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Sample records for auratus olfactory epithelium

  1. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  5. The location of olfactory receptors within olfactory epithelium is independent of odorant volatility and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFazio Anthony R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to study the pattern of olfactory receptor expression within the dorsal and ventral regions of the mouse olfactory epithelium. We hypothesized that olfactory receptors were distributed based on the chemical properties of their ligands: e.g. receptors for polar, hydrophilic and weakly volatile odorants would be present in the dorsal region of olfactory epithelium; while receptors for non-polar, more volatile odorants would be distributed to the ventral region. To test our hypothesis, we used micro-transplantation of cilia-enriched plasma membranes derived from dorsal or ventral regions of the olfactory epithelium into Xenopus oocytes for electrophysiological characterization against a panel of 100 odorants. Findings Odorants detected by ORs from the dorsal and ventral regions showed overlap in volatility and water solubility. We did not find evidence for a correlation between the solubility and volatility of odorants and the functional expression of olfactory receptors in the dorsal or ventral region of the olfactory epithelia. Conclusions No simple clustering or relationship between chemical properties of odorants could be associated with the different regions of the olfactory epithelium. These results suggest that the location of ORs within the epithelium is not organized based on the physico-chemical properties of their ligands.

  6. Expression of connexin 57 in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunbo

    2011-11-01

    In the visual system, deletion of connexin 57 (Cx57) reduces gap junction coupling among horizontal cells and results in smaller receptive fields. To explore potential functions of Cx57 in olfaction, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate expression of Cx57 in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. Hybridization signal was stronger in the olfactory epithelial layer compared to the connective tissue underneath. Within the sensory epithelial layer, hybridization signal was visible in sublayers containing cell bodies of basal cells and olfactory neurons but not evident at the apical sublayer comprising cell bodies of sustentacular cells. These Cx57 positive cells were clustered into small groups to form different patterns in the olfactory epithelium. However, individual patterns did not associate with specific regions of olfactory turbinates or specific olfactory receptor zones. Patched distribution of hybridization positive cells was also observed in the olfactory bulb and accessory olfactory bulb in layers where granule cells, mitral cells, and juxtaglomerular cells reside. Immunostaining was observed in the cell types described above but the intensity was weaker than that in the retina. This study has provided anatomical basis for future studies on the function of Cx57 in the olfactory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  7. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: His.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 TFs and others Others Olfactory epitheliu...m SRX143828 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: His.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: ALL.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: ALL.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Oth.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: His.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 No description Others Olfactory epitheliu...m http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Input control Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX112965,SRX143806,SRX185883,SRX378545,SRX378544 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 DNase-seq Others Olfactory epithelium SRX...378537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 RNA polymerase Others Olfactory epitheliu...m SRX112963,SRX143827 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 DNase-seq Others Olfactory epithelium SRX...378537 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 All antigens Others Olfactory epithelium ...533,SRX472910,SRX378534,SRX378536 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 RNA polymerase Others Olfactory epitheliu...m SRX112963,SRX143827 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Input control Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX112965,SRX185883,SRX143806,SRX378545,SRX378544 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 All antigens Others Olfactory epithelium ...534,SRX378545,SRX378544,SRX472910 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 No description Others Olfactory epitheliu...m http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  14. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  15. TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium

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    Liman Emily R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE in the nasal cavity detects a variety of air borne molecules that provide information regarding the presence of food, predators and other relevant social and environmental factors. Within the epithelium are ciliated sensory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and microvillous cells, each of which is distinct in morphology and function. Arguably, the least understood, are the microvillous cells, a population of cells that are small in number and whose function is not known. We previously found that in a mouse strain in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, a population of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, as well as a population of cells displaying microvilli-like structures is labeled. Here we examined the morphology and immunocytochemical properties of these microvillous-like cells using immunocytochemical methods. Results We show that the GFP-positive microvillous cells were morphologically diversified and scattered throughout the entire MOE. These cells immunoreacted to an antibody against TRPM5, confirming the expression of this ion channel in these cells. In addition, they showed a Ca2+-activated non-selective cation current in electrophysiological recordings. They did not immunoreact to antibodies that label cell markers and elements of the transduction pathways from olfactory sensory neurons and solitary chemosensory cells of the nasal cavity. Further, the TRPM5-expressing cells did not display axon-like processes and were not labeled with a neuronal marker nor did trigeminal peptidergic nerve fibers innervate these cells. Conclusion We provide morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of the TRPM5-expressing microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium. Our data demonstrate that these cells are non-neuronal and in terms of chemosensory transduction do not resemble the TRPM5-expressing olfactory sensory neurons

  16. Cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium: light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Sugata; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2004-06-01

    The three-dimensional cytoarchitecture of the normal rat olfactory epithelium was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of KOH digested tissues as well as by light and transmission electron microscopy of plastic sections. Observations specimens from the lateral side of the olfactory epithelium allowed identification of four cell types by their surface structure: olfactory neurons, supporting cells, basal cells, and duct cells of the Bowman's gland. The olfactory neurons were characterized by the presence of a thick apical process (i.e., dendrite) and a thin basal process (i.e., axon). These olfactory neurons tended to be aligned along the vertical axis of the epithelium. Immature olfactory neurons were present at the basal part of the epithelium and had a pear-shaped cell body with a thin and long axon and a short dendrite which failed to reach the epithelial surface. Supporting cells were roughly columnar in shape and occupied the full length of the epithelium. They became thinner in the basal two thirds of their length but had branched foot processes spreading on the basal surface of the epithelium. Basal cells located in the basal epithelial region were oval, round or cuboidal and present among the foot processes of the supporting cells. The ducts of the Bowman's gland entered the epithelium from the lamina propria and took straight, perpendicular courses within the epithelium. These intraepithelial ducts were composed of several slender cells. The acinar cells are sometimes present in the epithelium and appeared as a globular bulge of the duct at the basal part of the epithelium. SEM observation of the basal surface of the olfactory epithelium also clearly showed that axon bundles were surrounded by the sheet-like processes of Schwann cells, the investment being found at the base of the epithelium just before axon bundles leave the epithelium.

  17. Intranasal location and immunohistochemical characterization of the equine olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kupke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory epithelium (OE is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system (CNS. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g. Borna disease virus (BoDV, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1, hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g. horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of 5 adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein (OMP and doublecortin (DCX expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine type a and b were

  18. Odorant receptor proteins in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Victoria F; Mombaerts, Peter

    2017-03-06

    In the mouse, odorant receptor proteins (ORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). ORs mediate odorant reception at the level of the OSN cilia. Most of the ∼1100 OR genes in the mouse genome are expressed, at the RNA level, in mature OSNs. The literature on antibodies against ORs is limited, and most reports are with antibodies that are not commercially available. Here we have screened 40 commercial antibodies against human and mouse ORs by immunofluorescence staining of coronal cryosections of the MOE of 21-day-old C57BL/6J mice. Various methods of antigen retrieval were tested. Of the 19 antibodies raised against human ORs, three yielded a consistent immunoreactive signal in the mouse MOE; of these three, two appeared to cross react against one or more, unknown, mouse ORs. Of the 21 antibodies raised against mouse ORs, six yielded a consistent immunoreactive signal in the mouse MOE; of these six, two also stained specific glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Antibody specificity could be validated with gene-targeted mouse strains in the case of three ORs. The number of OSNs immunoreactive for the MOR28/Olfr1507 antibody is greater in C57BL/6J than in 129S6/SvEvTac wild-type mice. Taken together, our results are encouraging: 20-30% of these commercially available antibodies are informative in immunohistochemical analyses of the mouse MOE. The commercial availability of these antibodies should facilitate the study of OR proteins in the MOE and the olfactory bulb, and the replicability of results in the literature. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, Chelsea; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Jia, Cuihong; Hegg, Colleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium has not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1 and CB2 receptor deficient (CB1−/−/CB2−/−) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1−/−/CB2−/− mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1−/−/CB2−/− mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. PMID:26037800

  20. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

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    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  1. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  2. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  3. Valproic acid ameliorates olfactory dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease: Ameliorations from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-Gang; Jing, Hai-Yan; Wang, Dong-Mei; Lv, Bei-Bei; Li, Jia-Mei; Liu, Feng-Feng; Fan, Hui; Sun, Xi-Chao; Qin, Ye-Jun; Zhao, Miao-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a common and early symptom of many neurodegenerative diseases, particularly of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment, pointing to the progression to dementia. Recent studies have revealed that valproic acid (VPA) has neuroprotective effects in rodent models of AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of VPA on olfactory dysfunction of APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse models of AD. After continuous treatment with a 100mg/kg daily dose of VPA for 3 months, APP/PS1 mice showed improved olfactory performances. In agreement with the behavioral findings, VPA treatment reduced amyloid β (Aβ) burden in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of transgenic mice. And, VPA increased epithelial thickness of the olfactory mucosa through decreased cell apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. In the olfactory bulb (OB), VPA administration also reduced senile plaques and levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ42 peptides. Besides, VPA promoted the increase of mitral cells and decrease of neurofilament immunostaining. In hence, VPA treatment completely improved the olfactory performances and prevented degenerative changes of the OE and OB. Our study raises the possibility of AD diagnosis by OE biopsy. Moreover, VPA may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of olfactory dysfunction in AD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

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    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  5. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

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    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  6. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

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    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  7. Response of the hammerhead shark olfactory epithelium to amino acid stimuli.

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    Tricas, Timothy C; Kajiura, Stephen M; Summers, Adam P

    2009-10-01

    Sharks and rays are highly sensitive to chemical stimuli in their natural environment but several hypotheses predict that hammerhead sharks, with their expanded head and enlarged olfactory epithelium, have particularly acute olfactory systems. We used the electro-olfactogram (EOG) technique to compare the relative response of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) olfactory epithelium to 20 proteinogenic amino acids and determine the sensitivity for 6 amino acids. At micromolar concentrations, cysteine evoked the greatest EOG response which was approximately twice as large as that of alanine. The weakest response was obtained for proline followed by aspartic acid and isoleucine. The olfactory epithelium showed adaptation to sequential stimulation, and recovery was related to the inter-stimulus time period. Estimated EOG response thresholds were in the sub-nanomolar range for both alanine (9.2 x 10(-11) M) and cysteine (8.4 x 10(-10) M) and in the micromolar range for proline and serine. These thresholds from 10(-10) to 10(-6) M for the scalloped hammerhead shark are comparable or lower than those reported for other teleost and elasmobranch species. Future work should focus on binary and more complex compounds to test for competition and cross-adaptation for different classes of peripheral receptors, and their responses to molecules found in biologically relevant stimuli.

  8. Expression and localization of histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors in rat olfactory epithelium.

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    Yu, Chao; Li, Li; Xia, Qingjie; Tang, Yuedi

    2017-10-01

    Histamine is an important chemical mediator in the development of allergic rhinitis and plays a key role in eliciting the nasal symptoms of the disorder. Histamine may also affect smell as a neurotransmitter. However, whether histamine receptors are present in the mammalian olfactory epithelium has not yet been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and distribution of histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors in rat olfactory epithelium. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining were performed to examine the mRNA level and protein expression and localization of histamine receptors (H1, H2, and H3) in rat olfactory epithelium. We demonstrated that mRNAs encoding histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors were detected in rat olfactory epithelium. Immunohistochemistry also showed strong positive staining for these receptors. Co-localization of histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors with olfactory mature protein revealed that these three histamine receptors were mainly localized in olfactory receptor neurons. These findings indicate that histamine H1, H2, and H3 receptors are present in rat olfactory epithelium and may play a physiological role in olfactory transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

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    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  10. Gene Expression Profiles of Main Olfactory Epithelium in Adenylyl Cyclase 3 Knockout Mice

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    Zhenshan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenylyl Cyclase 3 (AC3 plays an important role in the olfactory sensation-signaling pathway in mice. AC3 deficiency leads to defects in olfaction. However, it is still unknown whether AC3 deficiency affects gene expression or olfactory signal transduction pathways within the main olfactory epithelium (MOE. In this study, gene microarrays were used to screen differentially expressed genes in MOE from AC3 knockout (AC3−/− and wild-type (AC3+/+ mice. The differentially expressed genes identified were subjected to bioinformatic analysis and verified by qRT-PCR. Gene expression in the MOE from AC3−/− mice was significantly altered, compared to AC3+/+ mice. Of the 41266 gene probes, 3379 had greater than 2-fold fold change in expression levels between AC3−/− and AC3+/+ mice, accounting for 8% of the total gene probes. Of these genes, 1391 were up regulated, and 1988 were down regulated, including 425 olfactory receptor genes, 99 genes that are specifically expressed in the immature olfactory neurons, 305 genes that are specifically expressed in the mature olfactory neurons, and 155 genes that are involved in epigenetic regulation. Quantitative RT-PCR verification of the differentially expressed epigenetic regulation related genes, olfactory receptors, ion transporter related genes, neuron development and differentiation related genes, lipid metabolism and membrane protein transport etc. related genes showed that P75NTR, Hinfp, Gadd45b, and Tet3 were significantly up-regulated, while Olfr370, Olfr1414, Olfr1208, Golf, Faim2, Tsg101, Mapk10, Actl6b, H2BE, ATF5, Kirrrel2, OMP, Drd2 etc. were significantly down-regulated. In summary, AC3 may play a role in proximal olfactory signaling and play a role in the regulation of differentially expressed genes in mouse MOE.

  11. CX₃CR1 deficiency exacerbates neuronal loss and impairs early regenerative responses in the target-ablated olfactory epithelium.

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    Blomster, Linda V; Vukovic, Jana; Hendrickx, Debbie A E; Jung, Steffen; Harvey, Alan R; Filgueira, Luis; Ruitenberg, Marc J

    2011-11-01

    The olfactory epithelium is a site of sustained adult neurogenesis where olfactory sensory neurons are continuously replaced from endogenous stem/progenitor cells. Epithelial macrophages have been implicated in the phagocytosis of degenerating cells but the molecular mechanisms allowing for their recruitment and activation while maintaining a neurogenic microenvironment are poorly understood. We have previously shown that the chemokine fractalkine (CX₃CL1) is expressed by olfactory sensory neurons and ensheathing cells in the olfactory epithelium. In turn, the fractalkine receptor, CX₃CR1, is expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells within the olfactory epithelium. We report that a selective cell death of olfactory sensory neurons in the epithelium of CX₃CR1-deficient mice via target ablation (i.e. olfactory bulbectomy) results in an exacerbated loss of olfactory sensory neurons compared to wild-type mice. In addition, reduced proliferation of intraepithelial stem/progenitor cells was observed in lesioned CX₃CR1-deficient mice, suggesting an impaired regenerative response. Importantly, a lack of CX₃CL1-signaling caused increased recruitment of macrophages into the olfactory epithelium, which in turn contained higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α and IL-6) as determined by qPCR. We also present novel data showing that, relative to wild-type, CX₃CR1-deficient macrophages have diminished phagocytic activity following stimulation with CX₃CL1. Collectively, our data indicate that signaling through the CX₃CR1 receptor modulates macrophage activity, resulting in an environment conducive to olfactory sensory neuron clearance and targeted replacement from endogenous stem/progenitor cells. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptosis and molecular pathways in the seminiferous epithelium of aged and photoinhibited Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

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    Morales, Eva; Ferrer, Concepcion; Zuasti, Adelina; Garcia-Borron, Jose C; Canteras, Manuel; Pastor, Luis M

    2007-01-01

    Aging and short photoperiod exposure induce germ cell apoptosis in the Syrian hamster; however, the specific germ cells affected and the molecular pathways triggered have not been elucidated. We analyzed germ cell apoptosis and the expression of the Fas/Fas-L system, Bcl-2 family, and p53 in aged and photoinhibited hamsters and compared with those young maintained in natural photoperiod. Aging increased apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, but in photoinhibited hamster testes only an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes was observed. Apoptosis was higher in aged hamsters in stages I-IV, V-VI and VII-VIII. Aging increased apoptosis of spermatogonia in stages I-IV and V-VI. Apoptotic pachytene spermatocytes were significantly higher in stages I-IV, V-VI, and VII-VIII in aging. Apoptotic preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were higher in aging, but no differences were observed in leptotene-zygotene. Fas-L was expressed by Sertoli cells, of young, aged, and photoinhibited hamsters. Bcl-x(L) was strongly expressed in germ cells on young hamsters and slightly in aging and after short photoperiod exposure. Spermatocytes of photoinhibited hamsters were intensively stained with Fas, Bax, Bcl-xs/L, and p53. In conclusion, aging increases apoptosis in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, depending on the stage of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, whereas after a short photoperiod exposure only an increase in apoptotic spermatocytes is observed. The results suggest that Fas, Bcl-x(L), Bax, and p53 participate in germ cell apoptosis induction after short photoperiod exposure, whereas only Bcl-x(L) is involved in aging.

  13. Differential expression of components of the retinoic acid signaling pathway in the adult mouse olfactory epithelium.

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    Peluso, Carolyn E; Jang, Woochan; Dräger, Ursula C; Schwob, James E

    2012-11-01

    Position within a tissue often correlates with cellular phenotype, for example, differential expression of odorant receptors and cell adhesion molecules across the olfactory mucosa (OM). The association between position and phenotype is often paralleled by gradations in the concentration of retinoic acid (RA), caused by differential expression of the RA synthetic enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDH). We show here that RALDH-1, -2, and -3 are enriched in the sustentacular cells, deep fibroblasts of the lamina propria, and the superficial fibroblasts, respectively, of the ventral and lateral OM as compared to the dorsomedial OM. The shift from high to low expression of the RALDHs matches the boundary defined by the differential expression of OCAM/mamFasII. Further, we found that RA-binding proteins are expressed in the epithelium overlying the RALDH-3 expressing fibroblasts of the lamina propria. Both findings suggest that local alterations in RA concentration may be more important than a gradient of RA across the epithelial plane, per se. In addition, RALDH-3 is found in a small population of basal cells in the ventral and lateral epithelium, which expand and contribute to the neuronal lineage following MeBr lesion. Indeed, transduction with a retrovirus expressing a dominant negative form of retinoic acid receptor type alpha blocks the reappearance of mature, olfactory marker protein (OMP) (+) olfactory neurons as compared to empty vector. These results support the notion of a potential role for RA, both in maintaining the spatial organization of the normal olfactory epithelium and in reestablishing the neuronal population during regeneration after injury. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Appearance of crypt neurons in the olfactory epithelium of the skate Raja clavata during development.

