding dental procedures was minimal. The number of cases potentially preventable by means of AP was negligible. Nondental procedures were more frequent than dental procedures and were correlated with poorer prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nasal screening for Staphylococcus aureus--daily routine with improvement potentials.

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    Philipp Warnke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus aureus causes purulent bacterial infections with a considerable number of life-threatening complications and thus, is a serious cost factor in public health. Up to 50% of a given population could asymptomatically carry Staphylococcus aureus in their nares, thereby serving as a source for contact transmissions and endogenous infections. Nasal swab-based screening techniques are widely used to identify suchcarriers. This study investigated the skill of medical professionals in taking nasal swabs and the effect of teaching on improving bacterial recovery rates. METHODS: 364 persons with different medical educational background participated in this study. A novel anatomically correct artificial nose model was implemented and inoculated with a numerically defined mixture of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. Utilizing regular clinical swabs, participants performed screening of the inoculated nose models before and after standardized theoretical, visual, and practical teaching. Recovery of bacteria was measured by standard viable count techniques. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests. RESULTS: It could be demonstrated that combined theoretical and practical teaching improved bacterial recovery rates. Even experienced medical professionals increased their detection levels after training. Recovery rates of bacteria varied significantly between trained (158.1 CFU and untrained (47.5 CFU participants (Wilcoxon test, p<0.001; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Swabs are commonly used to detect nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in patients. The present teaching algorithm combined with the novel nose model offers an excellent precondition to improve knowledge and performance of this technique. Increased detection rates may prevent from contact transmission due to suboptimum hygienic patient handling. Consecutively, this effect could reduce costs for patient care. This

  6. Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin modulates skin host response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Lianghua; Kim, Byung Eui; Brauweiler, Anne; Goleva, Elena; Streib, Joanne; Ji, Yinduo; Schlievert, Patrick M; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-09-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with a history of eczema herpeticum have increased staphylococcal colonization and infections. However, whether Staphylococcus aureus alters the outcome of skin viral infection has not been determined. We investigated whether S aureus toxins modulated host response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and vaccinia virus (VV) infections in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) and in murine infection models. NHKs were treated with S aureus toxins before incubation of viruses. BALB/c mice were inoculated with S aureus 2 days before VV scarification. Viral loads of HSV-1 and VV were evaluated by using real-time PCR, a viral plaque-forming assay, and immunofluorescence staining. Small interfering RNA duplexes were used to knockdown the gene expression of the cellular receptor of α-toxin, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). ADAM10 protein and α-toxin heptamers were detected by using Western blot assays. We demonstrate that sublytic staphylococcal α-toxin increases viral loads of HSV-1 and VV in NHKs. Furthermore, we demonstrate in vivo that the VV load is significantly greater (P skin inoculated with an α-toxin-producing S aureus strain compared with murine skin inoculated with the isogenic α-toxin-deleted strain. The viral enhancing effect of α-toxin is mediated by ADAM10 and is associated with its pore-forming property. Moreover, we demonstrate that α-toxin promotes viral entry in NHKs. The current study introduces the novel concept that staphylococcal α-toxin promotes viral skin infection and provides a mechanism by which S aureus infection might predispose the host toward disseminated viral infections. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis: a reason for increasing resistance to antibiotics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Błażewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Exacerbation of atopic dermatitis can be associated with bacterial infection. The skin of patients is colonized with Staphylococcus aureus in 90% of cases. An attempt has been made to demonstrate that eradication significantly reduces the severity of the disease. Studies indicate the efficacy of topical antibiotics, topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors. Due to increasing resistance to drugs and the defective antimicrobial peptide profile, decolonization is virtually impossible. Aim : To determine the prevalence of S. aureus colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains to antibiotics, especially fusidic acid and mupirocin. Material and methods : One hundred patients with atopic dermatitis and 50 healthy subjects were microbiologically assessed for the carriage of S. aureus . Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the broth-microdilution method for antibiotics: ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, linezolid, lincomycin, mupirocin, tetracycline and vancomycin. Results : Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from the majority of our patients, either from the skin (71% or the anterior nares (67%. In the present study, 10% of isolations represented methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. Antibiotics exhibited diverse activities against clinical isolates of S. aureus . Among those tested, the highest rates of resistance were shown for ampicillin – 58.5%, lincomycin – 37.5% and erythromycin – 31.0%. Enhanced resistance levels were expressed to mupirocin (17.5% and fusidic acid (15.5%. Conclusions : According to the increasing rate of resistance and quick recolonization after discontinuation of the treatment, chronic use of topical antibiotics is not recommended and should be limited to exacerbation of atopic dermatitis with clinical signs of bacterial infection.

  8. [Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in medical students: importance in nosocomial transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguilera, Sara; Goñi-Yeste, María Del Mar; Barrado, Laura; González-Rodríguez-Salinas, M Carmen; Otero, Joaquín R; Chaves, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Health professionals, including medical students, could be a source of transmission. The aims of the study were to determine the rate of nasal carriage of S.aureus susceptible and resistant to methicillin (MRSA) and evaluate the knowledge and adherence that students had about hand hygiene. The study included medical students attached to the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid, Spain). We collected samples from both nasal vestibules, and the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined on all isolates. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire that included risk factors for colonization, hygiene habits and knowledge of hand hygiene protocols. Of the 140 students included, 55 (39.3%) were colonized by S.aureus, and 3 (2,1%) by MRSA. The exposure to antibiotics in the last 3 months was lower in colonized students (12.3% vs. 25.9%, P=.03). Self-assessment showed that 56.4% of students almost never washed their hands before to attending to the first patient, and only 38.6% always washed after examining patients. More than a third (35.7%) ignored the hand hygiene protocol, and 38.6% had not received specific formation. Medical students should be included in hospital infection control programs. Hand hygiene training should be given to students before they begin their practices in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. CcpA Affects Infectivity of Staphylococcus aureus in a Hyperglycemic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Bischoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria regulate the expression of virulence factors via carbon catabolite responsive elements. In Gram-positive bacteria, the predominant mediator of carbon catabolite repression is the catabolite control protein A (CcpA. Hyperglycemia is a widespread disorder that predisposes individuals to an array of symptoms and an increased risk of infections. In hyperglycemic individuals, the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus causes serious, life-threatening infections. The importance of CcpA in regulating carbon catabolite repression in S. aureus suggests it may be important for infections in hyperglycemic individuals. To test this suggestion, hyperglycemic non-obese diabetic (NOD; blood glucose level ≥20 mM mice were challenged with the mouse pathogenic S. aureus strain Newman and the isogenic ccpA deletion mutant (MST14, and the effects on infectivity were determined. Diabetic NOD mice challenged with the ccpA deletion mutant enhanced the symptoms of infection in an acute murine pneumonia model relative to the parental strain. Interestingly, when diabetic NOD mice were used in footpad or catheter infection models, infectivity of the ccpA mutant decreased relative to the parental strain. These differences greatly diminished when normoglycemic NOD mice (blood glucose level ≤ 10 mM were used. These data suggest that CcpA is important for infectivity of S. aureus in hyperglycemic individuals.

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonisation amongst healthcare workers in Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Assafi, Mahde S; Ijaz, Tayyaba

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among healthcare workers (HCWs) compared with non-HCWs at Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, northern Iraq. A total of 182 HCWs with different occupations and working in different hospital units as well as 198 non-HCWs were recruited. Nasal swab samples were collected and were inoculated on mannitol salt agar and incubated at 35°C for 48h. Isolates identified as S. aureus underwent antimicrobial sensitivity testing to oxacillin. MRSA isolates were selected and investigated for presence of the mecA gene. Among the HCWs, 41/182 (22.5%) were carriers of S. aureus compared with 37/198 (18.7%) non-HCWs (P=0.4). Amongst the S. aureus carriers, 25/41 strains (61.0%) isolated from HCWs were MRSA compared with 8/37 strains (21.6%) isolated from non-HCWs (P=0.039). The mean age of MRSA carriers was 35.6±6.7years compared with 30±5.8years for MRSA non-carriers (P=0.0177). The mean working years of MRSA carriers was significantly higher than that of MRSA non-carriers (7.8±5.5years vs. 3.9±5.3years; P=0.04). The prevalence of MRSA was very high amongst HCWs. Regular screening of carriers is required for prevention of nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  12. New test techniques to evaluate near field effects for supersonic store carriage and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Wallace C.; Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Blair, A. B., Jr.; Monta, William J.; Plentovich, Elizabeth B.

    1989-01-01

    Store separation and store carriage drag studies were conducted. A primary purpose is to develop new experimental methods to evaluate near field effects of store separation and levels of store carriage drag associated with a variety of carriage techniques for different store shapes and arrangements. Flow field measurements consisting of surface pressure distributions and vapor screen photographs are used to analyze the variations of the store separation characteristics with cavity geometry. Store carriage drag measurements representative of tangent, semi-submerged, and internal carriage installations are presented and discussed. Results are included from both fully metric models and models with only metric segments (metric pallets) and the relative merits of the two are discussed. Carriage drag measurements for store installations on an aircraft parent body are compared both with prediction methods and with installations on a generic parent body.

  13. Carriage of multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary university hospital in Albania—a point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falzon A. Parascandalo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country’s only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana. Results A total of 106 nasal and 104 rectal swabs were collected. 14.2 % of patients (95 % Confidence Interval [95 CI]: 8.1–22.3 % were MRSA nasal carriers. Resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was common in these isolates (≥80 % but no resistance was identified against glycopeptides, nitrofurantoin and the relatively newer agents, tigecycline and linezolid. Fifty Enterobacteriaceae isolates were cultivated from 33 of 104 screened patients (31.7 % [95 CI: 22.9–41.6 % 95 CI]. The prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL production in Enterobacteriaceae was 41.3 % (95 CI: 31.8–51.4 %. The two more commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae were E. coli ([n = 28], 24 ESBL positive; 1 AmpC positive and 3 without an identified mechanism of resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae ([n = 13], all ESBL positive; 1 also AmpC and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL positive. Susceptibility to carbapenems (≥98 %, fosfomycin (90 % and amikacin (70 + 20 % intermediate was high but a high level of resistance to all other agents tested was noted. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were less commonly isolated {22 isolates: Acinetobacter baumannii (9; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5}. Conclusion Although a significant rate of MRSA carriage was identified, the main resistance challenge in Albania appears to be linked with Gram

  14. The health impact of schoolbag carriage: A systematic review (2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy schoolbag carriage precipitating musculoskeletal pain and deviant vertebral posture has become a serious concern. The objectives of the study were to: (i) identify common anatomical sites of pain due to heavy schoolbag carriage, (ii) determine the maximum mass that a scholar can carry on both shoulders, as well ...

  15. Molecular characteristics of bap-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy cow mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Gustavo G M; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Piccinini, Renata

    2015-08-01

    The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) of Staphylococcus aureus is a high molecular weight cell-wall-anchored protein involved in biofilm formation, first described in bovine mastitis strains from Spain. So far, studies regarding Bap were mainly based on the Spanish strain V329 and its mutants, but no information on the genetic variability of bap-positive Staph. aureus strains is yet available in the literature. The present study investigated the molecular characteristics of 8 bap-positive Staph. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis, isolated in 5 herds; somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk samples were also registered. Strains were characterised using MLST, SPA typing and microarray and the results were compared with V329. All isolates from this study and V329 were assigned to ST126, t605, but some molecular differences were observed. Only herd A and B strains harboured the genes for β-lactams resistance; the leukocidin D/E gene, a type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease subunit, 3rd locus gene and serin-protease A and B were carried by all strains, but not by V329, while serin-protease E was absent in V329 and in another isolate. Four isolates and V329 harboured the fibronectin-binding protein B gene. SCC showed the highest value in the milk sample affected by the only strain carrying all the virulence factors considered. Potential large variability of virulence was evidenced among V329 and all bap-positive Staph. aureus strains considered: the carriage of fnb could enhance the accumulation of biofilm, but the lack of lukD/E and splA, B or E might decrease the invasiveness of strain.

  16. Effectiveness test of bay leaf extract (Eugenia polyantha on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Azhari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a facultative anaerobic bacteria and one of the normal microflora in the mouth. However, if it is influenced by predisposing factors, it would be pathogenic. Bay leaves have an active ingredient that is tannins, flavonoids, and essential oils are believed to have antibacterial effects. The purpose of this study is to determine how much the effectiveness of extracts of leaves produced by the growth of S.aureus. This research is an experimental laboratory. The research sample is S. aureus in preparations. Dilution bay leaf extract, among others, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. Inhibition was obtained by measuring the inhibition zone formed around the paper disks using calipers. Statistical analyzes were performed using one way ANOVA test. The results showed that the diameter of the zone of inhibition for S.aureus at a concentration of 12.5% leaves extract (7.29 mm; 25% (7.7 mm; 50% (8.75 mm; 75% (9.34 mm; 100% (9.78 mm. In the statistical analysis of the results showed a significant difference from the respective bay leaf extract concentration. Bay leaf extract can inhibit the growth of S. aureus bacteria. However, it is still not effective to inhibit bacteria as the result of inhibition zones obtained relatively small at less than 10 mm.

  17. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Amy; Allen, Elizabeth; Lindemann, Claudia; Yamaguchi, Yuko; O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Knox, Kyle; Wyllie, David H

    2016-06-02

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. CANDU 9 fuelling machine carriage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, D J; Slavik, J F [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Continuous, on-power refuelling is a key feature of all CANDU reactor designs and is essential to maintaining high station capacity factors. The concept of a fuelling machine carriage can be traced to the early CANDU designs, such as the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station. In the CANDU 9 480NU unit, the combination of a mobile carriage and a proven fuelling machine head design comprises an effective means of transporting fuel between the reactor and the fuel transfer ports. It is a suitable alternative to the fuelling machine bridge system that has been utilized in the CANDU 6 reactor units. The CANDU 9 480NU fuel handling system successfully combines features that meet the project requirements with respect to fuelling performance, functionality, seismic qualification and the use of proven components. The design incorporates improvements based on experience and applicable current technologies. (author). 4 figs.

  19. CANDU 9 fuelling machine carriage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, D.J.; Slavik, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous, on-power refuelling is a key feature of all CANDU reactor designs and is essential to maintaining high station capacity factors. The concept of a fuelling machine carriage can be traced to the early CANDU designs, such as the Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station. In the CANDU 9 480NU unit, the combination of a mobile carriage and a proven fuelling machine head design comprises an effective means of transporting fuel between the reactor and the fuel transfer ports. It is a suitable alternative to the fuelling machine bridge system that has been utilized in the CANDU 6 reactor units. The CANDU 9 480NU fuel handling system successfully combines features that meet the project requirements with respect to fuelling performance, functionality, seismic qualification and the use of proven components. The design incorporates improvements based on experience and applicable current technologies. (author). 4 figs

  20. Tolerability of a probiotic in subjects with a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrack, S; Panjikar, P; Duster, M; Safdar, N

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of major public health importance. Colonisation precedes infection; thus reducing MRSA carriage may be of benefit for reducing infection. Probiotics represent a novel approach to reducing MRSA carriage. We undertook a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial of the tolerability and acceptability of probiotics for reducing nasal and intestinal carriage of MRSA. In addition, subjects were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterocococci (VRE). Subjects with a history of MRSA were recruited from a large, academic medical center and randomised to take either a placebo or probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001). Subjects returned to the clinic after four weeks for further testing to determine adherence to the probiotic regimen and colonisation of MRSA. 48 subjects were enrolled and randomised. Nearly 25% were transplant recipients and 30% had diabetes. The probiotic was well tolerated in the study population though minor side effects, such as nausea and bloating, were observed. A majority of the subjects randomised to HN001 had good adherence to the regimen. At the four week time point among subjects randomised to the probiotic, MRSA was detected in 67 and 50% of subjects colonised in the nares and the gastrointestinal tract, respectively. Three subjects who initially tested positive for VRE were negative after four weeks of probiotic exposure. Probiotics were well tolerated in our study population of largely immunocompromised subjects with multiple comorbidities. Adherence to the intervention was good. Probiotics should be studied further for their potential to reduce colonisation by multidrug resistant bacteria.

  1. Prophylaxis of asymmetric carriage of schoolboys of middle age by facilities of physical rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbani R.Sh.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of violation of carriage are considered in a frontal plane for schoolboys of middle age. In research took part 20 schoolboys (girls and boys of 12-14 years old. The estimation of the state of carriage is executed. Violations of carriage are exposed with predominance of right-side asymmetry of trunk. The complexes of facilities of physical rehabilitation, the basic component of which are correctings exercises, are offered. Positive influence of complexes, directed on the prophylaxis of asymmetric carriage of schoolboys is certain.

  2. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Velasco

    Full Text Available Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and methicillin-resistant (MRSA Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2% MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2% isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from Humans and a Comparison with İsolates of Animal Origin, in North Dakota, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Buyukcangaz, Esra; Sherwood, Julie S; Stepan, Ryan M; Koslofsky, Ryan J; Logue, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.

  4. The relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Seop; Chung, Sung-Chang; Kim, Young-Ku; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kho, Hong-Seop

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between oral Candida carriage and the secretor status of blood group antigens. Unstimulated whole saliva and oral rinse samples were obtained from 180 healthy subjects. These samples were plated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine oral Candida carriage. Sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting were performed on whole saliva samples to determine the secretor status of blood group antigens. The oral Candida carriage rate was found to be 45.0%. The sensitivity of the concentrated rinse culture proved to be superior. Oral Candida carriage was not significantly related to the blood group or secretor status of ABH or Lewis antigens. No significant relationship was found between oral Candida carriage and salivary flow rate. However, smoking affected oral Candida carriage. Oral Candida carriage in healthy individuals is not significantly related to blood group or secretor status.

  5. Risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients admitted to the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Alain; Marjollet, Olivier; Berthelot, Philippe; Carricajo, Anne; Guyomarc'h, Stéphane; Robert, Florianne; Zeni, Fabrice; Bertrand, Jean Claude

    2007-10-01

    The objective of our study was to define the characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) presenting with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The study included all patients admitted to the ED between January 2003 and December 2004 in whom a staphylococcal infection was documented. The risk factors associated with carriage of MRSA, the diagnosis made in the ED, and the treatment administered were established from the patients' medical files. The sites from which the bacteria were isolated, the spectrum of resistance of the staphylococci to different antibiotics, and the presence or absence of the gene coding for Panton-Valentin leukocidin for certain S aureus isolates were determined from the reports issued by the bacteriologic department. Two groups of patients were compared: those with an infection caused by MRSA and those with an infection due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA). A total of 238 patients were included, 93 presenting with an infection caused by MRSA and 145 an infection due to MSSA. The patients harboring MRSA had a higher median age than those carrying MSSA (74 vs 61 years, P = .0001), experienced a greater loss of autonomy (according to the Knauss index), and had more comorbidity factors. Nine patients, younger than 40 years, presented with an infection due to MRSA in the absence of any comorbidity factor or any factor associated with carriage of these bacteria. Seven patients in the MRSA group were tested for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and a positive result was obtained in 2 of them. Regardless of whether the infection was caused by MRSA or by MSSA, the bacteria were most frequently isolated from a cutaneous site, in 40% and 65% of the patients, respectively. Irrespective of the group, 28% of the patients presented with bacteremia. The spectrum of resistance of these MRSA strains suggested a hospital rather than community origin. The initial antibiotic therapy was rarely

  6. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus argenteus Isolates Harboring Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Enterotoxins, and TSST-1 Genes from Food Handlers in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Meiji Soe; San, Thida; Aye, Mya Mya; Mya, San; Maw, Win Win; Zan, Khin Nyein; Htut, Wut Hmone Win; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Urushibara, Noriko; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2017-08-04

    Asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus are potential source of diseases, including food poisoning. Toxigenic potential and genetic traits of colonizing S. aureus were investigated for 563 healthy food handlers in Myanmar. Carriage of S. aureus was found in 110 individuals (19.5%), and a total of 144 S. aureus isolates were recovered from nasal cavities (110 isolates) and hands (34 isolates). Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes ( pvl ) were detected in 18 isolates (12.5%), among which 11 isolates were classified into coa -VIa, agr type III, and ST1930 (CC96) that had been also detected in pvl -positive clinical isolates in Myanmar. A pvl -positive, ST2250 nasal isolate was identified as S. argenteus , a novel coagulase-positive staphylococcus species. Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) gene was detected in five pvl -negative isolates. All of the 144 isolates harbored at least one of the 21 enterotoxin(-like) gene(s). The most prevalent enterotoxin(-like) gene was selw (98%), followed by selx (97%), sei (28%), sely (28%), sem (26%), sel (24%), and sea and sec (22% each). Considerable genetic diversity with five groups was detected for selw . The present study revealed the relatively high rate of pvl , as well as the wide distribution of enterotoxin(-like) genes among colonizing S. aureus in Myanmar.

  7. In vitro activity of Inula helenium against clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains including MRSA.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, S

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the bactericidal activity (specifically antistaphylococcal) of Inula helenium. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is tested against 200 clinically significant Irish Staphylococcus aureus isolates consisting of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus using a drop test method and a microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect is evaluated by measuring the area of the inhibition zone against the isolates. Results proved I. helenium to be 100% effective against the 200 staphylococci tested, with 93% of isolates falling within the ++ and +++ groups. The minimum bactericidal concentration of I. helenium was examined on a subset of isolates and values ranged from 0.9 mg\\/mL to 9.0 mg\\/mL. The extract was equally effective against antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive strains. This plant therefore possesses compounds with potent antistaphylococcal properties, which in the future could be used to complement infection control policies and prevent staphylococcal infection and carriage. This research supports other studies wherein herbal plants exhibiting medicinal properties are being examined to overcome the problems of antibiotic resistance and to offer alternatives in the treatment and control of infectious diseases.

  8. External ocular surface and lens microbiota in contact lens wearers with corneal infiltrates during extended wear of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark; Sharma, Savitri; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Sankaridurg, Padmaja R; Gopinathan, Usha; Holden, Brien A

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether carriage of microbes on the contact lens or ocular surfaces during extended wear (EW) with soft hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-based contact lenses predisposes the wearer to adverse events. Participants (non-contact lens wearers) were enrolled in a clinical study involving wear of HEMA-based hydrogel lenses on a six night EW basis with weekly replacement. Type and number of bacteria colonizing the lower lid margins, upper bulbar conjunctiva, and contact lenses during EW after one night, 1 week, 1 month, and thereafter every 3 months for 3.5 years were determined. The association of bacteria with adverse responses was compared between carriers (defined as having significant microbes cultured from two or more samples with 1 year) and noncarriers, and the strength of the association was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Carriers of gram-positive bacteria on lenses (particularly coagulase negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium spp.) were approximately three and eight times more likely to develop contact lens-induced peripheral ulcers (CLPUs) and asymptomatic infiltrates (AIs), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was most frequently isolated from lenses during CLPU. Carriers of gram-negative bacteria on lenses were five times more likely to develop contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE). Haemophilus influenzae was isolated most frequently from lenses during CLARE and AI events. Bacterial carriage on contact lenses during EW predisposes the wearer to the development of corneal inflammatory events including CLARE, CLPU, and AI.

  9. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus and Cross-Contamination in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit: Efficacy of Mupirocin Ointment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Talon; C. Rouget; V. Cailleaux; P. Bailly; M. Thouverez; F. Barale; Y. Michel-Briand

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA six month prospective study was carried out in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a university hospital to assess the incidence and routes of exogenous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. A total of 157 patients were included in the study. One thousand one hundred and eleven

  10. The impact of habitual school bag carriage on the health of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School bag carriage represents a considerable daily occupational load for children. The carriage of heavy school bags is a suspected aetiological factor of the daily physical stress of school pupils which negatively impacts on the health of their vertebral column. The objectives of this study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  11. Sampling methods for the study of pneumococcal carriage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, R A; Jefferies, J M; Faust, S N; Clarke, S C

    2012-11-06

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen worldwide. Accurate sampling of S. pneumoniae carriage is central to surveillance studies before and following conjugate vaccination programmes to combat pneumococcal disease. Any bias introduced during sampling will affect downstream recovery and typing. Many variables exist for the method of collection and initial processing, which can make inter-laboratory or international comparisons of data complex. In February 2003, a World Health Organisation working group published a standard method for the detection of pneumococcal carriage for vaccine trials to reduce or eliminate variability. We sought to describe the variables associated with the sampling of S. pneumoniae from collection to storage in the context of the methods recommended by the WHO and those used in pneumococcal carriage studies since its publication. A search of published literature in the online PubMed database was performed on the 1st June 2012, to identify published studies that collected pneumococcal carriage isolates, conducted after the publication of the WHO standard method. After undertaking a systematic analysis of the literature, we show that a number of differences in pneumococcal sampling protocol continue to exist between studies since the WHO publication. The majority of studies sample from the nasopharynx, but the choice of swab and swab transport media is more variable between studies. At present there is insufficient experimental data that supports the optimal sensitivity of any standard method. This may have contributed to incomplete adoption of the primary stages of the WHO detection protocol, alongside pragmatic or logistical issues associated with study design. Consequently studies may not provide a true estimate of pneumococcal carriage. Optimal sampling of carriage could lead to improvements in downstream analysis and the evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine impact and extrapolation to pneumococcal disease control therefore

  12. Equipment for linking source stand and film holder carriage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajt, P.; Zeman, M.

    1987-01-01

    A device is described for precision link-up of a source stand provided with a spring-loaded cam and a film holder carriage provided with an arm with catches. The catches are mechanically connected to a control device firmly connected to the bottom part of the film holder carriage arm. The cam whose extended part is slidably mounted in the cover guide is secured in position with springs fitted from both sides. The control device consists of an electromagnet with armature connected to the control device pull-rod. The pull-rod provides mechanical connection of the catches and the control device. Upon pressing the pushbutton, the catches automatically engage the film holder cariage arm so that the motorized source stand operates without connection to the carriage. This significantly facilitates the operation of the equipment and reduces physical effort of the technician. The most significant advantage is the possibility of immediate change in operation mode. (J.B.). 5 figs

  13. Multimodal carriage with a pinch of sea salt : Door to door under the UNCITRAL Draft instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.I.H. Hoeks (Marian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe current framework of international carriage law is made up of a collection of conventions, all of which deal with the carriage of goods by only one specific mode of transport. A convention which specifically deals with multimodal carriage is still lacking however. The new Draft

  14. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallowfield Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1, carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1 Placebo (flavoured water [PLA], (2 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086. During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091 and 48 h (P = 0.177, respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

  15. A transversal pilot study of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy children younger than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Brändle, Gabriel; Maggio, Albane Bertha Rosa; Anderson Della Llana, Rebecca; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques; Manzano, Sergio; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the extent of oropharyngeal Kingella kingae carriage during the first 6 months of life. We conducted a monocentric transversal pilot study on healthy children younger than 6 months in order to define the oropharyngeal carriage rate. Participants were recruited between December 2013 and September 2015 among children without symptoms or signs of invasive infections. We demonstrated an oropharyngeal carriage rate of 0.67% in children younger than 6 months. Due to the really low carriage rate, it was not possible to draw statistically significant conclusion about any other characteristic of our population. The present study suggests that the oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae among a Swiss population of healthy infants younger than 6 months is exceptional. The scarcity of colonization and disease in the early months of life suggests thus that defense against mucosal carriage and invasive infection is above all provided by vertically acquired immunity. Limited exposure of the neonates due to limited social contacts may also represent another factor avoiding neonates' mucosal Kingella kingae carriage.

  16. Comparative evaluation of MRSA nasal colonization epidemiology in the urban and rural secondary school community of Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Basharat, Zarrin; Muhammed, Ary H; Al-Dabbagh, Samim A

    2015-01-01

    To study the nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (including methicillin-resistant strains) in secondary school community of the urban and rural districts of the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a cross-sectional population based survey was carried out in the city Duhok and rural areas of Amedya, Akre and Zakho. Nasal swabs were obtained from nostrils of 509 students aged 14-23 years. Resistance to methicillin was assessed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and agar dilution assay. Vancomycin sensitivity was also tested on Muller-Hinton agar. It was found that the frequency of overall S. aureus nasal carriage (SANC) was 17.75% (90/509, CI95, 14.58-21.42%). In urban areas, the carriage rate was 20.59% (49/239, CI95, 15.64-26.29%), whereas it was 15.24% (41/270, CI95, 11.17-20.10%) in rural districts. The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among the isolated strains was found to be 2.04% (1/49) and 21.95% (9/41) in urban and rural areas respectively. It was found that in urban residents, the odd ratio (OR) of acquiring SANC was 1.44 (CI95, 0.91-2.27%) and risk ratio (RR) was at least 1.35 (CI95, 0.92-1.96%) while OR decreased to 0.12 (CI95, 0.01-0.96%) for MRSA carriage. Hence, the S. aureus carriage rate was higher in urban districts compared to rural areas while more MRSA were found in rural areas compared to urban districts. All studied strains were sensitive to vancomycin. This study provided baseline information for S. aureus nasal colonization in the region. Also, it showed that living in rural areas increased the odds of MRSA colonization. More attention should be paid to control MRSA colonization in rural communities.

  17. Longitudinal study of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection in a cohort of swine veterinarians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisun Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People working with pigs are at elevated risk of harboring methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in their nose, which is attributable to occupational exposure to animals harboring livestock adapted S. aureus. To obtain insight into the biological nature of occupationally related nasal culture positivity, we conducted a longitudinal study of 66 swine veterinarians in the USA. Methods The study cohort resided in 15 US states and worked predominantly with swine. Monthly for 18 months, participants self-collected nasal swabs and completed a survey to report recent exposure to pigs and other animals; the occurrence of work related injuries; and any relevant health events such as skin and soft tissue infections or confirmed staphylococcal infections. Nasal swabs were cultured using selective methods to determine the presence of MRSA and methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, and isolates were characterized by spa typing and MLST. Results Prevalences of S. aureus (64%, monthly range from 58 to 82% and MRSA (9.5%; monthly range from 6 to15% were higher than reported for the US population (30% and 1.5% respectively. Predominant spa types were t034 (ST398, 37%, t002 (ST5, 17% and t337 (ST9/ST398 13%, a distribution similar to that found in a concurrent study in pigs in the USA. Veterinarians were classified into three groups: Persistent carriers (PC, 52%, Intermittent carriers (IC, 47% and Non-carriers (NC, 1%. Persistent carriage of a single spa type was observed in 14 (21% of participants, and paired (first and last isolates from PC subjects had minor genetic differences. Swabs from PC veterinarians carried higher numbers of S. aureus. Among IC veterinarians, culture positivity was significantly associated with recent contact with pigs. Conclusions Exposure to pigs did not lead to prolonged colonization in most subjects, and the higher numbers of S. aureus in PC subjects suggests that unknown host factors may determine the

  18. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines; impact on nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage and optimizing vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to first assess nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage to evaluate population effects after introduction of PCV7 in the NIP in 2006 and to assess the potential impact of PCV10 as introduced in 2011 on carriage of NTHi in a randomized trial (Part One) and second, to assess

  19. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Auckland, New Zealand ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaiyah, S.; Coombs, G.; Pandey, S.; Reed, P.; Ritchie, S.; Lennon, D.; Roberts, S.

    2010-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) has been linked to invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. However, the association between disease and PVL-positive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) has not been widely reported. We aimed to examine the epidemiology of PVL in clinical MSSA isolates from patients presenting to Auckland City Hospital. Four hundred eleven MSSA clinical isolates and 93 nasal carriage isolates were collected and tested for the presence of the lukSF-PV genes using PCR. The results were examined in light of host and disease factors. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a random subset of isolates to ensure that there was no single PVL-positive MSSA clone responsible for disease in Auckland. The prevalence of the lukSF-PV genes in MSSA isolates associated with disease (124/335; 37%) was not significantly different from the prevalence of the lukSF-PV genes in MSSA nasal carriage isolates (29/93; 31% [P = 0.33]). PVL-positive MSSA isolates in Auckland are genetically diverse and come from a number of different clonal complexes. PVL-positive infections peaked at between 10 and 20 years of age, with a subsequent decline. Pacific ethnicity, age, diagnosis of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI), community-onset infection, and the need for surgical intervention were found by multivariate analysis to be independently associated with PVL-positive MSSA infection. More than one-third of MSSA infections in our patient population are caused by PVL-positive strains. Those patients with PVL-positive MSSA infection were more likely to be of Pacific ethnicity, be younger in age, have community-onset infection, have SSTI, and need surgical intervention. PMID:20686081

  20. Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage by respiratory pathogens among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Johan Emdal; Koch, Anders; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    . Overall carriage rate of S. pneumoniae remained unchanged from 2011 to 2013 (51% and 56%, p=0.13), but significant serotype shifts were observed among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children with marked reductions in carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci, counterbalanced by increasing carriage of non...

  1. A study of thermal deformation in the carriage of a permanent magnet direct drive linear motor stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, J.H.; Zhong, Z.W.; Lin, W.; Khoo, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Carriage deformation due to temperature gradients within the materials of the carriage affects the accuracy of precision machines. This is largely due to the indeterminist temperature distribution in the carriage's material caused by the non-linearity of heat transfer. The joule heat from the motor coil forms the main heat source. When coupled with the heat loss through convection and radiation, the temperature variation in the motor's carriage also increases. In this study, the Finite Element Analysis was used together with a set of boundary conditions, which was obtained empirically, to analyze the distortion of the motor's carriage. The simulated results were compared with those obtained through experiments. The study shows that it is important to know, rather than to assume, the thermal boundary conditions of the motor's carriage of a precision machine in order to accurately estimate the thermal deformation of the carriage in precision machining. - Highlights: ► Deformation occurs in carriages which are mounted with linear motor. ► The convective coefficient, which is assumed to be 10 W mm −2 , is shown to be invalid. ► The perfect contact conductance is shown to be invalid too. ► To have an accurate thermal model, boundary conditions have to be realistic. ► Boundary conditions are the heat source, convective and conductance values.

  2. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis Reveals Transfer of Methicillin Resistance to a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak: a Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Veronica; Bosch, Thijs; Witteveen, Sandra; Landman, Fabian; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCC mec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCC mec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Aleitamento materno e colonização mucocutânea pelo Staphylococcus aureus na criança com dermatite atópica Breastfeeding and mucosal and cutaneous colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in atopic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Massaia Londero Chemello

    2011-06-01

    remains unclear whether colonization of atopic patients by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus through breastfeeding is relevant to the development of AD. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential relation between breastfeeding and colonization by S. aureus in atopic patients. METHOD: Transversal study of atopic patients, aged from 4 to 24 months, both genders, receiving outpatient care and 72 mothers. Data on infant breastfeeding practices and on clinical-epidemiological profile were registered. Swabs of the infants' nares and skin (cubital fossa and swabs of the mothers' nares were collected. For univariate analysis, X2 (chi-square and Fischer Exact's test were used. RESULTS: Among breastfed children, S. aureus was isolated from 8 (25.8% infants' nares swabs and from 4 (12.9% skin swabs. Among not breastfed children, S. aureus was isolated from 10 (20.8% infants' nares swabs and from 11 (22.9% skin swabs. Sixteen mothers (22.2% had S. aureus isolated from their nares swabs. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and S. aureus colonization (child skin and/or nares. However, there was a degree of concordance for S. aureus carriage among mothers and infants. Among 72 pairs, 56 (77.8% were concordant. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was not associated with S. aureus muco-cutaneous colonization in atopic infants

  4. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  5. Pediatric Infection and Intestinal Carriage Due to Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuan; Oron, Assaf P.; Adler, Amanda L.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Berry, Jessica E.; Hoffman, Lucas; Weissman, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of intestinal carriage with extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children with index infections with these organisms. Patients with resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella bacteria isolated from the urine or a normally sterile site between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in this study. Available infection and stool isolates underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization. Clinical data relevant to the infections were collected and analyzed. Overall, 105 patients were identified with 106 extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (n = 92) or Klebsiella (n = 14) strains isolated from urine or a sterile site. Among the 27 patients who also had stool screening for resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 17 (63%) had intestinal carriage lasting a median of 199 days (range, 62 to 1,576). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables between those with and those without intestinal carriage. Eighteen (17%) patients had 37 subsequent resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections identified: 31 urine and 6 blood. In a multivariable analysis, antibiotic intake in the 91 days prior to subsequent urine culture was significantly associated with subsequent urinary tract infection with a resistant organism (hazard ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 130.6). Intestinal carriage and reinfection were most commonly due to bacterial strains of the same sequence type and with the same resistance determinants as the index extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, but carriage and reinfection with different resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains also occurred. PMID:24798269

  6. High diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius lineages and toxigenic traits in healthy pet-owning household members. Underestimating normal household contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three unrelated pet-owning households were screened in Spain to study the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius nasal carriage, their genetic lineages and virulence traits. Sixty-seven healthy owners and 66 healthy pets were investigated. Isolates characterization was performed and potential interspecies transmission was assessed. S. aureus was present in 51.2% of households studied while S. pseudintermedius in 30.2%. Twenty-eight owners (41.8%) carried S. aureus: one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [t5173-ST8-SCCmecIVa] and 27 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Three owners (4.5%) were colonized by methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Fifteen pets (22.7%) carried S. pseudintermedius: two methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) [ST71-SCCmecII/III; ST92-SCCmecV] and 13 MSSP; in addition, 8 pets (12.1%) presented MSSA. High diversity of spa and sequence types (STs) was detected. Typical livestock-associated S. aureus lineages (CC398, CC9) were observed in humans and/or companion animals and hospital and/or community-acquired S. aureus lineages (CC45, CC121, CC5, CC8) were detected among pets. Almost 40% of S. pseudintermedius were multidrug-resistant. S. aureus isolates harboured a remarkable high number of virulence genes. The expA gene was detected in 3 S. pseudintermedius isolates. Identical strains from both owners and their pets were identified in 5 households (11.6%): (a) four MSSA (t073-ST45/CC45, t159-ST121/CC121, t209-ST109/CC9, t021-ST1654([new])/singleton) and (b) one multidrug-resistant MSSP (ST142([new])). Highly clonally diverse and toxigenic S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are common colonizers of healthy humans and pets. The presence of these bacterial species, virulence genes, and interspecies transmission detected, points out to consider pet ownership as a risk factor to acquire, maintain and spread, potential pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 46 CFR 154.702 - Refrigerated carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.702 Refrigerated carriage. (a) Each refrigeration system must: (1) Have enough capacity to maintain the cargo vapor pressure in each cargo tank served by the system below... the purpose of this section, a “refrigeration unit” includes a compressor and its motors and controls...

  8. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadam, Clare; Barnett, Julie; Roberts, Graham; Stiefel, Gary; King, Rosemary; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, Michel; Holloway, Judith A; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-02-02

    Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  9. What factors affect the carriage of epinephrine auto-injectors by teenagers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macadam Clare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenagers with allergies are at particular risk of severe and fatal reactions, but epinephrine auto-injectors are not always carried as prescribed. We investigated barriers to carriage. Methods Patients aged 12-18 years old under a specialist allergy clinic, who had previously been prescribed an auto-injector were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews explored the factors that positively or negatively impacted on carriage. Results Twenty teenagers with food or venom allergies were interviewed. Only two patients had used their auto-injector in the community, although several had been treated for severe reactions in hospital. Most teenagers made complex risk assessments to determine whether to carry the auto-injector. Most but not all decisions were rational and were at least partially informed by knowledge. Factors affecting carriage included location, who else would be present, the attitudes of others and physical features of the auto-injector. Teenagers made frequent risk assessments when deciding whether to carry their auto-injectors, and generally wanted to remain safe. Their decisions were complex, multi-faceted and highly individualised. Conclusions Rather than aiming for 100% carriage of auto-injectors, which remains an ambitious ideal, personalised education packages should aim to empower teenagers to make and act upon informed risk assessments.

  10. Potential for pet animals to harbor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) when residing with human MRSA patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Daniel O.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Leckerman, Kateri; Edelstein, Paul H.; Rankin, Shelley C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may be persistent in people, and is horizontally transmissible. The scientific literature suggests that domestic pets may also participate in cross-transmission of MRSA within households. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA carriage by pets residing in households with an MRSA-infected person. From 66 households in which an MRSA infected patient resided, we screened 47 dogs and 52 cats using a swab protocol. Isolates from pets and humans were genotyped using two techniques, and compared for concordance. Human participants completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. Eleven of 99 pets (11.5%) representing 9 (13.6%) of households were MRSA-positive, but in only 6 of these households were the human and animal-source strains genetically concordant. Human infection by strain USA 100 was significantly associated with pet carriage [OR = 11.4 (95% C.I. 1.7, 76.9); p=0.013]. Yet, for each day of delay in sampling the pet after the person’s MRSA diagnosis, the odds of isolating any type of MRSA from the pet decreased by 13.9% [(95% C.I. 2.6%, 23.8%); p=0.017)]. It may be concluded that pets can harbor pandemic strains of MRSA while residing in a household with an infected person. However, the source of MRSA to the pet cannot always be attributed to the human patient. Moreover, the rapid attrition of the odds of obtaining a positive culture from pets over time suggests that MRSA carriage may be fleeting. PMID:22233337

  11. Impact of bacteriophage Saint3 carriage on the immune evasion capacity and hemolytic potential of Staphylococcus aureus CC398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Philipp; Abdelbary, Mohamed M H; Kraushaar, Britta; Fetsch, Alexandra; Geisel, Jürgen; Herrmann, Mathias; Witte, Wolfgang; Cuny, Christiane; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) isolates of clonal complex 398 (CC398) are frequently found in Europe, and recent studies highlighted the importance of mobile genetic element (MGE) exchange for host adaptation of this lineage. Of note, one of the MGEs commonly found in human S. aureus isolates, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) harboring bacteriophage Saint3, is very rarely found in LA-MRSA CC398 isolates obtained from farm animals, but more frequently found in LA-MRSA CC398 that were retransmitted to humans. Here, we analyzed with a set of S. aureus CC398 isolates harboring/lacking φSaint3 how this MGE affects (i) phagocytosis of CC398 isolates by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), and (ii) hemolysis of human and livestock-derived erythrocytes. Isolates lacking φSaint3 were more efficiently phagocytosed by human PMNs in whole blood phagocytosis assays than isolates harboring this bacteriophage, irrespective of their origin. Notably, a similar effect was observed when equine blood was utilized, but not detected with porcine blood. Integration of φSaint3 into LA-MRSA CC398 strains lacking this MGE confirmed these findings, as φSaint3-harboring recipients were again less efficiently ingested by PMNs in equine and human blood than their parental strains. Integration of φSaint3 strongly reduced the hemolytic potential of the culture supernatants against human-derived erythrocytes, and to a smaller extent also against porcine-derived erythrocytes, while φSaint3 integration only slightly affected the hemolytic capacities against equine-derived red blood cells. The significant protective effect of φSaint3 against phagocytosis by equine PMNs suggests that the host specificity of the IEC components might be broader than currently assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. High Prevalence of Faecal Carriage of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellevik, Marit G; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Øyvind; Maselle, Samuel Y; Langeland, Nina; Moyo, Sabrina J

    2016-01-01

    Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103). ChromID ESBL agar and ChromID CARBA SMART agar were used for screening. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. ESBL genotypes were identified by Real-Time PCR and sequencing. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 34.3% (207/ 603). The prevalence of ESBL carriage was significantly higher among hospitalized children (50.4%), compared to community children (11.6%; P Enterobacteriaceae among children below 2 years of age in Tanzania, particularly those with HIV-infection. Resistance to a majority of the available antimicrobials commonly used for children in Tanzania leaves few treatment options for infections when caused by these bacteria.

  13. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  14. Colonization of butchers with livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boost, Maureen; Ho, J.; Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    contamination levels of 10% of retail pork were reported from the Netherlands and Canada, there are limited data of contamination rates of workers handling raw meat. We investigated the rates of MRSA contamination of local butchers working in wet markets, where recently slaughtered pigs are cut up. Nasal swabs...... collected from 300 pork butchers at markets throughout Hong Kong were enriched in brain heart infusion broth with 5% salt and cultured on MRSASelect(®) . Isolates were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus and susceptibility testing performed. The presence of mecA was confirmed, SCCmec and spa type determined...... and relatedness investigated by PFGE. Subjects completed a questionnaire on MRSA carriage risk factors. Seventeen samples (5.6%) yielded MRSA, 15 harbouring SCCmec IVb. Ten strains were t899 (CC9), previously reported from local pig carcasses. Five strains were healthcare associated: SCCmec type II, t701(CC6...

  15. CONTROL OF NOSOCOMIAL SPREAD OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Tomič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. This prospective cohort study presents the effectiveness and feasibility of a comprehensive control strategy to reduce nosocomial transmission of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in a highly endemic setting.Methods. All patients with MRSA carriage admitted to the University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases over a period of 5 years (January 1998 through December 2002 were included and categorized into imported or hospitalacquired cases. In January 1999, an aggressive infection control program was implemented. It was focused on promoting alcohol hand rub, obtaining active surveillance cultures for MRSA, implementing strict barrier precautions and decolonizing MRSA carriers.Results. MRSA was recovered from 223 hospitalized patients; 142 cases were imported and 81 were acquired at our institution. After the introduction of an active surveillance program, the annual incidence of detected MRSA carriage per 1000 admissions first increased from 4.5 in 1998 to 8.0 in 1999 (p = 0.019, but remained stable thereafter. The proportion of patients detected through active surveillance cultures progressively increased from 23% in 1999 to 78% in 2002. Since 1999, the proportion of acquired MRSA cases in our institution has steadily decreased from 50% in 1999 to 6% in 2002 (p < 0.001, whereas the proportion of patients who acquired MRSA in other hospitals (p < 0.001 and nursing homes (p = 0.025 has increased.Conclusions. With a comprehensive infection control program it is possible to substantially reduce nosocomial transmission of MRSA in a highly endemic area. With good hand hygiene, early detection, isolation and decolonization strategy, containment of MRSA is achievable despite a high rate of transferred patients colonized or infected with MRSA from other healthcare facilities.

  16. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including...

  17. Introduction of a hydrolysis probe PCR assay for high-throughput screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with the ability to include or exclude detection of Staphylococcus argenteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogestam, Katja; Vondracek, Martin; Karlsson, Mattias; Fang, Hong; Giske, Christian G

    2018-01-01

    Many countries using sensitive screening methods for detection of carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have a sustained low incidence of MRSA infections. For diagnostic laboratories with high sample volumes, MRSA screening requires stability, low maintenance and high performance at a low cost. Herein we designed oligonucleotides for a new nuc targeted hydrolysis probe PCR to replace the standard in-house nuc SybrGreen PCR assay. This new, more time-efficient, PCR assay resulted in a 40% increase in daily sample capacity, with maintained high specificity and sensitivity. The assay was also able to detect Staphylococcus aureus clonal cluster 75 (CC75) lineage strains, recently re-classified as Staphylococcus argenteus, with a sensitivity considerably increased compared to our previous assay. While awaiting consensus if the CC75 lineage of S. aureus should be considered as S. argenteus, and whether methicillin-resistant S. argenteus should be included in the MRSA definition, many diagnostic laboratories need to update their MRSA assay sensitivity/specificity towards this lineage/species. The MRSA screening assay presented in this manuscript is comprised of nuc oligonucleotides separately targeting S. aureus and CC75 lineage strains/S. argenteus, thus providing high user flexibility for the detection of CC75 lineage strains/S. argenteus.

  18. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fu, Jinjian; Liang, Zhuoxin; Chen, Jichang

    2017-12-13

    To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region. Summary measures for overall prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and serotype distributions extracted from the analyzed data were determined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 test statistics. Thirty-seven studies were included in this review, and the majority of studies (64.9%) were located in the pre-introduction period of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China. The pooled prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 21.4% (95% CI: 18.3-24.4%). Carriage was highest in children attending kindergartens [24.5%, (19.7-29.3%)] and decreased with increasing age. Before the introduction of PCV7 into China, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 25.8% (20.7-30.9%), the pooled carriage of S. pneumoniae sharply dropped into the 14.1% (11.3-16.9%) by PCV7 vaccination period (P China, the penicillin resistance rate in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children was 31.9% (21.2-42.6%); however, this rate sharply decreased after the introduction of PCV7 in China [21.6%, (7.4-35.9%)], and the difference between the rates during these two time periods was statistically significant (P value China. PCV7 immunization was found to be associated with reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on

  19. Inducible clindamycin resistance and nasal carriage rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: MRSA nasal carriage among healthcare workers needs infection control practice in hospitals to prevent trans- ... infection and is becoming an increasing problem among ..... ated risk factors and pulsed field gel electrophoresis of.

  20. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  1. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  2. Comparison of antibiotic resistance, virulence gene profiles, and pathogenicity of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus using a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Terissa; Brown, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study compared the presence of 35 virulence genes, resistance phenotypes to 11 anti-staphylococcal antibiotics, and pathogenicity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Methods: Multiplex PCR analysis was used to differentiate Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n = 102) based on characterization of the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec). Singleplex and multiplex PCR assays targeting 35 virulence determinants were used to analyze the virulence repertoire of S. aureus. In vitro activities of the antibiotics were determined by the disk-diffusion method. The pathogenicity of representative isolates was assessed using Caenorhabditis elegans survival assays. Significance in virulence distribution and antibiotic resistance phenotypes was assessed using the Chi-squared tests. Kaplan–Meier survival estimates were used to analyze nematode survival and significance of survival rates evaluated using the log-rank test. Results: Except for sei (staphylococcal enterotoxin I) (P  =  0.027), all other virulence genes were not significantly associated with MRSA. Resistance to clindamycin (P  =  0.03), tetracycline (P  =  0.048), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (P  =  0.038), and oxacillin (P  =  0.004) was significantly associated with MRSA. Survival assay showed MSSA having a lower median lifespan of 3 days than MRSA that had a median lifespan of 6 days. The difference in the killing time of MRSA and MSSA was significant (P virulence genes. The quicker killing potential of MSSA compared to MRSA suggests that carriage of virulence determinants per se does not determine pathogenicity in S. aureus. Pathogenicity is impacted by other factors, possibly antibiotic resistance. PMID:25319852

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage was observed in 76 ... other studies, increased methicllin resistance Staphylococcus aureus .... risk factors for MRSA acquisition ..... sensitive strains by more virulent or resistant strains in.

  4. 47 CFR 76.62 - Manner of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in compliance with technical standards set forth in subpart K of this part. (c) Each local commercial... engineering practice, be provided no less than the same quality of signal processing and carriage provided for... equivalent to that provided to commercial television broadcast stations carried. (e) Each commercial...

  5. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 4. Infective doses and pathogen carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

    2008-11-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. Although workers have been implicated in outbreaks, they were not always aware of their infections, either because they were in the prodromic phase before symptoms began or because they were asymptomatic carriers. Pathogens of fecal, nose or throat, and skin origin are most likely to be transmitted by the hands, highlighting the need for effective hand hygiene and other barriers to pathogen contamination, such as no bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. The pathogens most likely to be transmitted by food workers are norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. However, other pathogens have been implicated in worker-associated outbreaks or have the potential to be implicated. In this study, the likelihood of pathogen involvement in foodborne outbreaks where infected workers have been implicated was examined, based on infectious dose, carriage rate in the community, duration of illness, and length of pathogen excretion. Infectious dose estimates are based on volunteer studies (mostly early experiments) or data from outbreaks. Although there is considerable uncertainty associated with these data, some pathogens appear to be able to infect at doses as low as 1 to 100 units, including viruses, parasites, and some bacteria. Lengthy postsymptomatic shedding periods and excretion by asymptomatic individuals of many enteric pathogens is an important issue for the hygienic management of food workers.

  6. [Genital bacterial carriage during the last trimester of pregnancy and early-onset neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A; Dagnra, A; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. To determine the bacterial ecology and pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the germs of the following early-onset neonatal sepsis, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-foetal infections and to find out a drug prophylaxis. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and of possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. An exploration was carried out in every newborn suspected of infection. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them, 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36, and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33,5%), Enterbacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) and polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or endocervicitis (10.4%), asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. These pregnancies led to 334 live births with 27 cases of early-onset neonatal sepsis to which endocervicitis (25%) and vaginosis (19,7%) were most often linked. Genital samples at the last trimester of pregnancy could evaluate the risk of maternofoetal infections and allow to adapt a drug prophylaxis of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent germ of

  7. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Flasche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 programme in England on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease to help understand its role in serotype replacement and predict the impact of higher valency vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from children <5 y old and family members (n=400 2 y after introduction of PCV7 into routine immunization programs. Proportions carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype distribution among carried isolates were compared with a similar population prior to PCV7 introduction. Serotype-specific case carrier ratios (CCRs were estimated using national data on invasive disease. In vaccinated children and their contacts vaccine-type (VT carriage decreased, but was offset by an increase in non-VT carriage, with no significant overall change in carriage prevalence, odds ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.76-1.49. The lower CCRs of the replacing serotypes resulted in a net reduction in invasive disease in children. The additional serotypes covered by higher valency vaccines had low carriage but high disease prevalence. Serotype 11C emerged as predominant in carriage but caused no invasive disease whereas 8, 12F, and 22F emerged in disease but had very low carriage prevalence. CONCLUSION: Because the additional serotypes included in PCV10/13 have high CCRs but low carriage prevalence, vaccinating against them is likely to significantly reduce invasive disease with less risk of serotype replacement. However, a few serotypes with high CCRs could mitigate the benefits of higher valency vaccines. Assessment of the effect of PCV on carriage as well as invasive disease should be part of enhanced surveillance activities for PCVs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. 78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-ZA31 Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard... availability of a proposed policy letter concerning the carriage of shale gas extraction waste water in bulk... transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The policy letter also defines the information the Coast...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus to methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Susan J; Tice, Alan

    2010-09-15

    The evolution of methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has demanded serious review of antimicrobial use and development of new agents and revised approaches to prevent and overcome drug resistance. Depending on local conditions and patient risk factors, empirical therapy of suspected S. aureus infection may require coverage of drug-resistant organisms with newer agents and novel antibiotic combinations. The question of treatment with inappropriate antibiotics raises grave concerns with regard to methicillin-resistant S. aureus selection, overgrowth, and increased virulence. Several strategies to reduce the nosocomial burden of resistance are suggested, including shortened hospital stays and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy of the most serious infections.

  10. Pneumococcal Carriage in Children under Five Years in Uganda-Will Present Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Be Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lindstrand

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children globally, with more than 900,000 deaths annually in children under five years of age. Streptococcus pneumoniae causes most deaths, most often in the form of community acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are currently being implemented in many low-income countries. PCVs decrease vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage, a prerequisite for invasive pneumococcal disease, and thereby affects pneumococcal disease and transmission. In Uganda, PCV was launched in 2014, but baseline data is lacking for pneumococcal serotypes in carriage.To study pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and serotype distribution in children under 5 years of age prior to PCV introduction in Uganda.Three cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2011, comprising respectively 150, 587 and 1024 randomly selected children aged less than five years from the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. The caretakers were interviewed about illness history of the child and 1723 nasopharyngeal specimens were collected. From these, 927 isolates of S. pneumoniae were serotyped.Overall, the carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 56% (957/1723. Pneumococcal carriage was associated with illness on the day of the interview (OR = 1.50, p = 0.04. The most common pneumococcal serotypes were in descending order 19F (16%, 23F (9%, 6A (8%, 29 (7% and 6B (7%. One percent of the strains were non-typeable. The potential serotype coverage rate for PCV10 was 42% and 54% for PCV13.About half of circulating pneumococcal serotypes in carriage in the Ugandan under-five population studied was covered by available PCVs.

  11. Waste predisposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    All Member States have to a large or small extent nuclear activities that generate radioactive wastes. Hospitals, research in biomedicine or in agriculture, and some industrial applications, beside other large nuclear activities such as Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Research, generate unconditioned liquid or solid radioactive wastes that have to be treated, conditioned and stored prior final disposal. Countries with small nuclear activities require of organizations and infrastructure as to be able to manage, in a safe manner, the wastes that they generate. Predisposal management of radioactive waste is any step carried out to convert raw waste into a stable form suitable for the safe disposal, such as pre-treatment, treatment, storage and relevant transport. Transport of radioactive waste do not differ, in general, from other radioactive material and so are not considered within the scope of this fact sheet (Nevertheless the Agency, within the Nuclear Safety Department, has created a special Unit that might give advise Member States in this area). Predisposal management is comprised of a set of activities whose implementation may take some time. In most of the cases, safety issues and strategic and economical considerations have to be solved prior the main decisions are taken. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance for the management of radioactive waste at national and operating level, in the definition and/or implementation of the projects. The services could include, but are not limited to guidance in the definition of national waste management strategy and its implementation, definition of the most adequate equipment and practices taking into account specific Member State conditions, as well as assisting in the procurement, technical expertise for the evaluation of current status of operating facilities and practical guidance for the implementation of corrective actions, assistance in the definition of waste acceptance criteria for

  12. Outbreak of bullous impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains of phage type 3C/71 in a maternity ward linked to nasal carriage of a healthcare worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Budzyńska, Anna; Dąbrowska-Szponar, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of bullous impetigo (BI) that occurred in a maternity unit and show phenotypic and genotypic properties and relatedness of isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains. Clinical material was obtained from 11 affected neonates. Additionally, nasal swabs from 67 healthy care workers (HCWs) as well as 107 environmental swabs were investigated. All isolates were screened for exfoliative toxin genes (eta, etb), antibiotic susceptibility and phage typed. Chromosomal DNA was genotyped by MLVF method and PCR/RFLP of coagulase gene were tested. Affected neonates were infected by two clusters of eta-positive S. aureus of phage type 3C/71: (1) MLVF type A isolates resistant only to penicillin, and (2) MLVF type B isolates resistant to penicillin and erythromycin/clindamycin. All isolates were susceptible to methicillin. We found 19 of 67 HCWs to be S. aureus nasal carriers. Two nasal isolates from HCWs were related to the outbreak on the basis of phage typing, PCR detection of eta/etb genes, antibiotyping and genotyping. Additionally, environmental swabs from the maternity unit revealed a 3C/71 S. aureus in the mattress of a baby bed. This is the first documented case of an outbreak of BI caused by phage type 3C/71 eta-positive strain of S. aureus.

  13. Predisposing factors of laminitis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

    1994-01-01

    Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders. Despite intensive study, both by experiment and by clinical observation, knowledge of the precise aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine laminitis is still incomplete. It is often hypothesized that changes in the micro-circulation of the corum (dermis) of the bovine claw contribute significantly to the development of laminitis; arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) playing a crucial role. Many factors have been implicated as contributing causes of laminitis in cattle; the disease has a multifactorial aetiology. The cause of laminitis should be considered as a combination of predisposing factors leading to vascular (AVAs in particular) reactivity and inhibition of normal horn synthesis. Nutrition, disease, management and behaviour appear to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of bovine laminitis. The major factors predisposing to laminitis in cattle, as reported or suggested in the literature, are reviewed, including systemic disease, nutrition (barley grain, protein, carbohydrate and fibre), management (housing, bedding and exercise), calving, season, age, growth, genetics, conformation and behaviour.