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    Ferrando, Sara; Bottaro, Massimiliano; Pedemonte, Federico; De Lorenzo, Simone; Gallus, Lorenzo; Tagliafierro, Grazia

    2007-10-01

    Crypt neurons are olfactory receptor cells located in the olfactory epithelium of fishes. They exhibit a peculiar and well-recognizable morphology, although their odorant specificity is still unknown. Data on their appearance during development are few and far between. This study set out to identify the time at which crypt neurons appeared in the skate, Raja clavata, using histological and immunohistochemical methods. For this purpose, embryos and juveniles at different stages of development, from 13 weeks after laying (11 weeks before hatching) to 24 weeks after hatching, were examined. The crypt neurons were identified on a morphological basis. An anti-alpha-tubulin antibody and two lectins (wheat germ agglutinin and peanut agglutinin) were used to highlight morphological details. The olfactory marker protein was detected by immunohistochemistry, because this protein is a marker of neuronal maturity in vertebrates. The crypt neurons could be detected by their morphology at 15 weeks after laying and became strongly olfactory marker protein immunoreactive 22 weeks after laying. Although involvement of crypt neurons in reproductive behavior has been inferred in various studies on bony fishes, their early presence in skate embryos and juveniles may suggest that they are not exclusively involved in sexual behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Enhanced Analgesic Responses After Preferential Delivery of Morphine and Fentanyl to the Olfactory Epithelium in Rats

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    Hoekman, John D.; Ho, Rodney J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Centrally acting opioid analgesics such as morphine and fentanyl are effective, but their efficacy is often limited by a delayed response or side effects resulting from systemic first-pass before reaching the brain and the central nervous system (CNS). It is generally accepted that drugs applied to the nasal cavity can directly access the brain and the CNS, which could provide therapeutic advantages such as rapid onset and lower systemic exposure. The olfactory region of the nasal cavity has been implicated in facilitating this direct nose-to-CNS transfer. If the fraction of opioid administered to the olfactory region could be improved, there could be a larger fraction of drug directly delivered to the CNS, mediating greater therapeutic benefit. Methods We have developed a pressurized olfactory delivery (POD) device to consistently and non-invasively deposit a majority of drug on the olfactory region of the nasal cavity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using the tail-flick latency test and analysis of plasma and CNS tissue drug exposure, we compared distribution and efficacy of the opioids morphine and fentanyl administered to the nasal olfactory region with the POD device or the nasal respiratory region with nose drops or systemically via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Results Compared to nose drop, POD administration of morphine resulted in significantly higher overall therapeutic effect (AUCeffect) without a significant increase in plasma drug exposure (AUCplasma). POD delivery of morphine resulted in a nose-to-CNS direct transport percentage of 38–55%. POD delivery of fentanyl led to a faster (5 min vs. 10 min) and more intense analgesic effect compared to nasal respiratory administration. Unlike IP injection or nose drop administration, both morphine and fentanyl given by the POD device to olfactory nasal epithelium exhibited clockwise [plasma] versus effect hysteresis after nasal POD administration, consistent with direct nose-to-CNS drug transport

  16. Primary Cilia on Horizontal Basal Cells Regulate Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium.

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    Joiner, Ariell M; Green, Warren W; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Allen, Benjamin L; Schwob, James E; Martens, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-07

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88(fl/fl)) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory neurons and may

  17. Kinetics of chemically mediated neurodegeneration/neuroregeneration of mouse olfactory epithelium: monitoring by hyperlayer sedimentation field flow fractionation.

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    Mitais, N; Bessette, B; Gobron, S; Cardot, P; Jauberteau, M O; Battu, S; Lalloué, F

    2014-02-01

    The increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases linked to aging or injury needs to be addressed in research into neuroprotective or neuroregenerative therapies, and requires the development of specific biological models. To achieve this goal we propose (1) the use of the mouse olfactory epithelium as a biological support which specifically exhibits a regenerative or a self-renewing capacity and during the lifetime necessitates the presence of neural stem cells, and (2) the use of an intraperitoneal injection of 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (diclobenil) as a chemical inducer of neurodegeneration in olfactory epithelium by selectively killing mature cells. We developed a biological model to follow the processes of neurodegeneration (chemically induced) and neuroregeneration (self-renewal of olfactory epithelium). The purpose of this study was to develop a method to monitor quickly neurodegeneration/neuroregeneration processes in order to further screen protective and regenerative therapies. For this purpose, we used the sedimentation field flow fractionation elution of olfactory epithelium. We obtained specific elution profiles and retention parameters allowing the monitoring of the induction and kinetics of biological processes. The use of insulin-like growth factor 1α as a neuroprotective agent in an innovative nebulization protocol showed sedimentation field flow fractionation to be a simple, fast and low-cost method to monitor such a biological event on the scale of an entire organism.

  18. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and olfactory epithelium as portals of entry for Burkholderia pseudomallei in murine melioidosis.

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    Owen, Suzzanne J; Batzloff, Michael; Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Meedeniya, Adrian; Casart, Yveth; Logue, Carie-Anne; Hirst, Robert G; Peak, Ian R; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R

    2009-06-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is generally considered to be acquired via inhalation of dust or water droplets from the environment. In this study, we show that infection of the nasal mucosa is potentially an important portal of entry in melioidosis. After intranasal inoculation of mice, infection was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and by immunohistological analysis of coronal sections. The bacterial loads in organ and tissue specimens were also monitored. Bioluminescence imaging showed colonization and replication in the nasal cavity, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Analysis of coronal sections and immunofluorescence microscopy further demonstrated the presence of infection in the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory epithelium (including associated nerve bundles), as well as in the NALT. Of significance, the olfactory epithelium and the brain were rapidly infected before bacteria were detected in blood, and a capsule-deficient mutant infected the brain without significantly infecting blood. These data suggest that the olfactory nerve is the route of entry into the brain and that this route of entry may be paralleled in cases of human neurologic melioidosis. This study focuses attention on the upper respiratory tract as a portal of entry, specifically focusing on NALT as a route for the development of systemic infection via the bloodstream and on the olfactory epithelium as a direct route to the brain.

  19. Mechanisms of constitutive and ATP-evoked ATP release in neonatal mouse olfactory epithelium

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    Hayoz Sébastien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP is an extracellular signaling molecule with many ascribed functions in sensory systems, including the olfactory epithelium. The mechanism(s by which ATP is released in the olfactory epithelium has not been investigated. Quantitative luciferin-luciferase assays were used to monitor ATP release, and confocal imaging of the fluorescent ATP marker quinacrine was used to monitor ATP release via exocytosis in Swiss Webster mouse neonatal olfactory epithelial slices. Results Under control conditions, constitutive release of ATP occurs via exocytosis, hemichannels and ABC transporters and is inhibited by vesicular fusion inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin A and hemichannel and ABC transporter inhibitor probenecid. Constitutive ATP release is negatively regulated by the ATP breakdown product ADP through activation of P2Y receptors, likely via the cAMP/PKA pathway. In vivo studies indicate that constitutive ATP may play a role in neuronal homeostasis as inhibition of exocytosis inhibited normal proliferation in the OE. ATP-evoked ATP release is also present in mouse neonatal OE, triggered by several ionotropic P2X purinergic receptor agonists (ATP, αβMeATP and Bz-ATP and a G protein-coupled P2Y receptor agonist (UTP. Calcium imaging of P2X2-transfected HEK293 “biosensor” cells confirmed the presence of evoked ATP release. Following purinergic receptor stimulation, ATP is released via calcium-dependent exocytosis, activated P2X1,7 receptors, activated P2X7 receptors that form a complex with pannexin channels, or ABC transporters. The ATP-evoked ATP release is inhibited by the purinergic receptor inhibitor PPADS, Clostridium difficile toxin A and two inhibitors of pannexin channels: probenecid and carbenoxolone. Conclusions The constitutive release of ATP might be involved in normal cell turn-over or modulation of odorant sensitivity in physiological conditions. Given the growth-promoting effects of ATP, ATP-evoked ATP

  20. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

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    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  1. Subchronic inhalation exposure to 2-ethyl-1-hexanol impairs the mouse olfactory bulb via injury and subsequent repair of the nasal olfactory epithelium.

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    Miyake, Mio; Ito, Yuki; Sawada, Masato; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Himiko; Sakamoto, Tatsuo; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    The olfactory system can be a toxicological target of volatile organic compounds present in indoor air. Recently, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) emitted from adhesives and carpeting materials has been postulated to cause "sick building syndrome." Patients' symptoms are associated with an increased sense of smell. This investigation aimed to characterize the histopathological changes of the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasal cavity and the olfactory bulb (OB) in the brain, due to subchronic exposure to 2E1H. Male ICR mice were exposed to 0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm 2E1H for 8 h every day for 1 week, or 5 days per week for 1 or 3 months. After a 1-week exposure, the OE showed inflammation and degeneration, with a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the staining of olfactory receptor neurons and in the numbers of globose basal cells at ≥20 ppm. Regeneration occurred at 1 month along with an increase in the basal cells, but lymphocytic infiltration, expanded Bowman's glands, and a decrease in the olfactory receptor neurons were observed at 3 months. Intriguingly, the OB at 3 months showed a reduction in the diameters of the glomeruli and in the number of olfactory nerves and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, but an increased number of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive microglia in glomeruli. Accordingly, 2E1H inhalation induced degeneration of the OE with the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 ppm. The altered number of functional cell components in the OB suggests that effects on olfactory sensation persist after subchronic exposure to 2E1H.

  2. DeltaNp63 regulates stem cell dynamics in the mammalian olfactory epithelium.

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    Packard, Adam; Schnittke, Nikolai; Romano, Rose-Anne; Sinha, Satrajit; Schwob, James E

    2011-06-15

    The ability of the olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate after injury is mediated by at least two populations of presumed stem cells-globose basal cells (GBCs) and horizontal basal cells (HBCs). Of the two, GBCs are molecularly and phenotypically analogous to the olfactory progenitors of the embryonic placode (OPPs). In contrast, HBCs are a reserve stem cell population that appears later in development and requires activation by severe epithelial damage before contributing to epithelial reconstitution. Neither HBC emergence nor the mechanism of activation after injury is understood. Here we show that the transcription factor p63 (Trp63), which is expressed selectively by adult HBCs, is required for HBC differentiation. The first evidence of HBC differentiation is the expression of p63 by cells that closely resemble embryonic OPPs and adult GBCs by morphology and expression of the transcription factors Sox2, Ascl1, and Hes1. HBC formation is delayed in Ascl1 knock-out OE and is completely abrogated in p63-null mice. Strikingly, other cell types of the OE form normally in the p63 knock-out OE. The role of p63 in HBC differentiation appears to be conserved in the regenerating rat OE, where HBCs disappear and then reappear after tissue lesion. Finally, p63 protein is downregulated in HBCs activated by lesion to become multipotent progenitor cells. Together, our data identify a novel mechanism for the generation of a reserve stem cell population and suggest that a p63-dependent molecular switch is responsible for activating reserve stem cells when they are needed.

  3. ΔNp63 Regulates Stem Cell Dynamics in the Mammalian Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Adam; Schnittke, Nikolai; Romano, Rose-Anne; Sinha, Satrajit; Schwob, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of the olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate after injury is mediated by at least two populations of presumed stem cells – globose basal cells (GBCs) and horizontal basal cells (HBCs). Of the two, GBCs are molecularly and phenotypically analogous to the olfactory progenitors of the embryonic placode (OPPs). In contrast, HBCs are a reserve stem cell population that appears later in development and requires activation by severe epithelial damage before contributing to epithelial reconstitution. Neither HBC emergence nor the mechanism of activation after injury is understood. Here we show that the transcription factor p63 (Trp63), which is expressed selectively by adult HBCs, is required for HBC differentiation. The first evidence of HBC differentiation is the expression of p63 by cells that closely resemble embryonic OPPs and adult GBCs by morphology and expression of the transcription factors Sox2, Ascl1, and Hes1. HBC formation is delayed in Ascl1 knockout OE and is completely abrogated in p63-null mice. Strikingly, other cell types of the OE form normally in the p63 knockout OE. The role of p63 in HBC differentiation appears to be conserved in the regenerating rat OE, where HBCs disappear and then reappear after tissue lesion. Finally, p63 protein is down-regulated in HBCs activated by lesion to become multipotent progenitor cells. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for the generation of a reserve stem cell population and suggest a p63-dependent molecular switch is responsible for activating reserve stem cells when they are needed. PMID:21677159

  4. Proteoglycan abnormalities in olfactory epithelium tissue from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Boyer-Boiteau, Anne; Holbrook, Eric H; Jang, Woochan; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Arnold, Steven E; Berretta, Sabina

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence points to proteoglycan abnormalities in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). In particular, markedly abnormal expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), key components of the extracellular matrix, was observed in the medial temporal lobe. CSPG functions, including regulation of neuronal differentiation and migration, are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. CSPGs may exert similar functions in the olfactory epithelium (OE), a continuously regenerating neural tissue that shows cell and molecular abnormalities in SZ. We tested the hypothesis that CSPG expression in OE may be altered in SZ. CSPG-positive cells in postmortem OE from non-psychiatric control (n=9) and SZ (n=10) subjects were counted using computer-assisted light microscopy. 'Cytoplasmic' CSPG (c-CSPG) labeling was detected in sustentacular cells and some olfactory receptor neurons (c-CSPG+ORNs), while 'pericellular' CSPG (p-CSPG) labeling was found in basal cells and some ORNs (p-CSPG+ORNs). Dual labeling for CSPG and markers for mature and immature ORNs suggests that c-CSPG+ORNs correspond to mature ORNs, and p-CSPG+ORNs to immature ORNs. Previous studies in the same cohort demonstrated that densities of mature ORNs were unaltered (Arnold et al., 2001). In the present study, numerical densities of c-CSPG+ORNs were significantly decreased in SZ (p<0.025; 99.32% decrease), suggesting a reduction of CSPG expression in mature ORNs. Previous studies showed a striking increase in the ratios of immature neurons with respect to basal cells. In this study, we find that the ratio of p-CSPG+ORNs/CSPG+basal cells was significantly increased (p=0.03) in SZ, while numerical density changes of p-CSPG+ORNs (110.71% increase) or CSPG+basal cells (53.71% decrease), did not reach statistical significance. Together, these results indicate that CSPG abnormalities are present in the OE of SZ and specifically point to a reduction of CSPG expression in mature ORNs in SZ. Given the

  5. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

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    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  6. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

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    Philipp eHohenbrink

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83% – 97% of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29% to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information.

  7. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information.

  8. Transcription factor p63 controls the reserve status but not the stemness of horizontal basal cells in the olfactory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittke, Nikolai; Herrick, Daniel B; Lin, Brian; Peterson, Jesse; Coleman, Julie H; Packard, Adam I; Jang, Woochan; Schwob, James E

    2015-09-08

    Adult tissue stem cells can serve two broad functions: to participate actively in the maintenance and regeneration of a tissue or to wait in reserve and participate only when activated from a dormant state. The adult olfactory epithelium, a site for ongoing, life-long, robust neurogenesis, contains both of these functional stem cell types. Globose basal cells (GBCs) act as the active stem cell population and can give rise to all the differentiated cells found in the normal tissue. Horizontal basal cells (HBCs) act as reserve stem cells and remain dormant unless activated by tissue injury. Here we show that HBC activation following injury by the olfactotoxic gas methyl bromide is coincident with the down-regulation of protein 63 (p63) but anticipates HBC proliferation. Gain- and loss-of-function studies show that this down-regulation of p63 is necessary and sufficient for HBC activation. Moreover, activated HBCs give rise to GBCs that persist for months and continue to act as bona fide stem cells by participating in tissue maintenance and regeneration over the long term. Our analysis provides mechanistic insight into the dynamics between tissue stem cell subtypes and demonstrates that p63 regulates the reserve state but not the stem cell status of HBCs.

  9. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Lack of TRPM5-Expressing Microvillous Cells in Mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium Leads to Impaired Odor-Evoked Responses and Olfactory-Guided Behavior in a Challenging Chemical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Kayla; Aoudé, Imad; Ogura, Tatsuya; Mbonu, Kenechukwu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Arakawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations. Here, we investigated the role of TRPM5-MCs in maintaining olfactory function using transcription factor Skn-1a knockout (Skn-1a-/-) mice, which lack TRPM5-MCs in the MOE. Under our standard housing conditions, Skn-1a-/- mice do not differ significantly from control mice in odor-evoked electro-olfactogram (EOG) responses and olfactory-guided behaviors, including finding buried food and preference reactions to socially and sexually relevant odors. However, after a 2-wk exposure to high-concentration odor chemicals and chitin powder, Skn-1a-/- mice exhibited a significant reduction in their odor and pheromone-evoked EOG responses. Consequently, their olfactory-guided behaviors were impaired compared with vehicle-exposed Skn-1a-/- mice. Conversely, the chemical exposure did not induce significant changes in the EOG responses and olfactory behaviors of control mice. Therefore, our physiological and behavioral results indicate that TRPM5-MCs play a protective role in maintaining the olfactory function of the MOE. PMID:28612045

  11. Testicular histomorphometry and the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the seminiferous epithelium in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) during regression owing to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Saez, F J; Madrid, J F; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2015-05-01

    During the non-breeding season some animals exhibit testicular atrophy, decreased testicular weight and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter accompanied by depletion of the seminiferous epithelium. Some cellular factors involved in this depletion are changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the Syrian hamster this depletion has been studied histologically and in terms of the involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium of fully regressed testes. The objectives of this study included the histomorphometrical characterization of the testis and the determination of the proliferative and apoptotic activity of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular regression owing to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three established regression groups: mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR), and total regression (TR). Morphometrically a gradual decrease in total tubular area and in the testicular, tubular, and epithelial volumes was observed during testicular regression. Interstitial and luminal volumes decreased from the MR group onwards. The tubular length decreased from MR to SR. As regards spermatogonial proliferation, only an initial decrease in proliferative activity was observed, whereas apoptotic germ cell activity increased throughout regression. The number of germ cells studied decreased throughout the process of testicular regression. In conclusion, testicular regression in Syrian hamster comprises two histomorphometrical phases, the first involving a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and volume and the second involving shortening of the seminiferous tubule and a decrease in interstitial volume. At the cellular level, there is an

  12. An IP3R3- and NPY-expressing microvillous cell mediates tissue homeostasis and regeneration in the mouse olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Jia

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent release of neurotrophic factors plays an important role in the maintenance of neurons, yet the release mechanisms are understudied. The inositol triphosphate (IP3 receptor is a calcium release channel that has a physiological role in cell growth, development, sensory perception, neuronal signaling and secretion. In the olfactory system, the IP3 receptor subtype 3 (IP3R3 is expressed exclusively in a microvillous cell subtype that is the predominant cell expressing neurotrophic factor neuropeptide Y (NPY. We hypothesized that IP3R3-expressing microvillous cells secrete sufficient NPY needed for both the continual maintenance of the neuronal population and for neuroregeneration following injury. We addressed this question by assessing the release of NPY and the regenerative capabilities of wild type, IP3R3(+/-, and IP3R3(-/- mice. Injury, simulated using extracellular ATP, induced IP3 receptor-mediated NPY release in wild-type mice. ATP-evoked NPY release was impaired in IP3R3(-/- mice, suggesting that IP3R3 contributes to NPY release following injury. Under normal physiological conditions, both IP3R3(-/- mice and explants from these mice had fewer progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into immature neurons. Although the number of mature neurons and the in vivo rate of proliferation were not altered, the proliferative response to the olfactotoxicant satratoxin G and olfactory bulb ablation injury was compromised in the olfactory epithelium of IP3R3(-/- mice. The reductions in both NPY release and number of progenitor cells in IP3R3(-/- mice point to a role of the IP3R3 in tissue homeostasis and neuroregeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that IP3R3 expressing microvillous cells are actively responsive to injury and promote recovery.

  13. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  14. Cellular Architecture and Functional Aspects of the Olfactory Rosette of Wallago attu (Bleeker)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saroj Kumar; Chakrabarti, Padmanabha

    2009-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium of Wallago attu has been studied with conventional histological techniques. The elongated olfactory rosette consists of 62 to 64 primary lamellae in each left and right rosette. The olfactory lamellae are arranged in two rows on either side of the long raphe. Each olfactory lamella consists of two layers of epithelium separated by central core. The olfactory epithelium in one side consists of mixed sensory and non-sensory epithelium while the other side is consists of...

  15. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

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    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  16. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Julie M; Field, Karen E; Maruska, Karen P

    2016-01-01

    Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of CoCl2 in future

  17. Culture of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qizhi

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons, located in the nasal epithelium, detect and transmit odorant information to the central nervous system. This requires that these neurons form specific neuronal connections within the olfactory bulb and express receptors and signaling molecules specific for these functions. This protocol describes a primary olfactory sensory neuron culture technique that allows in vitro investigation of olfactory sensory neuron differentiation, axon outgrowth, odorant receptor expres...

  18. Immunohistochemical characterization of human olfactory tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Eric H; Wu, Enming; Curry, William T; Lin, Derrick T; Schwob, James E

    2011-08-01

    The pathophysiology underlying human olfactory disorders is poorly understood because biopsying the olfactory epithelium (OE) can be unrepresentative and extensive immunohistochemical analysis is lacking. Autopsy tissue enriches our grasp of normal and abnormal olfactory immunohistology and guides the sampling of the OE by biopsy. Furthermore, a comparison of the molecular phenotype of olfactory epithelial cells between rodents and humans will improve our ability to correlate human histopathology with olfactory dysfunction. An immunohistochemical analysis of human olfactory tissue using a comprehensive battery of proven antibodies. Human olfactory mucosa obtained from 21 autopsy specimens was analyzed with immunohistochemistry. The position and extent of olfactory mucosa was assayed by staining whole mounts (WMs) with neuronal markers. Sections of the OE were analyzed with an extensive group of antibodies directed against cytoskeletal proteins and transcription factors, as were surgical specimens from an esthesioneuroblastoma. Neuron-rich epithelium is always found inferior to the cribriform plate, even at advanced age, despite the interruptions in the neuroepithelial sheet caused by patchy respiratory metaplasia. The pattern of immunostaining with our antibody panel identifies two distinct types of basal cell progenitors in human OE similar to rodents. The panel also clarifies the complex composition of esthesioneuroblastoma. The extent of human olfactory mucosa at autopsy can easily be delineated as a function of age and neurologic disease. The similarities in human versus rodent OE will enable us to translate knowledge from experimental animals to humans and will extend our understanding of human olfactory pathophysiology. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. [Olfactory esthesioneuroma manifesting as Schwartz-Bartter syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Vitrey, D; Boursier, C; Brunot, J; Fléchaire, A

    2000-03-01

    Olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon neuroectodermal tumor originating from the olfactory epithelium, which is rarely associated with hormone excess syndrome. Asymptomatic olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma was diagnosed in a 22-year-old man who presented a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Following surgery, the immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the existence of neurophysin hormone in tumoral cells. This case provides evidence that olfactory esthesioneuroblastoma can be uncovered by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

  20. Odorant organization in the olfactory bulb of the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Warren W; Boyes, Karl; McFadden, Charrie; Daghfous, Gheylen; Auclair, François; Zhang, Huiming; Li, Weiming; Dubuc, Réjean; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2017-04-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons innervate the olfactory bulb, where responses to different odorants generate a chemotopic map of increased neural activity within different bulbar regions. In this study, insight into the basal pattern of neural organization of the vertebrate olfactory bulb was gained by investigating the lamprey. Retrograde labelling established that lateral and dorsal bulbar territories receive the axons of sensory neurons broadly distributed in the main olfactory epithelium and that the medial region receives sensory neuron input only from neurons projecting from the accessory olfactory organ. The response duration for local field potential recordings was similar in the lateral and dorsal regions, and both were longer than medial responses. All three regions responded to amino acid odorants. The dorsal and medial regions, but not the lateral region, responded to steroids. These findings show evidence for olfactory streams in the sea lamprey olfactory bulb: the lateral region responds to amino acids from sensory input in the main olfactory epithelium, the dorsal region responds to steroids (taurocholic acid and pheromones) and to amino acids from sensory input in the main olfactory epithelium, and the medial bulbar region responds to amino acids and steroids stimulating the accessory olfactory organ. These findings indicate that olfactory subsystems are present at the base of vertebrate evolution and that regionality in the lamprey olfactory bulb has some aspects previously seen in other vertebrate species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Anatomy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice

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    Arthur William Barrios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labelling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg’s ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg’s ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs are also labelled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.

  2. Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.

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    Christophe Verbeurgt

    Full Text Available Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems, containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men. Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were

  3. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata

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    Kovtun M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata. Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data, we consider that vomeronasal organ emerged as the result of olfactory epithelium and nasal cavity differentiation.

  4. Olfactory dreams, olfactory interest, and imagery : Relationships to olfactory memory

    OpenAIRE

    Arshamian, Artin

    2007-01-01

    Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...

  5. TSHZ1-dependent gene regulation is essential for olfactory bulb development and olfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragancokova, D.; Rocca, E.; Oonk, A.M.M.; Schulz, H.; Rohde, E.; Bednarsch, J.; Feenstra, I.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Wende, H.; Garratt, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) receives odor information from the olfactory epithelium and relays this to the olfactory cortex. Using a mouse model, we found that development and maturation of OB interneurons depends on the zinc finger homeodomain factor teashirt zinc finger family member 1 (TSHZ1). In

  6. Olfactory imprinting is correlated with changes in gene expression in the olfactory epithelia of the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Maegan V; Newton, Lucy A; Lloyd, Russell C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2006-11-01

    Odors experienced as juveniles can have significant effects on the behavior of mature organisms. A dramatic example of this occurs in salmon, where the odors experienced by developing fish determine the river to which they return as adults. Further examples of olfactory memories are found in many animals including vertebrates and invertebrates. Yet, the cellular and molecular bases underlying the formation of olfactory memory are poorly understood. We have devised a series of experiments to determine whether zebrafish can form olfactory memories much like those observed in salmonids. Here we show for the first time that zebrafish form and retain olfactory memories of an artificial odorant, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), experienced as juveniles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure to PEA results in changes in gene expression within the olfactory sensory system. These changes are evident by in situ hybridization in the olfactory epithelium of the developing zebrafish. Strikingly, our analysis by in situ hybridization demonstrates that the transcription factor, otx2, is up regulated in the olfactory sensory epithelia in response to PEA. This increase is evident at 2-3 days postfertilization and is maintained in the adult animals. We propose that the changes in otx2 gene expression are manifest as an increase in the number of neuronal precursors in the cells olfactory epithelium of the odor-exposed fish. Thus, our results reveal a role for the environment in controlling gene expression in the developing peripheral nervous system. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anatomical specializations for enhanced olfactory sensitivity in kiwi, Apteryx mantelli.

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    Corfield, Jeremy R; Eisthen, Heather L; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Parsons, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The ability to function in a nocturnal and ground-dwelling niche requires a unique set of sensory specializations. The New Zealand kiwi has shifted away from vision, instead relying on auditory and tactile stimuli to function in its environment and locate prey. Behavioral evidence suggests that kiwi also rely on their sense of smell, using olfactory cues in foraging and possibly also in communication and social interactions. Anatomical studies appear to support these observations: the olfactory bulbs and tubercles have been suggested to be large in the kiwi relative to other birds, although the extent of this enlargement is poorly understood. In this study, we examine the size of the olfactory bulbs in kiwi and compare them with 55 other bird species, including emus, ostriches, rheas, tinamous, and 2 extinct species of moa (Dinornithiformes). We also examine the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium to determine if any neural specializations beyond size are present that would increase olfactory acuity. Kiwi were a clear outlier in our analysis, with olfactory bulbs that are proportionately larger than those of any other bird in this study. Emus, close relatives of the kiwi, also had a relative enlargement of the olfactory bulbs, possibly supporting a phylogenetic link to well-developed olfaction. The olfactory bulbs in kiwi are almost in direct contact with the olfactory epithelium, which is indeed well developed and complex, with olfactory receptor cells occupying a large percentage of the epithelium. The anatomy of the kiwi olfactory system supports an enhancement for olfactory sensitivities, which is undoubtedly associated with their unique nocturnal niche. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

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    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  9. Basic principles and molecular mechanisms of olfactory axon pathfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Y; Mori, K

    1997-11-01

    The present review describes several lines of recent evidence providing new insights into the basic principles and mechanisms of axon projection from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Olfactory sensory neurons are classified into approximately 1000 subtypes according to the expression of specific odorant receptors. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor are distributed within one zone out of the four circumscribed zones of the olfactory epithelium and send their axons to the corresponding zone of the olfactory bulb: the principle of zone-to-zone projection. We discuss possible functions of a novel cell adhesion molecule, viz., OCAM, in the formation and maintenance of zone-to-zone projection of both olfactory and vomeronasal axons. Furthermore, olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given odorant receptor converge their axons onto only two topographically fixed glomeruli among the 1500-3000 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb: the principle of glomerular convergence. These axonal connection patterns give rise to the response specificity of the second-order neurons, viz., the mitral/tufted cells, to a particular range of odor molecules. In the process of glomerular convergence, combinatorial functions of axon-associated cell adhesion molecules and odorant receptor proteins may be required for the establishment of the precise targeting of olfactory axons to the appropriate glomeruli.

  10. Olfactory receptors in the mouse septal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Jan F; Gussing, Fredrik; Bohm, Staffan; Breer, Heinz; Strotmann, Jörg

    2004-05-15

    In this study we have identified a repertoire of chemosensory receptors expressed in the septal organ (SO). The results suggest that septal organ neurons are specified to express receptor genes belonging to class II olfactory receptors that are also expressed in the main olfactory epithelium. We found no evidence for the expression of members from the vomeronasal receptor gene families. In the SO, no topography analogous to the receptor expression zones of the main olfactory epithelium was evident. The majority of identified receptors corresponds to genes with restricted expression in the medial and lateral zones of the main olfactory epithelium. This coincides with the expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) throughout the SO, which is considered as a marker for the medial-lateral zones. In contrast, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, a characteristic marker for the dorsal zone, was lacking in the SO. Most of the receptor types were found to be expressed in rather few SO neurons; as an exception, the receptor mOR244-3 was observed in a very high proportion of cells. Although a very high fraction of SO neurons expressed mOR244-3, we found no evidence for the coexpression of different receptors in individual cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Zinc-finger gene Fez in the olfactory sensory neurons regulates development of the olfactory bulb non-cell-autonomously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Masato; Yoshihara, Sei-ichi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Kunio; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    Fez is a zinc-finger gene encoding a transcriptional repressor that is expressed in the olfactory epithelium, hypothalamus, ventrolateral pallium and prethalamus at mid-gestation. To reveal its function, we generated Fez-deficient mice. The Fez-deficient mice showed several abnormalities in the olfactory system: (1) impaired axonal projection of the olfactory sensory neurons; (2) reduced size of the olfactory bulb; (3) abnormal layer formation in the olfactory bulb; and (4) aberrant rostral migration of the interneuron progenitors. Fez was not expressed in the projection neurons, interneurons or interneuron progenitors. Transgene-mediated expression of Fez in olfactory sensory neurons significantly rescued the abnormalities in olfactory axon projection and in the morphogenesis of the olfactory bulb in Fez-knockout mice. Thus, Fez is cell-autonomously required for the axon termination of olfactory sensory neurons, and Fez non-cell-autonomously controls layer formation and interneuron development in the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest that signals from olfactory sensory neurons contribute to the proper formation of the olfactory bulb.

  12. Properties of an optogenetic model for olfactory stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thews, Marion; Möhrlen, Frank; Frings, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Key points In olfactory research it is difficult to deliver stimuli with defined intensity and duration to olfactory sensory neurons.Expression of channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) in olfactory sensory neurons provides a means to activate these neurons with light flashes. Appropriate mouse models are available.The present study explores the suitability of an established olfactory marker protein (OMP)/ChR2–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) mouse model for ex vivo experimentation.Expression of ChR2 in sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium, the septal organ and vomeronasal organ is characterized. Expression pattern of ChR2 in olfactory receptor neurons and the properties of light responses indicate that light stimulation does not impact on signal transduction in the chemosensory cilia.Light‐induced electro‐olfactograms are characterized with light flashes of different intensities, durations and frequencies.The impact of light‐induced afferent stimulation on the olfactory bulb is examined with respect to response amplitude, polarity and low‐pass filtering. Abstract For the examination of sensory processing, it is helpful to deliver stimuli in precisely defined temporal and spatial patterns with accurate control of stimulus intensity. This is challenging in experiments with the mammalian olfactory system because airborne odorants have to be transported into the intricate sensory structures of the nose and must dissolve in mucus to be detected by sensory neurons. Defined and reproducible activity can be generated in olfactory sensory neurons that express the light‐gated ion channel channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2). The neurons can be stimulated by light flashes in a controlled fashion by this optogenetic approach. Here we examined the application of an olfactory marker protein (OMP)/ChR2–yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) model for ex vivo exploration of the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb of the mouse. We studied the expression patterns of ChR2 in the

  13. Conditional Deletion ofRic-8bin Olfactory Sensory Neurons Leads to Olfactory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Cleiton F; Nagai, Maíra H; Lyra, Cassandra S; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Xavier, André M; Glezer, Isaias; Felicio, Luciano F; Malnic, Bettina

    2017-12-13

    The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf. Ric-8b, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with Gαolf and can amplify odorant receptor signal transduction in vitro To explore the function of Ric-8b in vivo , we generated a tissue specific knock-out mouse by crossing OMP-Cre transgenic mice to Ric-8b floxed mice. We found that olfactory-specific Ric-8b knock-out mice of mixed sex do not express the Gαolf protein in the olfactory epithelium. We also found that in these mice, the mature olfactory sensory neuron layer is reduced, and that olfactory sensory neurons show increased rate of cell death compared with wild-type mice. Finally, behavioral tests showed that the olfactory-specific Ric-8b knock-out mice show an impaired sense of smell, even though their motivation and mobility behaviors remain normal. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ric-8b is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) expressed in the olfactory epithelium and in the striatum. Ric-8b interacts with the olfactory Gαolf subunit, and can amplify odorant signaling through odorant receptors in vitro However, the functional significance of this GEF in the olfactory neurons in vivo remains unknown. We report that deletion of Ric-8b in olfactory sensory neurons prevents stable expression of Gαolf. In addition, we demonstrate that olfactory neurons lacking Ric-8b (and consequently Gαolf) are more susceptible to cell death. Ric-8b conditional knock-out mice display impaired olfactory guided behavior. Our results reveal that Ric-8b is essential for olfactory function, and suggest that it may also be essential for Gαolf-dependent functions in the brain. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3712202-12$15.00/0.

  14. Nonoccupational environmental exposure to manganese is linked to deficits in peripheral and central olfactory function.

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    Guarneros, Marco; Ortiz-Romo, Nahum; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Drucker-Colín, René; Hudson, Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Manganese is of growing concern as a toxic air pollutant. It is readily transported from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, and unlike other metals, it is transported transynaptically to structures deep within the brain. However, little is known regarding the possible effect of nonoccupational exposure to manganese on olfactory function. Using the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, we compared the olfactory performance of subjects from a manganese mining district living central effects on olfactory function of big city air pollution, which mostly consists of toxicants known to affect the olfactory epithelium but with lower transynaptic transport capacity compared with manganese. We conclude that nonoccupational exposure to airborne manganese is associated with decrements in both peripheral and central olfactory function.

  15. Mini-review: Making scent of the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in olfactory axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubacq, Caroline; Fouquet, Coralie; Trembleau, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Rodents contain in their genome more than 1,000 functional odorant receptor genes, which are specifically expressed by the olfactory sensory neurons projecting from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Strong evidence for the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in the axon of olfactory sensory neurons was obtained, but no function has been assigned to these axonal mRNAs yet. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence for the presence and local translation of odorant receptor mRNAs in olfactory sensory axons, and to speculate on their possible function in the wiring of the mouse olfactory sensory projections. PMID:23959692

  16. Morphological and electrophysiological examination of olfactory sensory neurons during the early developmental prolarval stage of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, B.S.; Fredricks, Keith; McDonald, R.; Zaidi, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined olfactory sensory neuron morphology and physiological responsiveness in newly hatched sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. These prolarvae hatch shortly after neural tube formation, and stay within nests for approximately 18 days, before moving downstream to silty areas where they burrow, feed and pass to the larval stage. To explore the possibility that the olfactory system is functioning during this prolarval stage, morphological and physiological development of olfactory sensory neurons was examined. The nasal cavity contained an olfactory epithelium with ciliated olfactory sensory neurons. Axons formed aggregates in the basal portion of the olfactory epithelium and spanned the narrow distance between the olfactory epithelium and the brain. The presence of asymmetric synapses with agranular vesicles within fibers in the brain, adjacent to the olfactory epithelium suggests that there was synaptic connectivity between olfactory sensory axons and the brain. Neural recordings from the surface of the olfactory epithelium showed responses following the application of L-arginine, taurocholic acid, petromyzonol sulfate (a lamprey migratory pheromone), and water conditioned by conspecifics. These results suggest that lampreys may respond to olfactory sensory input during the prolarval stage. ?? 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  17. Assessment of Olfactory Memory in Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Reichert, Johanna; Braunsteiner, Josephine; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function. This study includes the investigation of olfactory memory performance in 14 hyposmic patients (8 female, mean age 52.6 years) completing two episodic odor memory tests (Sniffin' Test of Odor Memory and Odor Memory Test). To control for a general impairment in memory function, a verbal and a figural memory test were carried out. A regression model with multiple predictors was calculated for both odor memory tests separately. Odor identification was identified as the only significant predictor for both odor memory tasks. From our results, we conclude that currently available olfactory memory tests are highly influenced by odor identification abilities, implying the need for the development and validation of additional tests in this field which could serve as additional olfactory perception variables for clinical assessment.

  18. MALATHION INDUCED HISTOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS IN GILLS AND KIDNEY OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO

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    ANDREA CRISTINA STAICU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphorous insecticide, used in agriculture and a possible source of environmental poisoning. During malathion metabolization, mitochondria generates reactive oxygen species, responsible for significant structural changes. In this study, gills and kidney histological changes in Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to 0.05 mg/l malathion were investigated. In kidney, the effects were dramatic. The 24 -72 hours exposure to malathion induced cytoplasm vacuolization and changes in cell and nuclear volumes. In addition, necrotic renal tubules appeared, nuclear malformations of epithelial cells, anisokary, nuclei pycnosis and nuclei hypertrophy, were noticed. Epithelial ruptures, secondary lamellae fusion and hyperplasia of branchial epithelium, vascular congestion were the main changes noticed soon after pollutant exposure. We suggest that structural changes in gill and kidney could be used as good response to aquatic pollution with organophosphorous insecticides.