  14. Zinc Resistance within Swine-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in the United States Is Associated with Multilocus Sequence Type Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Samantha J; Frana, Timothy; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2017-08-01

    Zinc resistance in livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) sequence type 398 (ST398) is primarily mediated by the czrC gene colocated with the mecA gene, encoding methicillin resistance, within the type V staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) element. Because czrC and mecA are located within the same mobile genetic element, it has been suggested that the use of zinc in feed as an antidiarrheal agent has the potential to contribute to the emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in swine, through increased selection pressure to maintain the SCC mec element in isolates obtained from pigs. In this study, we report the prevalence of the czrC gene and phenotypic zinc resistance in U.S. swine-associated LA-MRSA ST5 isolates, MRSA ST5 isolates from humans with no swine contact, and U.S. swine-associated LA-MRSA ST398 isolates. We demonstrated that the prevalence of zinc resistance in U.S. swine-associated LA-MRSA ST5 isolates was significantly lower than the prevalence of zinc resistance in MRSA ST5 isolates from humans with no swine contact and swine-associated LA-MRSA ST398 isolates, as well as prevalences from previous reports describing zinc resistance in other LA-MRSA ST398 isolates. Collectively, our data suggest that selection pressure associated with zinc supplementation in feed is unlikely to have played a significant role in the emergence of LA-MRSA ST5 in the U.S. swine population. Additionally, our data indicate that zinc resistance is associated with the multilocus sequence type lineage, suggesting a potential link between the genetic lineage and the carriage of resistance determinants. IMPORTANCE Our data suggest that coselection thought to be associated with the use of zinc in feed as an antimicrobial agent is not playing a role in the emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) ST5 in the U.S. swine population. Additionally, our data indicate

  15. CARRIAGE RATE OF ISLAMIC BOARDING SCHOOLS ( RRIAGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Almajiri schools in Kano using cluster sampling. The collect ed for the presence of N. meningitides using standard cultural a further identified using latex agglutination technique. Also, Blo cts was carried out. A questionnaire was similarly administered iated with carriage status. The results of the study revealed th ldren were ...

  16. Comparative supragenomic analyses among the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae Using a modification of the finite supragenome model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Susan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is associated with a spectrum of symbiotic relationships with its human host from carriage to sepsis and is frequently associated with nosocomial and community-acquired infections, thus the differential gene content among strains is of interest. Results We sequenced three clinical strains and combined these data with 13 publically available human isolates and one bovine strain for comparative genomic analyses. All genomes were annotated using RAST, and then their gene similarities and differences were delineated. Gene clustering yielded 3,155 orthologous gene clusters, of which 2,266 were core, 755 were distributed, and 134 were unique. Individual genomes contained between 2,524 and 2,648 genes. Gene-content comparisons among all possible S. aureus strain pairs (n = 136 revealed a mean difference of 296 genes and a maximum difference of 476 genes. We developed a revised version of our finite supragenome model to estimate the size of the S. aureus supragenome (3,221 genes, with 2,245 core genes, and compared it with those of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. There was excellent agreement between RAST's annotations and our CDS clustering procedure providing for high fidelity metabolomic subsystem analyses to extend our comparative genomic characterization of these strains. Conclusions Using a multi-species comparative supragenomic analysis enabled by an improved version of our finite supragenome model we provide data and an interpretation explaining the relatively larger core genome of S. aureus compared to other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens. In addition, we provide independent validation for the efficiency and effectiveness of our orthologous gene clustering algorithm.

  17. Carriage of sub-microscopic sexual and asexual Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Background: We investigated the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and gameto- cyte carriage in asymptomatic individuals in Navrongo in northern Ghana, an area of seasonal malaria transmission. Design: A cross sectional study of 209 randomly selected participants of all ...

  18. Outbreaks of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in day care cohorts in Finland – implications for elimination of transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auranen Kari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care centre (DCC attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus in the population. Exposure within families and within DCCs are the main risk factors for colonisation with pneumococcal serotypes in DCC attendees. Methods Transmission of serotype specific carriage was analysed with a continuous time event history model, based on longitudinal data from day care attendees and their family members. Rates of acquisition, conditional on exposure, were estimated in a Bayesian framework utilising latent processes of carriage. To ensure a correct level of exposure, non-participating day care attendees and their family members were included in the analysis. Posterior predictive simulations were used to quantify transmission patterns within day care cohorts, to estimate the basic reproduction number for pneumococcal carriage in a population of day care cohorts, and to assess the critical vaccine efficacy against carriage to eliminate pneumococcal transmission. Results The model, validated by posterior predictive sampling, was successful in capturing the strong temporal clustering of pneumococcal serotypes in the day care cohorts. In average 2.7 new outbreaks of pneumococcal carriage initiate in a day care cohort each month. While 39% of outbreaks were of size one, the mean outbreak size was 7.6 individuals and the mean length of an outbreak was 2.8 months. The role of families in creating and maintaining transmission was minimal, as only 10% of acquisitions in day care attendees were from family members. Considering a population of day care cohorts, a child-to-child basic reproduction number was estimated as 1.4 and the critical vaccine efficacy against acquisition of carriage as 0.3. Conclusion Pneumococcal transmission occurs in serotype specific outbreaks of carriage, driven by within-day-care transmission and between-serotype competition. An amplifying effect of the day

  19. TOL plasmid carriage enhances biofilm formation and increases extracellular DNA content in Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Sjoholm, O.R.; Yankelevich, T.

    2010-01-01

    laser scanning microscopy. The TOL-carrying strains formed pellicles and thick biofilms, whereas the same strains without the plasmid displayed little adherent growth. Microscopy using fluorescent nucleic acid-specific stains revealed differences in the production of extracellular polymeric substances......: TOL carriage leads to more extracellular DNA (eDNA) in pellicles and biofilms. Pellicles were dissolved by DNase I treatment. Enhanced cell lysis due to plasmid carriage was ruled out as the mechanism for eDNA release. We report, for the first time, that carriage of a conjugative plasmid leads...

  20. Nuclear fuel handling grapple carriage with self-lubricating bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the provision of a fuel handling grapple carriage for a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor with sodium coolant lubricated bearings in which contamination of the bearings is prevented. (UK)

  1. Carriage of group B streptococcus in pregnant women from Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N; Oliver, K; Jones, Y; Haines, A; Crook, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate asymptomatic vagino‐rectal carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women. Methods Women in the final trimester of pregnancy were recruited. A single vagino‐rectal swab was taken, with consent, for culture of GBS. Two microbiological methods for isolation of GBS from vagino‐ractal swabs were compared. The distribution of capsular serotypes of the GBS identified was determined. Epidemiological data for a subset (n = 167) of the pregnant women participating were examined. Results 21.3% were colonised vagino‐rectally with GBS. Risk factors for neonatal GBS disease (maternal fever, prolonged rupture of membranes, and preterm delivery) were present in 34 of 167 women (20.4%), and the presence of these factors correlated poorly with GBS carriage. Capsular serotypes III (26.4%), IA (25.8%), V (18.9%), and IB (15.7%) were prevalent in the GBS isolates. Selective broth culture of vagino‐rectal swabs was superior to selective plate culture, but the combination of both methods was associated with increased detection of GBS (7.5%). An algorithm for the identification of GBS from vagino‐rectal swabs was developed. Conclusions GBS carriage is prevalent in pregnant women in Oxfordshire, UK. The poor correlation between risk factors and GBS carriage requires further investigation in larger groups, given that the identification of these surrogate markers is recommended to guide administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by the Royal College of Obstetricians of the UK. A selective broth culture detected more GBS carriers than a selective plate culture. PMID:16473927

  2. Comparison of automated processing of flocked swabs with manual processing of fiber swabs for detection of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gillian; Matthews, Roger; Cunningham, Richard; Jenks, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The sensitivity of automated culture of Staphylococcus aureus from flocked swabs versus that of manual culture of fiber swabs was prospectively compared using nasal swabs from 867 patients. Automated culture from flocked swabs significantly increased the detection rate, by 13.1% for direct culture and 10.2% for enrichment culture.

  3. An Evaluation of Factors Predisposing Building Elements to Variation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has been consistently criticized for poor performance in attaining clients’ requirements. The study, thus, assessed the factors predisposing building elements to variation with a view to providing cost-design information that enhance construction project delivery, that is, on-time completion of project within budget. The building elements considered in this study include substructure, frame, upper floors, and roof. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaires administered on professionals in consulting firms, contracting firms, and client organizations in Lagos metropolis. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed nine factors through factor analysis that predispose substructure to variation, seven factors predispose frame, six factors predispose upper floors, and seven factors predispose roofs to variation during construction process in Nigeria.

  4. Antibacterial activity of mupirocin (pseudomonic Acid A) against, clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.; Abbasi, S.A.; Butt, T.; Arain, M.A

    2010-01-01

    Colonized patients and health care workers are the main source of spread of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The elimination of nasal colonized MRSA plays a crucial role in infection control protocols. Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A) is used for eradication of MRSA nasal carriage. Increasing use of pseudomonic acid A (mupirocin) has led to emergence of resistance. Objective To determine low and high level resistance of MRSA isolates from clinical specimens against mupirocin. Place and duration of study: Study was conducted at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2006 to June 2007. Material and methods Three hundred methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were studied. All clinical specimens were processed for culture and sensitivity. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for methicillin resistance using 1 micro g oxacillin disk. The isolates were further tested by PCR for the presence of mecA gene. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of mupirocin against MRSA isolates was determined using agar dilution technique. Results Out of 300 MRSA isolates, 98% were found to have MlC against mupirocin as smaller than 4 micro g/mL. Remaining 2% isolates revealed low level resistance (MIC greater than 8 micro g/mL to 256 micro g/mL), no high level resistance (MIC greater than 512 micro g/mL) against mupirocin was detected. Conclusions: High level mupirocin resistance has not emerged so far in our setup. Due to increasing use of mupirocin, emergence of resistance against mupirocin among MRSA is a strong possibility. Strategy encompassing rational use of antimicrobials, hospital infection control, surveillance for the detection of mupirocin resistance and judicious use of this agent is required. (author)

  5. Influence of a 12.8-km military load carriage activity on lower limb gait mechanics and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2017-05-01

    The high stress fracture occurrence in military populations has been associated with frequent load carriage activities. This study aimed to assess the influence of load carriage and of completing a load carriage training activity on gait characteristics. Thirty-two Royal Marine recruits completed a 12.8-km load carriage activity as part of their military training. Data were collected during walking in military boots, pre and post-activity, with and without the additional load (35.5 kg). Ground contact time, lower limb sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics, and electromyographic variables were obtained for each condition. When carrying load, there was increased ground contact time, increased joint flexion and joint moments, and increased plantar flexor and knee extensor muscle activity. Post-activity, there were no changes to kinematic variables, knee extensor moments were reduced, and there was evidence of plantar flexor muscle fatigue. The observed gait changes may be associated with stress fracture development. Practitioner Summary: This study identified gait changes due to load carriage and after a military load carriage training activity. Such activities are associated with lower limb stress fractures. A pre-post study design was used. Gait mechanics changed to a greater extent when carrying load, than after completion of the activity when assessed without load.

  6. Emergence of MRSA clone ST22 in healthy young adults in the community in the absence of risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mollaghan, A M

    2010-05-01

    One thousand adults aged between 18 and 35 years were investigated for nasal colonization with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). Each volunteer completed a questionnaire to assess the presence or absence of risk factors for hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) carriage. All MRSA isolated were characterized by microbiological and molecular methods. A S. aureus carriage rate of 22% and a MRSA carriage rate of 0.7% were observed. Analysis of the questionnaires revealed 121 individuals with HA-MRSA risk factors. Subsequently two MRSA infections with associated risk factors were excluded from calculation of the true carriage rate and an adjusted rate of 0.57% (5\\/879) was established. All seven MRSA isolates expressed the genotypic profile ST22-MRSA-IV, were PVL negative, agr type 1, and differed only by their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. ST22-MRSA-IV (EMRSA-15) has shown worldwide spread in the hospital setting but has not been previously documented in isolation in the community.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  8. Validation of an instrumented dummy to assess mechanical aspects of discomfort during load carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Wettenschwiler

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing load in backpacks and other load carriage systems over the last decades, load carriage system designs have to be adapted accordingly to minimize discomfort and to reduce the risk of injury. As subject studies are labor-intensive and include further challenges such as intra-subject and inter-subject variability, we aimed to validate an instrumented dummy as an objective laboratory tool to assess the mechanical aspects of discomfort. The validation of the instrumented dummy was conducted by comparison with a recent subject study. The mechanical parameters that characterize the static and dynamic interaction between backpack and body during different backpack settings were compared. The second aim was to investigate whether high predictive power (coefficient of determination R2>0.5 in assessing the discomfort of load carriage systems could be reached using the instrumented dummy. Measurements were conducted under static conditions, simulating upright standing, and dynamic conditions, simulating level walking. Twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt, were assessed. The mechanical parameters were measured in the shoulder and the hip region of the dummy and consisted of average pressure, peak pressure, strap force and relative motion between the system and the body. The twelve configurations consisted of three different weights (15kg, 20kg, and 25kg, combined with four different hip belt tensions (30N, 60N, 90N, and 120N. Through the significant (p<0.05 correlation of the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy with the corresponding values of the subject study, the dummy was validated for all static measurements and for dynamic measurements in the hip region to accurately simulate the interaction between the human body and the load carriage system. Multiple linear regressions with the mechanical parameters measured on the dummy as independent

  9. Carrier’s liability under the international conventions for the carriage of goods by sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anežka GROBARČÍKOVÁ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, there is no international convention for the carriage of goods in general. Each mode of transport counts on one or several international conventions that specifically regulate the provision of international transport by sea, rail, road or air. Thus, multimodal freight transport are characterised by a patchwork of different legal regimes that represents a huge challenge for the growth of multimodal transport industry. The paper aims to analyse the latest, but still not in force Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (the Rotterdam rules that should provide global solution for multimodal carrier liability. Comparison of the carrier’s liability in the former conventions relating to the international carriage of goods by sea and other rules are also discussed.

  10. The epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage and infections in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cheng-Foh; Jefferies, Johanna M; Yusof, Mohd Yasim Mohd; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Clarke, Stuart C

    2012-06-01

    In Malaysia, various aspects of the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage and disease remain largely unclear due to the lack of supporting data. Although a number of relevant studies have been documented, their individual discrete findings are not sufficient to inform experts on pneumococcal epidemiology at a national level. Therefore, in this review we aim to bring together and systematically evaluate the key information regarding pneumococcal disease epidemiology in Malaysia and provide a comprehensive overview of the data. Major aspects discussed include pneumococcal carriage, disease incidence and prevalence, age factors, invasiveness of pneumococci, serotypes, molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility. Penicillin resistance is increasingly prevalent and studies suggest that the majority of pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumococcal disease in Malaysia are covered by currently available conjugate vaccines. Continued surveillance is needed to provide a better understanding of pneumococcal epidemiology in Malaysia.

  11. Candidal carriage predicts candidiasis during topical immunosuppressive therapy: a preliminary retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejani, Sara; Sultan, Ahmed; Stojanov, Ivan; Woo, Sook-Bin

    2016-10-01

    To determine (1) the prevalence of candidal carriage in patients with oral mucosal disease to be treated with topical immunosuppressive therapy, and (2) the incidence of oral candidiasis among carriers and noncarriers after initiation of therapy to assess any correlation between carriage and the development of candidiasis. Records of patients who underwent swab cultures for Candida between January 2009 and October 2014 at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of candidal carriage and incidence of candidiasis were determined by using descriptive statistics. Of 99 evaluable patients, 20 (20.2%) were Candida positive and 79 (79.8%) were Candida negative. Of 44 patients with follow-up, 7 (15.9%) were Candida positive and 37 (84.1%) were Candida negative; five (11.4%) developed candidiasis. Four of seven (57.1%) Candida-positive patients developed candidiasis, whereas only one of 37 (2.7%) Candida-negative patients developed candidiasis (P = .0012). The overall prevalence of candidal carriage was low (20.2%), and there was a significant difference in the incidence of candidiasis between carriers and noncarriers (P = .0012) after topical immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, patients who are candidal carriers should be monitored closely for the development of secondary candidiasis and may be candidates for prophylactic antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...

  13. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...

  14. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...

  15. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...

  16. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...

  17. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  18. The Effect of Backpack Load Carriage on the Kinetics and Kinematics of Ankle and Knee Joints During Uphill Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkyu; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Choongsoo S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load carriage on the kinematics and kinetics of the ankle and knee joints during uphill walking, including joint work, range of motion (ROM), and stance time. Fourteen males walked at a self-selected speed on an uphill (15°) slope wearing military boots and carrying a rifle in hand without a backpack (control condition) and with a backpack. The results showed that the stance time significantly decreased with backpack carriage (p < .05). The mediolateral impulse significantly increased with backpack carriage (p < .05). In the ankle joints, the inversion-eversion, and dorsi-plantar flexion ROM in the ankle joints increased with backpack carriage (p < .05). The greater dorsi-plantar flexion ROM with backpack carriage suggested 1 strategy for obtaining high plantar flexor power during uphill walking. The result of the increased mediolateral impulse and inversion-eversion ROM in the ankle joints indicated an increase in body instability caused by an elevated center of mass with backpack carriage during uphill walking. The decreased stance time indicated that an increase in walking speed could be a compensatory mechanism for reducing the instability of the body during uphill walking while carrying a heavy backpack.

  19. Methods of correction of carriage of junior schoolchildren by facilities of physical exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagara V.F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of influence of methods of physical rehabilitation on the organism of children are resulted. In research took part 16 children of lower school with the scoliotic changes of pectoral department of spine. The complex of methods of physical rehabilitation included special correction and general health-improving exercises, medical gymnastics, correction position. Employments on a medical gymnastics during 30-45 minutes 3-4 times per a week were conducted. The improvement of indexes of mobility of spine and state of carriage of schoolchildren is marked. The absolute indexes of the state of carriage and flexibility of spine considerably got around physiology sizes. A rehabilitation complex which includes the elements of correction gymnastics is recommended, medical physical culture, correction, massage of muscles of trunk, position. It is also necessary to adhere to the rational mode of day and feed, provide the normative parameters of working furniture and self-control of the state of carriage.

  20. Optimization of Molecular Approaches to Genogroup Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Isolates and Implications for Monitoring the Impact of New Serogroup B Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rojas

    Full Text Available The reservoir for Neisseria meningitidis (Nm is the human oropharynx. Implementation of Nm serogroup C (NmC glycoconjugate vaccines directly reduced NmC carriage. Prophylactic vaccines are now available to prevent disease caused by the five major Nm disease causing serogroups (ABCWY. Nm serogroup B (NmB vaccines are composed of antigens that are conserved across Nm serogroups and therefore have the potential to impact all Nm carriage. To assess the effect of these vaccines on carriage, standardized approaches to identify and group Nm are required. Real-time PCR (rt-PCR capsule grouping assays that were internally controlled to confirm Nm species were developed for eight serogroups associated with carriage (A, B, C, E, W, X, Y and Z. The grouping scheme was validated using diverse bacterial species associated with carriage and then used to evaluate a collection of diverse Nm carriage isolates (n=234. A scheme that also included porA and ctrA probes was able to speciate the isolates, while ctrA also provided insights on the integrity of the polysaccharide loci. Isolates were typed for the Nm vaccine antigen factor H binding protein (fHbp, and were found to represent the known diversity of this antigen. The porA rt-PCR yielded positive results with all 234 of the Nm carriage isolates. Genogrouping assays classified 76.5% (179/234 of these isolates to a group, categorized 53 as nongenogroupable (NGG and two as mixed results. Thirty seven NGG isolates evidenced a disrupted capsular polysaccharide operon judged by a ctrA negative result. Only 28.6% (67/234 of the isolates were serogrouped by slide agglutination (SASG, highlighting the reduced capability of carriage strains to express capsular polysaccharide. These rt-PCR assays provide a comprehensive means to identify and genogroup N. meningitidis in carriage studies used to guide vaccination strategies and to assess the impact of novel fHbp containing vaccines on meningococcal carriage.

  1. Does Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus Increase the Risk of Postoperative Infections After Elective Spine Surgery: Do Most Infections Occur in Carriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Vuong, Victoria D; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Lilly, Daniel T; Desai, Shyam A; Khalid, Syed; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A

    2018-05-14

    Wound infections after adult spinal deformity surgery place a high toll on patients, providers, and the healthcare system. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of postoperative wound infections, and nasal colonization by this organism may be an important factor in the development of surgical site infections (SSIs). The aim is to investigate whether post-operative surgical site infections after elective spine surgery occur at a higher rate in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization. Consecutive patients undergoing adult spinal deformity surgery between 2011-2013 were enrolled. Enrolled patients were followed up for a minimum of 3 months after surgery and received similar peri-operative infection prophylaxis. Baseline characteristics, operative details, rates of wound infection, and microbiologic data for each case of post-operative infection were gathered by direct medical record review. Local vancomycin powder was used in all patients and sub-fascial drains were used in the majority (88%) of patients. 1200 operative spine cases were performed for deformity between 2011 and 2013. The mean ± standard deviation age and body mass index were 62.08 ± 14.76 years and 30.86 ± 7.15 kg/m 2 , respectively. 29.41% had a history of diabetes. All SSIs occurred within 30 days of surgery, with deep wound infections accounting for 50% of all SSIs. Of the 34 (2.83%) cases of SSIs that were identified, only 1 case occurred in a patient colonized with MRSA. Our study suggests that the preponderance of SSIs occurred in patients without nasal colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Future prospective multi-institutional studies are needed to corroborate our findings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential expression of hemoglobin receptor, HmbR, between carriage and invasive isolates of Neisseria meningitidis contributes to virulence: lessons from a clonal outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevestre, Julien; Diene, Seydina M; Aouiti-Trabelsi, Myriam; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Tournier, Isabelle; François, Patrice; Caron, François; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2018-04-11

    Carriage and invasion balance in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis was analyzed during a recent clonal outbreak of meningococcal B in Normandy, France, that offered the opportunity to compare six isolates undistinguable by conventional typing (B:P1.7,16:F3-3/ST-32) isolated from invasive disease or pharyngeal asymptomatic carriage. Data from animal model (transgenic mice rendered susceptible to N. meningitidis infection) showed an absence of virulence for two non-capsulated carriage isolates, an intermediate virulence for two capsulated carriage isolates and a marked virulence for two capsulated invasive isolates. This differential pathogenesis well correlated with whole genome sequencing analysis that clustered together both isolates of each group together, forming their own arm within the Norman cluster. Gene-by-gene analysis specified that genes involved in iron acquisition were among the elements differentially represented in cluster of invasive isolates compared to cluster of capsulated carriage isolates. The hemoglobin receptor encoding gene hmbR was in an ON-phase in the capsulated invasive isolates while carriage capsulated isolates were in an OFF-phase. An ON-phase variant of a capsulated carriage isolate showed enhanced virulence. These data underline the role of phase variation (ON/OFF) of HmbR in the balance between disease isolates/carriage isolates.

  3. Fecal Carriage of Extended‑spectrum Beta‑lactamase and AmpC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems were 31.2%, 33.3%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusion: The relative high prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL‑producing bacteria in community warrants further study in this field including developing policies ...

  4. A Cross-sectional Survey Assessing Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a Healthy Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Na; Chen, Zhao Yun; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Bing Qing; Xu, Li; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Ai Yu; Zhao, Pan; Liu, Ji Wen; Shao, Zhu Jun

    2018-03-01

    The carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) in a healthy population in China remains unclear. In this study, we collected the oropharyngeal swabs from 513 individuals in Xinjiang, China. Real-time PCR targeting the lytA gene and 12 serotypes were assessed to identify S. pneumoniae carriage. The total carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was 70.4% (361/513). The most prevalent serotypes were 19B/F, 18B/C, 5, and 6A/B. The highest carriage rate of S. pneumoniae was noted in children aged 6-10 years (88.6%), which merits further attention. The co-colonization rate of two or more S. pneumoniae serotypes was 79.8% (264/331). This study aimed to investigate the baseline pneumococcal carriage rate among healthy individuals in China to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Anatomical patterns of colonization of pets with staphylococcal species in homes of people with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin or soft tissue infection (SSTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, S A; Brazil, A M; Ferguson, J M; Nelson, K; Lautenbach, E; Rankin, S C; Morris, D O; Davis, M F

    2015-03-23

    Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), and other pathogenic staphylococci can cause infections in companion animals and humans. Identification of colonized animals is fundamental to research and practice needs, but harmonized methods have not yet been established. To establish the optimal anatomic site for the recovery of methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS), survey data and swabs were collected from 196 pets (dogs, cats, reptiles, birds, fish and pocket pets) that lived in households with an MRSA-infected person. Using broth-enrichment culture and PCR for speciation, S. aureus was identified in 27 of 179 (15%) pets sampled at baseline and 19 of 125 (15%) pets sampled at a three-month follow-up home visit. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 33 of 179 (18%) pets sampled at baseline and 21 of 125 (17%) of pets sampled at follow-up. The baseline MRSA and MRSP prevalence was 8% and 1% respectively from 145 mammalian pets. The follow-up MRSA and MRSP prevalence was 7% and pets. The mouth was the most sensitive single site sampled for isolation of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius in mammals. In a subset of pets, from which all available isolates were identified, dual carriage of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius was 22% at baseline and 11% at follow-up. These results identify the mouth as the most sensitive site to screen for pathogenic staphylococci and suggest that it should be included in sampling protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  7. Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. General Safety Requirements Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are a large number of facilities and activities around the world in which radioactive material is produced, handled and stored. This Safety Requirements publication presents international consensus requirements for the management of radioactive waste prior to its disposal. It provides the safety imperatives on the basis of which facilities can be designed, operated and regulated. The publication is supported by a number of Safety Guides that provide up to date recommendations and guidance on best practices for management of particular types of radioactive waste, for storage of radioactive waste, for assuring safety by developing safety cases and supporting safety assessments, and for applying appropriate management systems. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 4. Steps in the predisposal management of radioactive waste; 5. Development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities; Annex: Predisposal management of radioactive waste and the fundamental safety principles.

  8. 78 FR 29279 - Safety Standard for Carriages and Strollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... $150-$300, with many carriages, travel systems, and jogging strollers costs running in the $500-$700... burst tire. A total of 52 reported injuries occurred, including two hospitalizations due to falls that..., unfolding, removing the stroller from the trunk, and pumping air into the stroller tire). Caregiver...

  9. [Systematic screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the nasal cavities of patients hospitalized in the dermatology departments of the Saint-Louis Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, G; Dupuy, A; Rouveau, M; Claisse, J-P; Casin, I; Dubertret, L; Morel, P; Simon, F; Viguier, M

    2008-12-01

    In a bid to combat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) more efficiently in our department, we performed a study to 1) clarify the MRSA carriage rate in patients hospitalized in the department; 2) evaluate the rate of MRSA acquisition during hospitalization; 3) describe the MRSA carrier profile; 4) study the morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA. We conducted a three-month prospective study in all patients hospitalized for more than 24hours in the dermatology department of the Saint-Louis Hospital. Nasal swab cultures were performed on the day of admission, once a week thereafter and on the day of discharge. Clinical and epidemiological data were individually reviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire. In 310 patients, the prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage at admission was 6.5%. During hospitalization, 1.9% of our patients became colonized with MRSA. MRSA carriers were significantly older than non-carriers and had been hospitalized more frequently over the previous 12 months, principally in intensive care or in intermediate or long-term care facilities, and erosive and/or ulcerated dermatitis was more common in this population. Of the 27 patients colonized with MRSA, only three had MRSA infections, and these were successfully treated with antibiotics. The observed rate of MRSA carriage was close to that seen in intensive care units (7%). While systematic screening for MRSA in patients with erosive and/or ulcerated dermatitis would allow detection of twice as many cases of MRSA than the usual screening recommendations, this would be associated with little tangible benefit and high costs, and we therefore decided not to change the usual MRSA screening politic in our dermatology department.

  10. Prevalence and susceptibility pattern of methicillinresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MMRSA) has been commonly reported to be one of the commonest causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Also, recent reports describe methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage in persons in the community. The study investigated its prevalence in urine ...

  11. Predisposal management of radioactive waste. General safety requirements. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to establish, the requirements that must be satisfied in the predisposal management of radioactive waste. This publication sets out the objectives, criteria and requirements for the protection of human health and the environment that apply to the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown of facilities for the predisposal management of radioactive waste, and the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of such facilities and activities. This Safety Requirements publication applies to the predisposal management of radioactive waste of all types and covers all the steps in its management from its generation up to its disposal, including its processing (pretreatment, treatment and conditioning), storage and transport. Such waste may arise from the commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education; the processing of materials that contain naturally occurring radionuclides; and the remediation of contaminated areas. The introduction of the document (Section 1) informs about its objective, scope and structure. The protection of human health and the environment is considered in Section 2 of this publication. Section 3 establishes requirements for the responsibilities associated with the predisposal management of radioactive waste. Requirements for the principal approaches to and the elements of the predisposal management of radioactive waste are established in Section 4. Section 5 establishes requirements for the safe development and operation of predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and safe conduct of activities. The Annex presents a discussion of the consistency of the safety requirements established in this publication with the fundamental safety principles

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF THE «CARRIAGE-CARGO» SYSTEM MOTION MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF LIFTING AND TRANSPORT MACHINES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Hryhorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of a mathematical model that describes the cable crane «carriage-cargo» system motion, taking into account the carriage movement resistance, the wind strength and the friction forces. The obtained system equations can be used to build the controllability function for the «carriage-cargo» system and determine the cable crane control by minimizing the operation cycle time by cargo oscillation damping.