  19. Neural circuits mediating olfactory-driven behavior in fish

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    Kermen, Florence; Franco, Luis M.; Wyatt, Cameron; Yaksi, Emre

    2013-01-01

    The fish olfactory system processes odor signals and mediates behaviors that are crucial for survival such as foraging, courtship, and alarm response. Although the upstream olfactory brain areas (olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb) are well-studied, less is known about their target brain areas and the role they play in generating odor-driven behaviors. Here we review a broad range of literature on the anatomy, physiology, and behavioral output of the olfactory system and its target areas in a wide range of teleost fish. Additionally, we discuss how applying recent technological advancements to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) could help in understanding the function of these target areas. We hope to provide a framework for elucidating the neural circuit computations underlying the odor-driven behaviors in this small, transparent, and genetically amenable vertebrate. PMID:23596397

  20. Histomorphological and microanatomical characteristics of the olfactory organ of freshwater carp, Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton

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    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphoanatomy, cellular organization, and surface architecture of the olfactory apparatus in Cirrhinus reba (Hamilton is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The oval shaped olfactory rosette contained 32 ± 2 primary lamellae on each side of the median raphe, and was lodged on the floor of the olfactory chamber. The olfactory lamellae were basically flat and compactly arranged in the rosette. The olfactory chamber communicated to the outside aquatic environment through inlet and outlet apertures with a conspicuous nasal flap in between. The mid dorsal portion of the olfactory lamellae was characterized by a linguiform process. Sensory and non-sensory regions were distributed separately on each lamella. The sensory epithelium occupied the apical part including the linguiform process, whereas the resting part of the lamella was covered with non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium comprised both ciliated and microvillous receptor cells distinguished by the architecture on their apical part. The non-sensory epithelium possessed mucous cells, labyrinth cells, and stratified epithelial cells with distinctive microridges. The functional importance of the different cells lining the olfactory mucosa was correlated with the ecological habits of the fish examined.

  1. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  2. Mechanisms of regulation of olfactory transduction and adaptation in the olfactory cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Gabriela; Sebastião, Ana Maria; Simoes de Souza, Fabio Marques

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory adaptation is a fundamental process for the functioning of the olfactory system, but the underlying mechanisms regulating its occurrence in intact olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are not fully understood. In this work, we have combined stochastic computational modeling and a systematic pharmacological study of different signaling pathways to investigate their impact during short-term adaptation (STA). We used odorant stimulation and electroolfactogram (EOG) recordings of the olfactory epithelium treated with pharmacological blockers to study the molecular mechanisms regulating the occurrence of adaptation in OSNs. EOG responses to paired-pulses of odorants showed that inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and phosphatases enhanced the levels of STA in the olfactory epithelium, and this effect was mimicked by blocking vesicle exocytosis and reduced by blocking cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and vesicle endocytosis. These results suggest that G-coupled receptors (GPCRs) cycling is involved with the occurrence of STA. To gain insights on the dynamical aspects of this process, we developed a stochastic computational model. The model consists of the olfactory transduction currents mediated by the cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels and calcium ion (Ca(2+))-activated chloride (CAC) channels, and the dynamics of their respective ligands, cAMP and Ca(2+), and it simulates the EOG results obtained under different experimental conditions through changes in the amplitude and duration of cAMP and Ca(2+) response, two second messengers implicated with STA occurrence. The model reproduced the experimental data for each pharmacological treatment and provided a mechanistic explanation for the action of GPCR cycling in the levels of second messengers modulating the levels of STA. All together, these experimental and theoretical results indicate the existence of a mechanism of regulation of STA by signaling pathways that control

  3. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

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    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  4. Engineering Airway Epithelium

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    John P. Soleas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  5. Localization of α1-2 Fucose Glycan in the Mouse Olfactory Pathway.

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    Kondoh, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sasaki, Motoki; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Glycoconjugates in the olfactory system play critical roles in neuronal formation, and α1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Histochemical findings of α1-2Fuc glycan in the mouse olfactory system detected using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) vary. This study histochemically assessed the main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in male and female ICR and C57BL/6J mice aged 3-4 months using UEA-I. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I reacted with most receptor cells arranged mainly at the basal region of the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory nerve layer and glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb were speckled with positive UEA-I staining, and positive fibers were scattered from the glomerular to the internal plexiform layer. The lateral olfactory tract and rostral migratory stream were also positive for UEA-I. We identified superficial short-axon cells, interneurons of the external plexiform layer, external, middle and internal tufted cells, mitral cells and granule cells as the origins of the UEA-I-positive fibers in the main olfactory bulb. The anterior olfactory nucleus, anterior piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle were negative for UEA-I. Most receptor cells in the vomeronasal epithelium and most glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb were positive for UEA-I. Our findings indicated that α1-2Fuc glycan is located within the primary and secondary, but not the ternary, pathways of the main olfactory system, in local circuits of the main olfactory bulb and within the primary, but not secondary, pathway of the vomeronasal system. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

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    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  7. Ekstrak Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera sebagai Pengendali Infestasi Argulus sp pada Ikan Komet (Carassius auratus auratus

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    Farika E. Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Moringa oleifera leave on Argulus sp infestation in comet fish, and determine an optimal concentration and time. Moringa oleifera leave was extracted using ethanol 96%. In total, 25 comet fishes (Carassius auratus auratus were used in this research, in which infested by one to five individuals of Argulus sp per fish. This research used pretest and posttest design with four treatments of extract concentration of Moringa oleifera leave, namely, TI 25 mg/l, TII 37.5 mg/l, TIII 50 mg/l, TIV 62.5 mg/l, and T0 without extract as a control. Each treatment was imposed on five comet fishes. The parameter of this study was the amaount of Argulus sp released from the body of the fish. The results showed that the extract of Moringa oleifera leave had an effect on ectoparasite on comet fish. There was an indication that the more concentration of the extract of Moringa oleifera leave, the more Argulus sp released, although statistically, it was not significant (P>0.05. The optimal time of giving the extract of Moringa oleifera leave to Argulus sp infestation was 12-h.

  8. Correlated basal expression of immediate early gene egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in zebrafish brain and downregulation in olfactory bulb after transitory olfactory deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Sigrid; Wullimann, Mario F

    2012-12-01

    Imprinting on kin occurs during the sixth day of larval development in zebrafish and depends on olfactory signals. In rodents, the immediate early gene egr1 is involved in maintaining the dopaminergic phenotype of periglomerular olfactory bulb cells in an activity dependent way. Furthermore, egr1 is upregulated in medial amygdalar dopamine cells in some rodents (prairie voles) dependent on social pheromone interactions. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether egr1 is involved in imprinting processes and later kin recognition in zebrafish in olfactory centers, such as the olfactory bulb and suspected medial amygdala. In the present paper, we focus on a basic investigation of basal egr1 expression throughout zebrafish brain development and its co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Indeed, there is unambiguous co-localization of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in the zebrafish olfactory bulb and hypothetical medial amygdala. Furthermore, as in rodents, ipsilateral transient olfactory deprivation through Triton X-100 treatment of the olfactory epithelium leads to downregulation of egr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the olfactory bulb, but apparently not in secondary olfactory targets of the zebrafish brain. This indicates that similar processes might be at work in zebrafish and rodent olfactory systems, but their more specific involvement in imprinting in zebrafish has to be further tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating temperature with odor processing in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludt, Eugen; Okom, Camille; Brinkmann, Alexander; Schild, Detlev

    2015-05-20

    Temperature perception has long been classified as a somesthetic function solely. However, in recent years several studies brought evidence that temperature perception also takes place in the olfactory system of rodents. Temperature has been described as an effective stimulus for sensory neurons of the Grueneberg ganglion located at the entrance of the nose. Here, we investigate whether a neuronal trace of temperature stimulation can be observed in the glomeruli and mitral cells of the olfactory bulb, using calcium imaging and fast line-scanning microscopy. We show in the Xenopus tadpole system that the γ-glomerulus, which receives input from olfactory neurons, is highly sensitive to temperature drops at the olfactory epithelium. We observed that thermo-induced activity in the γ-glomerulus is conveyed to the mitral cells innervating this specific neuropil. Surprisingly, a substantial number of thermosensitive mitral cells were also chemosensitive. Moreover, we report another unique feature of the γ-glomerulus: it receives ipsilateral and contralateral afferents. The latter fibers pass through the contralateral bulb, cross the anterior commissure, and then run to the ipsilateral olfactory bulb, where they target the γ-glomerulus. Temperature drops at the contralateral olfactory epithelium also induced responses in the γ-glomerulus and in mitral cells. Temperature thus appears to be a relevant physiological input to the Xenopus olfactory system. Each olfactory bulb integrates and codes temperature signals originating from receptor neurons of the ipsilateral and contralateral nasal cavities. Finally, temperature and chemical information is processed in shared cellular networks. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357892-11$15.00/0.

  10. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  11. Gross anatomy and histology of the olfactory rosette of the shark Heptranchias perlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Amaroli, Andrea; Gambardella, Chiara; Waryani, Baradi; Di Blasi, Davide; Vacchi, Marino

    2017-06-01

    Sharks belonging to the family Hexanchidae have six or seven gill slits, unlike all other elasmobranchs, which have five gill slits. Their olfactory organs have a round shape, which is common for holocephalans, but not for elasmobranchs. Thus, the shape of the olfactory organ represents a further, less striking, peculiarity of this family among elasmobranchs. Despite that, the microscopic anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ have not yet been studied in any species of this family. Here, an anatomical and histological description of the olfactory organ of the sharpnose sevengill shark Heptranchias perlo is given. The organ is a rosette, with a central raphe and 31-34 primary lamellae, which bear secondary lamellae with a more or less branched shape. The elastic connective capsule which envelops the olfactory rosette possibly changes its shape along with water influx. In the olfactory epithelium, the supporting cells also have a secretory function, while no specialized mucous cells are visible; regarding this feature the olfactory epithelium of H. perlo differs from that of other chondrichthyan species. The immunohistochemical investigation of the sensory epithelium shows the absence of immunoreactivity for Gαolf in receptor neurons, which confirms previous observations in Chondrichthyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct amyloid precursor protein processing machineries of the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Yeon; Rasheed, Ameer; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Kim, So Yeun; Cho, Bongki; Son, Gowoon; Yu, Seong-Woon; Chang, Keun-A; Suh, Yoo-Hun; Moon, Cheil

    2018-01-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs through sequential cleavages first by β-secretase and then by the γ-secretase complex. However, abnormal processing of APP leads to excessive production of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the central nervous system (CNS), an event which is regarded as a primary cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, gene mutations of the γ-secretase complex-which contains presenilin 1 or 2 as the catalytic core-could trigger marked Aβ accumulation. Olfactory dysfunction usually occurs before the onset of typical AD-related symptoms (eg, memory loss or muscle retardation), suggesting that the olfactory system may be one of the most vulnerable regions to AD. To date however, little is known about why the olfactory system is affected so early by AD prior to other regions. Thus, we examined the distribution of secretases and levels of APP processing in the olfactory system under either healthy or pathological conditions. Here, we show that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries. In particular, we identified higher expressions levels and activity of γ-secretase in the olfactory epithelium (OE) than other regions of the brain. Moreover, APP c-terminal fragments (CTF) are markedly detected. During AD progression, we note increased expression of presenilin2 of γ-secretases in the OE, not in the OB, and show that neurotoxic Aβ*56 accumulates more quickly in the OE. Taken together, these results suggest that the olfactory system has distinct APP processing machineries under healthy and pathological conditions. This finding may provide a crucial understanding of the unique APP-processing mechanisms in the olfactory system, and further highlights the correlation between olfactory deficits and AD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 5HTR3A-driven GFP labels immature olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Thomas E; Bartel, Dianna L; Shultz, Nicole; Goodson, Noah B; Greer, Charles A

    2017-05-01

    The ionotropic serotonin receptor, 5-HT3 , is expressed by many developing neurons within the central nervous system. Since the olfactory epithelium continues to generate new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) throughout life, we investigated the possibility that 5-HT3 is expressed in the adult epithelium. Using a transgenic mouse in which the promoter for the 5-HT3a subunit drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), we assessed the expression of this marker in the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. Both the native 5-HT3a mRNA and GFP are expressed within globose basal cells of the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelium in adult mice. Whereas the 5-HT3a mRNA disappears relatively quickly after final cell division, the GFP label persists for about 5 days, thereby labeling immature OSNs in both the main olfactory system and vomeronasal organ. The GFP-labeled cells include both proliferative globose basal cells as well as immature OSNs exhibiting the hallmarks of ongoing differentiation including GAP43, PGP9.5, but the absence of olfactory marker protein. Some of the GFP-labeled OSNs show characteristics of more mature yet still developing OSNs including the presence of cilia extending from the apical knob and expression of NaV1.5, a component of the transduction cascade. These findings suggest that 5-HT3a is indicative of a proliferative or developmental state, regardless of age, and that the 5-HT3A GFP mice may prove useful for future studies of neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1743-1755, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evidence that thyroid hormone induces olfactory cellular proliferation in salmon during a sensitive period for imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Sean C; Nevitt, Gabrielle A

    2004-09-01

    Salmon have long been known to imprint and home to natal stream odors, yet the mechanisms driving olfactory imprinting remain obscure. The timing of imprinting is associated with elevations in plasma thyroid hormone levels, with possible effects on growth and proliferation of the peripheral olfactory system. Here, we begin to test this idea by determining whether experimentally elevated plasma levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) influence cell proliferation as detected by the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) cell birth-dating technique in the olfactory epithelium of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also explore how natural fluctuations in thyroxine (T(4)) relate to proliferation in the epithelium during the parr-smolt transformation. In both studies, we found that BrdU labeled both single and clusters of mitotic cells. The total number of BrdU-labeled cells in the olfactory epithelium was significantly greater in fish with artificially elevated T(3) compared with placebo controls. This difference in proliferation was restricted to the basal region of the olfactory epithelium, where multipotent progenitor cells differentiate into olfactory receptor neurons. The distributions of mitotic cluster sizes differed significantly from a Poisson distribution for both T(3) and placebo treatments, suggesting that proliferation tends to be non-random. Over the course of the parr-smolt transformation, changes in the density of BrdU cells showed a positive relationship with natural fluctuations in plasma T(4). This relationship suggests that even small changes in thyroid activity can stimulate the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the salmon epithelium. Taken together, our results establish a link between the thyroid hormone axis and measurable anatomical changes in the peripheral olfactory system.

  15. Antenatal insults modify newborn olfactory function by nitric oxide produced from neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B; Tan, Sidhartha

    2012-10-01

    Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence for distinct signaling mechanisms in two mammalian olfactory sense organs.

    OpenAIRE

    Berghard, A; Buck, L B; Liman, E R

    1996-01-01

    In mammals, olfactory stimuli are detected by sensory neurons at two distinct sites: the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the nasal cavity and the neuroepithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO). While the OE can detect volatile chemicals released from numerous sources, the VNO appears to be specialized to detect pheromones that are emitted by other animals and that convey information of behavioral or physiological importance. The mechanisms underlying sensory transduction in the OE have been well...

  17. Characterization of an olfactory receptor mediating aversive behaviour to a death-associated odour

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Venkatesh Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction or the sense of smell is a strong driver of behavior in many animals and is important for their survival. Odors are perceived through a complex molecular recognition process which involves detection of odorants by odorant receptors in olfactory sensory neurons located in the nasal olfactory epithelium. The odorant receptors belong to the G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) class of proteins, which includes the trace amine–associated receptors (TAARs), a class of GPCRs associated wit...

  18. The sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A dual olfactory system, represented by two anatomically distinct but spatially proximate chemosensory epithelia that project to separate areas of the forebrain, is known in several classes of tetrapods. Lungfish are the earliest evolving vertebrates known to have this dual system, comprising a main olfactory and a vomeronasal system (VNO). Lampreys, a group of jawless vertebrates, have a single nasal capsule containing two anatomically distinct epithelia, the main (MOE) and the accessory olfactory epithelia (AOE). We speculated that lamprey AOE projects to specific telencephalic regions as a precursor to the tetrapod vomeronasal system. Results To test this hypothesis, we characterized the neural circuits and molecular profiles of the accessory olfactory epithelium in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Neural tract-tracing revealed direct and reciprocal connections with the dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil (DTN) which in turn projects directly to the dorsal pallium and the rostral hypothalamus. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the main and the accessory olfactory epithelia have virtually identical profiles of expressed genes. Real time quantitative PCR confirmed expression of representatives of all 3 chemoreceptor gene families identified in the sea lamprey genome. Conclusion Anatomical and molecular evidence shows that the sea lamprey has a primordial accessory olfactory system that may serve a chemosensory function. PMID:23957559

  19. Disrupted compartmental organization of axons and dendrites within olfactory glomeruli of mice deficient in the olfactory cell adhesion molecule, OCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Andreas; Mombaerts, Peter; Greer, Charles A; Treloar, Helen B

    2006-01-01

    There is an overall topographic connectivity in the axonal projections of olfactory sensory neurons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB). The molecular determinants of this overall topographic OE-OB connectivity are not known. For 20 years, the intriguing expression pattern of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM) has made it the leading candidate as determinant of overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Here, we have generated a strain of OCAM knockout mice by gene targeting. There were no obvious alterations in the distribution of olfactory sensory neurons within the OE or in the coalescence of axons into specific glomeruli. However, the compartmental organization of dendrites and axons within the glomeruli was disrupted. Surprisingly, the mutant mice exhibited an increase in olfactory acuity; they appeared to have a better sense of smell. Thus, despite its striking expression pattern, OCAM is not essential for overall topographic OE-OB connectivity. Instead, OCAM is required for establishing or maintaining the compartmental organization and the segregation of axodendritic and dendrodendritic synapses within glomeruli.

  20. Hendra and Nipah Virus Infection in Cultured Human Olfactory Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisevich, Viktoriya; Ozdener, Mehmet Hakan; Malik, Bilal; Rockx, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses. These results show that human olfactory epithelium is susceptible to infection with henipaviruses, suggesting that this could be a pathway for neuroinvasion in humans. IMPORTANCE Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause acute and severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans. The pathways by which henipaviruses enter the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are still unknown. The observation that human olfactory neurons are highly susceptible to infection with henipaviruses demonstrates that the olfactory epithelium can serve as a site of Henipavirus entry into the CNS.

  1. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  2. Olfactory deficits in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Hovakimyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. As only a few studies have been conducted on the impact of NPC on sensory systems, we used a mutant mouse model (NPC1(-/- to examine the effects of this disorder to morphologically distinct regions of the olfactory system, namely the olfactory epithelium (OE and olfactory bulb (OB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For structural and functional analysis immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, western blotting, and electrophysiology have been applied. For histochemistry and western blotting, we used antibodies against a series of neuronal and glia marker proteins, as well as macrophage markers. NPC1(-/- animals present myelin-like lysosomal deposits in virtually all types of cells of the peripheral and central olfactory system. Especially supporting cells of the OE and central glia cells are affected, resulting in pronounced astrocytosis and microgliosis in the OB and other olfactory cortices. Up-regulation of Galectin-3, Cathepsin D and GFAP in the cortical layers of the OB underlines the critical role and location of the OB as a possible entrance gate for noxious substances. Unmyelinated olfactory afferents of the lamina propria seem less affected than ensheathing cells. Supporting the structural findings, electro-olfactometry of the olfactory mucosa suggests that NPC1(-/- animals exhibit olfactory and trigeminal deficits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a pronounced neurodegeneration and glia activation in the olfactory system of NPC1(-/-, which is accompanied by sensory deficits.

  3. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  4. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

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    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  5. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Modulation of Central Network Dynamics during Olfactory Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO modulates the dynamics of central olfactory networks and has been implicated in olfactory processing including learning. Land mollusks have a specialized olfactory lobe in the brain called the procerebral (PC lobe. The PC lobe produces ongoing local field potential (LFP oscillation, which is modulated by olfactory stimulation. We hypothesized that NO should be released in the PC lobe in response to olfactory stimulation, and to prove this, we applied an NO electrode to the PC lobe of the land slug Limax in an isolated tentacle-brain preparation. Olfactory stimulation applied to the olfactory epithelium transiently increased the NO concentration in the PC lobe, and this was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME at 3.7 mM. L-NAME at this concentration did not block the ongoing LFP oscillation, but did block the frequency increase during olfactory stimulation. Olfactory stimulation also enhanced spatial synchronicity of activity, and this response was also blocked by L-NAME. Single electrical stimulation of the superior tentacle nerve (STN mimicked the effects of olfactory stimulation on LFP frequency and synchronicity, and both of these effects were blocked by L-NAME. L-NAME did not block synaptic transmission from the STN to the nonbursting (NB-type PC lobe neurons, which presumably produce NO in an activity-dependent manner. Previous behavioral experiments have revealed impairment of olfactory discrimination after L-NAME injection. The recording conditions in the present work likely reproduce the in vivo brain state in those behavioral experiments. We speculate that the dynamical effects of NO released during olfactory perception underlie precise odor representation and memory formation in the brain, presumably through regulation of NB neuron activity.

  6. Corneal epithelium in penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R F; Bobb, K C

    1980-08-01

    We studied corneal epithelium in 66 patients with bullous keratopathy treated with penetrating keratoplasty using McCarey-Kaufman stored donor corneas. Epithelium was evaluated at times of storage, surgery, and postoperative dressing changes. Epithelium was intact in 43 of the donor corneas at storage, and 23 had 5 to 100% (median, 50%) epithelium missing. At the end of the keratoplasty procedure, 16 grafts had epithelium intact, and 50 had 5 to 100% (median, 20%) epithelium missing. Postoperative epithelial healing time ranged from one to 12 days, with a median of two days. Postoperative healing was significantly prolonged when donor corneal epithelium was missing at keratoplasty. As the amount of epithelium intact at the end of surgery decreased, the number of days to heal postoperatively increased. We found that donor corneas could be stored as long as 79 hours, with 63 hours in McCarey-Kaufman medium, and still have epithelium intact at the end of the keratoplasty procedure.

  7. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors.Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy.We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles.Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  8. Deletion of Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase Perturbs the Postnatal Maturation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Cilium Ultrastructure in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Mengdi; Zhu, Ning; Zhou, Yanfen; Storm, Daniel R; Wang, Zhenshan

    2017-01-01

    Type 3 adenylyl cyclase (Adcy3) is localized to the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and is an essential component of the olfactory cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Although the role of this enzyme in odor detection and axonal projection in OSNs was previously characterized, researchers will still have to determine its function in the maturation of postnatal OSNs and olfactory cilium ultrastructure. Previous studies on newborns showed that the anatomic structure of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of Adcy3 knockout mice ( Adcy3 -/- ) is indistinguishable from that of their wild-type littermates ( Adcy3 +/+ ), whereas the architecture and associated composition of MOE are relatively underdeveloped at this early age. The full effects of sensory deprivation on OSNs may not also be exhibited in such age. In the present study, following a comparison of postnatal OSNs in seven-, 30-, and 90-day-old Adcy3 -/- mice and wild-type controls ( Adcy 3 +/+ ), we observed that the absence of Adcy3 leads to cumulative defects in the maturation of OSNs. Upon aging, Adcy3 -/- OSNs exhibited increase in immature cells and reduction in mature cells along with elevated apoptosis levels. The density and ultrastructure of Adcy3 -/- cilia were also disrupted in mice upon aging. Collectively, our results reveal an indispensable role of Adcy3 in postnatal maturation of OSNs and maintenance of olfactory cilium ultrastructure in mice through adulthood.

  9. Ultrastructural and histochemical properties of the olfactory system in the japanese jungle crow, Corvus macrorhynchos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Nashimoto, Mai; Kanayama, Shunsaku; Nakamuta, Nobuaki; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2011-08-01

    Although it has been commonly believed that birds are more dependent on the vision and audition than the olfaction, recent studies indicate that the olfaction of birds is related to the reproductive, homing, and predatory behaviors. In an attempt to reveal the dependence on the olfactory system in crows, we examined the olfactory system of the Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) by histological, ultrastructural, and lectin histochemical methods. The olfactory epithelium (OE) of the crow occupied remarkably a small area of the nasal cavity (NC) and had the histological and ultrastructural features like other birds. The olfactory bulb (OB) of the crow was remarkably small and did not possess the olfactory ventricle. The left and right halves of the OB were fused in many cases. In the lectin histochemistry, soybean agglutinin (SBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) stained a small number of the receptor cells (RCs) in the OE and the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) and glomerular layer (GL) on the dorsocaudal region of the OB. Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) stained several RCs in the OE and the ONL and GL on the ventral region of the OB. These results suggest that 1) the crow has less-developed olfactory system than other birds, and 2) the dedicated olfactory receptor cells project their axons to the specific regions of the OB in the crow.

  10. A novel brain receptor is expressed in a distinct population of olfactory sensory neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conzelmann, S; Levai, O; Bode, B; Eisel, U; Raming, K; Breer, H; Strotmann, J

    2000-01-01

    Three novel G-protein-coupled receptor genes related to the previously described RA1c gene have been isolated from the mouse genome. Expression of these genes has been detected in distinct areas of the brain and also in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. Developmental studies revealed a

  11. Hendra and Nipah virus infection in cultured human olfactory epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisevich, V. (Viktoriya); Ozdener, M.H. (Mehmet Hakan); Malik, B. (Bilal); B. Rockx (Barry)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHenipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We

  12. Inverse expression of olfactory cell adhesion molecule in a subset of olfactory axons and a subset of mitral/tufted cells in the developing rat main olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Helen B; Gabeau, Darlene; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Mori, Kensaku; Greer, Charles A

    2003-04-14

    The projection of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) axons from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the olfactory bulb (OB) is highly organized but topographically complex. Evidence suggests that odorant receptor expression zones in the OE map to the OB about orthogonal axes. One candidate molecule for the formation of zone-specific targeting of OSN axon synapses onto the OB is the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM). OCAM(+) OSNs are restricted to three of the four zones in the OE and project their axons to the ventral OB where they form synapses with mitral/tufted (M/T) cells. To determine when this zonal connection is established, we have examined OCAM expression in rat olfactory system, during seminal periods of glomerular formation. OCAM(+) axons sort out in the ventral olfactory nerve layer of the OB before glomerular formation. Surprisingly, OCAM was also expressed transiently by subsets of M/T cell dendrites located in the dorsal OB. The expression of OCAM by OSN axons and M/T dendrites was asymmetrical; in the dorsal OB, OCAM(-) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(+) M/T dendrites, whereas in the ventral OB, OCAM(+) OSN axons synapsed on OCAM(-) M/T dendrites. The restricted spatial map of OCAM(+) M/T cells appeared earlier in development than the zonal segregation of OCAM(+) OSN axons. Thus, OCAM on M/T cell dendrites may act in a spatiotemporal window to specify regions of the developing rat OB, thereby establishing a foundation for mapping of the OE zonal organization onto the OB. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Olfactory nerve--a novel invasion route of Neisseria meningitidis to reach the meninges.

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    Hong Sjölinder

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific pathogen with capacity to cause septic shock and meningitis. It has been hypothesized that invasion of the central nervous system (CNS is a complication of a bacteremic condition. In this study, we aimed to characterize the invasion route of N. meningitidis to the CNS. Using an intranasally challenged mouse disease model, we found that twenty percent of the mice developed lethal meningitis even though no bacteria could be detected in blood. Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. Bacteria were detected in the submucosa of the olfactory epithelium, along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space. Furthermore, our data suggest that a threshold level of bacteremia is required for the development of meningococcal sepsis. Taken together, N. meningitidis is able to pass directly from nasopharynx to meninges through the olfactory nerve system. This study enhances our understanding how N. meningitidis invades the meninges. The nasal olfactory nerve system may be a novel target for disease prevention that can improve outcome and survival.

  14. Odorant-odorant metabolic interaction, a novel actor in olfactory perception and behavioral responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Hassan-Ismail; Faure, Philippe; Robert-Hazotte, Aline; Artur, Yves; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia; Coureaud, Gérard; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-31

    In the nasal olfactory epithelium, olfactory metabolic enzymes ensure odorant clearance from the olfactory receptor environment. This biotransformation of odorants into deactivated polar metabolites is critical to maintaining peripheral sensitivity and perception. Olfactory stimuli consist of complex mixtures of odorants, so binding interactions likely occur at the enzyme level and may impact odor processing. Here, we used the well-described model of mammary pheromone-induced sucking-related behavior in rabbit neonates. It allowed to demonstrate how the presence of different aldehydic odorants efficiently affects the olfactory metabolism of this pheromone (an aldehyde too: 2-methylbut-2-enal). Indeed, according to in vitro and ex vivo measures, this metabolic interaction enhances the pheromone availability in the epithelium. Furthermore, in vivo presentation of the mammary pheromone at subthreshold concentrations efficiently triggers behavioral responsiveness in neonates when the pheromone is in mixture with a metabolic challenger odorant. These findings reveal that the periphery of the olfactory system is the place of metabolic interaction between odorants that may lead, in the context of odor mixture processing, to pertinent signal detection and corresponding behavioral effect.

  15. Olfactory Nerve—A Novel Invasion Route of Neisseria meningitidis to Reach the Meninges

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    Sjölinder, Hong; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2010-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human-specific pathogen with capacity to cause septic shock and meningitis. It has been hypothesized that invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a complication of a bacteremic condition. In this study, we aimed to characterize the invasion route of N. meningitidis to the CNS. Using an intranasally challenged mouse disease model, we found that twenty percent of the mice developed lethal meningitis even though no bacteria could be detected in blood. Upon bacterial infection, epithelial lesions and redistribution of intracellular junction protein N-cadherin were observed at the nasal epithelial mucosa, especially at the olfactory epithelium, which is functionally and anatomically connected to the CNS. Bacteria were detected in the submucosa of the olfactory epithelium, along olfactory nerves in the cribriform plate, at the olfactory bulb and subsequently at the meninges and subarachnoid space. Furthermore, our data suggest that a threshold level of bacteremia is required for the development of meningococcal sepsis. Taken together, N. meningitidis is able to pass directly from nasopharynx to meninges through the olfactory nerve system. This study enhances our understanding how N. meningitidis invades the meninges. The nasal olfactory nerve system may be a novel target for disease prevention that can improve outcome and survival. PMID:21124975

  16. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus) infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Monge; Paulo M Z Coelho; Tavares, Carlos A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus) puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito e...

  17. Differential response of olfactory sensory neuron populations to copper ion exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Maurizio; Bettini, Simone; Milani, Liliana; Maurizii, Maria Gabriella; Franceschini, Valeria

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods. Since copper is a ubiquitously diffusing olfactory toxicant and a spreading contaminant in urban runoff, we investigated the effect of low copper concentration on the three different OSNs in the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish, a model system widely used in biological research. Image analysis was applied for morphometry and quantification of immunohistochemically detected OSNs. Copper exposure resulted in an evident decrease in olfactory epithelium thickness. Moreover, after exposure, the lamellae of the dorsal and ventral halves of the olfactory rosettes showed a different increase in their sensory areas, suggesting a lateral migration of new cells into non-sensory regions. The results of the present study provide clear evidence of a differential response of the three neural cell populations of zebrafish olfactory mucosa after 96h of exposure to copper ions at the sublethal concentration of 30μgL(-1). Densitometric values of cONS, immunostained with anti-G αolf, decreased of about 60% compared to the control. When the fish were transferred to water without copper addition and examined after 3, 10 and 30days, we observed a partial restoration of anti-G αolf staining intensity to normal condition. The recovery of cOSNs appeared sustained by neuronal proliferation, quantified with anti-PCNA immunostaining, in particular in the early days after exposure. The densitometric analysis applied to mOSNs, immunostained with anti-TRPC2

  18. Morphometric analysis of olfactory organ and telencephalon in maturing and mature migrants of Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri, Kessler 1870

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    Ashraf Namdariyan Rad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide a detailed information about changes of the olfactory organ and telencephalon morphology in spring and fall spawning run maturing and mature Caspian lamprey, Caspiomyzon wagneri, in the Shirud River, Sothern Caspian Sea basin, Iran. A total of 71 maturing and mature fish were collected during their spawning migration. The results showed that the thickness of the olfactory epithelium and the density of ciliated olfactory receptor cells (ORC were lower in mature migrants. In addition, the nasal cavity, relative weight of olfactory organ and relative telecephalon area in mature migrants were larger indicating its more sensitivity to external queues. Based on the results, the olfactory organ and telencephalon of maturing migrants of Caspian lamprey have not developed completely and needs a period of rest in the river to its full development for spawning.

  19. [Olfactory bulb volume in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Hang, W; Liu, G; Han, T

    2017-04-07

    Objective: To analyze the correlation between olfactory bulb(OB) volume and olfactory function in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Forty patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction were compared with forty controls in terms of olfactory function T&T testing, OB volume assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: T&T olfactory testing revealed that patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction had higher scores than controls(3.47±0.63 vs.1.39±0.19, t=4.317, Polfactory dysfunction were affected by the same extent of olfactory loss(3.52±0.66 vs.3.43±0.61, t=0.896, P>0.05). Both men and women as controls were affected by the same extent of olfactory loss(1.41±0.20 vs.1.38±0.17, t=1.073, P>0.05). OB volume of left side in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction were (36.15±3.16)mm(3,) right side were (39.28±3.76)mm(3,) average OB volume were (37.55±3.42)mm(3;) OB volume of left side in controls were (81.74±5.87)mm(3,) right side were (83.58±6.13)mm(3,) average OB volume were (82.59±5.99)mm(3;) OB volumes were lower in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction as compared with controls(t value were 4.815, 4.837 and 4.825, all Polfactory discriminate threshold was negatively correlated with average OB volume in posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction and controls(r value was-0.582, -0.564, both Polfactory discriminate threshold was positively correlated with impairment degree in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction(r value was 0.472, Polfactory dysfunction(r value was -0.397, Polfactory dysfunction as compared with controls. The OB volume is correlated with olfactory function. Impairment degree in patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction is accordance with olfactory function lowering degree. Megnetic resonance imaging can be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool for patients with posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction.

  20. Role of a ubiquitously expressed receptor in the vertebrate olfactory system.

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    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-09-18

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the "one receptor, one neuron" rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the present study, we characterized the properties of a C family G-protein-coupled receptor that, unlike most other odorant receptors, is expressed in a large population of microvillous sensory neurons in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium and the mouse vomeronasal organ. We found that this receptor, OlfCc1 in zebrafish and its murine ortholog Vmn2r1, is a calcium-dependent, low-sensitivity receptor specific for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos demonstrate that OlfCc1 is required for olfactory responses to a diverse mixture of polar, nonpolar, acidic, and basic amino acids. OlfCc1 was also found to promote localization of other OlfC receptor family members to the plasma membrane in heterologous cells. Together, these results suggest that the broadly expressed OlfCc1 is required for amino acid detection by the olfactory system and suggest that it plays a role in the function and/or intracellular trafficking of other olfactory and vomeronasal receptors with which it is coexpressed.

  1. The dual origin of the peripheral olfactory system: placode and neural crest

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    Katoh Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olfactory epithelium (OE has a unique capacity for continuous neurogenesis, extending axons to the olfactory bulb with the assistance of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. The OE and OECs have been believed to develop solely from the olfactory placode, while the neural crest (NC cells have been believed to contribute only the underlying structural elements of the olfactory system. In order to further elucidate the role of NC cells in olfactory development, we examined the olfactory system in the transgenic mice Wnt1-Cre/Floxed-EGFP and P0-Cre/Floxed-EGFP, in which migrating NC cells and its descendents permanently express GFP, and conducted transposon-mediated cell lineage tracing studies in chick embryos. Results Examination of these transgenic mice revealed GFP-positive cells in the OE, demonstrating that NC-derived cells give rise to OE cells with morphologic and antigenic properties identical to placode-derived cells. OECs were also positive for GFP, confirming their NC origin. Cell lineage tracing studies performed in chick embryos confirmed the migration of NC cells into the OE. Furthermore, spheres cultured from the dissociated cells of the olfactory mucosa demonstrated self-renewal and trilineage differentiation capacities (neurons, glial cells, and myofibroblasts, demonstrating the presence of NC progenitors in the olfactory mucosa. Conclusion Our data demonstrates that the NC plays a larger role in the development of the olfactory system than previously believed, and suggests that NC-derived cells may in part be responsible for the remarkable capacity of the OE for neurogenesis and regeneration.