  13. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation.

  14. Enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente adquirida en la comunidad Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disseminated disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Brezzo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de enfermedad invasora por Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR adquirido en la comunidad (SAMR-c. Paciente varón de 21 años, previamente sano, que consultó por nódulos subcutáneos compatibles con gomas. La ultrasonografía reveló múltiples abscesos subcutáneos e imágenes consistentes con piomiositis, además de derrame pleural y pericárdico. En el cultivo del material purulento obtenido por punción-aspiración con aguja fina de las lesiones se aisló S. aureus. El antibiograma por difusión mostró resistencia a cefalotina, eritromicina y clindamicina, y sensibilidad a trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y rifampicina. La meticilino resistencia se confirmó por aglutinación con partículas de látex sensibilizadas con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la proteína ligadora de penicilina 2A. El paciente fue tratado con ciprofloxacina y rifampicina durante cuatro semanas, con evolución favorable. La frecuencia de infecciones por SAMR-c está en aumento, observándose en personas sin factores de riesgo aparentes. Esto llevaría a fracaso en el tratamiento empírico para infecciones de la comunidad en los que se presume etiología estafilocócica.A 21 year old man, previously healthy, presented with subcutaneous nodes consistent with gummas. Ultrasonography disclosed multiple subcutaneous abscesses and images suitable with piomiositis, pleural and pericardium effusion. A puncture-aspirate with fine-needle was performed and produced purulent material, with isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion showed resistant to cefalotin, erythromycin and clindamycin, and susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Methicilin-resistance was confirmed by Staphyslide agglutination testing (Biomérieux. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin during four weeks, with a good clinical response. The

  15. 14 CFR 91.321 - Carriage of candidates in elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carrier or commercial operator; (2) You carry the candidate, agent, or person traveling on behalf of a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of candidates in elections. 91.321 Section 91.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  16. Project Clinker, Hydraulic Carriage for Airship Installation of Optical Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, P; Rosenberg, T

    1954-01-01

    .... One answer to this problem was a carriage having a top deck pivoted at one end. The movable deck was raised to the required angle by a motor driven hydraulic hoist of the type used commercially for dump trucks...

  17. An Integrated Musculoskeletal-Finite-Element Model to Evaluate Effects of Load Carriage on the Tibia During Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Hughes, Julie; Unnikrishnan, Ginu; Reifman, Jaques; Rakesh, Vineet

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have assessed the effects of load carriage on the tibia. Here, we expand on these studies and investigate the effects of load carriage on joint reaction forces (JRFs) and the resulting spatiotemporal stress/strain distributions in the tibia. Using full-body motion and ground reaction forces from a female subject, we computed joint and muscle forces during walking for four load carriage conditions. We applied these forces as physiological loading conditions in a finite-element (FE) analysis to compute strain and stress. We derived material properties from computed tomography (CT) images of a sex-, age-, and body mass index-matched subject using a mesh morphing and mapping algorithm, and used them within the FE model. Compared to walking with no load, the knee JRFs were the most sensitive to load carriage, increasing by as much as 26.2% when carrying a 30% of body weight (BW) load (ankle: 16.4% and hip: 19.0%). Moreover, our model revealed disproportionate increases in internal JRFs with increases in load carriage, suggesting a coordinated adjustment in the musculature functions in the lower extremity. FE results reflected the complex effects of spatially varying material properties distribution and muscular engagement on tibial biomechanics during walking. We observed high stresses on the anterior crest and the medial surface of the tibia at pushoff, whereas high cumulative stress during one walking cycle was more prominent in the medioposterior aspect of the tibia. Our findings reinforce the need to include: (1) physiologically accurate loading conditions when modeling healthy subjects undergoing short-term exercise training and (2) the duration of stress exposure when evaluating stress-fracture injury risk. As a fundamental step toward understanding the instantaneous effect of external loading, our study presents a means to assess the relationship between load carriage and bone biomechanics.

  18. Emerging pneumococcal carriage serotypes in a high-risk population receiving universal 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine since 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Liz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods. Results 902 children (mean age 25 months living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and 23PPV-non-7PCV-type carriage from 31% to 25% respectively. Thus non-23PPV-type carriage increased from 57% to 67%. All these changes were statistically significant, as were changes for some specific serotypes. Shifts could not be attributed to vaccination alone. The top 10 of 40 serotypes identified were (in descending order 16F, 19A, 11A, 6C, 23B, 19F, 6A, 35B, 6B, 10A and 35B. Carriage of penicillin non-susceptible (MIC > = 0.12 μg/mL strains (15% overall was detected in serotypes (descending order 19A, 19F, 6B, 16F, 11A, 9V, 23B, and in 4 additional serotypes. Carriage of azithromycin resistant (MIC > = 2 μg/mL strains (5% overall, was detected in serotypes (descending order 23B, 17F, 9N, 6B, 6A, 11A, 23F, and in 10 additional serotypes including 6C. Conclusion Pneumococcal carriage remains high (~80% in this vaccinated population. Uptake of both pneumococcal vaccines increased, and carriage was reduced between 2003 and 2005. Predominant serotypes in combined

  19. Carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a cross-sectional study that determined the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of Islamic boarding schools (Tsangaya Almajirai) in Kano, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were randomly collected from 150 children aged 5 years to 10 years and above from three selected Tsangaya Almajiri schools in ...

  20. Age-dependent prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae before conjugate vaccine introduction: a prediction model based on a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Polain de Waroux

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Data on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S.pneumoniae in all age groups are important to help predict the impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV into routine infant immunization, given the important indirect effect of the vaccine. Yet most carriage studies are limited to children under five years of age. We here explore the association between carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in children aged ≥5 years and in adults compared to children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies providing carriage estimates across age groups in healthy populations not previously exposed to PCV, using MEDLINE and Embase. We used Bayesian linear meta-regression models to predict the overall carriage prevalence as well as the prevalence and distribution of vaccine and nonvaccine type (VT and NVT serotypes in older age groups as a function of that in <5 y olds. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies compromising of 20,391 individuals were included in the analysis. In all studies nasopharyngeal carriage decreased with increasing age. We found a strong positive linear association between the carriage prevalence in pre-school childen (<5 y and both that in school aged children (5-17 y olds and in adults. The proportion of VT serotypes isolated from carriers was consistently lower in older age groups and on average about 73% that of children <5 y among 5-17 y olds and adults respectively. We provide a prediction model to infer the carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in 5-17 y olds and adults as a function of that in children <5 years of age. CONCLUSION: Such predictions are helpful for assessing the potential population-wide effects of vaccination programmes, e.g. via transmission models, and thus assist in the design of future pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies.

  1. Energy cost and mechanical work of walking during load carriage in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jordane G; Peyrot, Nicolas; Castells, Josiane; Oullion, Roger; Messonnier, Laurent; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2012-06-01

    In the military context, soldiers carry equipments of total mass often exceeding 30%-40% of their body mass (BM) and complexly distributed around their body (backpack, weapons, electronics, protections, etc.), which represents severe load carrying conditions. This study aimed to better understand the effects of load carriage on walking energetics and mechanics during military-type walking. Ten male infantrymen recently retired from the French Foreign Legion performed 3-min walking trials at a constant speed of 4 km·h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill, during which walking pattern spatiotemporal parameters, energy cost (C(W)), external mechanical work (W(ext)), and the work done by one leg against the other during the double-contact period (W(int,dc)) were specifically assessed. Three conditions were tested: (i) light sportswear (SP, reference condition considered as unloaded), (ii) battle equipment (BT, ∼22 kg, ∼27% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military intermediate load), and (iii) road march equipment (RM, ∼38 kg, ∼46% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military high load). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that military equipment carriage significantly (i) altered the spatiotemporal pattern of walking (all P < 0.01), (ii) increased absolute gross and net CW (P < 0.0001), and (iii) increased both absolute and mass-relative W(ext) (P < 0.01) and W(int,dc) (P < 0.0001) but did not alter the inverted pendulum recovery or locomotor efficiency. Military equipments carriage induced significant changes in walking mechanics and energetics, but these effects appeared not greater than those reported with loads carried around the waist and close to the center of mass. This result was not expected because the latter has been hypothesized to be the optimal method of load carriage from a metabolic standpoint.

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae(Spn) Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Children Under 3 Years Old, Attending Day Care Centers in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Angela; Rearte, Analía; Von Spetch, Martha; Laban, Celia; Papucci, Santiago Lopez; Badano, Andrea; Ferrario, Claudia; Pereda, Rosana; Flores, Devora; Berry, Diana; Aguilera, Alejandra; Sponton, Norma; Sorhouet, Cecilia; Napoli, Daniela; Devoto, Susana; Vizzotti, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2012 the 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-13) was introduced in the National Immunization Program. We performed an epidemiological study to describe SPN nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence. Methods Between June to September 2015 it was performed a cross-sectional study among children Salta (North West), Trelew (South), Rosario (Centre), Buenos Aires (Capital city) and Posadas (North East)). Samples were analyzed at references hospitals of each city and isolates were submitted to the INEI “Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán “, for confirming and serotyping. We considered completed schedule 3 doses of PCV13, administrated14 days prior to enrollment. Results We included 359 toddlers, 61,6% (IC95% 56,3–66,6) were SPN carriers. Median age was 24 months, without significative difference in carriage status. Multivariate analysis showed that independently of age, sex and socioeconomic level, variables associated with carriage were: · City: Taking Salta as reference (less carriage prevalence), Rosario and Posadas were statistically associated with higher prevalence rates: OR: 3,1 (IC95% 1,3–7,1) y OR: 2,8 (IC96% 1,2–6,3) respectively · Children attending to public day care centers had higher carriage rates than those attending private ones: OR: 1,9 (IC95% 1,06–3,4) · Children sharing bedroom with 3 or more persons, were associated to mayor risk or carriage: OR: 1,7 (IC95% 1,03–2,7) We found 46 serotypes in the 221 isolates. (2 couldn’t be serotyped), 90,9% (IC95% 86,3–94,3) were non PCV 13 serotypes (most frequent were 15B, 23B and 11A). Only 7 of 46 were PCV13 serotypes. (Graphic 1) Of the 20 toddlers with PCV13 serotypes, 16 were completely vaccinated Graphic 1: S pneumoniae serotype distribution. N = 221 Conclusion Nasopharyngeal carriage of SPN was high in children < 3 years old attending day care centers. Most isolates were Non PCV13 serotypes. The independent predictors for higher prevalence rates were: 1- Children living

  3. Asymtomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in relation to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae colonization in healthy children: Apropos of 1400 children sampled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Mustafa; Yagci, Aysegul; Ulger, Nurver; Akbenlioglu, Cengiz; Ilki, Arzu; Soyletir, Guner

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among children in many parts of the world. Main reservoir of carriage and site of meningococcal dissemination appears to be the upper respiratory tract. Colonization of Neisseria meningitidis and lactamica and factors affecting this carriage were determined in a group of healthy children aged 0-10 years. Meningococcus and N. lactamica carriage were detected in 17 (1.23%) and 245 (17.7%) of 1382 subjects, respectively. Number (%) of serogroups for meningococci was 1 (6), 5 (29), 0 (0), 1 (6), 1 (6), and 9 (53) for A, B, C, D, W135, and Y, respectively. Having more than three household members, elementary school attendance, pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were associated with carriage of meningococci, whereas age less than 24-month was associated with carriage of N. lactamica. There was a reverse carriage rate between N. meningitidis and N. lactamica by age which may suggest a possible protective role of N. lactamica against meningococcal colonization among pre-school children

  4. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carriage in long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N; Lee, Betsy; Lautenbach, Ebbing

    2005-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, colonization with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli in residents in a long-term care facility. FQ-resistant E. coli were identified from rectal swabs for 25 (51%) of 49 participants at study entry. On multivariable analyses, prior FQ use was the only independent risk factor for FQ-resistant E. coli carriage and was consistent for FQ exposures in the previous 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of FQ-resistant E. coli identified clonal spread of 1 strain among 16 residents. Loss (6 residents) or acquisition (7 residents) of FQ-resistant E. coli was documented and was associated with de novo colonization with genetically distinct strains. Unlike the case in the hospital setting, FQ-resistant E. coli carriage in long-term care facilities is associated with clonal spread.

  5. Ethiopian Law of International Carriage by Air: An Overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia's aviation history goes back to the late 1920s. And, carriage of goods and passengers by air dates at least as far back as the 1940s – the decade which witnessed the establishment of Ethiopian Air Lines Corporation (now Ethiopian Airlines). Despite Ethiopia's relative success in commercial aviation, domestic ...

  6. Mild Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection Improves the Course of Subsequent Endogenous S. aureus Bacteremia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.

  7. Age-dependent prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of streptococcus pneumoniae before conjugate vaccine introduction: a prediction model based on a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Flasche, Stefan; Prieto-Merino, David; Edmunds, W John

    2014-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of S.pneumoniae in all age groups are important to help predict the impact of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) into routine infant immunization, given the important indirect effect of the vaccine. Yet most carriage studies are limited to children under five years of age. We here explore the association between carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in children aged ≥5 years and in adults compared to children. We conducted a systematic review of studies providing carriage estimates across age groups in healthy populations not previously exposed to PCV, using MEDLINE and Embase. We used Bayesian linear meta-regression models to predict the overall carriage prevalence as well as the prevalence and distribution of vaccine and nonvaccine type (VT and NVT) serotypes in older age groups as a function of that in linear association between the carriage prevalence in pre-school childen (<5 y) and both that in school aged children (5-17 y olds) and in adults. The proportion of VT serotypes isolated from carriers was consistently lower in older age groups and on average about 73% that of children <5 y among 5-17 y olds and adults respectively. We provide a prediction model to infer the carriage prevalence and serotype distribution in 5-17 y olds and adults as a function of that in children <5 years of age. Such predictions are helpful for assessing the potential population-wide effects of vaccination programmes, e.g. via transmission models, and thus assist in the design of future pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies.

  8. Regulations of 20 December 1979 relating to domestic carriage of dangerous goods by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    By Royal Decree of 20 December 1979, the provisions of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Roads (ADR) were adopted for domestic carriage of dangerous goods. The competent authority is the Public Road Administration which may under certain circumstances grant exemptions from the provisions of the Decree. It may also prepare regulations supplementing the Decree. Such Regulations came into force on 1 April 1980. The above mentioned Regulations were issued by the Ministry of Communications pursuant to Act No. 4 of 18th June 1965 concerning road traffic. (NEA) [fr

  9. Molecular characterization of nasal methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from workers of an automaker company in southeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhanipoor, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadrajabi, Roya; Karmostaji, Afsaneh; Saffari, Fereshteh

    2017-10-01

    Colonization of methicillin resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) can occur more commonly in healthy people who live in close together or are in close physical contact with each other. Having knowledge about the molecular characteristics of these strains provides considerable discernment into the epidemiology of this important microorganism. A total of 806 nasal swabs were collected from healthy workers of an automaker company in the southeast of Iran and were analyzed to detect MRSA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were performed. The presence of genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element (ACME) were also investigated. Carriage rate of S. aureus was 20%. Among 10 identified MRSA, no acme was found while high prevalence of pvl (60%) was of great concern. Seven different spa types including five new ones were identified. The most frequent sequence type was the novel one; ST 3373 (n = 3), followed by each of ST22, ST88, ST859 (n = 2) and ST1955 (n = 1). MRSA isolates were clustered into two main clonal complexes; CC22 (n = 6) and CC88 (n = 4). Low genetic diversity with the dominance of CC22, SCCmecIV was found. Distribution of previously found hospital-associated MRSA was demonstrated among our isolates. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  11. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  12. Relationship between Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-Intermediate S. aureus, High Vancomycin MIC, and Outcome in Serious S. aureus Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Natasha E.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used successfully for over 50 years for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, particularly those involving methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has proven remarkably reliable, but its efficacy is now being questioned with the emergence of strains of S. aureus that display heteroresistance, intermediate resistance, and, occasionally, complete vancomycin resistance. More recently, an association has been established between poor outcome and infections with strain...

  13. OP-11 DO TRAUMATIC LIFE EVENTS PREDISPOSE CHILDREN TO DEVELOP CONSTIPATION?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC

  14. Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mandibular molar crown-topography, a biological predisposing factor to development of caries – a post-mortem analysis of 2500 extracted lower permanent molars at the dental centre, University of Benin teaching hospital.

  15. Effect of a quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY glycoconjugate or a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine on meningococcal carriage: an observer-blind, phase 3 randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Robert C; Baxter, David; Chadwick, David R; Faust, Saul N; Finn, Adam; Gordon, Stephen B; Heath, Paul T; Lewis, David J M; Pollard, Andrew J; Turner, David P J; Bazaz, Rohit; Ganguli, Amitava; Havelock, Tom; Neal, Keith R; Okike, Ifeanyichukwu O; Morales-Aza, Begonia; Patel, Kamlesh; Snape, Matthew D; Williams, John; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Gray, Steve J; Maiden, Martin C J; Toneatto, Daniela; Wang, Huajun; McCarthy, Maggie; Dull, Peter M; Borrow, Ray

    2014-12-13

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines protect individuals directly, but can also confer herd protection by interrupting carriage transmission. We assessed the effects of meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate (MenACWY-CRM) or serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccination on meningococcal carriage rates in 18-24-year-olds. In this phase 3, observer-blind, randomised controlled trial, university students aged 18-24 years from ten sites in England were randomly assigned (1:1:1, block size of three) to receive two doses 1 month apart of Japanese Encephalitis vaccine (controls), 4CMenB, or one dose of MenACWY-CRM then placebo. Participants were randomised with a validated computer-generated random allocation list. Participants and outcome-assessors were masked to the treatment group. Meningococci were isolated from oropharyngeal swabs collected before vaccination and at five scheduled intervals over 1 year. Primary outcomes were cross-sectional carriage 1 month after each vaccine course. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of carriage at any timepoint after primary analysis until study termination. Reactogenicity and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Analysis was done on the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all enrolled participants who received a study vaccination and provided at least one assessable swab after baseline. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number NCT01214850. Between Sept 21 and Dec 21, 2010, 2954 participants were randomly assigned (987 assigned to control [984 analysed], 979 assigned to 4CMenB [974 analysed], 988 assigned to MenACWY-CRM [983 analysed]); 33% of the 4CMenB group, 34% of the MenACWY-CRM group, and 31% of the control group were positive for meningococcal carriage at study entry. By 1 month, there was no significant difference in carriage between controls and 4CMenB (odds ratio 1·2, 95% CI 0·8-1·7) or MenACWY-CRM (0·9, [0·6-1·3]) groups. From 3 months after dose two, 4CMen

  16. Maternal homozygocity for a 14 basepair insertion in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene and carriage of HLA class II alleles restricting HY immunity predispose to unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage and low birth weight in children born to these patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Dahl, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Homozygous carriage of a 14 base pair (bp) insertion in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene may be associated with low levels of soluble HLA-G and recurrent miscarriage (RM). We investigated the G14bp insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism in 339 women with unexplained RM and 125 control women. In all...

  17. 76 FR 60675 - Revision of the Commission's Program Carriage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors (``MVPDs''), known as... and diversity in the video programming and video distribution markets. In this document, the FCC seeks... information is contained in contained in sections 4(i), 303(r), and 616 of the Communications Act of 1934, as...

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Ceftaroline with Linezolid against Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, A.; Munir, T.; Rehman, S.; Najeeb, S.; Gilani, M.; Latif, M.; Ansari, M.; Saad, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of ceftaroline with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2013. Methodology: Clinical samples from respiratory tract, blood, pus and various catheter tips routinely received in the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi were innoculated on blood and MacConkey agar. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by colony morphology, Gram reaction, catalase test and coagulase test. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus detection was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using cefoxitin disc (30g) and the isolates were considered methicillin resistant if the zone of inhibition around cefoxitin disc was /sup 2/ 21 mm. Bacterial suspensions of 56 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 50 MRSA isolates were prepared, which were standardized equal to 0.5 McFarland's turbidity standard and inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar plates followed by application of ceftaroline and linezolid disc (Oxoid, UK), according to manufacturer's instructions. The plates were then incubated at 37 Degree C aerobically for 18 - 24 hours. Diameters of inhibition zone were measured and interpretated as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Out of 106 isolates all of the 56 Staphylococcus aureus (100%) were sensitive to ceftaroline and linezolid. However, out of 50 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (96%) were sensitive to ceftaroline whereas, 49 (98%) were sensitive to linezolid. Conclusion: Ceftaroline is equally effective as linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  19. Predisposing Factors of Ischemic Colitis: Data from 14 Years of Experience in a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Il Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. While several case reports on ischemic colitis (IC suggest the presence of predisposing causative factors, a few studies have investigated the predisposing factors in IC. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with IC, particularly focusing on the predisposing factors. Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 159 patients with IC. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, endoscopic findings, and medical records were reviewed. Data were compared between groups of patients defined according to the predisposing factors. The predisposing factors are defined as temporary states or episodic events occurring within a week before the development of IC such as colonoscopy, enema, use of laxatives, heavy drinking, pancreatitis, shock, and burn. Results. Compared to the group of patients without predisposing factors of IC, the group of patients with predisposing factors was characterized by a relatively higher prevalence of male sex (56.9% versus 33.3%, p=0.005, younger age (60.9 ± 15.4 versus 67.2 ± 13.4 years, p=0.010, lower incidence of hypertension (43.1% versus 60.2%, p=0.044, and fewer risk factors (1.24 ± 1.18 versus 1.82 ± 1.22, p=0.005. Conclusions. Among men with predisposing factors, IC may develop even at a relatively younger age and in the absence of multiple risk factors, suggesting that predisposing factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of IC.

  20. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  1. A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

  2. New Pneumococcal Carriage Acquired in Association with Acute Respiratory Infection Is Prone to Cause Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, Kari; Syrjänen, Ritva; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi

    2016-01-01

    For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2-24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994-97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media.

  3. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA isolates of swine origin form robust biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Nicholson

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Mechanisms contributing to the persistent carriage and high prevalence rates of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA strains in swine herds and production facilities have not been investigated. One explanation for the high prevalence of MRSA in swine herds is the ability of these organisms to exist as biofilms. In this report, the ability of swine LA-MRSA strains, including ST398, ST9, and ST5, to form biofilms was quantified and compared to several swine and human isolates. The contribution of known biofilm matrix components, polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA, was tested in all strains as well. All MRSA swine isolates formed robust biofilms similar to human clinical isolates. The addition of Dispersin B had no inhibitory effect on swine MRSA isolates when added at the initiation of biofilm growth or after pre-established mature biofilms formed. In contrast, the addition of proteinase K inhibited biofilm formation in all strains when added at the initiation of biofilm growth and was able to disperse pre-established mature biofilms. Of the LA-MRSA strains tested, we found ST398 strains to be the most sensitive to both inhibition of biofilm formation and dispersal of pre-formed biofilms by DNaseI. Collectively, these findings provide a critical first step in designing strategies to control or eliminate MRSA in swine herds.

  4. Identification and characterization of an operon, msaABCR, that controls virulence and biofilm development in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahukhal, Gyan S; Elasri, Mohamed O

    2014-06-11

    Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains often cause localized infections in immunocompromised hosts, but some strains show enhanced virulence leading to severe infections even among healthy individuals with no predisposing risk factors. The genetic basis for this enhanced virulence has yet to be determined. S. aureus possesses a wide variety of virulence factors, the expression of which is carefully coordinated by a variety of regulators. Several virulence regulators have been well characterized, but others have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Previously, we identified the msa gene as a regulator of several virulence genes, biofilm development, and antibiotic resistance. We also found evidence of the involvement of upstream genes in msa function. To investigate the mechanism of regulation of the msa gene (renamed msaC), we examined the upstream genes whose expression was affected by its deletion. We showed that msaC is part of a newly defined four-gene operon (msaABCR), in which msaC is a non-protein-coding RNA that is essential for the function of the operon. Furthermore, we found that an antisense RNA (msaR) is complementary to the 5' end of the msaB gene and is expressed in a growth phase-dependent manner suggesting that it is involved in regulation of the operon. These findings allow us to define a new operon that regulates fundamental phenotypes in S. aureus such as biofilm development and virulence. Characterization of the msaABCR operon will allow us to investigate the mechanism of function of this operon and the role of the individual genes in regulation and interaction with its targets. This study identifies a new element in the complex regulatory circuits in S. aureus, and our findings may be therapeutically relevant.

  5. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  6. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  7. Intense pre-admission carriage and further acquisition of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients and their caregivers in a tertiary hospital in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Mathis S E; Bayingana, Claude; Ndoli, Jules M; Sendegeya, Augustin; Durst, Anita; Pfüller, Roland; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2017-02-01

    To assess the presence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among patients admitted to the University Teaching Hospital of Butare and among their attending caregivers, and to analyse the acquisition of ESBL-PE carriage during hospital stay and associated factors. We screened 392 patients and their attending caregivers at admission and discharge for ESBL-PE carriage. Bacterial species were determined using the API-20E system, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by agar disc diffusion. Data on socio-economic status, diet, behaviour, household assets, livestock and hospital procedures were collected. At admission, 50% of the patients showed intestinal ESBL-PE carriage (Escherichia coli, 51%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 39%; Enterobacter cloacae, 19%) as did 37% of their caregivers. Co-resistance was common but no carbapenem resistance was detected. At discharge, the proportion of ESBL-PE-colonised patients increased to 65% (caregivers, 47%) with almost complete carriage in paediatric patients (93%). The acquisition rate among initially non-colonised patients was 55% (or, 71/1000 patient days). Independent predictors of admission carriage included a colonised caregiver, prior antibiotic intake, egg consumption and neglecting to boil drinking water, whereas being a paediatric patient, undergoing surgery and male gender predicted acquisition during hospitalisation. Abundant admission carriage of ESBL-PE and a high acquisition rate in a Rwandan university hospital point to potential intrahospital transmission and community dissemination. Caregivers are an additional source of possible spread. Risk factors of colonisation such as diet and water source need to be tackled to prevent the further emergence and spread of ESBL-PE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  9. Type 1 diabetes in children is not a predisposing factor for oral yeast colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana L; Silva, Branca M A; Soares, Rui; Mota, Diana; Alves, Vera; Mirante, Alice; Ramos, João C; Maló de Abreu, João; Santos-Rosa, Manuel; Caramelo, Francisco; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is considered a risk factor associated with oral yeast infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yeast oral carriage (in saliva and mucosal surface) of children with T1D and potential relation with host factors, particularly the subset of CD4+ T cells. Yeasts were quantified and identified in stimulated saliva and in cheek mucosal swabs of 133 diabetic T1D and 72 healthy control subjects. Salivary lymphocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The presence of yeasts in the oral cavity (60% of total patients) was not affected by diabetes, metabolic control, duration of the disease, salivary flow rate or saliva buffer capacity, by age, sex, place of residence, number of daily meals, consumption of sweets or frequency of tooth brushing. Candida albicans was the most prevalent yeast species, but a higher number of yeast species was isolated in nondiabetics. T1D children with HbA1c ≤ 7.5 (metabolically controlled) presented higher number of CD4+ T salivary subsets when compared with the other groups of children (non-diabetic and nonmetabolically controlled) and also presented the highest number of individuals without oral yeast colonization. In conclusion, T1D does not predisposes for increased oral yeast colonization and a higher number of salivary CD4+T cells seems to result in the absence of oral colonization by yeasts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among emergency department workers and bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey.

  11. Evaluation of pet contact as a risk factor for carriage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi-Decristophoris, Paola; De Benedetti, Anna; Petignat, Christiane; Attinger, Monica; Guillaume, Jan; Fiebig, Lena; Hattendorf, Jan; Cernela, Nicole; Regula, Gertraud; Petrini, Orlando; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2012-03-01

    Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes. We assessed the carriage of MDR staphylococci in pets and in 2 groups of residents, those living in nursing homes with pets and those living without pet contacts. We collected demographic, health status, and human-pet contact data by means of questionnaires. We assessed potential bacteria transmission pathways by investigating physical resident-to-pet contact. The observed prevalence of MDR staphylococci carriage was 84/229 (37%) in residents living with pets and 99/216 (46%) in those not living with pets (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9). Active pet contact was associated with lower carriage of MDR staphylococci (aOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Antibiotic treatment during the previous 3 months was associated with significantly increased risk for MDR carriage in residents (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8-5.7). We found no evidence that the previously reported benefits of pet contact are compromised by the increased risk of carriage of MDR staphylococci in residents associated with interaction with these animals in nursing homes. Thus, contact with pets, always under good hygiene standards, should be encouraged in these settings. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 47 CFR 76.504 - Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.504 Section 76.504 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Limits on carriage of vertically integrated programming. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section... national video programming services owned by the cable operator or in which the cable operator has an...

  13. Kinetics of antibodies against pneumococcal proteins and their relationship to nasopharyngeal carriage in the first two months of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awa L Mendy

    Full Text Available The currently used Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines have had a significant impact on the pneumococcal diseases caused by the serotypes they cover. Their limitations have stimulated a search for alternate vaccines that will cover all serotypes, be affordable and effective in young children. Pneumococcal protein antigens are potential vaccine candidates that may meet some of the shortfalls of the current vaccines. Thus, this study aimed to determine the relationship between antibodies against pneumococcal protein antigens and nasopharyngeal carriage in infants.One hundred and twenty mother-infant pairs were enrolled into the study. They had nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS taken at birth and every two weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery, and blood samples were obtained at birth and every four weeks for the first eight weeks after delivery. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae was determined from the NPS and antibodies against the pneumococcal proteins CbpA, PspA and rPly were measured in the blood samples.The S. pneumoniae carriage rate in infants increased to that of mothers by eight weeks of age. The odds of carriage in infants was 6.2 times (95% CI: 2.0-18.9 higher when their mothers were also carriers. Bacterial density in infants was lower at birth compared to their mothers (p = 0.004, but increased with age and became higher than that of their mothers at weeks 4 (p = 0.009, 6 (p = 0.002 and 8 (p<0.0001. At birth, the infants' antibodies against CbpA, and rPly pneumococcal protein antigens were similar, but that of PspA was lower (p<0.0001, compared to their mothers. Higher antibody concentrations to CbpA [OR (95% CI: 0.49 (0.26-0.92, p = 0.03], but not PspA and rPly, were associated with protection against carriage in the infants.Naturally induced antibodies against the three pneumococcal protein antigens were transferred from mother to child. The proportion of infants with nasopharyngeal carriage and the bacterial density of S

  14. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  15. TOL Plasmid Carriage Enhances Biofilm Formation and Increases Extracellular DNA Content in Pseudomonas Putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; D'Alvise, Paul; Yankelovich, T.

    laser scanning microscopy. The TOL-carrying strains formed pellicles and thick biofilms, whereas the same strains without the plasmid displayed little adherent growth. Microscopy using fluorescent nucleic acid- specific stains (cytox orange, propidium iodide) revealed differences in production...... combined with specific cytostains; release of cytoplasmic material was assayed by a β-glucosidase assay. Enhanced cell lysis due to plasmid carriage was ruled out as the mechanism for eDNA release. We report, for the first time, that carriage of a conjugative plasmid leads to increased biofilm formation...

  16. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria as a prognosticator for outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinstein Robert A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.

  17. Searching for Novel Inhibitors of the S. aureus NorA Efflux Pump: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of the 3-Phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Tommaso; Cannalire, Rolando; Burali, Maria Sole; Massari, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Tabarrini, Oriana; Schindler, Bryan D; Sabatini, Stefano; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2017-08-22

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents has become an increasingly serious health problem in recent years. Among the strategies by which resistance can be achieved, overexpression of efflux pumps such as NorA of Staphylococcus aureus leads to a sub-lethal concentration of the antibacterial agent at the active site that in turn may predispose the organism to the development of high-level target-based resistance. With an aim to improve both the chemical stability and potency of our previously reported 3-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazine NorA inhibitors, we replaced the benzothiazine core with different nuclei. None of the new synthesized compounds showed any appreciable intrinsic antibacterial activity, and, in particular, 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)quinoline (6 c) was able to decrease, in a concentration-dependent manner, the ciprofloxacin MIC against the norA-overexpressing strains S. aureus SA-K2378 (norA++) and SA-1199B (norA+/A116E GrlA). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in HIV-infected children in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, S M S; Kranzer, K; Williams, A; Makamure, B; Nhidza, A F; Mayini, J; Bandason, T; Metcalfe, J; Nicol, M P; Balakrishnan, I; Ellington, M J; Woodford, N; Hopkins, S; McHugh, T D; Ferrand, R A

    2017-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health issue. Data on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant organisms are scarce for Africa, especially in HIV-infected individuals who often have frequent contact with healthcare. We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) carriage in stool among HIV-infected children attending an HIV outpatient department in Harare, Zimbabwe. We recruited children who were stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART) attending a HIV clinic from August 2014 to June 2015. Information was collected on antibiotic use and hospitalization. Stool was tested for ESBL-E through combination disc diffusion. API20E identification and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on the positive samples followed by whole genome sequencing. Stool was collected from 175/202 (86.6 %) children. Median age was 11 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 9-12] years. Median time on ART was 4.6 years (IQR 2.4-6.4). ESBL-Es were found in 24/175 samples (13.7 %); 50 % of all ESBL-Es were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, 100 % to co-trimoxazole, 45.8 % to chloramphenicol, 91.6 % to ceftriaxone, 20.8 % to gentamicin and 62.5 % to ciprofloxacin. ESBL-Es variously encoded CTX-M, OXA, TEM and SHV enzymes. The odds of ESBL-E carriage were 8.5 times (95 % CI 2.2-32.3) higher in those on ART for less than one year (versus longer) and 8.5 times (95 % CI 1.1-32.3) higher in those recently hospitalized for a chest infection. We found a 13.7 % prevalence of ESBL-E carriage in a population where ESBL-E carriage has not been described previously. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Africa merits further study, particularly given the high HIV prevalence and limited diagnostic and therapeutic options available.

  19. Carriage of Escherichia coli Producing CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in Healthy Vietnamese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Mai Huong; Hirai, Itaru; Ueda, Shuhei; Bui, Thi Kim Ngan; Hamamoto, Kouta; Toyosato, Takehiko; Le, Danh Tuyen; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-10-01

    Healthy carriage of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was examined by thrice collecting fecal samples from the same 199 healthy Vietnamese subjects every 6 months. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), identical PFGE patterns throughout the three samplings were not observed, although prevalence of E. coli in the subjects was around 50% in the three samplings. Our results suggested a short carriage period of the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy Vietnamese subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  1. Nuclear fuel handling grapple carriage with self-lubricating bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear fuel handling grapple carriage having a bearing with a lubricant reservoir that is capable of being refilled when the bearing and reservoir are submerged in a lubricant pool. The lubricant reservoir supplies lubricant to the bearing while the bearing allows a small amount of lubricant to leak passed appropriately placed seals creating a positive out flow of lubricant thereby preventing foreign material from entering the bearing

  2. The prevalence of predisposing deformity in osteoarthritic hip joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Jakob; Gosvig, Kasper; Jacobsen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    relationship in both sexes with the clinical presentation. The study cohort which fulfilled these inclusion criteria consisted of 322 females (149 right hips and 173 left hips) and 162 males (77 right hips and 85 left hips) with osteoarthritis. We found an overall prevalence of predisposing hip deformities...... in females of 62.4% and in males of 78.9%. Minor and major deformities showed the same prevalence. Both sexes had a comparable prevalence of minor and major hip joint deformity, except for pistol grip deformity, which was more prevalent in men. We concluded that 'idiopathic osteoarthritis' is uncommon......, and that even minor predisposing deformities are associated with hip osteoarthritis....

  3. Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Hussain, Mudassir; Adnan, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    To compare prevalence and carriage of Candida species among gutka-chewers and betel-quid-chewers. The cross-sectional case-control study was conducted between January and December, 2015 at the Oral Surgery department of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and the Dental department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised oral yeast samples of gutka-chewers, betel-quid-chewers, and non-chewers. A standardised questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and oral hygiene maintenance information. Oral Candida strains were collected, cultured and identified using standard techniques and yeast identification system. In all groups, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was determined. Lesions on the tongue and oral mucosa were clinically investigated and numbers of missing teeth were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the total 185 samples, 50(27%) were from gutka-chewers, 50(27%)betel-quid-chewers, and 85(46%) non-chewers. Oral Candida carriage was comparable among betel-quid-chewers (18 [36%])and gutka-chewers (20 [40%]), but it was significantly higher than the non-chewers (11 [12.9%]) (pbetel-quid-chewers (p>0.05). Prevalence and carriage of Candida species were comparable between betel-quid-chewers and gutka-chewers compared to non-chewers.

  4. Low frequency of asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in an acute care geriatric hospital: prospective cohort study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile (TCD in nosocomial cross-transmission remains debatable. Moreover, its relevance in the elderly has been sparsely studied. Objectives To assess asymptomatic TCD carriage in an acute care geriatric population. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study at the 296-bed geriatric hospital of the Geneva University Hospitals. We consecutively recruited all patients admitted to two 15-bed acute-care wards. Patients with C. difficile infection (CDI or diarrhoea at admission were excluded. First bowel movement after admission and every two weeks thereafter were sampled. C. difficile toxin B gene was identified using real-time polymerase chain-reaction (BD MAXTMCdiff. Asymptomatic TCD carriage was defined by the presence of the C. difficile toxin B gene without diarrhoea. Results A total of 102 patients were admitted between March and June 2015. Two patients were excluded. Among the 100 patients included in the study, 63 were hospitalized and 1 had CDI in the previous year, and 36 were exposed to systemic antibiotics within 90 days prior to admission. Overall, 199 stool samples were collected (median 2 per patient, IQR 1-3. Asymptomatic TCD carriage was identified in two patients (2 %. Conclusions We found a low prevalence of asymptomatic TCD carriage in a geriatric population frequently exposed to antibiotics and healthcare. Our findings suggest that asymptomatic TCD carriage might contribute only marginally to nosocomial TCD cross-transmission in our and similar healthcare settings.

  5. MRSA carriage in community outpatients: a cross-sectional prevalence study in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three

  6. ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in households with children of preschool age: prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bunt, G; Liakopoulos, A; Mevius, D J; Geurts, Y; Fluit, A C; Bonten, M J M; Mughini-Gras, L; van Pelt, W

    2017-02-01

    ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries. The parents were invited to complete an epidemiological questionnaire and to obtain and send a faecal sample from the selected child and from one parent. Samples were tested for ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for ESBL/AmpC carriage in children and parents, and findings were internally validated by bootstrapping. In total, 1016 families were included and ESBL/AmpC prevalence was 4.0% (95% CI 3.2%-5.0%); 3.5% (95% CI 2.5%-4.8%) in children and 4.5% (95% CI 3.4%-6.0%) in parents. Attending a daycare centre (DCC) was the only significant risk factor for children (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3). For parents, the only significant risk factor was having one or more children attending DCCs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). For parents of ESBL/AmpC-positive children the OR for ESBL/AmpC carriage was 19.7 (95% CI 9.2-42.4). Co-carriage of specific ESBL/AmpC genotypes in child and parent occurred more often than expected by chance (14.6% versus 1.1%, P < 0.001). In this study, intestinal carriage with ESBL/AmpCs was detected in ∼4% of households with preschool children. DCC attendance was a risk factor in both children and parents and co-carriage of specific genotypes frequently occurred in child-parent pairs. These findings suggest household transmission or/and family-specific exposure to common sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  7. Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Salim; Achan, Jane; Adam, Ishag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gametocytes are responsible for transmission of malaria from human to mosquito. Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) reduces post-treatment gametocyte carriage, dependent upon host, parasite and pharmacodynamic factors. The gametocytocidal properties of antimalarial drugs are importa...

  8. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients : A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, John; Aangenend, Helen; Kuhn, Malte; Hautvast, Jeannine; van Oorschot, Desiree; Loohuis, Alphons Olde; van der Velden, Koos; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Voss, Andreas; Kock, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  9. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  10. Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between health-care workers, the environment, and patients in an intensive care unit: a longitudinal cohort study based on whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James R; Cole, Kevin; Bexley, Andrew; Kostiou, Vasiliki; Eyre, David W; Golubchik, Tanya; Wilson, Daniel J; Crook, Derrick W; Walker, A Sarah; Peto, Timothy E A; Llewelyn, Martin J; Paul, John

    2017-02-01

    Health-care workers have been implicated in nosocomial outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus, but the dearth of evidence from non-outbreak situations means that routine health-care worker screening and S aureus eradication are controversial. We aimed to determine how often S aureus is transmitted from health-care workers or the environment to patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and a high-dependency unit (HDU) where standard infection control measures were in place. In this longitudinal cohort study, we systematically sampled health-care workers, the environment, and patients over 14 months at the ICU and HDU of the Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, England. Nasal swabs were taken from health-care workers every 4 weeks, bed spaces were sampled monthly, and screening swabs were obtained from patients at admission to the ICU or HDU, weekly thereafter, and at discharge. Isolates were cultured and their whole genome sequenced, and we used the threshold of 40 single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or fewer to define subtypes and infer recent transmission. Between Oct 31, 2011, and Dec 23, 2012, we sampled 198 health-care workers, 40 environmental locations, and 1854 patients; 1819 isolates were sequenced. Median nasal carriage rate of S aureus in health-care workers at 4-weekly timepoints was 36·9% (IQR 35·7-37·3), and 115 (58%) health-care workers had S aureus detected at least once during the study. S aureus was identified in 8-50% of environmental samples. 605 genetically distinct subtypes were identified (median SNV difference 273, IQR 162-399) at a rate of 38 (IQR 34-42) per 4-weekly cycle. Only 25 instances of transmission to patients (seven from health-care workers, two from the environment, and 16 from other patients) were detected. In the presence of standard infection control measures, health-care workers were infrequently sources of transmission to patients. S aureus epidemiology in the ICU and HDU is characterised by continuous ingress of distinct

  11. Decolonization of patients and health care workers to control nosocomial spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurieva, Tatiana V; Bootsma, Martin C J; Bonten, Marc J M

    2012-11-14

    Control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission has been unsuccessful in many hospitals. Recommended control measures include isolation of colonized patients, rather than decolonization of carriage among patients and/or health care workers. Yet, the potential effects of such measures are poorly understood. We use a stochastic simulation model in which health care workers can transmit MRSA through short-lived hand contamination, or through persistent colonization. Hand hygiene interrupts the first mode, decolonization strategies the latter. We quantified the effectiveness of decolonization of patients and health care workers, relative to patient isolation in settings where MRSA carriage is endemic (rather than sporadic outbreaks in non-endemic settings caused by health care workers). Patient decolonization is the most effective intervention and outperforms patient isolation, even with low decolonization efficacy and when decolonization is not achieved immediately. The potential role of persistently colonized health care workers in MRSA transmission depends on the proportion of persistently colonized health care workers and the likelihood per colonized health care worker to transmit. As stand-alone intervention, universal screening and decolonization of persistently colonized health care workers is generally the least effective intervention, especially in high endemicity settings. When added to patient isolation, such a strategy would have maximum benefits if few health care workers cause a large proportion of the acquisitions. In high-endemicity settings regular screening of health care workers followed by decolonization of MRSA-carriers is unlikely to reduce nosocomial spread of MRSA unless there are few persistently colonized health care workers who are responsible for a large fraction of the MRSA acquisitions by patients. In contrast, decolonization of patients can be very effective.

  12. The Effects of Load Distribution and Gradient on Load Carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    been reported in association with load carriage (Knapik & Reynolds, 1997). This injury causes trauma to the brachial plexus and has occurred in...Reynolds, 1997). Bessen et al., (1987) conducted an examination of 18 soldiers in basic training who suffered from brachial plexus injuries . Fifteen of...heads. Again, the importance of weight distribution on the human body is emphasized. Physical and occupational therapy are the first lines of

  13. Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional status, lifestyle and knowledge of predisposing factors on ... influenced their lifestyle, dietary habit and subsequently their nutritional/health status. Keywords: Hyperlipidemia, nutritional status, diet, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases ...

  14. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc), nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM). Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT) bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1- children and 14%, 5% and 18% in 146 non-Aboriginal children. OM was diagnosed at least once in 71% of Aboriginal children and 43% of non-Aboriginal children. After controlling for age, sex, presence of other bacteria and environmental factors, early nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi increased the risk of subsequent OM (odds ratio = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.23) in Aboriginal children, while Mcat increased the risk of OM in non-Aboriginal children (odds ratio = 2.63, 95% CI 1.32-5.23). Early carriage of Pnc was not associated with increased risk of OM. Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia. PMID:23256870

  15. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Equine Nasopharyngeal and Guttural Pouch Wash Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A G; Rankin, S C; Duffee, L A; Morris, D

    2017-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as a cause of nosocomial infections in both human and veterinary medicine. Studies that examine the nasopharynx and guttural pouches of the horse as carriage sites for MRSA have not been reported. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of horses. To determine the prevalence of MRSA in equine nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) and guttural pouch lavage (GPL) samples in a field population of horses. One hundred seventy-eight samples (123 NPW and 55 GPL) from 108 horses. Prospective study. Samples were collected from a convenience population of clinically ill horses with suspected Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) infection, horses convalescing from a known S. equi infection, and asymptomatic horses undergoing S. equi screening. Samples were submitted for S. aureus aerobic bacterial culture with mannitol salt broth and two selective agars (cefoxitin CHROMagar as the PBP2a inducer and mannitol salt agar with oxacillin). Biochemical identification of Staphylococcus species and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to determine clonal relationships between isolates, were performed. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) was isolated from the nasopharynx of 7/108 (4%) horses. Three horses had MRSA (2.7%), and 4 had MR-Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). MRSA was isolated from horses on the same farm. PFGE revealed the 3 MRSA as USA 500 strains. Sampling the nasopharynx and guttural pouch of community-based horses revealed a similarly low prevalence rate of MRSA as other studies sampling the nares of community-based horses. More study is required to determine the need for sampling multiple anatomic sites when screening horses for MRSA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors and the common sense model of illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Kasch, Helge; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Various predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors are found to be associated with development of persistent symptoms and disability after whiplash trauma. According to the commonsense model of illness, people use commonsense knowledge to develop individual illness models when...... facing health threat. Question: Can we use the common-sense model as a unifying model to encompass the impact of predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in the development of chronic whiplash? Looking into specific factors and their interaction: Do illness perceptions mediate the effect...... of precollision sick leave on chronic whiplash? Methods: This presentation will integrate findings from research on predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating factors that are associated with poor outcome after whiplash trauma and propose the common-sense model as a unifying model. Data from a study including 740...

  17. Major clonal lineages in impetigo Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated in Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžičková, Vladislava; Pantůček, Roman; Petráš, Petr; Machová, Ivana; Kostýlková, Karla; Doškař, Jiří

    2012-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven exfoliative toxin-producing (ET-positive) strains of Staphylococcus aureus collected in 23 Czech and one Slovak maternity hospitals from 1998 to 2011 were genotypically characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling, spa gene polymorphism analysis, and ETA-converting prophage carriage, which resulted in the identification of 21 genotypes grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC). Ninety-one isolates carried the eta gene alone whilst 12 isolates harboured only the etb gene. Two new, to date not defined, spa types (t6644 and t6645) and 2 novel sequence types (ST2194 and ST2195) were identified in the set of strains under study. The predominant CC121 occurred in 13 Czech hospitals. CC15, CC9, and ST88 (CC88) exclusively included eta gene-positive strains while the strains belonging to ST121 harboured the eta and/or etb genes. This study highlights not only significant genomic diversity among impetigo strains and the distribution of major genotypes disseminated in the Czech and Slovak maternity hospitals, but also reveals their impact in epidermolytic infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic carriage for radiographing weldings from the inside of pipelines by means of x-rays and relevant devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, A.; Capitelli, G.

    1975-01-01

    A tandem radiography vehicle for use in pipelines includes a carriage assembly, having an internal combustion engine and a dynamo-alternator motor for driving the vehicle, and powering an x-ray tube. Electronic circuitry for controlling the operation and power to the x-ray tube are included. A compass control system on the carriage is activated by a magnet externally positioned on the pipeline for positioning the vehicle at a weld inspection area. Means for segregating exhaust from the engine are also disclosed. (U.S.)

  19. Guidance for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document, part of a series of guides for those concerned with the road or rail transportation of dangerous goods, provides detailed recommendations for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive materials by rail. It covers the relevant legislation and regulations on the carriage of such dangerous goods to assist those involved with compliance. (UK)

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA); Staph - MRSA; Staphylococcal - MRSA ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html . Updated ...

  1. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Ama Amissah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment.We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested.Nineteen (63% of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26% S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37% patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16% patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26% patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17% of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA.The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  2. Genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in Buruli ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah, Nana Ama; Glasner, Corinna; Ablordey, Anthony; Tetteh, Caitlin S; Kotey, Nana Konama; Prah, Isaac; van der Werf, Tjip S; Rossen, John W; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2015-02-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Previous studies have shown that wounds of BU patients are colonized with M. ulcerans and several other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, which may interfere with wound healing. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the diversity and topography of S. aureus colonizing BU patients during treatment. We investigated the presence, diversity, and spatio-temporal distribution of S. aureus in 30 confirmed BU patients from Ghana during treatment. S. aureus was isolated from nose and wound swabs, and by replica plating of wound dressings collected bi-weekly from patients. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting (MLVF) and spa-typing, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested. Nineteen (63%) of the 30 BU patients tested positive for S. aureus at least once during the sampling period, yielding 407 S. aureus isolates. Detailed analysis of 91 isolates grouped these isolates into 13 MLVF clusters and 13 spa-types. Five (26%) S. aureus-positive BU patients carried the same S. aureus genotype in their anterior nares and wounds. S. aureus isolates from the wounds of seven (37%) patients were distributed over two different MLVF clusters. Wounds of three (16%) patients were colonized with isolates belonging to two different genotypes at the same time, and five (26%) patients were colonized with different S. aureus types over time. Five (17%) of the 30 included BU patients tested positive for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The present study showed that the wounds of many BU patients were contaminated with S. aureus, and that many BU patients from the different communities carried the same S. aureus genotype during treatment. This calls for improved wound care and hygiene.

  3. Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant staphylococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Nuno A; Conceição, Teresa; Miragaia, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are believed to function as reservoirs, as well as possible sources of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) to Staphylococcus aureus, but the frequency, preferred partners, and factors promoting SCCmec transfer are not known. Such postulated...

  4. A Case of Childhood Lichen Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2009-01-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.

  5. Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 Years after Start of Vaccination Program, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, J.; van Gils, E.J.M.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Hak, E.; Yzerman, E.P.F.; van den Ende, A.; Wijmenga-Monsuur, A.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, G.P.J.M.; Sanders, E.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) program, we conducted a cross-sectional observational study on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae 3 years after implementation of the program in the Netherlands. We compared pneumococcal serotypes in

  6. 19 CFR 12.100 - Importations in good faith; common or contract carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importations in good faith; common or contract... Importations in good faith; common or contract carriage. (a) Exportation in lieu of seizure. Upon a claim that the importer acted in good faith without knowledge of applicable laws and regulations, Customs...

  7. Developing a Pre-disposal radioactive waste management framework for malawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasi, Ephron

    2016-04-01

    In Malawi, uranium mining and other potential radioactive waste generating activities are on the increase. An elaborate national policy document and strategy on radioactive waste management is however not available. A national policy is important because it provides overall direction and the basis for decision making with respect to the management of radioactive waste in a country. Thus the absence of the national policy creates a gap in the country’s regulatory framework for ensuring safety and protection of people and the environment from sources of ionizing radiation. The present study was undertaken to minimize the impact of this regulatory framework gap by proposing a predisposal radioactive waste management framework for Malawi. This was achieved by analyzing the current and anticipated applications of radioactive materials and activities. The international and national regulatory requirements related to predisposal radioactive waste management were also reviewed and analyzed. The study found out that a predisposal radioactive waste management frame work comprised of onsite management of wastes from hospitals and uranium mining and export of high activity disused sources to supplier or management facilities in nearby countries would be the best for Malawi for now and the next ten years. (au)

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths and their predisposing factors in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to management system and associated predisposing factors. Epidemiol- ... Factors for the occurrence of GIT helminths were investigated using logistic regression models; where ... try egg and meat demand in the country; whereas, modern production and management ..... The same trend in prevalence was observed in ...

  9. COMPARISON OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN HEALTHY COMMUNITY HOSPITAL VISITORS[CA-MRSA] AND HOSPITAL STAFF [HA-MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal A Pathare

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] in unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method on the isolates. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%, whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%. Nasal colonization prevalence with HA-MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%, whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54.  Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates.  There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P>0.05, Chi-square test. Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5% as compared to 13.8% [HA-MRSA] in the hospital health-care staff. In spite of a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation the universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.

  10. [EHEC carriage in ruminants and probiotic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Evelyne; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bertin, Yolande; Martin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are Shiga-Toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that cause human outbreaks which can lead to a severe illness such as haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), particularly in young children. The gastrointestinal tract of cattle and other ruminants is the principal reservoir of EHEC strains and outbreaks have been associated with direct contact with the farm environment, and with the consumption of meat, dairy products, water and fruit or vegetable contaminated with ruminant manure. Several outbreaks occurred these last years in France. In Brazil, although STEC carriage in ruminants is important, human cases due to EHEC are fairly rare. In order to reduce EHEC survival in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract and thus limit contamination of food products, it is necessary to determine the mechanisms underlying EHEC persistence in this ecosystem with the aim of developing nutritional or ecological strategies. The effect of probiotics has been tested in vitro on the growth and survival of EHEC strains and in vivo on the animal carriage of these strains. Various studies have then shown that lactic bacteria or non-pathogenic E. coli strains were able to limit EHEC fecal shedding. In addition, understanding EHEC physiology in the ruminant gut is also critical for limiting EHEC shedding. We found that EHEC O157:H7 is able to use ethanolamine and mucus-derived sugars as nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively. Thus, these substrates represent an ecological niche for EHEC and their utilization confers a competitive growth advantage to these pathogens as they use them more rapidly than the bacteria belonging to the resident intestinal microbiota. Understanding EHEC metabolism and ecology in the bovine intestinal tract will allow proposing probiotic strains to compete with EHEC for nutrients and thus decrease the sanitary risk. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Bhatt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureushas emerged as one of the most important nosocomial pathogens. It invokes a tremendous financial burden and enhanced morbidity and mortality due to difficult to treat systemic infections.Aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were collected and processed for routine culture and antibiotic sensitivity test by standard microbiology techniques. Results: Out of 1173 samples received for microbiological examination, 100 were found to be S. aureus with 19% cases were Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Fourteen MRSA were found from inpatient and 5 were from outpatient. MRSA was found higher in female than male and maximum number (31.5% was found in age group 0-10 years. Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to Vancomycin followed by Amikacin (90%, Gentamycin (83%, and tetracycline (81%. On urine isolates Nitrofurantoin(91.6% was drug of choice. All the isolates were resistant to Penicillin G. In case of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus showed 100% sensitive to Vancomycin followed by Amikacin (84.2%, Tetracycline (63.1%, Ciprofloxacin (42% and Gentamycin (36.8%. Among urine isolates Nitrofutantoin showed 87.5% sensitive followed by Norfloxacin (75%. Conclusion: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found 19% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. It was most common in females, hospitalized patients and young age group. Vancomycin seems to be drug of choice followed by Amikacin. It would be helpful to formulating and monitoring the antibiotic policy and ensure proper empiric treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10297 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 548-551   

  12. Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma. ... unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of ...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and hand eczema severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslund, P; Bangsgaard, N; Jarløv, J O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of bacterial infections in hand eczema (HE) remains to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with HE compared with controls, and to relate presence of S. aureus, subtypes and toxin production to severity of HE. METHODS......: Bacterial swabs were taken at three different visits from the hand and nose in 50 patients with HE and 50 controls. Staphylococcus aureus was subtyped by spa typing and assigned to clonal complexes (CCs), and isolates were tested for exotoxin-producing S. aureus strains. The Hand Eczema Severity Index...... and in the nose in all cases, and between visits in 90% of cases. Ten different CC types were identified, no association with severity was found, and toxin-producing strains were not found more frequently in patients with HE than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus was present on hands in almost half...

  14. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pork farms and visiting veterinary students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Frana

    Full Text Available In the last decade livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA has become a public health concern in many parts of the world. Sequence type 398 (ST398 has been the most commonly reported type of LA-MRSA. While many studies have focused on long-term exposure experienced by swine workers, this study focuses on short-term exposures experienced by veterinary students conducting diagnostic investigations. The objectives were to assess the rate of MRSA acquisition and longevity of carriage in students exposed to pork farms and characterize the recovered MRSA isolates. Student nasal swabs were collected immediately before and after farm visits. Pig nasal swabs and environmental sponge samples were also collected. MRSA isolates were identified biochemically and molecularly including spa typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Thirty (30 veterinary students were enrolled and 40 pork farms were visited. MRSA was detected in 30% of the pork farms and in 22% of the students following an exposure to a MRSA-positive pork farm. All students found to be MRSA-positive initially following farm visit were negative for MRSA within 24 hours post visit. Most common spa types recovered were t002 (79%, t034 (16% and t548 (4%. Spa types found in pork farms closely matched those recovered from students with few exceptions. Resistance levels to antimicrobials varied, but resistance was most commonly seen for spectinomycin, tetracyclines and neomycin. Non-ST398 MRSA isolates were more likely to be resistant to florfenicol and neomycin as well as more likely to be multidrug resistant compared to ST398 MRSA isolates. These findings indicate that MRSA can be recovered from persons visiting contaminated farms. However, the duration of carriage was very brief and most likely represents contamination of nasal passages rather than biological colonization. The most common spa types found in this study were associated with ST5 and expands the range of

  15. A cross-sectional study of the effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: implications for stress-fracture injuries in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun; Silder, Amy; Zhang, Ju; Reifman, Jaques; Unnikrishnan, Ginu

    2017-03-23

    Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running. We also compared the biomechanics of walking (studied previously) and running under various load-carriage conditions. We observed substantial changes in both hip kinematics and kinetics during running when subjects carried a load. Relative to those observed during running without load, the joint reaction forces at the hip increased by an average of 49.1% body weight when subjects carried a load that was 30% of their body weight (ankle, 4.8%; knee, 20.6%). These results indicate that the hip extensor muscles in women are the main power generators when running with load carriage. When comparing running with walking, finite element analysis revealed that the peak tibial stress during running (tension, 90.6 MPa; compression, 136.2 MPa) was more than three times as great as that during walking (tension, 24.1 MPa; compression, 40.3 MPa), whereas the cumulative stress within one stride did not differ substantially between running (15.2 MPa · s) and walking (13.6 MPa · s). Our findings highlight the critical role of hip extensor muscles and their potential injury in women when running with load carriage. More importantly, our results underscore the need to incorporate the cumulative effect of mechanical stress when evaluating injury risk under various exercise conditions. The results from our study help to elucidate the mechanisms of stress fracture in women.