  2. Anxiety- and Depression-Like States Lead to Pronounced Olfactory Deficits and Impaired Adult Neurogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopi, Eleni; Denizet, Marie; Gabellec, Marie-Madeleine; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Guilloux, Jean-Philippe; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Lazarini, Françoise

    2016-01-13

    Numerous clinical reports underscore the frequency of olfactory impairments in patients suffering from major depressive disorders (MDDs), yet the underlying physiopathological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that one key link between olfactory deficits and MDD lies in hypercortisolemia, a cardinal symptom of MDD. Corticosterone (CORT) is known to negatively correlate with hippocampal neurogenesis, yet its effects on olfactory neurogenesis and olfaction remain unknown. Here we used a rodent model of anxiety/depression-like states, which is based on chronic CORT administration and studied the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) on behavior, olfaction, and adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), olfactory bulb (OB), and the olfactory epithelium (OE). Chronic CORT had no effect on cell proliferation in the OE or on olfactory sensory neurons projecting to the OB, but induced pronounced deficits in olfactory acuity, fine discrimination of odorants and olfactory memory. These alterations were accompanied by a significant decrease in the number of adult-born neurons in both the DG and OB. Remarkably, FLX not only reversed depression-like states as expected, but also improved olfactory acuity, memory, and restored impaired adult neurogenesis. However, fine olfactory discrimination was not restored. Morphological analysis of adult-born neurons in both the DG and the OB showed that dendritic complexity was not significantly affected by CORT, but was increased by FLX. These findings demonstrate an essential role for glucocorticoids in triggering olfactory impairments in MDD and highlight a novel therapeutic effect of FLX. Increasing clinical reports show that major depression is characterized by pronounced olfactory deficits, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this work, we used an endocrine model of depression to study whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbation could be sufficient to provoke olfactory

  3. An arterially perfused nose-olfactory bulb preparation of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de los Cobos Pallarés, Fernando; Stanić, Davor; Farmer, David; Dutschmann, Mathias; Egger, Veronica

    2015-09-01

    A main feature of the mammalian olfactory bulb network is the presence of various rhythmic activities, in particular, gamma, beta, and theta oscillations, with the latter coupled to the respiratory rhythm. Interactions between those oscillations as well as the spatial distribution of network activation are likely to determine olfactory coding. Here, we describe a novel semi-intact perfused nose-olfactory bulb-brain stem preparation in rats with both a preserved olfactory epithelium and brain stem, which could be particularly suitable for the study of oscillatory activity and spatial odor mapping within the olfactory bulb, in particular, in hitherto inaccessible locations. In the perfused olfactory bulb, we observed robust spontaneous oscillations, mostly in the theta range. Odor application resulted in an increase in oscillatory power in higher frequency ranges, stimulus-locked local field potentials, and excitation or inhibition of individual bulbar neurons, similar to odor responses reported from in vivo recordings. Thus our method constitutes the first viable in situ preparation of a mammalian system that uses airborne odor stimuli and preserves these characteristic features of odor processing. This preparation will allow the use of highly invasive experimental procedures and the application of techniques such as patch-clamp recording, high-resolution imaging, and optogenetics within the entire olfactory bulb. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

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    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  5. Ca2+-activated Cl- channels of the ClCa family express in the cilia of a subset of rat olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silva, Carolina; Vera, Jorge; Bono, María Rosa; González-Billault, Christian; Baxter, Brooke; Hansen, Anne; Lopez, Robert; Gibson, Emily A; Restrepo, Diego; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel is considered a key constituent of odor transduction. Odorant binding to a specific receptor in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) triggers a cAMP cascade that mediates the opening of a cationic cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNG), allowing Ca(2+) influx. Ca(2+) ions activate Cl(-) channels, generating a significant Cl(-) efflux, with a large contribution to the receptor potential. The Anoctamin 2 channel (ANO2) is a major constituent of the Cl(-) conductance, but its knock-out has no impairment of behavior and only slightly reduces field potential odorant responses of the olfactory epithelium. Likely, an additional Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel of unknown molecular identity is also involved. In addition to ANO2, we detected two members of the ClCa family of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in the rat olfactory epithelium, ClCa4l and ClCa2. These channels, also expressed in the central nervous system, may correspond to odorant transduction channels. Whole Sprague Dawley olfactory epithelium nested RT-PCR and single OSNs established that the mRNAs of both channels are expressed in OSNs. Real time RT-PCR and full length sequencing of amplified ClCa expressed in rat olfactory epithelium indicated that ClCa4l is the most abundant. Immunoblotting with an antibody recognizing both channels revealed immunoreactivity in the ciliary membrane. Immunochemistry of olfactory epithelium and OSNs confirmed their ciliary presence in a subset of olfactory sensory neurons. The evidence suggests that ClCa4l and ClCa2 might play a role in odorant transduction in rat olfactory cilia.

  6. Olfactory consciousness and gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex

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    Mori, Kensaku; Manabe, Hiroyuki; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Onisawa, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex receives multi-modality sensory inputs, including olfactory input, and is thought to be involved in conscious perception of the olfactory image of objects. Generation of olfactory consciousness may require neuronal circuit mechanisms for the “binding” of distributed neuronal activities, with each constituent neuron representing a specific component of an olfactory percept. The shortest neuronal pathway for odor signals to reach the orbitofrontal cortex is olfactory sensory neuron—olfactory bulb—olfactory cortex—orbitofrontal cortex, but other pathways exist, including transthalamic pathways. Here, we review studies on the structural organization and functional properties of the shortest pathway, and propose a model of neuronal circuit mechanisms underlying the temporal bindings of distributed neuronal activities in the olfactory cortex. We describe a hypothesis that suggests functional roles of gamma oscillations in the bindings. This hypothesis proposes that two types of projection neurons in the olfactory bulb, tufted cells and mitral cells, play distinct functional roles in bindings at neuronal circuits in the olfactory cortex: tufted cells provide specificity-projecting circuits which send odor information with early-onset fast gamma synchronization, while mitral cells give rise to dispersedly-projecting feed-forward binding circuits which transmit the response synchronization timing with later-onset slow gamma synchronization. This hypothesis also suggests a sequence of bindings in the olfactory cortex: a small-scale binding by the early-phase fast gamma synchrony of tufted cell inputs followed by a larger-scale binding due to the later-onset slow gamma synchrony of mitral cell inputs. We discuss that behavioral state, including wakefulness and sleep, regulates gamma oscillation couplings across the olfactory bulb, olfactory cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. PMID:24137148

  7. Dog and mouse: Towards a balanced view of the mammalian olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arthur Barrios Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the most intensively studied mammalian olfactory system is that of the mouse, in which olfactory chemical cues of one kind or another are detected in four different nasal areas (the main olfactory epithelium, the septal organ, Grüneberg’s ganglion, and the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, the extraordinarily sensitive olfactory system of the dog is also an important model that is increasingly used, for example in genomic studies of species evolution. Here we describe the topography and extent of the main olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelia of the dog, and we report finding no structures equivalent to the Grüneberg ganglion and septal organ of the mouse. Since we examined adults, newborns and foetuses we conclude that these latter structures are absent in dogs, possibly as the result of regression or involution.The absence of a vomeronasal component based on VR2 receptors suggests that the vomeronasal organ may be undergoing a similar involutionary process.

  8. Developmental Origin of Vaginal Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental origin of vaginal epithelium has been controversial for nearly a century, with speculation that vaginal epithelium originates from the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, and/or urogenital sinus. None of these possibilities has been definitively proven or disproven by direct scientific data. To define precisely the origin of vaginal epithelium, epithelial cells of the Müllerian duct, Wolffian duct, or urogenital sinus were fluorescently labeled in mouse embryos by crossing tdTomato-EGFP dual-reporter transgenic mice with transgenic mouse lines that express Cre recombinase in each type of epithelium. In embryos and newborn mice, the vagina consisted of fused Müllerian ducts plus the sinus vagina of urogenital sinus origin. However, the proportion of the sinus vagina was significantly reduced as the Müllerian vagina grew caudally. By postpartum day 7, the Müllerian vagina extended to the caudal end of the body, whereas the sinus vagina remained only at the junction between the vagina and perineal skin. As the vagina opened in puberty, urogenital sinus epithelium was detected only in the vulva, but not in the vagina. Additionally, from embryo to adult stages, residual Wolffian duct epithelium was present in the dorsolateral stromal wall of the vagina, but not within vaginal or vulvar epithelium. In conclusion, adult mouse vaginal epithelium is derived solely from Müllerian duct epithelium. PMID:20638775

  9. Can we smell without an olfactory bulb?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaux, Philippe; Mouraux, André; Bertrand, Bernard; Duprez, Thierry; Hummel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Lack of an olfactory bulb (OB) is typically associated with anosmia. We present a patient with subnormal olfactory function in whom the OB could not be detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Olfactory function was evaluated on two occasions. Orthonasal olfactory function was assessed with the "Sniffin' Sticks" test providing a score equivalent to hyposmia. Retronasal olfactory function was studied with "smell powders" indicating a decreased, but not absence of, olfactory function. Importantly, chemosensory event-related potentials were clearly present in response to olfactory and trigeminal stimuli. This indicates that olfactory function may be present in some subjects even when an OB can not be detected with MRI.

  10. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  11. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-04-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus). These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation.

  12. The Feasibility of Gelatin-Based Retronasal Stimuli to Assess Olfactory Perception

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    Daniel Shepherd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Links between some psychological disorders and olfactory deficits are well documented, and screening tests have been developed to exploit these associations. Odors can take one of two routes to the olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium, the orthonasal or retronasal route. This article discusses the potential use of the retronasal route to assess olfaction using gelatin-based stimuli delivered orally. Using a relatively new psychophysical method, the Single-Interval Adjustment Matrix task, we estimated vanillin thresholds for five healthy participants sampling small vanillin flavored gels. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using solid-state gustatory stimuli to assess retronasal perception.

  13. Comparison of the Nasal Olfactory Organs of Various Species of Lizardfishes (Teleostei: Aulopiformes: Synodontidae with Additional Remarks on the Brain

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    L. Fishelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory organs of lizardfishes (Synodontidae are situated in two capsules connected to the outside by incurrent and excurrent openings. The olfactory epithelium is in form of petal rosettes each composed of lamellae and a rephe, and bear olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells and cells with kinocillia. The dimension of rosettes and lamellae, as well as the number of lamellae, increase with growth of the fish; until in adult fish these parameters remaine constant, species specific. In adult Synodus spp. and Trachinocephalus myops the rosettes are 3.5–4.0 mm long, with 5–8 lamellae, whereas in Saurida spp. they are 8.0 mm and possess up tp 22 lamellae. The number of ORN ranges from 2,600 on the smaller lamellae to 20,000 on the largest ones. The number of ORN/mm2 of olfactory is ca. 30,000 in Saurida spp. Thus the rosettes of S. macrolepis with 20 lamellae possess a total of ca. 170,000 ORN, whereas those of Sy. variegatus and T. myops with the average of six lamellae possess only ca. 50,000–65,000 ORN. The olfactory nerves lead from the rosettes to the olfactory balbs situated on the olfactory lobes. The differences among the species in olfactory organs are discussed in correlation with their distribution.

  14. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Any living organism interacts with and responds specifically to environmental molecules by expressing specific olfactory receptors. This specificity will be first examined in causal terms with particular emphasis on the mechanisms controlling olfactory gene expression, cell-to-cell interactions a...

  15. Prognostic value of olfactory bulb volume measurement for recovery in postinfectious and posttraumatic olfactory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaux, Philippe; Huart, Caroline; Deggouj, Naima; Duprez, Thierry; Hummel, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Several prognostic factors influencing the recovery from olfactory dysfunction have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether olfactory bulb volume could be used as a new predictor of olfactory recovery in postinfectious and posttraumatic olfactory loss. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 4. Setting Tertiary university clinic, department of otolaryngology. A cohort of 60 patients with postinfectious (n = 28) and posttraumatic olfactory loss (n = 32) was investigated. Assessment of olfactory function was performed using orthonasal (Sniffin' Sticks test) and retronasal psychophysical olfactory tests, at the time of the diagnosis (t1) and 15 months later (t2). All patients were examined on 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging, and the olfactory bulbs volume was assessed using planimetric contouring at the time of the diagnosis (t1). Recovery rate was 25% in patients with posttraumatic olfactory loss and 36% in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. There was a correlation between both orthonasal and retronasal olfactory testing and the initial measurement of the total olfactory bulb volume. In addition, we observed a significant correlation between changes in olfactory functions and initial measurement of the total olfactory bulb volume, with larger volumes relating to higher improvement of olfactory function. Finally, we found that none of the patients with a total olfactory bulb volume of 40 mm(3) or less exhibited recovery of olfactory function. Olfactory bulb volume seems to be a predictor of olfactory recovery in patients with postinfectious and posttraumatic olfactory loss.

  16. Differential response of olfactory sensory neuron populations to copper ion exposure in zebrafish

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    Lazzari, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.lazzari@unibo.it; Bettini, Simone; Milani, Liliana; Maurizii, Maria Gabriella; Franceschini, Valeria

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Copper exposure affects ciliated olfactory receptors more than microvillar cells. • Crypt olfactory sensory neurons are not affected by copper exposure. • Copper exposure induces an increase in the amount of sensory epithelium. - Abstract: The peripheral olfactory system of fish is in direct contact with the external aqueous environment, so dissolved contaminants can easily impair sensory functions and cause neurobehavioral injuries. The olfactory epithelium of fish is arranged in lamellae forming a rosette in the olfactory cavity and contains three main types of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs): ciliated (cOSNs) and microvillous olfactory sensory neurons (mOSNs), common to all vertebrates, and a third minor group of olfactory neurons, crypt cells, absent in tetrapods. Since copper is a ubiquitously diffusing olfactory toxicant and a spreading contaminant in urban runoff, we investigated the effect of low copper concentration on the three different OSNs in the olfactory epithelium of zebrafish, a model system widely used in biological research. Image analysis was applied for morphometry and quantification of immunohistochemically detected OSNs. Copper exposure resulted in an evident decrease in olfactory epithelium thickness. Moreover, after exposure, the lamellae of the dorsal and ventral halves of the olfactory rosettes showed a different increase in their sensory areas, suggesting a lateral migration of new cells into non-sensory regions. The results of the present study provide clear evidence of a differential response of the three neural cell populations of zebrafish olfactory mucosa after 96 h of exposure to copper ions at the sublethal concentration of 30 μg L{sup −1}. Densitometric values of cONS, immunostained with anti-G {sub αolf}, decreased of about 60% compared to the control. When the fish were transferred to water without copper addition and examined after 3, 10 and 30 days, we observed a partial restoration of anti-G {sub

  17. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  18. The peripheral olfactory organ in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghigliotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may undertake long-distance migrations and perform vertical movements from the surface to the deep sea. It is an omnivorous species feeding on carrion and a wide variety of pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and including active species such as fishes and seals. Accordingly, Greenland shark should be recognized as a top predator, with a strong potential to influence the trophic dynamics of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The sensory biology of Greenland shark is scarcely studied, and considering the importance of olfaction in chemoreception, feeding and other behavioral traits, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ where olfactory cues are received from the environment – the olfactory rosette. The structural organization of the olfactory rosette, in terms of histological features of the sensory epithelium, number of primary lamellae and total sensory surface area, provides a first proxy of the olfactory capability of Greenland shark. Based on own results and published studies, the overall morphology of the olfactory rosette is viewed in context of the functional and trophic ecology among other elasmobranch species.

  19. Contribution of pheromones processed by the main olfactory system to mate recognition in female mammals

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    Micheal J. Baum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until recently it was widely believed that the ability of female mammals (with the likely exception of women to identify and seek out a male breeding partner relied on the detection of non-volatile male pheromones by the female’s vomeronasal organ and their subsequent processing by a neural circuit that includes the accessory olfactory bulb, vomeronasal amygdala, and hypothalamus. Emperical data are reviewed in this paper that demonstrate the detection of volatile pheromones by the main olfactory epithelium of female mice which, in turn, leads to the activation of a population of glomeruli and abutting mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb (MOB. Anatomical results along with functional neuroanatomical data demonstrate that some of these MOB mitral cells project to the vomeronasal amygdala. These particular MOB mitral cells were selectively activated (i.e., expressed Fos protein by exposure to male as opposed to female urinary volatiles. A similar selectivity to opposite sex urinary volatiles was also seen in mitral cells of the accessory olfactory bulb of female mice. Behavioral data from female mouse, ferret, and human are reviewed that implicate the main olfactory system, in some cases interacting with the accessory olfactory system, in mate recognition.

  20. Predators are attracted to the olfactory signals of prey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Nelika K; Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2010-01-01

    .... Yet while most territorial mammals communicate using olfactory signals and olfactory hunting is widespread in predators, evidence for the attraction of predators to prey olfactory signals under field...

  1. Melatonin in the mammalian olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Corthell, J.T.; Olcese, J.; Trombley, P.Q.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with circadian rhythms. A diurnal rhythm in olfactory sensitivity has been previously reported and melatonin receptor mRNAs have been observed in the olfactory bulb, but the effects of melatonin in the olfactory bulb have not been explored. First, we corroborated data from a previous study that identified melatonin receptor messenger RNAs in the olfactory bulb. We then investigated whether melatonin treatment would affect cells in the olfactory bulbs of ...

  2. Role of the odorant receptor in neuronal connectivity in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, Nelly; Lodovichi, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is a highly sophisticated sensory modality able to detect and discriminate thousands of different odours, even at very low concentration. How such a challenging task is achieved remains to be fully understood. A unique feature of the olfactory system is the dual role of the odorant receptor: it does detect odours in the olfactory epithelium but it also contributes to neuronal circuit formation in the olfactory bulb. The odorant receptors are indeed expressed on the cilia that protrude in the nasal cavity, where they bind odorants, and at the axon termini, where they could act as axon guidance molecules. In this review we discuss findings that show how the odorant receptor contributes in regulating neuronal connectivity.

  3. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresdal, Jack D; Farrell, Aidan D; Goldberg, Caren S

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species' range from two isolated 'sky islands' to three.

  4. Environmental DNA Detection of the Golden Tree Frog (Phytotriades auratus) in Bromeliads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresdal, Jack D.; Farrell, Aidan D.; Goldberg, Caren S.

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful, non-destructive technique for detecting rare or hard to find freshwater organisms. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of environmental DNA analysis as a method for detecting a rare amphibian, the golden tree frog (Phytotriades auratus). These frogs are believed to live exclusively within one species of tank bromeliad, Glomeropitcairnia erectiflora, found on the highest peaks of the island of Trinidad in the West Indies. Previous survey methods for this species involved bromeliad destruction, while here we collected and analyzed water samples from discrete pools within G. erectiflora plants for species-specific DNA. We found 1) that we can identify the presence of P. auratus in the bromeliads using environmental DNA analysis, and 2) that environmental DNA evidence indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered P. auratus population, increasing the species’ range from two isolated ‘sky islands’ to three. PMID:28052079

  5. Olfactory Behaviour in Farm Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, C.M.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents several examples of how olfactory information and farming conditions affects the behaviour of farm animals and presents opportunities to improve the welfare and production of farm animals by making use of odours and olfaction.

  6. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  7. Hierarchical structure and cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Wang, Yukun; Feng, Qingling; Kienzle, Arne; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-10-01

    To study the structure and the cytocompatibility of fish scales from Carassius auratus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of fish scales treated with different processing methods. Based on varying morphologies and components, the fish scales can be divided into three regions on the surface and three layers in vertical. The functions of these three individual layers were analyzed. SEM results show that the primary inorganic components are spherical or cubic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. The fish scales have an ~60° overlapped plywood structure of lamellas in the fibrillary plate. The plywood structure consists of co-aligned type I collagen fibers, which are parallel to the HA lamellas. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA/DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicate that the main components are HA and type I collagen fibers. MC3T3-E1 cell culture results show a high cytocompatibility and the ability to guide cell proliferation and migration along the scale ridge channels of the fish scales. This plywood structure provides inspiration for a structure-enhanced composite material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  9. The sense of smell, its signalling pathways, and the dichotomy of cilia and microvilli in olfactory sensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paysan Jacques

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smell is often regarded as an ancillary perception in primates, who seem so dominated by their sense of vision. In this paper, we will portray some aspects of the significance of olfaction to human life and speculate on what evolutionary factors contribute to keeping it alive. We then outline the functional architecture of olfactory sensory neurons and their signal transduction pathways, which are the primary detectors that render olfactory perception possible. Throughout the phylogenetic tree, olfactory neurons, at their apical tip, are either decorated with cilia or with microvilli. The significance of this dichotomy is unknown. It is generally assumed that mammalian olfactory neurons are of the ciliary type only. The existance of so-called olfactory microvillar cells in mammals, however, is well documented, but their nature remains unclear and their function orphaned. This paper discusses the possibility, that in the main olfactory epithelium of mammals ciliated and microvillar sensory cells exist concurrently. We review evidence related to this hypothesis and ask, what function olfactory microvillar cells might have and what signalling mechanisms they use.