  16. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power reactors and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of LLW. This Safety Guide deals with the safety issues associated with the predisposal management of LLW from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, large research and development installations and radioisotope production facilities. This includes all steps and activities in the management of waste, from its initial generation to its final acceptance at a waste disposal facility or the removal of regulatory control. The predisposal management of radioactive waste includes decommissioning. The term 'decommissioning' encompasses both the process of decommissioning a facility and the management of the waste that results (prior to its disposal). Recommendations on the process of decommissioning are provided in Refs. Recommendations on the management of the waste resulting from decommissioning are included in this Safety Guide. Although the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, the management of the operational waste (e.g. waste rock, tailings and effluent treatment waste) from these activities is not within the scope of this Safety Guide. The LLW that is

  17. Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia among children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... It was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between June and ...

  18. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients. Methods Data were used from clinical trials from East Africa. The first trial compared non-artemisinin combination therapy (non-ACT: sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus amodiaquine and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT: SP plus artesunate (AS or artemether-lumefantrine. The second trial compared ACT (SP+AS with ACT in combination with a single dose of primaquine (ACT-PQ: SP+AS+PQ. Mature gametocytes were quantified in peripheral blood samples by nucleic acid sequence based amplification. A simple deterministic compartmental model was fitted to gametocyte densities to estimate the circulation time per gametocyte; a similar model was fitted to gametocyte prevalences to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage after efficacious treatment. Results The mean circulation time of gametocytes was 4.6-6.5 days. After non-ACT treatment, patients were estimated to carry gametocytes for an average of 55 days (95% CI 28.7 - 107.7. ACT reduced the duration of gametocyte carriage fourfold to 13.4 days (95% CI 10.2-17.5. Addition of PQ to ACT resulted in a further fourfold reduction of the duration of gametocyte carriage. Conclusions These findings confirm previous estimates of the circulation time of gametocytes, but indicate a much longer duration of (low density gametocyte carriage after apparently successful clearance of asexual parasites. ACT shortened the period of gametocyte carriage considerably, and had the most pronounced effect on mature gametocytes when combined with PQ.

  19. General health, otitis media, nasopharyngeal carriage and middle ear microbiology in Northern Territory Aboriginal children vaccinated during consecutive periods of 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Amanda J; Wigger, Christine; Beissbarth, Jemima; Woltring, Donna; Andrews, Ross; Chatfield, Mark D; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Morris, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to monitor the prevalence of suppurative otitis media in remote Indigenous communities after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in October 2011. We previously reported a decline in suppurative OM following replacement of PCV7 by 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) in October 2009. We continued regular surveillance in remote Indigenous communities between February 2010 and August 2013. This analysis reports the general health, otitis media (OM), nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and middle ear microbiology in children less than 36 months of age who received a primary course of at least two doses of PHiD-CV10 or PCV13, and not more than one dose of another pneumococcal vaccine. Mean ages of 511 PHiD-CV10- and 140 PCV13-vaccinated children were 19 and 13 months, respectively. Most children received 3-dose non-mixed PCV schedules. At the time of assessment, general health was poor and prevalence of risk factors was high in both groups: overall, around 14% of children had scabies, 20% had impetigo, 59% had runny nose and 39% had cough. Average household size was 8 persons, and 60% of the mothers smoked. Bilaterally normal middle ears were detected in 10% and 7%, respectively. OM with effusion (OME), almost all bilateral, was diagnosed in 52% and 50%, any suppurative OM (acute OM or any tympanic membrane perforation [TMP]) in 37% and 41%, and TMP in 14% and 12%, respectively. Children in the PCV13 group had significantly less NP carriage of combined Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) (62% versus 51%) but significantly more polymicrobial (Spn and NTHi) middle ear cultures (12% versus 43%), and significantly less Staphylococcus aureus-positive middle ears (40% versus 7%). Although NP carriage of pneumococcal serotype 19A was low in the PCV13 group, serotypes 19F and 23F persist. The general health, particularly ear health, of little children

  20. Effects of community-wide vaccination with PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in the Gambia: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs of limited valency is justified in Africa by the high burden of pneumococcal disease. Long-term beneficial effects of PCVs may be countered by serotype replacement. We aimed to determine the impact of PCV-7 vaccination on pneumococcal carriage in rural Gambia.A cluster-randomized (by village trial of the impact of PCV-7 on pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage was conducted in 21 Gambian villages between December 2003 to June 2008 (5,441 inhabitants in 2006. Analysis was complemented with data obtained before vaccination. Because efficacy of PCV-9 in young Gambian children had been shown, it was considered unethical not to give PCV-7 to young children in all of the study villages. PCV-7 was given to children below 30 mo of age and to those born during the trial in all study villages. Villages were randomized (older children and adults to receive one dose of PCV-7 (11 vaccinated villages or meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine (10 control villages. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs to collect nasopharyngeal swabs were conducted before vaccination (2,094 samples in the baseline CSS, and 4-6, 12, and 22 mo after vaccination (1,168, 1,210, and 446 samples in CSS-1, -2, and -3, respectively. A time trend analysis showed a marked fall in the prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage in all age groups following vaccination (from 23.7% and 26.8% in the baseline CSS to 7.1% and 8.5% in CSS-1, in vaccinated and control villages, respectively. The prevalence of vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage was lower in vaccinated than in control villages among older children (5 y to <15 y of age and adults (≥15 y of age at CSS-2 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.15 [95% CI 0.04-0.57] and OR = 0.32 [95% CI 0.10-0.98], respectively and at CSS-3 (OR = 0.37 [95% CI 0.15-0.90] for older children, and 0% versus 7.6% for adults in vaccinated and control villages, respectively. Differences in the prevalence of

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from surfaces and personnel at a hospital laundry facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K E; No, D; Roberts, M C

    2016-09-01

    Examine a clinical laundry facility for the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on environmental surfaces and among personnel. Nasal and face samples along with surface samples were collected four times in 2015. MRSA isolates were confirmed using standardized biochemical assays and molecular characterization. MRSA was identified in 33/120 (28%) samples from the dirty and 3/120 (3%) samples from the clean environmental areas. MRSA isolates included: (dirty) ST5 SCCmec type II, ST8 SCCmec type IV, ST231 SCCmec type II, ST239 SCCmec type III, ST239 SCCmec type IV, ST256 SCCmec type IV and (clean) ST5 SCCmec type II and ST8 SCCmec type IV. Five different employees were MRSA positive, 4/8 (50%) from the dirty: and 1/15 (6·7%) from the clean, but there was a 10-fold higher MRSA carriage 6/22 (27%) dirty vs 1/38 (2·6%) clean when all 50 human samples were combined. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher (28 vs 3%) in dirty vs clean areas within the laundry facility suggesting a greater risk for personnel on the dirty side. This is the first report of isolation and characterization of MRSA from surfaces and personnel from a clinical laundry facility. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Association of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage, oral candidiasis and CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-positive patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Liu, H; Guo, Z; Luan, W

    2006-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage in healthy volunteers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in China, as well as to investigate the relationship between CD4+ lymphocyte count and oral candidal colonization or oral candidiasis. Oral candidal carriage and oral candidiasis were investigated in 101 patients with HIV-infection seen at Youan Hospital, Beijing, China. Two hundred and seventeen healthy volunteers were involved as a control. Culture from saliva was used to test for the presence of oral Candida. CD4+ lymphocyte count was measured by flow cytometry. All data were analyzed statistically by SAS. Asymptomatic oral candidal carriage rate (28.6%) in HIV-positive group was similar to that in the healthy group (18.0%; P = 0.07). No significant difference in CD4+ lymphocyte count was found between oral Candida carriers and non-carriers among HIV-positive subjects (P = 0.89). However, the frequency of oral candidiasis increased with the decrease in CD4+ lymphocyte count (P < 0.0001), and pseudomembranous candidiasis was predominant in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ <200 cells microl(-1) (66.7%). In HIV-positive subjects, asymptomatic oral candidal colonization is not related to CD4+ lymphocyte count of blood, and the carriage rate is similar to that in the healthy population. Oral candidiasis is more likely to be observed in HIV-positive patients who have a low CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  3. The empty carriage: lessons in leadership from Florence Nightingale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Marge

    2011-01-01

    Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today's nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

  4. Epidemiology of respiratory pathogen carriage in the homeless population within two shelters in Marseille, France, 2015-2017: cross sectional 1-day surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, T D A; Edouard, S; Badiaga, S; Tissot-Dupont, H; Hoang, V T; Pommier de Santi, V; Brouqui, P; Raoult, D; Gautret, P

    2018-05-17

    To assess risk factors for respiratory tract infection symptoms and signs in sheltered homeless people in Marseille during the winter season, including pathogen carriage. Data on 479 male participants within two shelters who completed questionnaires and a total of 950 nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected during the winters of 2015-2017. Respiratory pathogen carriage including seven viruses and four bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR. The homeless population was characterized by a majority of individuals of North African origin (300/479, 62.6%) with a relatively high prevalence of chronic homelessness (175/465, 37.6%). We found a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and signs (168/476, 35.3%), a very high prevalence of bacterial carriage (313/477, 65.6%), especially Haemophilus influenzae (280/477, 58.7%), and a lower prevalence of virus carriage (51/473, 10.8%) with human rhinovirus being the most frequent (25/473, 5.3%). Differences were observed between the microbial communities of the nose and throat. Duration of homelessness (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, p 0.017), chronic respiratory diseases (OR 5.27, p respiratory symptoms and signs. A strong association between virus (OR 2.40, p 0.012) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (OR 2.32, p 0.014) carriage and respiratory symptoms and signs was also found. These findings allowed identification of the individuals at higher risk for contracting respiratory tract infections to better target preventive measures aimed at limiting the transmission of these diseases in this setting. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus often pose therapeutic dilemma to the clinicians because of the multi resistant nature of these strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of both nosocomial and community acquired infections are also frequent and difficult to control.

  6. Technical Note: Assessing predictive capacity and conditional independence of landslide predisposing factors for shallow landslide susceptibility models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the landslide predisposing factors' combination using a bivariate statistical model that best predicts landslide susceptibility. The best model is one that has simultaneously good performance in terms of suitability and predictive power and has been developed using variables that are conditionally independent. The study area is the Santa Marta de Penaguião council (70 km2 located in the Northern Portugal.

    In order to identify the best combination of landslide predisposing factors, all possible combinations using up to seven predisposing factors were performed, which resulted in 120 predictions that were assessed with a landside inventory containing 767 shallow translational slides. The best landslide susceptibility model was selected according to the model degree of fitness and on the basis of a conditional independence criterion. The best model was developed with only three landslide predisposing factors (slope angle, inverse wetness index, and land use and was compared with a model developed using all seven landslide predisposing factors.

    Results showed that it is possible to produce a reliable landslide susceptibility model using fewer landslide predisposing factors, which contributes towards higher conditional independence.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Quality Control Strain Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treangen, Todd J; Maybank, Rosslyn A; Enke, Sana; Friss, Mary Beth; Diviak, Lynn F; Karaolis, David K R; Koren, Sergey; Ondov, Brian; Phillippy, Adam M; Bergman, Nicholas H; Rosovitz, M J

    2014-11-06

    Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 25923 is commonly used as a control strain for susceptibility testing to antibiotics and as a quality control strain for commercial products. We present the completed genome sequence for the strain, consisting of the chromosome and a 27.5-kb plasmid. Copyright © 2014 Treangen et al.

  8. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    S. aureus is associated with many clinical syndromes including tenosynovitis, omphalitis, femoral head necrosis, .... Markey, 2008) where occurrence of multidrug ... Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in. Denmark. Veterinary.

  9. High Levels of Genetic Recombination during Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Laura R.; Reddinger, Ryan M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transformation of genetic material between bacteria was first observed in the 1920s using Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model organism. Since then, the mechanism of competence induction and transformation has been well characterized, mainly using planktonic bacteria or septic infection models. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic exchange occurs primarily during pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, which we have recently shown is associated with biofilm growth, and is associated with cocolonization with multiple strains. However, no studies to date have comprehensively investigated genetic exchange during cocolonization in vitro and in vivo or the role of the nasopharyngeal environment in these processes. In this study, we show that genetic exchange during dual-strain carriage in vivo is extremely efficient (10−2) and approximately 10,000,000-fold higher than that measured during septic infection (10−9). This high transformation efficiency was associated with environmental conditions exclusive to the nasopharynx, including the lower temperature of the nasopharynx (32 to 34°C), limited nutrient availability, and interactions with epithelial cells, which were modeled in a novel biofilm model in vitro that showed similarly high transformation efficiencies. The nasopharyngeal environmental factors, combined, were critical for biofilm formation and induced constitutive upregulation of competence genes and downregulation of capsule that promoted transformation. In addition, we show that dual-strain carriage in vivo and biofilms formed in vitro can be transformed during colonization to increase their pneumococcal fitness and also, importantly, that bacteria with lower colonization ability can be protected by strains with higher colonization efficiency, a process unrelated to genetic exchange. PMID:23015736

  10. Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob; Penadés, José R; Ingmer, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic...... of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus cells...... are effective in exchanging mobile genetic elements, including antibiotic-resistance genes.During colonization or infection of host organisms, the exchange appears to be particularly effective.Bacteriophage-mediated transfer involves both transduction and autotransduction, which may enable lysogenic S. aureus...

  11. [Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy carrier individuals in primary care in Barcelona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carles; Boada, Albert; Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Grenzner, Elisabet; Juvé, Rosa; Almeda, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The information available on antibiotic resistance patterns are generally based on specimens from hospitalised individuals. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibiotic resistance rate of nasal carriage strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in healthy individuals, in accordance with age and gender, attended in Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cross-sectional study. Seven PCC in the Barcelona area. Healthy nasal carriers aged 4years or more who did not present with any sign of infectious disease, and had not taken any antibiotic or had been hospitalised in the previous 3months. A total of 3,969 nasal swabs valid for identification were collected between 2010 and 2011 and were sent to one central microbiological laboratory for isolation of both pathogens. Resistance to common antibiotics was determined on the basis of the current European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines on cut-off points. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S.aureus was 1.3% (95%CI: 0.5-2.1%), with resistance rates of 87.1% to phenoxymethylpenicillin and 11.6% to azithromycin, with no significant differences with age and gender. A total of 2.4% (95CI%: 0.1-4.7%) of the pneumococcal strains were highly resistant to both phenoxymethylpenicillin and macrolides, whereas the highest resistance rates were to cefaclor (53.3%), followed by tetracycline (20%) and cefuroxime (12.1%). These pathogens have lower resistance rates in the community than in the hospital setting. Primary Care physicians must be more aware of the current antimicrobial resistance, in order to ensure prudent use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with carriage of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceaein North-Eastern France and outcomes of infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeo, Anaëlle; Guillard, Thomas; Barbe, Coralie; Thierry, Aurore; Bajolet, Odile; Vernet-Garnier, Véronique; Limelette, Anne; Brasme, Lucien; De Champs, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenems are frequently used as a last resort to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms, thus carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CNSE) is an emerging health threat. To assess risk factors and outcomes of CNSE carriage. We conducted a matched case-control study in six hospitals in North-Eastern France. The controls were patients harbouring carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Fifty-five cases and 110 controls were included. Most of the CNSE isolates were Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae . Carbapenemase production was observed in 40% of isolates and they produced OXA-48 only. CNSE carriage was significantly associated with recent antibiotic use ( P =  0.014), particularly carbapenems ( P =  0.03) and fluoroquinolones ( P =  0.016). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistic regression showed that the presence of concomitant infection(s) (OR: 9.83; 95% CI 3.04-21.39, P =  0.0031), nosocomial infections (OR: 7.84; 95% CI 2.00-12.54, P  =   0.0063) and a high age (OR: 1.07; 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P =  0.038) were independently associated with CNSE carriage. Moreover, patients infected with CNSE had worse outcomes: fewer resolved infections at 1 month ( P =  0.02), and they had a higher mortality rate ( P =  0.0004) and longer hospital stays ( P =  0.02). We identified three independent risk factors for CNSE carriage as well as worse outcomes in infected patients in North-Eastern France. This highlights the importance of early detection of CNSE and the need for antimicrobial therapy re-evaluation after bacteriological analysis has been performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Panesso , Diana; Planet , Paul J.; Diaz , Lorena; Hugonnet , Jean-Emannuel; Tran , Truc T.; Narechania , Apurva; Munita , José M.; Rincon , Sandra; Carvajal , Lina P.; Reyes , Jinnethe; Londono , Alejandra; Smith , Hannah; Sebra , Robert; Deikus , Gintaras; Weinstock , George M

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  14. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Harris, Simon R.; Cornick, Jennifer E.; Yang, Marie; Bricio-Moreno, Laura; Kamng’ona, Arox W.; French, Neil; Heyderman, Robert S.; Kadioglu, Aras; Everett, Dean B.; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions. PMID:27677790

  15. Recombination in Streptococcus pneumoniae Lineages Increase with Carriage Duration and Size of the Polysaccharide Capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispin Chaguza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency. Using univariate analyses, we found an association between both recombination measures and multiple factors associated with the capsule, including duration and prevalence of carriage. Because many capsular factors are correlated, we used multivariate analysis to correct for collinearity. Capsule size and carriage duration remained positively associated with recombination, although with a reduced P value, and this effect may be mediated through some unassayed additional property associated with larger capsules. This work describes an important impact of serotype on recombination that has been previously overlooked. While the details of how this effect is achieved remain to be determined, it may have important consequences for the serotype-specific response to vaccines and other interventions.

  16. What aspects of autism predispose to talent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, Francesca; Vital, Pedro

    2009-05-27

    In this paper, we explore the question, why are striking special skills so much more common in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) than in other groups? Current cognitive accounts of ASC are briefly reviewed in relation to special skills. Difficulties in 'theory of mind' may contribute to originality in ASC, since individuals who do not automatically 'read other minds' may be better able to think outside prevailing fashions and popular theories. However, originality alone does not confer talent. Executive dysfunction has been suggested as the 'releasing' mechanism for special skills in ASC, but other groups with executive difficulties do not show raised incidence of talents. Detail-focused processing bias ('weak coherence', 'enhanced perceptual functioning') appears to be the most promising predisposing characteristic, or 'starting engine', for talent development. In support of this notion, we summarize data from a population-based twin study in which parents reported on their 8-year-olds' talents and their ASC-like traits. Across the whole sample, ASC-like traits, and specifically 'restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests' related to detail focus, were more pronounced in children reported to have talents outstripping older children. We suggest that detail-focused cognitive style predisposes to talent in savant domains in, and beyond, autism spectrum disorders.

  17. Infective Endocarditis in Children in Italy from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Mayer, Alessandra; Krzysztofiak, Andrzej; Garazzino, Silvia; Lipreri, Rita; Galli, Luisa; Osimani, Patrizia; Fossali, Emilio; Di Gangi, Maria; Lancella, Laura; Denina, Marco; Pattarino, Giulia; Montagnani, Carlotta; Salvini, Filippo; Villani, Alberto; Principi, Nicola; Italian Pediatric Infective Endocarditis Registry

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases created a registry on children with infective endocarditis (IE) hospitalized in Italy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on patients hospitalized due to IE in Italian paediatric wards between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2015. Over the 15-year study period, 47 IE episodes were observed (19 males; age range, 2-17 years). Viridans Streptococci were the most common pathogens among patients with predisposing cardiac conditions and Staphylococcus aureus among those without (37.9% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.018, and 6.9% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.089, respectively). Six of the 7 (85.7%) S. aureus strains were methicillin-resistant. The majority of patients with and without predisposing cardiac conditions recovered without any complications. In Italy, paediatric IE develops without any previous predisposing factors in a number of children, methicillin-resistant S. aureus has emerged as a common causative agent and the therapeutic approach is extremely variable.

  18. Tailor-made diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer for familial predisposed women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg-Schwager, M.

    2003-01-01

    Familial predisposed women heterozygous for an inherited mutation in a tumor suppressor gene (such as BRCA1+/- or BRCA2+/-) are at a higher risk for loss of tumor suppressor gene function than normal women and may develop breast cancer (BRCA-/-). For early detection of breast cancer these women are advised to start mammography screening at an early age and at annual intervals. Mammography X-rays were shown to enhance neoplastic transformation and mutation in human cell lines. Based on the mutation data it is estimated that a single mammogram confers loss of BRCA function (BRCA-/-) in at least several thousand breast epithelial target cells of a predisposed woman. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes belong to a group of genes required for the error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. This pathway is impaired in BRCA1-/- or BRCA2-/- cells and DSBs are channeled into potentially error-prone pathways such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA). BRCA-deficient cells show a mutator phenotype characterized by an increasing genetic instability. This seems to be the mechanistic explanation for the enhanced risk of breast cancer in predisposed women. Consequently, for the recommended early and frequent screening of predisposed women the induction of DSBs by mammography X-rays should be avoided. Instead, a diagnostic tool not associated with radiation, such as NM imaging, is preferable, which also provides a significantly higher accuracy than conventional imaging to detect breast cancer in high-risk women. BRCA-deficient cells are extremely sensitive to DNA-DNA crosslinking agents. Experimental evidence suggests that repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks occurs in the S-phase of the cell cycle and DSBs are formed as repair intermediates. These can be repaired by homologous recombination between sister chromatids in normal but not in BRCA-deficient cells. Consequently, DNA crosslinking agents appear to be the tailor

  19. Prevalence of Candida albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Moraga, Carla Paola; Rodríguez Martínez, Gonzalo Andrés; Lefimil Puente, Claudia Andrea; Morales Bozo, Irene Cecilia; Urzúa Orellana, Blanca Regina

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish associations among the Candida carriage rate, the diversity of Candida species carried and the different caries status of preschool children. Sixty-one children between 2 and 5 years of age were examined by a single expert examiner and were divided into three groups, the caries-free, moderate caries and severe caries groups, according to the criteria of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System II (ICDAS). Saliva samples were obtained from the members of each group and were plated on Sabouraud agar plates to assess the Candida carriage rates. CHROMagar Candida medium was used for the preliminary screening. Biochemical testing or PCR/sequencing was conducted to identify the different Candida species in the samples. The differences observed were considered significant if the p value was Candida carriage rate and the number of species of this fungus carried were higher in the group with the highest level of caries severity (p Candida albicans was the most predominant Candida species in the saliva of all of the children, C. dubliniensis was identified only in the most caries-affected group in addition to other rare species of Candida non-albicans. A high salivary Candida carriage rate and the presence of specific species of this fungus (such as C. albicans and C. dubliniensis) appear to be related to the severity of caries experienced by preschool children.

  20. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  1. Meningococcal Carriage among College Freshmen in Kashmir, North India- A Single Centre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis K Bali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on the community carriage of meningococci in developing countries are sparse. Knowledge about the same would help identify demographic and socio-behavioural risk factors, the need for infection control strategies and the composition of the relevant serogroup for locally effective meningococcal vaccine. Aim: To assess the meningococcal carriage and the major serotypes among fresh college hostellers. Materials and Methods: Charcoal-impregnated nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 274 consenting fresh college recruits (first year students residing in the college hostel and plated on to Thayer-Martin medium. Oxidase-positive diplococci were taken as presumptive Neisseria species. DNA was extracted from the isolates and Sanger sequencing was performed on the amplified PCR product. Blast analysis of all sequenced samples was performed against the retrieved Neisseria meningitidis sequences from whole NCBI-nr/nt database and within the dataset. Phylogentic analysis was done by Mega-6 professional package comparing published sequences of serogroups against the detected Neisseria meningitidis. Results: Ten (3.6% samples grew oxidase-positive diplococci suggestive of Neisseria. On molecular testing and sequence analysis, 4 samples were found to be N.meningitidis, one (Neisseria spp had close similarity to N.meningitidis and the others included N.perflava (n= 3, N.pharyngis (n=1 and N. flavescens (n=1. N.meningitidis isolates on blast and phylogenetic analysis bore molecular homology to serogroup B. Conclusion: Nasal carriage of N. meningitis (serogroup B was found in about 1.5% (n=4 of the fresh college recruits in the present study. Close proximity amongst the hostellers is likely to result in transmission and such preventive strategies for infection control are desirable. Further, studies of similar kind are mandated to determine the appropriate serogroups required for inclusion in the vaccine.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted. PMID:23616460

  3. Molecular characterization of endocarditis-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C; Nimmo, Graeme R; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Walker, Mark J; Schembri, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Ninety-seven S. aureus isolates were collected from patients diagnosed with (i) IE, (ii) bloodstream infection related to medical devices, (iii) bloodstream infection not related to medical devices, and (iv) skin or soft-tissue infections. The MLST clonal complex (CC) for each isolate was determined and compared to the CCs of members of the S. aureus population by eBURST analysis. The spa type of all isolates was also determined. A null model was used to determine correlations of IE with CC and spa type. DNA microarray analysis was performed, and a permutational analysis of multivariate variance (PERMANOVA) and principal coordinates analysis were conducted to identify genotypic differences between IE and non-IE strains. CC12, CC20, and spa type t160 were significantly associated with IE S. aureus. A subset of virulence-associated genes and alleles, including genes encoding staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins, fibrinogen-binding protein, and a leukocidin subunit, also significantly correlated with IE isolates. MLST, spa typing, and microarray analysis are promising tools for monitoring S. aureus epidemiology associated with IE. Further research to determine a role for the S. aureus IE-associated virulence genes identified in this study is warranted.

  4. SOME ASPECTS OF NASAL CARRIAGE OF STAPHYLOCOCCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOBLE, W C; WILLIAMS, R E; JEVONS, M P; SHOOTER, R A

    1964-01-01

    The nasal carrier status of 3,736 patients was determined throughout their stay in hospital. The carrier rate on admission, which was highest in patients under 20 years of age, did not appear to vary with season.The carriage of strains resistant to penicillin increased with the patients' stay in hospital from 13.% on admission to 20.5% on discharge, and the acquisition of these strains was enhanced by the administration of antibiotics. Patients discharged from hospital carrying strains of staphylococci acquired in hospital lost them more readily than patients discharged carrying the strain which they had carried on admission, 31% of those discharged carrying strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline being readmitted carrying these strains compared with 69% of those discharged carrying strains sensitive to these antibiotics.

  5. Bowel Angioedema Associated With Iodinated Contrast Media: Incidence and Predisposing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2017-09-01

    Bowel angioedema is an acute adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media (CM) that involves the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors of iodinated CM-associated bowel angioedema during computed tomography (CT) examinations. This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was waived due to its retrospective design. From July 2013 to July 2015, adult patients with a history of adverse reactions to iodinated CM during CT (group A, n = 427) and patients without adverse reactions matched for age and sex with the propensity-score matching method (group B, n = 427) were studied. Contrast media-associated bowel angioedema was determined when bowel wall thickness increased after contrast enhancement compared with the precontrast scan. Potential predisposing factors including patient demographics, symptoms and time of adverse reactions, and CM-related factors were compared between patients with and without angioedema in group A. In addition, the incidence of bowel angioedema was compared between groups A and B. The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group A was 3.3% (14/427) in the per-patient analysis and 2.6% (15/578) in the per-examination analysis. The CM-associated bowel angioedema involved the distal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum and showed long-segmental circumferential bowel wall thickening on CT. None of the studied predisposing factors was different between patients with and without bowel angioedema (P > 0.05). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group B was 1.9% (8/427) and 1.7% (8/458) for per-patient and per-examination analyses, respectively, and these rates were not significantly different between groups A and B (P = 0.346 and P = 0.370, respectively). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema during CT was 1.7% to 3.3%, and none of the studied predisposing factors was associated with bowel angioedema.

  6. 47 CFR 76.1504 - Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1504 Rates, terms and conditions for carriage on open video systems. (a) Reasonable rate principle. An... operator will bear the burden of proof to demonstrate, using the principles set forth below, that the...; (2) Packaging, including marketing and other fees; (3) Talent fees; and (4) A reasonable overhead...

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage among healthy and sick pediatric patients before the generalized implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in Morocco from 2010 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jroundi, Imane; Mahraoui, Chafik; Benmessaoud, Rachid; Moraleda, Cinta; Munoz Almagro, Carmen; Seffar, Meryem; Tligui, Houssain; Kettani, Selma C; Benjelloun, Badr S; Alonso, Pedro L; Bassat, Quique

    Nasopharyngeal carriage studies provide insights into the local prevalence of circulating pneumococcal serotypes. These data are critical to vaccination monitoring, as they allow for the prediction and assessment of impact. Very little data are available on the carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in Morocco. Here, we describe the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage and serotype distribution among 697 pediatric patients with ages ranging from 2 to 59 months who were admitted to a Moroccan hospital with severe pneumonia, as well as 195 healthy infants and young children who were recruited at a vaccination clinic. Carriage rates were 40.5% (79/195) for healthy children and 22.8% (159/697) for sick children. The most commonly observed circulating serotypes included 6A, 6B and 19F, all of which are included in the current 13-valent anti-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that was recently introduced in Morocco. Monitoring of circulating serotypes remains necessary after vaccine introduction to assess whether serotype replacement is occurring. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A longitudinal study of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a cohort of infants and their mothers on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Turner

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal disease is a major cause of childhood death. Almost a third of the world's children live in Southeast Asia, but there are few data from the region on pneumococcal colonization or disease. Our aim was to document the dynamics of pneumococcal carriage in a rural SE Asian birth cohort.We studied 234 Karen mother-infant pairs in Northwestern Thailand. Infants were followed from birth and nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from mother and infant at monthly intervals until 24 months old.8,386 swabs were cultured and 4,396 pneumococci characterized. Infants became colonized early (median 45.5 days; 95% confidence interval [CI] 44.5-46.0 and by 24 months had a median of seven (range 0-15 carriage episodes. Maternal smoking and young children in the house were associated with earlier colonization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.1 and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9. For the four commonest serotypes and non-typeable pneumococci, previous exposure to homologous or heterologous serotypes resulted in an extended interval to reacquisition of the same serotype. Previous colonization by serotypes 14 and 19F was also associated with reduced carriage duration if subsequently reacquired (HR [first reacquisition] 4.1 (95% CI 1.4-12.6 and 2.6 (1.5-4.7. Mothers acquired pneumococci less frequently, and carried them for shorter periods, than infants (acquisition rate 0.5 vs. 1.1 /100 person-days, p<0.001; median duration 31.0 vs. 60.5 days, p = 0.001. 55.8% of pneumococci from infants were vaccine serotypes (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PCV13, compared with 27.5% from mothers (p<0.001. Non-typeable pneumococcal carriage was common, being carried at least once by 55.1% of infants and 32.0% of mothers.Pneumococcal carriage frequency and duration are influenced by previous exposure to both homologous and heterologous serotypes. These data will inform vaccination strategies in this population.

  9. Open access vs. common carriage in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunekreeft, Gert

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the question of whether the upstream infrastructure monopolist in electricity transmission should be allowed to participate on the downstream generation market. The central assumption is that the downstream market is characterized by a U-shaped AC curve. Under this assumption, it will be shown that the unregulated upstream monopolist has an incentive for partial forward integration. He or she will, however, not have an incentive to foreclose fully the downstream market. Furthermore, it will be shown that allowing the upstream monopolist to be active on the downstream market is superior to forbidding this. In other words, under the assumptions of the model, open access will be superior to common carriage. (Author)

  10. Predisposing Effect of Elbow Alignment on the Elbow Fracture Type in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that the elbow alignment, namely the carrying angle, could predispose individuals to a specific type of pediatric elbow fracture after a fall onto an outstretched arm, we investigated the relationship between radiographic carrying angle and elbow fracture type in children. Retrospective case-control study. Level I pediatric trauma center. We reviewed 374 children who were diagnosed with supracondylar fracture (SCF, n = 208), lateral condylar fracture (LCF, n = 132), and radial neck fracture (RNF, n = 34). The association between the radiographic carrying angle and the fracture type was investigated. To adjust for bias, 2 statistical methods were used: multivariate analysis using a baseline-category logistic model and a case-matching method using propensity score analysis. In the multivariate analysis, with SCF patients set as the baseline category, a more valgus-deviated elbow (increased carrying angle, P = 0.011) predisposed individuals to RNF, whereas a more varus-deviated elbow (decreased carrying angle, P predisposed them to LCF. In the case-matched analysis, there were also significant differences in carrying angles between RNF and case-matched SCF patients (14.3 vs. 11.4 degrees, P = 0.013) and between LCF and case-matched SCF patients (7.7 vs. 11.7 degrees, P fall onto an outstretched elbow, could be a predisposing factor for specific types of pediatric elbow fracture. The results provide the additional information about the injury mechanisms of pediatric elbow fracture and may deepen our understanding of the fractures. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Effect of load carriage and natural terrain conditions on cognitive performance in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pal, Madhusudan; Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-10-01

    Correct decision making is a critical component of cognitive performance of a soldier, which may be influenced by the load carriage and terrain conditions during their deployment in desert environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of loads and terrain conditions on the cognitive performance in a group of twelve healthy heat acclimatized infantry soldiers under natural desert environment. The soldiers participated in a 10min walking trial during carrying no load and also carrying 10.7, 21.4 and 30kg at two terrain conditions viz., sandy and hard. We studied attention, memory and executive function, which are having immense functional importance in military operations. Standardized cognitive test battery was applied to the participants after carrying each magnitude of load at each terrain. Baseline cognitive performance was recorded on a separate day and was compared with the performances recorded after the load carriage trials. An attempt was made to reveal the relationship between physiological workload (relative workload) and cognitive performance at the point of completion of load carriage trials. Load, terrains and load×terrain interaction did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the cognitive performance. Attention and relative workload were found significantly correlated at hard terrain under no load, 21.4kg and 30kg. Significant correlation was found between executive function and relative workload at hard terrain under no load. Carrying upto 30kg load for 10min at 3.5-4kmph walking speed resulted in improvement in attention at sandy terrain, decrement in memory at both sandy and hard terrains and improvement in executive function at sandy terrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin attenuates virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszczol, Carmen; Bernardo, Katussevani; Krönke, Martin; Krut, Oleg

    2006-09-01

    The semi-synthetic streptogramin quinupristin/dalfopristin antibiotic exerts potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We investigated whether, like other bactericidal antibiotics used at subinhibitory concentrations, quinupristin/dalfopristin enhances release of toxins by Gram-positive cocci. The activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin on exotoxin release by S. aureus was investigated by 2D SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and by western blotting. We show that quinupristin/dalfopristin at subinhibitory concentrations reduces the release of S. aureus factors that induce tumour necrosis factor secretion in macrophages. Furthermore, quinupristin/dalfopristin but not linezolid attenuated S. aureus-mediated killing of infected host cells. When added to S. aureus cultures at different stages of bacterial growth, quinupristin/dalfopristin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the release of specific virulence factors (e.g. autolysin, protein A, alpha- and beta-haemolysins, lipases). In contrast, other presumably non-toxic exoproteins remained unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that subinhibitory quinupristin/dalfopristin inhibits virulence factor release by S. aureus, which might be especially helpful for the treatment of S. aureus infections, where both bactericidal as well as anti-toxin activity may be advantageous.

  13. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.221 Carriage... custody of an armed law enforcement officer aboard an aircraft for which screening is required unless, in...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and healthcare-associated infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekkelenkamp, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Many medical procedures breach or suppress patients’ natural defences, leaving them vulnerable to infections which would not occur in healthy humans: “healthcare-associated infections”. Healthcare-associated infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are probably the most

  15. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  16. Decision of the National Board of Navigation on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is an unofficial English translation of a decision, which was made in accordance with Section 12 of Decree No. 357 of 16th May 1980 on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods in Ships. It adopts by reference the IMO/IMDG Code with the packaging Annex and Amendments 1 - 21. Where the National Board of Navigation has not provided otherwise, the Code shall be applied to vessels carrying dangerous goods, to the classification, packing, marketing and handling of dangerous goods and the stowage of such goods on board, and to documents related to carriage of dangerous goods. The decision applies to vessels engaged in traffic in Finnish territorial waters and to all Finnish vessels, even when operating outside Finnish territorial waters. The decision designates the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety as the competent authority where approval certificates for transport, packages or containers of radioactive materials are required. (NEA) [fr

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No resistance was detected to linezolid and vancomycin in all isolates. Coagulase negative staphylococci carriage was 87% in all our volunteers and was highest in the HCWs (93%). In conclusion, the study shows the need for a periodic screening of both the community and hospital personnel to adopt strategies for treating ...

  18. Increase of Neisseria meningitidis W:cc11 invasive disease in Chile has no correlation with carriage in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina S Rubilar

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a human exclusive pathogen that can lead to invasive meningococcal disease or may be carried in the upper respiratory tract without symptoms. The relationship between carriage and disease remains poorly understood but it is widely accepted that decreasing carriage by immunization should lead to a reduction of invasive cases. Latin America has experienced an increased incidence of serogroup W invasive cases of Neisseria meningitidis in the last decade. Specifically in Chile, despite low total incidence of invasive cases, serogroup W has become predominant since 2011 and has been associated with elevated mortality. Expecting to gain insight into the epidemiology of this disease, this study has used molecular typing schemes to compare Neisseria meningitidis isolates causing invasive disease with those isolates collected from adolescent carriers during the same period in Chile. A lower carriage of the serogroup W clonal complex ST-11/ET37 than expected was found; whereas, the same clonal complex accounted for 66% of total invasive meningococcal disease cases in the country that year. A high diversity of PorA variable regions and fHbp peptides was also ascertained in the carrier isolates compared to the invasive ones. According to the results shown here, the elevated number of serogroup W invasive cases in our country cannot be explained by a rise of carriage of pathogenic isolates. Overall, this study supports the idea that some strains, as W:cc11 found in Chile, possess an enhanced virulence to invade the host. Notwithstanding hypervirulence, this strain has not caused an epidemic in Chile. Finally, as genetic transfer occurs often, close surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis strains causing disease, and particularly hypervirulent W:cc11, should be kept as a priority in our country, in order to prepare the best response to face genetic changes that could lead to enhanced fitness of this pathogen.

  19. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus intermedius in Humans in Contact with Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, R. G.; Marples, R. R.; Noble, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    A study of staphylococci isolated from the anterior nares of 16 owners of dogs with atopic dermatitis and 13 veterinary practice staff in constant contact with dogs was conducted. There was one persistent nasal carrier and four transient nasal carriers of Staphylococcus intermedius. This carriage rate is higher than previously reported and presumably contributes to the presence of antibodies to S. intermedius in about 20 per cent of the normal population. Thus transfer of S. intermedius from ...

  20. Molecular Characterization of Endocarditis-Associated Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Nethercott, Cara; Mabbett, Amanda N.; Totsika, Makrina; Peters, Paul; Ortiz, Juan C.; Nimmo, Graeme R.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Walker, Mark J.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening infection of the heart endothelium and valves. Staphylococcus aureus is a predominant cause of severe IE and is frequently associated with infections in health care settings and device-related infections. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, and virulence gene microarrays are frequently used to classify S. aureus clinical isolates. This study examined the utility of these typing tools to investigate S. aureus epidemiology associated ...

  1. 77 FR 36178 - Carriage of Digital Television Broadcast Signals: Amendment to the Commission's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-0432 (TTY). I. Introduction 1. With this Fifth Report and Order (Fifth R&O) in the DTV cable carriage... time after completion of the DTV transition.\\8\\ Some operators may choose to deliver programming in... certain percentage of their analog channel's programming on their DTV channel), and the Commission decided...

  2. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of HLW. This Safety Guide applies to the predisposal management of HLW. For liquid HLW arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel the recommendations of this Safety Guide apply from when liquid waste from the first extraction process is collected for storage and subsequent processing. Recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor are provided in Refs. For spent fuel declared as waste this Safety Guide applies to all activities subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor and prior to its disposal. Requirements pertaining to the transport of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, and of all forms of HLW are established. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on the safety aspects of managing HLW, including the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of equipment or facilities for the predisposal management of HLW. It addresses the following elements: (a) The characterization and processing (i.e. pretreatment

  3. Emphysematous pancreatitis predisposed by Olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented to our intensive care unit with severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed as acute pancreatitis after 2 months of olanzapine therapy for bipolar disorder. His serum lipase was 900 u/L, serum triglyceride 560 mg/dL, and blood sugar, fasting and postprandial were 230 and 478 mg/dL, respectively on admission. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT of abdomen was suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Repeat CECT showed gas inside pancreas and collection in peripancreatic area and patient underwent percutaneous drainage and antibiotics irrigation through the drain into pancreas. We describe the rare case of emphysematous pancreatitis due to development of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and immunosuppression predisposed by short duration olanzapine therapy.

  4. Risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Students of higher institutions are assumed to be exposed to many risky sexual behaviors. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of risky behavior and predisposing factors in the context of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of ...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus shifts towards commensalism in response to Corynebacterium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Ramsey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus–human interactions result in a continuum of outcomes from commensalism to pathogenesis. S. aureus is a clinically important pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes ~25% of humans as a member of the nostril and skin microbiota, where it resides with other bacteria including commensal Corynebacterium species. Commensal Corynebacterium spp. are also positively correlated with S. aureus in chronic polymicrobial diabetic foot infections, distinct from acute monomicrobial S. aureus infections. Recent work by our lab and others indicates that microbe-microbe interactions between S. aureus and human skin/nasal commensals, including Corynebacterium species, affect S. aureus behavior and fitness. Thus, we hypothesized that S. aureus interactions with Corynebacterium spp. diminish S. aureus virulence. We tested this by assaying for changes in S. aureus gene expression during in vitro mono- versus coculture with Corynebacterium striatum, a common skin and nasal commensal. We observed a broad shift in S. aureus gene transcription during in vitro growth with C. striatum, including increased transcription of genes known to exhibit increased expression during human nasal colonization and decreased transcription of virulence genes. S. aureus uses several regulatory pathways to transition between commensal and pathogenic states. One of these, the quorum signal accessory gene regulator (agr system, was strongly inhibited in response to Corynebacterium spp. Phenotypically, S. aureus exposed to C. striatum exhibited increased adhesion to epithelial cells, reflecting a commensal state, and decreased hemolysin activity, reflecting an attenuation of virulence. Consistent with this, S. aureus displayed diminished fitness in experimental in vivo coinfection with C. striatum when compared to monoinfection. These data support a model in which S. aureus shifts from virulence towards a commensal state when exposed to commensal Corynebacterium species.

  6. Diet as a risk factor for pneumococcal carriage and otitis media: a cross-sectional study among children in day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Paalanne, Niko; Arkkola, Tuula; Renko, Marjo; Pokka, Tytti; Kaijalainen, Tarja; Uhari, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Pharyngeal bacteria are exposed to different sugar conditions depending on the diet of the child. We hypothesized that dietary factors such as daily intake of carbohydrates could be associated with pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media in children. Our study design was a cross-sectional study among 1006 children attending child day care centers. Parents filled in a food frequency questionnaire. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from each child. The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumococcal carriage and the secondary outcome the number of acute otitis media episodes during life. Principal component analysis was used to group dietary intake into nine factors. The models were adjusted for age, gender of the child and educational level of the mother. The dietary factor which included high consumption of sweet pastries and jam was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal carriage (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, P-value 0.04). The factor including frequent consumption of fruit and berries was associated with a decreased risk of acute otitis (regression coefficient -0.51, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.03, P=0.04). A high intake of consumption of sweets and snacks (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.80, P=0.03) was associated with an increased risk of caries. Diet was associated with a risk of pneumococcal carriage and the occurrence of otitis media. Diet may thus be a modifiable risk factor for the occurrence of acute otitis media.

  7. Dermoscopy of lichen aureus Dermatoscopia do liquen aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Santin Portela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen aureus (also called "lichen purpuricus" is an uncommon subtype of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Clinically characterized by rust macules, papules or plaques, it is a chronic disease which more often affects young adults and is localized mainly on the lower extremities. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical and histopathological features. Dermoscopy findings are useful to confirm clinical diagnosis.O líquen aureus (também denominado "liquen purpuricus" é um subtipo pouco comum entre as dermatoses purpúricas pigmentadas. Clinicamente caracterizado por máculas, pápulas ou placas de coloração ferruginosa, é doença crônica, que acomete mais frequentemente adultos jovens e localiza-se principalmente nos membros inferiores. O diagnóstico pode ser feito a partir das características clínicas e histopatológicas, sendo os achados dermatoscópicos úteis para corroborar o diagnóstico clínico.

  8. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance against rifampicin doubled to 68%. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is frequent in China. Two predominant S. aureus lineages, ST6 and ST943, were identified causing outbreaks of SFP in Southern China...

  9. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates in a hospital of shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Lin; Luo, Lingfei; Liu, Jiqian; Song, Chiping; Li, Cuizhen; Yan, Hongjing; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-24

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are now common both in the health care setting and in the community. Active surveillance is critical for MRSA control and prevention. Specimens of patients (200 patients with 1119 specimens) as well as medical staff and hospital setting (1000 specimens) were randomly sampled in a level 2 hospital in Shanghai from September 2011 to August 2012. Isolation, cultivation and identification of S. aureus were performed. Totally, 67 S. aureus strains were isolated. 32 S. aureus strains were isolated from patient samples; 13 (13/32, 40.6%) of the 32 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; sputum sample and patients in the department of general internal medicine were the most frequent specimen and patient group for S. aureus strains isolation. Remaining 35 S. aureus strains were isolated from the medical staff and hospital setting; 20 (20/35, 57.1%) of the 35 S. aureus isolates were MRSA; specimens sampled from doctors and nurses' hands and nose and hospital facilities were the most frequent samples to isolate S. aureus. Resistant and virulent genes detection showed that, all 33 MRSA strains were mecA positive which accounts for 49.3% of the 67 S. aureus strains; 38 isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene positive which accounts for 56.7% of the 67 S. aureus strains; and 17 (17/67, 25.4%) isolates are mecA and PVL genes dual positive. Multidrug-resistant strains of MRSA and PVL positive S. aureus are common in patients, medical staff and hospital setting, the potential health threat is worthy of our attention.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population in Foshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jialing; Xu, Ping; Peng, Yang; Lin, Dongxin; Ou, Qianting; Zhang, Ting; Bai, Chan; Ye, Xiaohua; Zhou, Junli; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-05-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes might cause an increase in colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in community settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and influencing factors of S. aureus and MRSA nasal colonization among a community-based diabetes population, and to identify the characteristics of the isolated strains. A total of 956 participants from 11 community settings were included in the study. Of the 529 diabetes participants, 46 were colonized with S. aureus and 22 were colonized with MRSA. Of the 427 non-diabetes participants, 25 were colonized with S. aureus and 12 were colonized with MRSA. Men (odds ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047) were less likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization, and those with well-controlled blood glucose (odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01-4.13, P = 0.047) among the diabetes population were more likely to have S. aureus nasal colonization. The proportion of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the diabetes population (52.17%) was higher than that in the non-diabetes population (28.00%; χ 2 = 3.848, P = 0.050). The most common clonal complex type and Staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec type of MRSA in diabetes population was clonal complex 5 (40.91%) and type IV (27.27%), respectively. The proportion of Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene in MRSA strains was 17.65%. There was great sequence type diversity in MRSA strains. The prevalence of MRSA in the community-based diabetes population was moderate, and the high proportions of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains and diverse molecular characteristics in the diabetes population should be noticed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and mecA characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and non-S. aureus of beef meat origin in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelia Mahmoud Osman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in theirphenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterisation in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB and grlA. Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%, while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%, S. intermedius (33.3%, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100% and S. lentus (100% were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7% carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Although global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which could

  12. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome predisposing to non-WNT, non-SHH, group 3 medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaut, Franck; Miquel, Catherine; Richer, Wilfrid; Grill, Jacques; Zerah, Michel; Grison, Camille; Pierron, Gaelle; Amiel, Jeanne; Krucker, Clementine; Radvanyi, Francois; Brugieres, Laurence; Delattre, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Medulloblastomas (MB) are classified in four subgroups: the well defined WNT and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroups, and the less defined groups 3 and 4. They occasionally occur in the context of a cancer predisposition syndrome. While germline APC mutations predispose to WNT MB, germline mutations in SUFU, PTCH1, and TP53 predispose to SHH tumors. We report on a child with a Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) due to a germline deletion in CREBBP, who developed a MB. Biological profilings demonstrate that this tumor belongs to the group 3. RTS may therefore be the first predisposition syndrome identified for non-WNT/non-SHH MB. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello Gonzalez, T.; Rivera-Olivero, I.A.; Pocaterra, L.; Spadola, E.; Araque, M.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Waard, J.H. de

    2010-01-01

    In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal carriage and

  14. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among HIV-infected and -uninfected children <5 years of age before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carriage is a precursor for pneumococcal disease and can be useful for evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV impact. We studied pre-PCV pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected and -uninfected children in Mozambique. Between October 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled HIV-infected children age <5 years presenting for routine care at seven HIV clinics in 3 sites, including Maputo (urban-south, Nampula (urban-north, and Manhiça (rural-south. We also enrolled a random sample of HIV-uninfected children <5 years old from a demographic surveillance site in Manhiça. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained and cultured following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth with yeast extract and rabbit serum. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with pneumococcal carriage were examined using logistic regression. Overall pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 80.5% (585/727, with similar prevalences among HIV-infected (81.5%, 339/416 and HIV-uninfected (79.1%, 246/311 children, and across age strata. Among HIV-infected, after adjusting for recent antibiotic use and hospitalization, there was no significant association between study site and colonization: Maputo (74.8%, 92/123, Nampula (83.7%, 82/98, Manhiça (84.6%, 165/195. Among HIV-uninfected, report of having been born to an HIV-infected mother was not associated with colonization. Among 601 pneumococcal isolates from 585 children, serotypes 19F (13.5%, 23F (13.1%, 6A (9.2%, 6B (6.2% and 19A (5.2% were most common. The proportion of serotypes included in the 10- and 13-valent vaccines was 44.9% and 61.7%, respectively, with no significant differences by HIV status or age group. Overall 36.9% (n = 268 of children were colonized with a PCV10 serotype and 49.7% (n = 361 with a PCV13 serotype. Pneumococcal carriage was common, with little variation by geographic region, age, or HIV status. PCV10 was introduced in

  15. The Carriage Of Multiresistant Bacteria After Travel (COMBAT) prospective cohort study: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Maris S; van Hattem, Jarne M; Bootsma, Martin C J; van Genderen, Perry J; Goorhuis, Abraham; Schultsz, Constance; Stobberingh, Ellen E; Verbrugh, Henri A; de Jong, Menno D; Melles, Damian C; Penders, John

    2014-04-28

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the major threats to public health around the world. Besides the intense use and misuse of antimicrobial agents as the major force behind the increase in antimicrobial resistance, the exponential increase of international travel may also substantially contribute to the emergence and spread of AMR. However, knowledge on the extent to which international travel contributes to this is still limited. The Carriage Of Multiresistant Bacteria After Travel (COMBAT) study aims to 1. determine the acquisition rate of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae during foreign travel 2. ascertain the duration of carriage of these micro-organisms 3. determine the transmission rate within households 4. identify risk factors for acquisition, persistence of carriage and transmission of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. The COMBAT-study is a large-scale multicenter longitudinal cohort study among travellers (n = 2001) and their non-travelling household members (n = 215). Faecal samples are collected before and immediately after travel and 1 month after return from all participants. Follow-up faecal samples are collected 3, 6 and 12 months after return from travellers (and their non-travelling household members) who acquired multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae. Questionnaires are collected from all participants at each time-point. Faecal samples are screened phenotypically for the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Positive post-travel isolates from travellers with negative pre-travel samples are genotypically analysed for ESBL and carbapenemase genes with microarray and gene sequencing. The design and scale of the COMBAT-study will enable us to provide much needed detailed insights into the risks and dynamics of introduction and spread of ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by healthy travellers and the potential need and measures to monitor or manage these risks

  16. Colonization of nursing professionals by Staphylococcus aureus La colonización de los profesionales de enfermería por Staphylococcus aureus A colonização dos profissionais de enfermagem por Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josely Pinto de Moura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva of the nursing team of a teaching hospital in the interior of São Paulo State. Three saliva samples were collected from 351 individuals with an interval of two months between each collection. All ethical aspects were considered. In 867 (82.3% cultures there was no identification of Staphylococcus aureus in the saliva, in 88 (17.7% cultures Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, 26 (2.5% of which were resistant to methicillin. The prevalence of professionals colonized by Staphylococcus aureus was 41.0% (144/351, of which 7.1% (25/351 were characterized as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Transient carriers represented 81.2% and persistent carriers 18.8%. Resistance to mupirocin was 73.1% of MRSA and 9.3% of MSSA. The results demonstrate that it is the nurse and nursing technician that are the professional categories most susceptible to MRSA. Broader discussion on the thematic and interventions are needed.Se trata de un estudio transversal que tuvo como objetivo investigar la presencia de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva del equipo de enfermería de un hospital escuela del interior del estado de Sao Paulo. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva de 351 individuos con intervalo de dos meses. Todos los aspectos éticos fueron contemplados. En 867 (82,3% culturas no hubo identificación de Staphylococcus aureus en la saliva, en 88 (17,7% culturas fue aislado Staphylococcus aureus, siendo 26 (2,5% resistentes a la meticilina. La prevalencia de profesionales colonizados por Staphylococcus aureus fue de 41,0% (144/351, de los cuales 7,1% (25/351 fueron caracterizados como Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a la meticilina. Los portadores transitorios representaron 81,2% y los persistentes 18,8%. La resistencia a la mupirocina fue de 73,1% entre los resistentes a la meticilina y 9,3% en los sensibles a la meticilina. Los resultados

  17. Lysionotin attenuates Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity by inhibiting α-toxin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zihao; Shi, Dongxue; Liu, Huanyu; Shen, Ziying; Zha, Yonghong; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-09-01

    α-Toxin, one of the best known pore-forming proteins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is a critical virulence factor in multiple infections. The necessity of α-toxin for S. aureus pathogenicity suggests that this toxin is an important target for the development of a potential treatment strategy. In this study, we showed that lysionotin, a natural compound, can inhibit the hemolytic activity of culture supernatants by S. aureus by reducing α-toxin expression. Using real-time PCR analysis, we showed that transcription of hla (the gene encoding α-toxin) and agr (the locus regulating hla) was significantly inhibited by lysionotin. Lactate dehydrogenase and live/dead assays indicated that lysionotin effectively protected human alveolar epithelial cells against S. aureus, and in vivo studies also demonstrated that lysionotin can protect mice from pneumonia caused by S. aureus. These findings suggest that lysionotin is an efficient inhibitor of α-toxin expression and shows significant protection against S. aureus in vitro and in vivo. This study supports a potential strategy for the treatment of S. aureus infection by inhibiting the expression of virulence factors and indicates that lysionotin may be a potential treatment for S. aureus pneumonia.

  18. Evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus towards increasing resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strommenger, Birgit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Kurt, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300.......To elucidate the evolutionary history of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex (CC) 8, which encompasses several globally distributed epidemic lineages, including hospital-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the highly prevalent community-associated MRSA clone USA300....

  19. Silver nanoparticles for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Ortiz-Gila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Existe un gran ecosistema microbiano en la cavidad oral donde Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus se puede encontrar, causando patologías orales tales como quelitis angular, las paperas y la mucositis estafilocócica. Estas enfermedades producidas por S. aureus en la cavidad oral son consecuencia de los factores de virulencia, toxinas y multiresistencia a los antibióticos, lo que contribuye a la infección. La colonización en la cavidad oral por S. aureus en pacientes sanos es de 24% a 36%. Sin embargo, la incidencia aumenta a 48% en pacientes con prótesis debido a la formación de biofilms en la superficie de las dentaduras postizas. Actualmente, no existe ningún tratamiento para infecciones orales sin el uso de antibióticos. Investigaciones recientes indican que las nanopartículas de plata (AgNPs son un material o estrategia para eliminar S. aureus debido a su efecto antibacteriano. Sin embargo, el mecanismo del efecto inhibidor de los iones de Ag sobre S. aureus es sólo parcialmente conocida y muy poco se ha informado. Por lo tanto, el propósito de la presente revisión sistemática es determinar las estrategias y retos de la utilización de biomateriales antimicrobianos con AgNPs frente a las infecciones orales de S. aureus.

  20. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S.; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line

    2018-01-01

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with au...

  1. Meningococcal Carriage in Military Recruits and University Students during the Pre MenB Vaccination Era in Greece (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryfinopoulou, Kyriaki; Kesanopoulos, Konstantinos; Xirogianni, Athanasia; Marmaras, Nektarios; Papandreou, Anastasia; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tsolia, Maria; Jasir, Aftab; Tzanakaki, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the meningococcal carriage rate and to identify the genotypic characteristics of the strains isolated from healthy military recruits and university students in order to provide data that might increase our understanding on the epidemiology of meningococcus and obtain information which helps to evaluate the potential effects on control programs such as vaccination. A total of 1420 oropharyngeal single swab samples were collected from military recruits and university students on voluntary basis, aged 18-26 years. New York City Medium was used for culture and the suspected N. meningitidis colonies were identified by Gram stain, oxidase and rapid carbohydrate utilization tests. Further characterisation was carried out by molecular methods (multiplex PCR, MLST, WGS). The overall carriage rate was of 12.7%; 15% and 10.4% for recruits and university students respectively. MenB (39.4%) was the most prevalent followed by MenY (12.8%) and MenW (4.4%). Among the initial 76 Non Groupable (NG) isolates, Whole Genome Sequence Analysis (WGS) revealed that 8.3% belonged to MenE, 3.3% to MenX and 1.1% to MenZ, while, 53 strains (29.4%) were finally identified as capsule null. Genetic diversity was found among the MenB isolates, with 41/44 cc and 35 cc predominating. Meningococcal carriage rate in both groups was lower compared to our previous studies (25% and 18% respectively) with predominance of MenB isolates. These findings, help to further our understanding on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Greece. Although the prevalence of carriage seems to have declined compared to our earlier studies, the predominant MenB clonal complexes (including 41/44cc and 35cc) are associated with invasive meningococcal disease.