  10. Olfactory bulb volume in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, Valentin A; Reither, Nicole; Gerber, Johannes; Iannilli, Emilia; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the volume of the olfactory bulb in smokers. Specifically, we wanted to see whether environmental influences may exert a negative influence on OB structure. Twenty-one smokers and 59 non-smokers, matched for age and sex, underwent olfactory testing by means of the Sniffin' Sticks testing device (measurement of odor threshold and identification abilities). In addition, they underwent an MR scan with 2-mm-thick T2-weighted fast spin-echo images without interslice gap in the coronal plane covering the anterior and middle segments of the base of the skull. Olfactory function was not different between the 2 groups; however, olfactory bulb volumes were smaller in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.006). The deficit seen at the level of the OB did not correlate with the duration of smoking. The current data indicate that smoking may have a negative effect on the olfactory system before this becomes obvious in terms of a decreased olfactory function.

  11. Olfactory Systems in Mate Recognition and Sexual Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Pillon, D.; Bakker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory signals play an important role so that breeding efforts are synchronized with appropriate social and environmental circumstances. In this context, the mammalian olfactory system is characterized by the existence of several olfactory subsystems that have evolved to process olfactory

  12. Evaluation of the effect of cigarette smoking on the olfactory neuroepithelium of New Zealand white rabbit, using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Nagi M; El-Hennawi, Diaa M; Yousef, Tarek F; El-Tabbakh, Mohammed T; Elnahriry, Tarek A

    2017-06-01

    To detect ultra-structural changes of Rabbit's olfactory neuro-epithelium using scanning electron microscope after exposure to cigarette smoking. Sixty six rabbits (Pathogen free New Zealand white rabbits weighing 1-1.5 kg included in the study were randomly assigned into one of three groups: control group did not expose to cigarette smoking, study group 1 was exposed to cigarette smoking for 3 months and study group 2 was exposed to cigarette smoking 3 months and then stopped for 2 months. Olfactory neuro-epithelium from all rabbits were dissected and examined under Philips XL-30 scanning electron microscope. Changes that were found in the rabbits of study group 1 in comparison to control group were loss of microvilli of sustentacular cells (p = 0.016) and decreases in distribution of specialized cilia of olfactory receptor cells (p = 0.046). Also respiratory metaplasia was detected. These changes were reversible in study group 2. Cigarette smoking causes ultra-structural changes in olfactory neuro-epithelium which may explain why smell was affected in cigarette smokers. Most of these changes were reversible after 45 days of cessation of cigarette smoking to the rabbits.

  13. Structure of Masera's Septal Olfactory Organ in Cat (Felis silvestris f. catus - Light Microscopy in Selected Stages of Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kociánová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The septal organ /SO/ (Masera's organ /MO/ is a chemoreceptor presently considered one of three types of olfactory organs (along with the principal olfactory region and vomeronasal organ. Notwithstanding the septal organ having been first described by Rodolfo Masera in 1943, little is known of the properties of sensory neurons or of its functional significance in chemoreception. Until now the septal organ has been described only in laboratory rodents and some marsupials. This work refers to its existence in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus. The septal organ can be identified at the end of embryonic period - 27 or 28 days of ontogenesis in cats (the 6th developmental stage of Štěrba - coincident with formation of the principal olfactory region in nasal cavity. At 45 days of ontogenesis (the 9th developmental stage of Štěrba, this septal olfactory organ is of circular or oval shape, 120 μm in diameter, in ventral part of septum nasi, lying caudally to the opening of ductus incisivus. The structure of the epithelium of septal olfactory organ is clearly distinct from the respiratory epithelium of the nasal cavity. It varies in thickness, cellular composition, as well as free surface appearance, and even lack the typical structure of sensory epithelium, in this developmental period. Nerve bundles and glandular acini are lacking in the lamina propria mucosae of the septal organ and in the adjacent tissues. Glands appear as the single non-luminized cords of epithelia extending from the surface. The adjacent respiratory epithelium contains numerous goblet cells.

  14. Differential expression of the mammalian homologue of fasciclin II during olfactory development in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, John A; Fang, Hengsheng; Schwob, James E

    2004-06-28

    Developing olfactory sensory neurons are guided to the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb by an increasingly stringent process that is influenced by expression of odorant receptors, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and other kinds of signaling cascades. A fundamental feature of the projection is the connecting of broad zones in the epithelium to broad zones in the bulb, also termed rhinotopy. One molecule that parallels and may aid neurons in establishing rhinotopy is the mammalian homologue of fasciclin II (OCAM/mamFas II; also known as RNCAM and NCAM-2), an immunoglobulin superfamily CAM that is differentially expressed in the developing and mature olfactory epithelium (OE): Axons elaborated by ventral and lateral epithelium express the protein at high levels, whereas dorsomedial axons express little or no OCAM/mamFas II. Our investigation has demonstrated that OCAM/mamFas II is detectable early in the development of the rat OE. mRNA is evident on RT-PCR and in situ hybridization by E12.5, and protein is apparent by immunohistochemistry by E13.5. By using a tissue culture system that separates ventral septal epithelium (OCAM/mamFas II-positive) from dorsal (OCAM/mamFas II-negative), we find that explants maintain protein expression levels in vitro that are characteristic of the phenotype at the original location in vivo. At least some neurons are born in culture, suggesting that any cues that direct differential expression are also maintained in vitro. Finally, high OCAM/mamFas II expression correlates with increased growth and fasciculation of olfactory axons in vitro. These data and the similarity between OCAM/mamFas II, on the one hand, and fasciclin II and NCAM, on the other, suggest that OCAM/mamFas II might play a role in growth and fasciculation of primary olfactory axons during development of the projection. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Kinetic analysis of the swimming behavior of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to nickel: Hypoactivity induced by sublethal concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellgaard, E.G.; Ashley, S.E.; Langford, A.E. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The discharge of nickel into aquatic environments from numerous industries poses a threat to fish populations because of its toxcity. Although little is known, however, about the precise mechanism of its toxicity in freshwater fish, it produces some of the symptoms associated with heavy-metal poisoning in general; it accumulates in fish tissues and results in alterations in gill structure, including hypertrophy of respiratory and mucous cells, separation of the epithelial layer from the pillar cell system, cauterization and sloughing, and necrosis of the epithelium. The destruction of the gill lamellae decreases the ventilation rate and if severe, as after acute exposure, may cause blood hypoxia and death. The effects of short-term exposure of fish to sublethal concentrations of nickel and not as well defined. The kinetic method of Ellgaard et al., which uses locomotor activity to assess the general health of fish, is ideally suited to examine whether sublethal concentrations of nickel adversely affect fish. In previous studies, the measured changes in locomotor activity observed when fish are exposed to pollutants correlate with more specific changes, e.g., physiological, biochemical, histological or neurosensory changes, which occur under the same conditions. Thus, the kinetic method also meets the criterial for pollution early warning systems as discussed by Cairns and van der Schale. This method has previously been used to demonstrate that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and zinc and copper are detrimental to the health of bluegills. The present study examines the effects of short-term exposures of sublethal concentrations of nickel on the locomotor activity of the goldfish, Carassius auratus. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. TSHZ1-dependent gene regulation is essential for olfactory bulb development and olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragancokova, Daniela; Rocca, Elena; Oonk, Anne M M; Schulz, Herbert; Rohde, Elvira; Bednarsch, Jan; Feenstra, Ilse; Pennings, Ronald J E; Wende, Hagen; Garratt, Alistair N

    2014-03-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) receives odor information from the olfactory epithelium and relays this to the olfactory cortex. Using a mouse model, we found that development and maturation of OB interneurons depends on the zinc finger homeodomain factor teashirt zinc finger family member 1 (TSHZ1). In mice lacking TSHZ1, neuroblasts exhibited a normal tangential migration to the OB; however, upon arrival to the OB, the neuroblasts were distributed aberrantly within the radial dimension, and many immature neuroblasts failed to exit the rostral migratory stream. Conditional deletion of Tshz1 in mice resulted in OB hypoplasia and severe olfactory deficits. We therefore investigated olfaction in human subjects from families with congenital aural atresia that were heterozygous for TSHZ1 loss-of-function mutations. These individuals displayed hyposmia, which is characterized by impaired odor discrimination and reduced olfactory sensitivity. Microarray analysis, in situ hybridization, and ChIP revealed that TSHZ1 bound to and regulated expression of the gene encoding prokineticin receptor 2 (PROKR2), a G protein–coupled receptor essential for OB development. Mutations in PROKR2 lead to Kallmann syndrome, characterized by anosmia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Our data indicate that TSHZ1 is a key regulator of mammalian OB development and function and controls the expression of molecules involved in human Kallmann syndrome.

  17. [Olfactory sensory perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Aler; Fresno, María Javiera; Santander, Hugo; Valenzuela, Saúl; Gutiérrez, Mario Felipe; Miralles, Rodolfo

    2011-03-01

    The five senses have had a fundamental importance for survival and socialization of human beings. From an evolutionary point of view the sense of smell is the oldest. This sense has a strong representation within the genome, allowing the existence of many types of receptors that allow us to capture multiple volatile odor producing molecules, sending electrical signals to higher centers to report the outside world. Several cortical areas are activated in the brain, which are interconnected to form an extensive and complex neural network, linking for example, areas involved with memory and emotions, thus giving this sense of perceptual richness. While the concept of flavor is largely related to the sense of taste, smell provides the necessary integration with the rest of the senses and higher functions. Fully understanding the sense of smell is relevant to health professionals. Knowing the characteristics of the receptors, the transduction processes and convergence of information in the higher centers involved, we can properly detect olfactory disorders in our patients.

  18. Chlorpheniramine impairs functional recovery in Carassius auratus after telencephalic ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Garção

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of an H1 receptor antagonist on the functional recovery of Carassius auratus submitted to telencephalic ablation. Five days after surgery the fish underwent a spatial-choice learning paradigm test. The fish, weighing 6-12 g, were divided into four groups: telencephalic ablation (A or sham lesion (S and saline (SAL or chlorpheniramine (CPA, ip, 16 mg/kg. For eight consecutive days each animal was trained individually in sessions separated by 24 h (alternate days. Training trials (T1-T8 consisted of finding the food in one of the feeders, which were randomly blocked for each subject. Animals received an intraperitoneal injection of SAL or CPA 10 min after the training trials. The time spent by the animals in each group to find the food (latency was analyzed separately at T1 and T8 by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by the Student Newman-Keuls test. At T1 the latencies (mean ± SEM of the A-SAL (586.3 ± 13.6 and A-CPA (600 ± 0 groups were significantly longer than those of the S-SAL (226.14 ± 61.15 and S-CPA (356.33 ± 68.8 groups. At T8, the latencies of the A-CPA group (510.11 ± 62.2 remained higher than those of the other groups, all of which showed significantly shorter latencies (A-SAL = 301.91 ± 78.32; S-CPA = 191.58 ± 73.03; S-SAL = 90.28 ± 41 compared with T1. These results support evidence that training can lead to functional recovery of spatial-choice learning in telencephalonless fish and also that the antagonist of the H1 receptor impairs it.

  19. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  1. Sensory deprivation disrupts homeostatic regeneration of newly generated olfactory sensory neurons after injury in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Shu; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagayama, Shin; Kanaya, Kaori; Kinoshita, Makoto; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-02-11

    Although it is well known that injury induces the generation of a substantial number of new olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the adult olfactory epithelium (OE), it is not well understood whether olfactory sensory input influences the survival and maturation of these injury-induced OSNs in adults. Here, we investigated whether olfactory sensory deprivation affected the dynamic incorporation of newly generated OSNs 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after injury in adult mice. Mice were unilaterally deprived of olfactory sensory input by inserting a silicone tube into their nostrils. Methimazole, an olfactotoxic drug, was also injected intraperitoneally to bilaterally ablate OSNs. The OE was restored to its preinjury condition with new OSNs by day 28. No significant differences in the numbers of olfactory marker protein-positive mature OSNs or apoptotic OSNs were observed between the deprived and nondeprived sides 0-7 d after injury. However, between days 7 and 28, the sensory-deprived side showed markedly fewer OSNs and mature OSNs, but more apoptotic OSNs, than the nondeprived side. Intrinsic functional imaging of the dorsal surface of the olfactory bulb at day 28 revealed that responses to odor stimulation were weaker in the deprived side compared with those in the nondeprived side. Furthermore, prevention of cell death in new neurons 7-14 d after injury promoted the recovery of the OE. These results indicate that, in the adult OE, sensory deprivation disrupts compensatory OSN regeneration after injury and that newly generated OSNs have a critical time window for sensory-input-dependent survival 7-14 d after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352657-17$15.00/0.

  2. Sendai Virus Induces Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in a Murine Model of PVOD via Effects on Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, and Response to Odorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tian

    Full Text Available Viral infection is a common cause of olfactory dysfunction. The complexities of studying post-viral olfactory loss in humans have impaired further progress in understanding the underlying mechanism. Recently, evidence from clinical studies has implicated Parainfluenza virus 3 as a causal agent. An animal model of post viral olfactory disorders (PVOD would allow better understanding of disease pathogenesis and represent a major advance in the field.To develop a mouse model of PVOD by evaluating the effects of Sendai virus (SeV, the murine counterpart of Parainfluenza virus, on olfactory function and regenerative ability of the olfactory epithelium.C57BL/6 mice (6-8 months old were inoculated intranasally with SeV or ultraviolet (UV-inactivated virus (UV-SeV. On days 3, 10, 15, 30 and 60 post-infection, olfactory epithelium was harvested and analyzed by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of S-phase nuclei. We also measured apoptosis by TUNEL assay and viral load by real-time PCR. The buried food test (BFT was used to measure olfactory function of mice at day 60. In parallel, cultured murine olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs infected with SeV or UV-SeV were tested for odorant-mixture response by measuring changes in intracellular calcium concentrations indicated by fura-4 AM assay.Mice infected with SeV suffered from olfactory dysfunction, peaking on day 15, with no loss observed with UV-SeV. At 60 days, four out of 12 mice infected with SeV still had not recovered, with continued normal function in controls. Viral copies of SeV persisted in both the olfactory epithelium (OE and the olfactory bulb (OB for at least 60 days. At day 10 and after, both unit length labeling index (ULLI of apoptosis and ULLI of proliferation in the SeV group was markedly less than the UV-SeV group. In primary cultured OSNs infected by SeV, the percentage of cells responding to mixed odors was markedly lower in the SeV group compared to UV-SeV (P = 0.007.We

  3. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia

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    Iguchi Kei'ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carassius auratus is a primary freshwater fish with bisexual diploid and unisexual gynogenetic triploid lineages. It is distributed widely in Eurasia and is especially common in East Asia. Although several genetic studies have been conducted on C. auratus, they have not provided clear phylogenetic and evolutionary descriptions of this fish, probably due to selection bias in sampling sites and the DNA regions analysed. As the first step in clarifying the evolutionary entity of the world's Carassius fishes, we attempted to clarify the phylogeny of C. auratus populations distributed in East Asia. Results We conducted a detailed analysis of a large dataset of mitochondrial gene sequences [CR, 323 bp, 672 sequences (528 sequenced + 144 downloaded; CR + ND4 + ND5 + cyt b, 4669 bp in total, 53 sequences] obtained from C. auratus in East Asia. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed two superlineages, one distributed mainly among the Japanese main islands and the other in various regions in and around the Eurasian continent, including the Ryukyus and Taiwan. The two superlineages include seven lineages with high regional specificity that are composed of endemic populations indigenous to each region. The divergence time of the seven lineages was estimated to be 0.2 million years ago (Mya by a fossil-based method and 1.0-1.9 Mya by the molecular clock method. The antiquity and endemism of these lineages suggest that they are native to their respective regions, although some seem to have been affected by the artificial introduction of C. auratus belonging to other lineages. Triploids of C. auratus did not form a monophyletic lineage but were clustered mostly with sympatric diploids. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed the existence of two superlineages of C. auratus in East Asia that include seven lineages endemic to each of the seven regions examined. The lack of substantial genetic separation between triploids and

  4. The Stimulus-Dependent Gradient of Cyp26B1+ Olfactory Sensory Neurons Is Necessary for the Functional Integrity of the Olfactory Sensory Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Login, Hande; Håglin, Sofia; Berghard, Anna; Bohm, Staffan

    2015-10-07

    Stimulus-dependent expression of the retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme Cyp26B1 in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) forms a dorsomedial (DM)-ventrolateral (VL) gradient in the mouse olfactory epithelium. The gradient correlates spatially with different rates of OSN turnover, as well as the functional organization of the olfactory sensory map, into overlapping zones of OSNs that express different odorant receptors (ORs). Here, we analyze transgenic mice that, instead of a stimulus-dependent Cyp26B1 gradient, have constitutive Cyp26B1 levels in all OSNs. Starting postnatally, OSN differentiation is decreased and progenitor proliferation is increased. Initially, these effects are selective to the VL-most zone and correlate with reduced ATF5 expression and accumulation of OSNs that do not express ORs. Transcription factor ATF5 is known to stabilize OR gene choice via onset of the stimulus-transducing enzyme adenylyl cyclase type 3. During further postnatal development of Cyp26B1 mice, an anomalous DM(high)-VL(low) expression gradient of adenylyl cyclase type 3 appears, which coincides with altered OR frequencies and OR zones. All OR zones expand ventrolaterally except for the VL-most zone, which contracts. The expansion results in an increased zonal overlap that is also evident in the innervation pattern of OSN axon terminals in olfactory bulbs. These findings together identify a mechanism by which postnatal sensory-stimulated vitamin A metabolism modifies the generation of spatially specified neurons and their precise topographic connectivity. The distributed patterns of vitamin A-metabolizing enzymes in the nervous system suggest the possibility that the mechanism may also regulate neuroplasticity in circuits other than the olfactory sensory map. The mouse olfactory sensory map is functionally wired according to precise axonal projections of spatially organized classes of olfactory sensory neurons in the nose. The genetically controlled mechanisms that regulate the

  5. Sniffing and Oxytocin: Effects on Olfactory Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ron

    2016-05-04

    In this issue of Neuron, Oettl et al. (2016) show how oxytocin can boost processing of olfactory information in female rats by a top-downregulation from the anterior olfactory nucleus onto the main olfactory bulb. As a result, interactions with juvenile conspecifics receive more attention and are longer memorized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cilia- and Flagella-Associated Protein 69 Regulates Olfactory Transduction Kinetics in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Anna K; Dong, Frederick N; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2017-06-07

    Animals detect odorous chemicals through specialized olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that transduce odorants into neural electrical signals. We identified a novel and evolutionarily conserved protein, cilia- and flagella-associated protein 69 (CFAP69), in mice that regulates olfactory transduction kinetics. In the olfactory epithelium, CFAP69 is enriched in OSN cilia, where olfactory transduction occurs. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that a large portion of CFAP69 can form Armadillo-type α-helical repeats, which may mediate protein-protein interactions. OSNs lacking CFAP69, remarkably, displayed faster kinetics in both the on and off phases of electrophysiological responses at both the neuronal ensemble level as observed by electroolfactogram and the single-cell level as observed by single-cell suction pipette recordings. In single-cell analysis, OSNs lacking CFAP69 showed faster response integration and were able to fire APs more faithfully to repeated odor stimuli. Furthermore, both male and female mutant mice that specifically lack CFAP69 in OSNs exhibited attenuated performance in a buried food pellet test when a background of the same odor to the food pellet was present even though they should have better temporal resolution of coding olfactory stimulation at the peripheral. Therefore, the role of CFAP69 in the olfactory system seems to be to allow the olfactory transduction machinery to work at a precisely regulated range of response kinetics for robust olfactory behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory receptor cells are generally thought to evolve to respond to sensory cues as fast as they can. This idea is consistent with mutational analyses in various sensory systems, where mutations of sensory receptor cells often resulted in reduced response size and slowed response kinetics. Contrary to this idea, we have found that there is a kinetic "damper" present in the olfactory transduction cascade of the mouse that slows down the response kinetics and, by

  7. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 6. Microbes and Gut-Epithelium : More than ... Author Affiliations. Sarita Ahlawat1. Research Associate Malaria Group International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi 110067, India.