  2. Treadmill walking with load carriage increases aortic pressure wave reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernando; Oliveira, Nórton L; Pires, Joana; Alves, Alberto J; Oliveira, José

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of treadmill walking with load carriage on derived measures of central pressure and augmentation index in young healthy subjects. Fourteen male subjects (age 31.0 ± 1.0 years) volunteered in this study. Subjects walked 10 minutes on a treadmill at a speed of 5 km/h carrying no load during one session and a load of 10% of their body weight on both upper limbs in two water carboys with handle during the other session. Pulse wave analysis was performed at rest and immediately after exercise in the radial artery of the right upper limb by applanation tonometry. The main result indicates that walking with load carriage sharply increased augmentation index at 75 bpm (-5.5 ± 2.2 to -1.4 ± 2.2% vs. -5.2 ± 2.8 to -5.5 ± 2.1%, p<0.05), and also induced twice as high increments in central pulse pressure (7.4 ± 1.5 vs. 3.1 ± 1.4 mmHg, p<0.05) and peripheral (20.5 ± 2.7 vs. 10.3 ± 2.5 mmHg, p<0.05) and central systolic pressure (14.7 ± 2.1 vs. 7.4 ± 2.0 mmHg, p<0.05). Walking with additional load of 10% of their body weight (aerobic exercise accompanied by upper limb isometric contraction) increases derived measures of central pressure and augmentation index, an index of wave reflection and arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Proposals for radioactive material by rail (packaging, labelling and carriage) regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proposed Radioactive Material by Rail (Packaging, Labelling and Carriage Regulations (Northern Ireland) are presented in this consultation document. The proposals establish a new system of safety controls which implement the requirements of two European Directives. These are the ADR and RID Framework Directives which relate to the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail respectively. (UK)

  4. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetie, Setegn; Tarekegn, Fentahun; Moges, Feleke; Amsalu, Anteneh; Birhan, Wubet; Huruy, Kahsay

    2016-11-21

    The burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern worldwide; however the overall epidemiology of multidrug resistant strains is neither coordinated nor harmonized, particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcos aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Ethiopia at large. PubMed, Google Scholar, and lancet databases were searched and a total of 20 studies have been selected for meta-analysis. Six authors have independently extracts data on the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analysis was achieved by using Open meta-analyst (version 3.13) and Comprehensive meta-analysis (version 3.3) softwares. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its antibiotic resistance pattern were pooled by using the forest plot, table and figure with 95% CI. The pooled prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 32.5% (95% CI, 24.1 to 40.9%). Moreover, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be highly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and amoxicillin, with a pooled resistance ratio of 99.1, 98.1, 97.2 and 97.1%, respectively. On the other hand, comparably low levels of resistance ratio were noted to vancomycin, 5.3%. The overall burden of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considerably high, besides these strains showed extreme resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin and amoxicillin. In principle, appropriate use of antibiotics, applying safety precautions are the key to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant strains, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in particular.

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1299, p<0.05) and Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent and more resistant in inpatients. There is a higher risk of acquiring drug resistant staphylococcus aureus infection in ...

  6. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  7. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus detection in the mouth of housekeepers Detección de Staphylococcus aureus en la boca de trabajadores de la limpieza hospitalaria Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus na boca de trabalhadores da limpeza hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus aureus in hospital housekeepers, and their knowledge and beliefs regarding this problem. Three saliva samples were collected and a questionnaire regarding knowledge and beliefs was applied. Of the 92 workers, 63 (68.5% participated in the study; 20 were not and 43 were colonized; 13 by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 30 by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Persistent carrier status of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 15.4% of cases. Low knowledge and perception of occupational risk were observed. The mouth was identified as an important reservoir of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Analyzing knowledge and beliefs, as well as the state of carrier, is an important strategy to be added to educational actions for the prevention of workers' colonization.Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la colonización por Staphylococcus aureus en trabajadores de limpieza hospitalaria, y su conocimiento y creencias acerca de la problemática. Fueron recolectadas tres muestras de saliva y aplicado un cuestionario referente al conocimiento y creencias. De 92 trabajadores, 63 (68,5% participaron del estudio; 20 se presentaron no colonizados y 43 colonizados; 13 para Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina y 30 para Staphylococcus aureus sensibles a la meticilina. El estado de portador persistente por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina fue detectado en 15,4% de los casos. Bajo conocimiento y percepción del riesgo ocupacional fueron observados. La boca fue identificada como importante reservatorio de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina. Analizar el conocimiento y creencias juntamente con la investigación del estado de portador es una importante estrategia a ser agregada a las acciones educativas para la prevención de la colonización de trabajadores.Este estudo avaliou a prevalência da coloniza

  9. Rectal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli in community settings in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlinot Herindrainy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria (ESBL-PE emerged at the end of the 1980s, causing nosocomial outbreaks and/or hyperendemic situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections due to ESBL-PE have spread worldwide, especially across developing countries including Madagascar. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community of Antananarivo. METHODS: Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers in different socio economic settings. Fresh stool collected were immediately plated on Drigalski agar containing 3 mg/liter of ceftriaxone. Gram-negative bacilli species were identified and ESBL production was tested by a double disk diffusion (cefotaxime and ceftazidime +/- clavulanate assay. Characterization of ESBLs were perfomed by PCR and direct sequencing. Molecular epidemiology was analysed by Rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR. RESULTS: 484 patients were screened (sex ratio  =  1.03, median age 28 years. 53 ESBL-PE were isolated from 49 patients (carrier rate 10.1%. The isolates included Escherichia coli (31, Klebsiella pneumoniae (14, Enterobacter cloacae (3, Citrobacter freundii (3, Kluyvera spp. (1 and Pantoae sp. (1. In multivariate analysis, only the socioeconomic status of the head of household was independently associated with ESBL-PE carriage, poverty being the predominant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of carriage of ESBL in the community of Antananarivo is one of the highest reported worldwide. This alarming spread of resistance genes should be stopped urgently by improving hygiene and streamlining the distribution and consumption of antibiotics.

  10. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  12. [BACTERIA WITHOUT BORDERS: A HIGH CARRIAGE RATE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA AMONG SYRIAN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faour Kassem, Diana; Shahar, Naama; Ocampo, Smadar; Bader, Tarif; Zonis, Zeev; Glikman, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    As the civil war in Syria enters its fifth year, the Israeli government continues to provide humanitarian aid to Syrian civilians in Israeli hospitals. Many wounded Syrian children are treated at the Galilee Medical Center (GMC). Due to the patients' incomplete medical history and increasing infection rates in Syria, contact isolation and screening cultures for multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR's) are conducted upon admission for all Syrian children. To describe the rate of MDR carriage in Syrian children and compare it to hospitalized Israeli children. Prospective collection of screening culture data of Syrian patients admitted to GMC between 6/2013-11/2014 and comparison with Israeli children admitted between 1-3/2014. Extended-spectrum beta- lactamase-producing Enterobateriaceae (ESBL), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were considered MDR's. Of 47 pediatric Syrian patients, 41 were severely wounded. MDR's were found in 37 (79%) children; most of the isolates were ESBL+ Escherichia coli. Over half of the ESBL's were resistant to additional antibiotics such as sulfa and quinolones; no resistance to amikacin was found. In comparison, in 6 of 40 (15%) Israeli children, MDR's (all ESBL's) were found (p<0.001). In hospitalized Syrian children, contact isolation and screening cultures for MDR's have an important role in the prevention of nosocomial transmission and establishment of empiric antimicrobial protocols. In suspected infections in Syrian children, amikacin and carbapenems are the antimicrobials of choice. MDR's are carried to a lesser extent in Israeli children but due to their importance, further largescale research is needed.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus in the community: colonization versus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections have increased dramatically in the community, yet S. aureus nasal colonization has remained stable. The objectives of this study were to determine if S. aureus colonization is a useful proxy measure to study disease transmission and infection in community settings, and to identify potential community reservoirs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomly selected households in Northern Manhattan, completed a structured social network questionnaire and provided nasal swabs that were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to identify S. aureus colonizing strains. The main outcome measures were: 1 colonization with S. aureus; and 2 recent serious skin infection. Risk factor analyses were conducted at both the individual and the household levels; logistic regression models identified independent risks for household colonization and infection. RESULTS: 321 surveyed households contained 914 members. The S. aureus prevalence was 25% and MRSA was 0.4%. More than 40% of households were colonized. Recent antibiotic use was the only significant correlate for household colonization (p = .002. Seventy-eight (24% households reported serious skin infection. In contrast with colonization, five of the six risk factors that increased the risk of skin infection in the household at the univariate level remained independently significant in multivariable analysis: international travel, sports participation, surgery, antibiotic use and towel sharing. S. aureus colonization was not significantly associated with serious skin infection in any analysis. Among multiperson households with more than one person colonized, 50% carried the same strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of association between S. aureus nasal colonization and serious skin infection underscores the need to explore alternative venues or body sites that may be crucial to transmission. Moreover, the magnitude of colonization and

  15. eap Gene as novel target for specific identification of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzaffar; von Eiff, Christof; Sinha, Bhanu; Joost, Insa; Herrmann, Mathias; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    The cell surface-associated extracellular adherence protein (Eap) mediates adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to host extracellular matrix components and inhibits inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. A well-characterized collection of S. aureus and non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates (n = 813) was tested for the presence of the Eap-encoding gene (eap) by PCR to investigate the use of the eap gene as a specific diagnostic tool for identification of S. aureus. Whereas all 597 S. aureus isolates were eap positive, this gene was not detectable in 216 non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates comprising 47 different species and subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-S. aureus coagulase-positive or coagulase-variable staphylococci. Furthermore, non-S. aureus isolates did not express Eap homologs, as verified on the transcriptional and protein levels. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PCR targeting the eap gene were both 100%. Thus, the unique occurrence of Eap in S. aureus offers a promising tool particularly suitable for molecular diagnostics of this pathogen.

  16. Duplex Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by Aptamer and Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tianjun; Wang, Libo; Zhao, Kexu; Ge, Yu; He, Meng; Li, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the top common pathogen causing infections and food poisoning. Identification of S. aureus is crucial for the disease diagnosis and regulation of food hygiene. Herein, we report an aptamer-AuNPs based method for duplex identification of S. aureus. Using AuNPs as an indicator, SA23, an aptamer against S. aureus, can well identify its target from Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, we find citrate-coated AuNPs can strongly bind to S. aureus, but not bind to Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, which leads to different color changes in salt solution. This colorimetric response is capable of distinguishing S. aureus from S. enteritidis and P. mirabilis. Thus, using the aptasensor and AuNPs together, S. aureus can be accurately identified from the common pathogens. This duplex identification system is a promising platform for simple visual identification of S. aureus. Additionally, in the aptasensing process, bacteria are incubated with aptamers and then be removed before the aptamers adding to AuNPs, which may avoid the interactions between bacteria and AuNPs. This strategy can be potentially applied in principle to detect other cells by AuNPs-based aptasensors.

  17. Background Document for an Advanced Personal Load Carriage System for the Canadian Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-29

    after field operations can be an invaluable source of knowledge regarding evaluations of equipment and physical fitness of soldiers, as well as...overloaded. It follows, therefore, that the value of knowledge regarding load carriage is limitless, whether it be knowledge of the load weight carried or...some transfer of weight to the hips. Typically internal frame packs are used by active outdoors people suCh as climbers and skiers . · Pack

  18. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm removal by targeting biofilm-associated extracellular proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Methods: Biofilm assay was done in 96-well microtitre plate to evaluate the effect of proteinase K on biofilms of bovine mastitis S. Aureus isolates. Extracellular polymeric substances were extracted and evaluated for their composition (protein, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, before and after the proteinase K treatment. Results: Biofilm assay showed that 2 μg/ml proteinase K significantly inhibited biofilm development in bap-positive S. aureus V329 as well as other S. aureus isolates (SA7, SA10, SA33, SA352, but not in bap-mutant M556 and SA392 (a weak biofilm-producing strain. Proteinase K treatment on S. aureus planktonic cells showed that there was no inhibition of planktonic growth up to 32 μg/ml of proteinase K. Proteinase K treatment on 24 h old preformed biofilms showed an enhanced dispersion of bap-positive V329 and SA7, SA10, SA33 and SA352 biofilms; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-mutant S. aureus M556 and SA392 biofilms. Biofilm compositions study before and after proteinase K treatment indicated that Bap might also be involved in eDNA retention in the biofilm matrix that aids in biofilm stability. When proteinase K was used in combination with antibiotics, a synergistic effect in antibiotic efficacy was observed against all biofilm-forming S. aureus isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Proteinase K inhibited biofilms growth in S. aureus bovine mastitis isolates but did not affect their planktonic growth. An enhanced dispersion of preformed S. aureus biofilms was observed on proteinase K treatment. Proteinase K treatment with antibiotics showed a synergistic effect against S. aureus biofilms. The study suggests that dispersing S. aureus by protease can be of use while devising strategies againstS. aureus biofilms.

  19. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  20. Impact of experimental human pneumococcal carriage on nasopharyngeal bacterial densities in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Joshua R; Cremers, Amelieke J H; Gritzfeld, Jenna F; de Jonge, Marien I; Hermans, Peter W M; Vidal, Jorge E; Klugman, Keith P; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a necessary precursor to pneumococcal diseases that result in morbidity and mortality worldwide. The nasopharynx is also host to other bacterial species, including the common pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. To better understand how these bacteria change in relation to pneumococcal colonization, we used species-specific quantitative PCR to examine bacterial densities in 52 subjects 7 days before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after controlled inoculation of healthy human adults with S. pneumoniae serotype 6B. Overall, 33 (63%) of subjects carried S. pneumoniae post-inoculation. The baseline presence and density of S. aureus, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis were not statistically associated with likelihood of successful pneumococcal colonization at this study's sample size, although a lower rate of pneumococcal colonization in the presence of S. aureus (7/14) was seen compared to that in the presence of H. influenzae (12/16). Among subjects colonized with pneumococci, the number also carrying either H. influenzae or S. aureus fell during the study and at 14 days post-inoculation, the proportion carrying S. aureus was significantly lower among those who were colonized with S. pneumoniae (p = 0.008) compared to non-colonized subjects. These data on bacterial associations are the first to be reported surrounding experimental human pneumococcal colonization and show that co-colonizing effects are likely subtle rather than absolute.

  1. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type 398

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette Theilgaard

    Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nares and skin surfaces of several animal species, including man. S. aureus can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial soft tissue and skin infections to severe and deadly systemic infections. Traditionally S....... aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been associated with hospitals, but during the past decades MRSA has emerged in the community and now a new branch of MRSA has been found in association with livestock (LA-MRSA). A specific lineage (multilocus sequence type 398 (ST398...

  2. Research advance in rapid detection of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihong Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, coccus-shaped facultative anaerobe and a member of the Staphylococcaceae family. In recent years, alimentary toxicosis caused by S. aureus is a very serious problem worldwide, which constitutes a great threat to public health. In this review, we tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid detection techniques of S. aureus (traditional detection method, biochemical detection, immunology method, molecular biology, and biosensor method for their principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications. Furthermore, the future perspectives of S. aureus detection methods were forecasted at last.

  3. Population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    The present PhD research was aimed at analysing the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China. Between 2000 and 2005 we found that patients from a single Chinese hospital showed increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), resistance

  4. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in apparently healthy ... treatment failures is vital. Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Nasal swabs, Multidrug resistance, Rational .... defined as resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics other than the ...

  5. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  6. Molecular and clinical characteristics of clonal complex 59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Detailed molecular analyses of Clonal Complex 59 (CC59 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates from children in seven major cities across Mainland China were examined. A total of 110 CC59 isolates from invasive and non-invasive diseases were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Antibiotics susceptibilities, carriage of plasmids and 42 virulence genes and the expression of virulence factors were examined. ST59 (101/110, 91.8% was the predominant sequence type (ST, while single locus variants (SLVs belonging to ST338 (8/110, 7.3% and ST375 (1/110, 0.9% were obtained. Three SCCmec types were found, namely type III (2.7%, type IV (74.5% and type V (22.7%. Seven spa types including t437, which accounted for 87.3%, were determined. Thirteen PFGE types were obtained. PFGE types A and B were the major types totally accounting for 81.8%. The dominant clone was ST59-t437-IVa (65.5%, followed by ST59-t437-V (14.5%. The positive rate of luks-PV and lukF-PV PVL encoding (pvl gene was 55.5%. Plasmids were detected in 83.6% (92/110 of the strains. The plasmid size ranging from 23.4 kb to 50 kb was most prevalent which accounted for 83.7% (77/92. A significantly lower expression of hla was found in ST59-t437-IVa compared with ST59-t437-V. Among the 110 cases, 61.8% of the patients were less than 1 year old. A total of 90 cases (81.8% were community-associated (CA infections whereas 20 cases (18.2% were hospital-associated (HA infections. Out of the 110 patients, 36.4% (40/110 were diagnosed with invasive infectious diseases in which ST59-t437-IVa accounted for 67.5% (27/40. In brief, ST59-t437-IVa was proved as the dominant clone in CC59 MRSA strains. The carriage rate of pvl gene was high. CC59 MRSA could result in CA and HA infections. The majortiy of MRSA infection children were in young age.

  7. In silico analysis for identifying potential vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Delfani, Somayeh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Emaneini, Mohammad; Amani, Jafar; Sedighian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important causes of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The increasing incidence of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains and the emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus strains have placed renewed interest on alternative means of prevention and control of infection. S. aureus produces a variety of virulence factors, so a multi-subunit vaccine will be more successful for preventing S. aureus infections than a mono-subuni...

  8. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghare, A.B.; Chhatre, A.G.; Vyas, A.K.; Bhambra, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Design of fuelling machine bridge and carriage to meet seismic qualification requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghare, A B; Chhatre, A G; Vyas, A K; Bhambra, H S [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    During each refuelling operation, the boundary of Primary heat transport system is extended up to Fuelling Machines. A breach in the pressure boundary of Fuelling Machine in this condition would cause a loss of coolant accident. Fuelling Machines are also used for transit storage of spent fuel bundles till discharged to fuel transfer system. Therefore, a fuelling machine, including its support structures, is required to be seismically qualified for both on-reactor ( coupled ) mode and off-reactor (uncoupled) mode. The fuelling machine carriage used in the first generation of Indian PHWRs is a mobile equipment on wheels moving over fixed rails. As this configuration was found unsuitable for withstanding strong seismic disturbances, a bridge type design with fixed columns was evolved for the next generation of reactors. Initially, the seismic analysis of the fuelling machine bridge and carriage was done using static structural analysis and values of natural frequencies for various structures were computed. The structures were suitably modified based on the results of this analysis. Subsequently, a detailed dynamic seismic analysis using finite element model has been completed for both coupled and uncoupled conditions. The qualification of the structure has been carried out as per ASME section 111 Division 1, sub section NF. Details of the significant design features, static and dynamic analysis, results and conclusions are given in the presentation. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Predisposing factors for developing gastric volvulus and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of gastric volvulus are presented to highlight the predisposing factors, mechanism and different types of volvulus, and the role of imaging in making the diagnosis. Eventration of the diaphragm and hiatus hernia are precipitating factors for developing organo-axial and mesentero-axial volvulus. Imaging is key to ...

  11. Communications of Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus Staphylococcus species from bovine intramammary infections and teat apex colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Yasser S; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl; Ingmer, Hanne

    2018-05-16

    The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with automatic milking systems, and (2) examine if the isolated NAS influences the expression of S. aureus virulence factors controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system. In 8 herds, 14 to 20 cows with elevated somatic cell count were randomly selected for teat skin swabbing and aseptic quarter foremilk samples from right hind and left front quarters. Teat skin swabs were collected using the modified wet-dry method and milk samples were taken aseptically for bacterial culture. Colonies from quarters with suspicion of having NAS in milk or teat skin samples (or both) were subjected to MALDI-TOF assay for species identification. To investigate the interaction between S. aureus and NAS, 81 isolates NAS were subjected to a qualitative β-galactosidase reporter plate assay. In total, 373 NAS isolates were identified representing 105 from milk and 268 from teat skin of 284 quarters (= 142 cows). Sixteen different NAS species were identified, 15 species from teat skin and 10 species from milk. The most prevalent NAS species identified from milk were Staphylococcus epidermidis (50%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (15%), and Staphylococcus chromogenes (11%), accounting for 76%. Meanwhile, the most prevalent NAS species from teat skin were Staphylococcus equorum (43%), S. haemolyticus (16%), and Staphylococcus cohnii (14%), accounting for 73%. Using reporter gene fusions monitoring transcriptional activity of key virulence factors and regulators, we found that out of 81 supernatants of NAS isolates, 77% reduced expression of hla, encoding a-hemolysin, 70% reduced expression of RNAIII, the key effector molecule of agr, and 61% reduced expression of spa encoding

  12. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  13. Malaria parasite carriage and risk determinants in a rural population: a malariometric survey in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Mens, Petra F; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Ingabire, Chantal M; Muragijemariya, Liberata; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle

    2015-01-21

    Based on routine health facility case data, Rwanda has achieved a significant malaria burden reduction in the past ten years. However, community-based malaria parasitaemia burden and reasons for continued residual infections, despite a high coverage of control interventions, have yet to be characterized. Measurement of malaria parasitaemia rates and evaluation of associated risk factors among asymptomatic household members in a rural community in Rwanda were conducted. A malariometric household survey was conducted between June and November 2013, involving 12,965 persons living in 3,989 households located in 35 villages in a sector in eastern Rwanda. Screening for malaria parasite carriage and collection of demographic, socio-economic, house structural features, and prior fever management data, were performed. Logistic regression models with adjustment for within- and between-households clustering were used to assess malaria parasitaemia risk determinants. Overall, malaria parasitaemia was found in 652 (5%) individuals, with 518 (13%) of households having at least one parasitaemic member. High malaria parasite carriage risk was associated with being male, child or adolescent (age group 4-15), reported history of fever and living in a household with multiple occupants. A malaria parasite carriage risk-protective effect was associated with living in households of, higher socio-economic status, where the head of household was educated and where the house floor or walls were made of cement/bricks rather than mud/earth/wood materials. Parasitaemia cases were found to significantly cluster in the Gikundamvura area that neighbours marshlands. Overall, Ruhuha Sector can be classified as hypo-endemic, albeit with a particular 'cell of villages' posing a higher risk for malaria parasitaemia than others. Efforts to further reduce transmission and eventually eliminate malaria locally should focus on investments in programmes that improve house structure features (that limit

  14. Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly from clinical samples: methods, effectiveness and cost considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stürenburg, Enno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA isolates is a serious public health problem whose ever-increasing rate is commensurate with the pressure it is exerting on the healthcare system. At present, more than 20% of clinical S. aureus isolates in German hospitals are methicillin resistant. Strategies from low-prevalence countries show that this development is not necessarily inevitable. In the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands, thanks to a rigorous prevention programme, MRSA prevalence has been kept at an acceptably low level (<1–3%. Central to these ‘search and destroy’ control strategies is an admission screening using several MRSA swabs taken from mucocutaneous colonisation sites of high-risk patients (‘MRSA surveillance’. It has also been reported that the speed with which MRSA carriage is detected has an important role to play, as it is a key component of any effective strategy to prevent the pathogen from spreading. Since MRSA culturing involves a 2–3 day delay before the final results are available, rapid detection techniques (commonly referred to as ‘MRSA rapid tests’ using PCR methods and, most recently, rapid culturing methods have been developed. The implementation of rapid tests reduces the time of detection of MRSA carriers from 48–72 to 2–5 h. Clinical evaluation data have shown that MRSA can thus be detected with very high sensitivity. Specificity however is sometimes impaired due to false-positive PCR signals occurring in mixed flora specimens. In order to rule out any false-positive PCR results, a culture screen must always be carried out simultaneously.The data provide preliminary evidence that a PCR assay can reduce nosocomial MRSA transmission in high-risk patients or high-risk areas, whereas an approach that screens all patients admitted to the hospital is probably not effective. Information concerning the cost-effectiveness of rapid MRSA tests is still sparse and thus the issue remains

  15. Nasal Carriage of Uncommon Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Nurses and Physicians of Tehran University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS have been identified as a major cause of nosocomial infections. Nasal carriage of CoNS in nurses and physicians is known to be an important risk factor for potential hospital infections. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococci among nurse and physician staffs of Tehran University Hospitals. A total of 116 CoNS were isolated from anterior nares of the study participants working in different wards of the hospitals. Thirteen uncommon CoNS were identified using phenotypic and biochemical methods, were subsequently confirmed by API kits. Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus capitis species accounted for 53.85%, 30.77%, and 15.38% from the isolates, respectively. Six isolates (46.15% were found to be resistant to methicillin. In conclusion, screening of healthcare workers for uncommon CoNS colonization along with identification and testing for susceptibility of cultured isolates is of paramount importance in strengthening effective nosocomial infection control and prevention measures.

  16. MRSA outbreak at a transplantation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMC Romanelli

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections frequently complicate the post-operative course of transplant recipients, and despite nasal carriage and endemic colonization, MRSA outbreaks are not commonly described. This study reports a case of MRSA outbreak and discusses infection control measures and recommendations for this situation.

  17. A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckx, Lily Yin; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Machado, Antónia; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Tuboi, Suely; de Barros, Eliana; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo

    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. The isolates were tested for different serogroups using agglutination and polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model assessed any independent association between Neisseria meningitidis carriage and various risk factors. A total of 87/967 subjects (9%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 7.3-11.0) tested positive for N. meningitidis: 6.2% (95% CI: 3.8-9.4) in 1-4 years, 8.5% (95% CI: 5.1-13.0) in 5-9 years, 12.5% (95% CI: 7.8-18.6) in 10-14 years, 12.6% (95% CI: 7.4-19.7) in 15-19 years and 9% (95% CI: 4.9-14.9) in 20-24 years age groups. Highest carriage prevalence was observed in adolescents 10-19 years old. Serogroup C was predominant (18.4%) followed by serogroup B (12.6%). The 15-19 years age group showed a significant association between number of household members and carriers of N. meningitidis. This cross-sectional study is the first in Brazil to evaluate meningococcal carriage prevalence and associated factors in a wide age range. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Twenty Percent of Patients May Remain Colonized With Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Despite a Decolonization Protocol in Patients Undergoing Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz, Michael D; Hallmark, Ruth; Odum, Susan M; Springer, Bryan D

    2015-07-01

    needed. Despite the protocol, 22% (26 of 121) of patients remained colonized with MRSA. With the numbers available, there were no differences in infection risk between the protocoled group (27 of 3434 [0.8%]) and the historical control group (33 of 3080 [1.1%]; relative risk [RR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-1.22; p = 0.28). In terms of infecting organism in those who developed SSI, S aureus risk decreased slightly (treatment: 13 of 3434 patients [0.38%]; control: 21 of 3080 patients [0.68%]; RR, 0.56; CI, 0.28-1.11; p = 0.11). Within the protocoled group, carriers had a slightly higher risk of developing SSI (carrier: seven of 644 [1.1%]; noncarrier: 18 of 2763 [0.65%]; RR, 1.77; CI, 0.74-4.24; p = 0.20). The screening and decolonization protocol enabled a substantial reduction in nasal carriage of MRSA, but some patients remained colonized. However, our nasal decolonization protocol before elective total joint arthroplasty did not demonstrate a decrease in the proportion of patients developing SSI. Future meta-analyses and systematic reviews will be needed to pool the results of studies like these to ascertain whether small improvements in infection risk are achieved by protocols like ours and to determine whether any such improvements warrant the costs and potential risks of surveillance and intervention. Level III, therapeutic study.

  19. Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomic births in abuja: A case–control study of predisposing factors and early neonatal outcome. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (2017) > ... Independent predictors of macrosomia were parental high social class (P = 0.000), gestational weight gain of ≥15 kg (P = 0.000), and previous history of macrosomia (P = 0.002).

  20. Musculoskeletal symptoms associated with posterior load carriage: An assessment of manual material handling workers in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2015-06-05

    Concerns have been raised regarding the high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) among manual material handling (MMH) workers. However, limited investigations have been undertaken among one large group of workers using a particular MMH method called posterior load carriage (PLC). This is typically done without the use of a backpack in developing countries, and involves exposure to known risk factors for MSS such as heavy loads, non-neutral postures, and high levels of repetition. To 1) determine the types and prevalence of MSS among PLC workers and the impacts of these MSS on workers, 2) explore job demands potentially contributing to MSS, and (3) obtain input from workers regarding possible improvements to facilitate future interventions. Structured interview applied to 108 workers to assess PLC worker characteristics and job demands in eight cities in Indonesia. MSS were reported in all anatomical regions evaluated, with symptoms most commonly reported at the lower back (72.2%), feet (69.4%), knees (64%), shoulders (47.2%), and neck (41.7%). Logistic regression indicated that MSS in the lower back were associated with longer work hours/day, MSS in the hands were associated with load mass, and MSS in the ankles/feet were associated with stature and load carriage frequency. MSS were reported to interfere with daily activity, but only few workers sought medical treatment. Possible improvements included the use of a belt, hook, or backpack/frame, and changes in the carriage method. The study suggests that PLC workers incur a relatively high MSS burden. Future studies are needed to develop and evaluate practical interventions and specific guidelines to improve working conditions and occupational health and safety for PLC workers.