  8. NQO1 activity in the main and the accessory olfactory systems correlates with the zonal topography of projection maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussing, Fredrik; Bohm, Staffan

    2004-05-01

    The mouse olfactory epithelium (OE) is divided into spatial zones, each containing neurons expressing zone-specific subsets of odorant receptor genes. Likewise, the vomeronasal (VN) organ is organized into apical and basal subpopulations of neurons expressing different VN receptor gene families. Axons projecting from the different OE zones and VN subpopulations form synapses within circumscribed regions in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), respectively. We here show that mature neurons in one defined zone selectively express NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme that catalyses reduction of quinones. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization analyses show non-overlapping expression of NQO1 and the Rb8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM/OCAM) in OE and axon terminals within glomeruli of the OB. In addition, NQO1 immunoreactivity reveals selective, zone-specific axon fasciculation in the olfactory nerve. VN subpopulations do not show complementary patterns of RNCAM and NQO1 immunoreactivity, instead both genes are co-expressed in apical VN neurons that project to the rostral AOB. These results indicate that one division of both the accessory and the main olfactory projection maps are composed of sensory neurons that are specialized to reduce environmental and/or endogenously produced quinones via an NQO1-dependent mechanism. The role of NQO1 in bioactivation of quinoidal drugs also points to a connection between zone-specific NQO1 expression and zone-specific toxicity of certain olfactory toxins.

  9. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  10. Olfactory training in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Haehner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory function. It has been hypothesized that olfactory training should produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the training process and an overall increase of olfactory function. METHODS: We recruited 70 subjects with PD and olfactory loss into this single-center, prospective, controlled non-blinded study. Thirty-five patients were assigned to the olfactory training group and 35 subjects to the control group (no training. Olfactory training was performed over a period of 12 weeks while patients exposed themselves twice daily to four odors (phenyl ethyl alcohol: rose, eucalyptol: eucalyptus, citronellal: lemon, and eugenol: cloves. Olfactory testing was performed before and after training using the "Sniffin' Sticks" (thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol, tests for odor discrimination, and odor identification in addition to threshold tests for the odors used in the training process. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, trained PD patients experienced a significant increase in their olfactory function, which was observed for the Sniffin' Sticks test score and for thresholds for the odors used in the training process. Olfactory function was unchanged in PD patients who did not perform olfactory training. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that olfactory training may increase olfactory sensitivity in PD patients.

  11. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  12. Corneal epithelium following penetrating keratoplasty.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubota, K; Mashima, Y; Murata, H; Yamada, M.; Sato, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--This study was designed to observe any changes to the corneal epithelium after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS--The corneal epithelia of 26 patients were observed by specular microscopy 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following penetrating keratoplasty. RESULTS--After re-epithelialisation was confirmed by biomicroscopy 1 week after surgery, specular microscopy revealed many abnormal cells, including spindle shaped cells, nucleated cells, large cells, as well as irregular cell ...

  13. Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Yoav; Livneh, Yoav; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Groysman, Maya; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams.

  14. Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Yoav; Livneh, Yoav; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Groysman, Maya; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi

    2014-01-01

    Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams. PMID:25408637

  15. Single Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel currents recorded from toad olfactory cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ricardo; Mura, Casilda V; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2016-04-25

    Odor transduction, occurring in the chemosensory cilia of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons, is triggered by guanosine triphosphate-coupled odor receptors and mediated by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade, where cAMP opens cationic non-selective cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Calcium enters through CNG gates Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, allowing a Cl(-) inward current that enhances the depolarization initiated by the CNG-dependent inward current. The anoctamin channel 2, ANO2, is considered the main Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel of olfactory transduction. Although Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel-dependent currents in olfactory sensory neurons were reported to be suppressed in ANO2-knockout mice, field potentials from their olfactory epithelium were only modestly diminished and their smell-dependent behavior was unaffected, suggesting the participation of additional Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel types. The Bestrophin channel 2, Best2, was also detected in mouse olfactory cilia and ClCa4l, belonging to the ClCa family of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, were found in rat cilia. Best2 knock-out mice present no electrophysiological or behavioral impairment, while the ClCa channels have not been functionally studied; therefore, the overall participation of all these channels in olfactory transduction remains unresolved. We explored the presence of detectable Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in toad olfactory cilia by recording from inside-out membrane patches excised from individual cilia and detected unitary Cl(-) current events with a pronounced Ca(2+) dependence, corresponding to 12 and 24 pS conductances, over tenfold higher than the aforementioned channels, and a approx. fivefold higher Ca(2+) affinity (K0.5 = 0.38 µM). Remarkably, we observed immunoreactivity to anti-ClCa and anti-ANO2 antibodies in the olfactory cilia, suggesting a possible cooperative function of both channel type in chemotransduction. These results

  16. Proteomic Analysis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalli, Manjunath; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Manish; Rodrigues, Benvil; Gowda, Harsha; Siddaiah, Bychapur Gowrishankar; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-08-01

    The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death. In this context, the olfactory bulb is a vital component of the olfactory system receiving sensory information from the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity and the first place that processes the olfactory information. We report in this study original observations on the human olfactory bulb proteome in healthy subjects, using a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We identified 7750 nonredundant proteins from human olfactory bulbs. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins showed their involvement in biological processes associated with signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and olfaction. These new observations provide a crucial baseline molecular profile of the human olfactory bulb proteome, and should assist the future discovery of biomarker proteins and novel diagnostics associated with diseases characterized by olfactory dysfunction.

  17. Anatomical and molecular consequences of Unilateral Naris Closure on two populations of olfactory sensory neurons expressing defined odorant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Adrien; Aoudé, Imad; Soubeyre, Vanessa; Tazir, Bassim; Cadiou, Hervé; Grosmaitre, Xavier

    2016-07-28

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the primary elements of the olfactory system, are located in the olfactory epithelium lining the nasal cavity. Exposed to the environment, their lifespan is short. Consequently, OSNs are regularly regenerated and several reports show that activity strongly modulates their development and regeneration: the peripheral olfactory system can adjust to the amount of stimulus through compensatory mechanisms. Unilateral naris occlusion (UNO) was frequently used to investigate this mechanism at the entire epithelium level. However, there is little data regarding the effects of UNO at the cellular level, especially on individual neuronal populations expressing a defined odorant receptor. Here, using UNO during the first three postnatal weeks, we analyzed the anatomical and molecular consequences of sensory deprivation in OSNs populations expressing the MOR23 and M71 receptors. The density of MOR23-expressing neurons is decreased in the closed side while UNO does not affect the density of M71-expressing neurons. Using Real Time qPCR on isolated neurons, we observed that UNO modulates the transcript levels for transduction pathway proteins (odorant receptors, CNGA2, PDE1c). The transcripts modulated by UNO will differ between populations depending on the receptor expressed. These results suggest that sensory deprivation will have different effects on different OSNs' populations. As a consequence, early experience will shape the functional properties of OSNs differently depending on the type of odorant receptor they express. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The First Record of Argulus foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura) Infestation on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, V; Chelongar, Y; Shahmoradi, Ah

    2010-06-01

    Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue damage and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus), taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administration, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Iran.

  19. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  20. Olfactory receptor signaling is regulated by the post-synaptic density 95, Drosophila discs large, zona-occludens 1 (PDZ) scaffold multi-PDZ domain protein 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    The unique ability of mammals to detect and discriminate between thousands of different odorant molecules is governed by the diverse array of olfactory receptors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons in the nasal epithelium. Olfactory receptors consist of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors and comprise the largest gene superfamily in the mammalian genome. We found that approximately 30% of olfactory receptors possess a classical post-synaptic density 95, Drosophila discs large, zona-occludens 1 (PDZ) domain binding motif in their C-termini. PDZ domains have been established as sites for protein-protein interaction and play a central role in organizing diverse cell signaling assemblies. In the present study, we show that multi-PDZ domain protein 1 (MUPP1) is expressed in the apical compartment of olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, on heterologous co-expression with olfactory sensory neurons, MUPP1 was shown to translocate to the plasma membrane. We found direct interaction of PDZ domains 1 + 2 of MUPP1 with the C-terminus of olfactory receptors in vitro. Moreover, the odorant-elicited calcium response of OR2AG1 showed a prolonged decay in MUPP1 small interfering RNA-treated cells. We have therefore elucidated the first building blocks of the putative \\'olfactosome\\

  1. Olfactory dysfunction in Iranian diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mehdizadeh Seraj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes and, despite its importance in the quality of life, is usually neglected due to its gradual progression. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence and severity of olfactory dysfunction in diabetics and its association with microangiopathic complications of the disease (neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. Excluding the confounding factors, a case-control study of 60 eligible subjects, divided into a group of 30 diabetic patients and a group of 30 control subjects was performed. We used "absorbent perfumer's paper strips" method to test the olfactory threshold. In our study, 60% of diabetics were found to have some degree of olfactory dysfunction and a significant difference (P<0.01 between the olfactory threshold of the case and control groups was observed. There were no significant associations between the olfactory dysfunction and age, sex, treatment duration and microangiopathic complications.

  2. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  3. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  4. Mucus trail tracking in a predatory snail: olfactory processing retooled to serve a novel sensory modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal; Shaheen, Nagma; Witherspoon, Jessica; Robinson, Natallia; Harrington, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    The rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), a predatory land snail, finds prey snails and potential mates by following their mucus trails. Euglandina have evolved unique, mobile lip extensions that detect mucus and aid in following trails. Currently, little is known of the neural substrates of the trail-following behavior. To investigate the neural correlates of trail following we used tract-tracing experiments in which nerves were backfilled with either nickel-lysine or Lucifer yellow, extracellular recording of spiking neurons in snail procerebra using a multielectrode array, and behavioral assays of trail following and movement toward the source of a conditioned odor. The tract-tracing experiments demonstrate that in Euglandina, the nerves carrying mucus signals innervate the same region of the central ganglia as the olfactory nerves, while the electrophysiology studies show that mucus stimulation of the sensory epithelium on the lip extensions alters the frequency and pattern of neural activity in the procerebrum in a manner similar to odor stimulation of the olfactory epithelium on the optic tentacles of another land snail species, Cantareus aspersa (previously known as Helix aspersa). While Euglandina learn to follow trails of novel chemicals that they contact with their lip extensions in one to three trials, these snails proved remarkably resistant to associative learning in the olfactory modality. Even after seven to nine pairings of odorant molecules with food, they showed no orientation toward the conditioned odor. This is in marked contrast to Cantareus snails, which reliably oriented toward conditioned odors after two to three trials. The apparent inability of Euglandina to learn to associate food with odors and use odor cues to drive behavior suggests that the capability for sophisticated neural processing of nonvolatile mucus cues detected by the lip extensions has evolved at the expense of processing of odorant molecules detected by the olfactory system.

  5. Mucus trail tracking in a predatory snail: olfactory processing retooled to serve a novel sensory modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal; Shaheen, Nagma; Witherspoon, Jessica; Robinson, Natallia; Harrington, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), a predatory land snail, finds prey snails and potential mates by following their mucus trails. Euglandina have evolved unique, mobile lip extensions that detect mucus and aid in following trails. Currently, little is known of the neural substrates of the trail-following behavior. Methods To investigate the neural correlates of trail following we used tract-tracing experiments in which nerves were backfilled with either nickel-lysine or Lucifer yellow, extracellular recording of spiking neurons in snail procerebra using a multielectrode array, and behavioral assays of trail following and movement toward the source of a conditioned odor. Results The tract-tracing experiments demonstrate that in Euglandina, the nerves carrying mucus signals innervate the same region of the central ganglia as the olfactory nerves, while the electrophysiology studies show that mucus stimulation of the sensory epithelium on the lip extensions alters the frequency and pattern of neural activity in the procerebrum in a manner similar to odor stimulation of the olfactory epithelium on the optic tentacles of another land snail species, Cantareus aspersa (previously known as Helix aspersa). While Euglandina learn to follow trails of novel chemicals that they contact with their lip extensions in one to three trials, these snails proved remarkably resistant to associative learning in the olfactory modality. Even after seven to nine pairings of odorant molecules with food, they showed no orientation toward the conditioned odor. This is in marked contrast to Cantareus snails, which reliably oriented toward conditioned odors after two to three trials. Conclusions The apparent inability of Euglandina to learn to associate food with odors and use odor cues to drive behavior suggests that the capability for sophisticated neural processing of nonvolatile mucus cues detected by the lip extensions has evolved at the expense of processing of odorant

  6. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide causes disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in adult male goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) and l-thyroxine (T4) exert a wide range of biological effects on physiological processes of fish. To elucidate the thyroid disruption effects of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide, on male goldfish (Carassius auratus), thyroid follicle histology, plasma total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3) and free T4 levels, and the mRNA expression of indices involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) were examined following 21-day exposure to 0.01, 0.10 and 1.00mg/L of a 40% MCP-based pesticide. The results showed that MCP exposure induced the hyperplasia and hypertrophy of thyroid follicular epithelium and led to decreased plasma TT3 levels and TT3-to-TT4 ratios, without effect on plasma TT4 levels. Profiles of the changes in the relative abundance of deiodinase (D1, D2 and D3) transcripts were observed in the liver, brain and kidneys, during MCP exposure. An increase in the metabolism of T3, expressed as highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels, might be associated with the reduction in plasma TT3 levels in both the 0.01 and 0.10mg/L groups, while in the 1.00mg/L MCP group, inhibited hepatic d2 transcripts might have also resulted in decreased TT3 levels by preventing the activation of T4 to T3. As a compensatory response to decreased T3 levels, pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit mRNA transcription was up-regulated by the MCP pesticide. Decreases in plasma FT3 levels were also correlated with the modulation of hepatic transthyretin mRNA expression. Overall, the MCP pesticide exhibited thyroid-disrupting effects via interference with the HPT axis at multiple potential sites, resulting in disturbance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Timberol® Inhibits TAAR5-Mediated Responses to Trimethylamine and Influences the Olfactory Threshold in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Wallrabenstein

    Full Text Available In mice, trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs are interspersed in the olfactory epithelium and constitute a chemosensory subsystem that is highly specific for detecting volatile amines. Humans possess six putative functional TAAR genes. Human TAAR5 (hTAAR5 is highly expressed in the olfactory mucosa and was shown to be specifically activated by trimethylamine. In this study, we were challenged to uncover an effective blocker substance for trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation. To monitor blocking effects, we recombinantly expressed hTAAR5 and employed a commonly used Cre-luciferase reporter gene assay. Among all tested potential blocker substances, Timberol®, an amber-woody fragrance, is able to inhibit the trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation up to 96%. Moreover, human psychophysical data showed that the presence of Timberol® increases the olfactory detection threshold for the characteristic fishy odor of trimethylamine by almost one order of magnitude. In conclusion, our results show that among tested receptors Timberol® is a specific and potent antagonist for the hTAAR5-mediated response to trimethylamine in a heterologous system. Furthermore, our data concerning the observed shift of the olfactory detection threshold in vivo implicate that hTAAR5 or other receptors that may be inhibited by Timberol® could be involved in the high affinity olfactory perception of trimethylamine in humans.

  8. Timberol® Inhibits TAAR5-Mediated Responses to Trimethylamine and Influences the Olfactory Threshold in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallrabenstein, Ivonne; Singer, Marco; Panten, Johannes; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    In mice, trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are interspersed in the olfactory epithelium and constitute a chemosensory subsystem that is highly specific for detecting volatile amines. Humans possess six putative functional TAAR genes. Human TAAR5 (hTAAR5) is highly expressed in the olfactory mucosa and was shown to be specifically activated by trimethylamine. In this study, we were challenged to uncover an effective blocker substance for trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation. To monitor blocking effects, we recombinantly expressed hTAAR5 and employed a commonly used Cre-luciferase reporter gene assay. Among all tested potential blocker substances, Timberol®, an amber-woody fragrance, is able to inhibit the trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation up to 96%. Moreover, human psychophysical data showed that the presence of Timberol® increases the olfactory detection threshold for the characteristic fishy odor of trimethylamine by almost one order of magnitude. In conclusion, our results show that among tested receptors Timberol® is a specific and potent antagonist for the hTAAR5-mediated response to trimethylamine in a heterologous system. Furthermore, our data concerning the observed shift of the olfactory detection threshold in vivo implicate that hTAAR5 or other receptors that may be inhibited by Timberol® could be involved in the high affinity olfactory perception of trimethylamine in humans. PMID:26684881

  9. Timberol® Inhibits TAAR5-Mediated Responses to Trimethylamine and Influences the Olfactory Threshold in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallrabenstein, Ivonne; Singer, Marco; Panten, Johannes; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    In mice, trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are interspersed in the olfactory epithelium and constitute a chemosensory subsystem that is highly specific for detecting volatile amines. Humans possess six putative functional TAAR genes. Human TAAR5 (hTAAR5) is highly expressed in the olfactory mucosa and was shown to be specifically activated by trimethylamine. In this study, we were challenged to uncover an effective blocker substance for trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation. To monitor blocking effects, we recombinantly expressed hTAAR5 and employed a commonly used Cre-luciferase reporter gene assay. Among all tested potential blocker substances, Timberol®, an amber-woody fragrance, is able to inhibit the trimethylamine-induced hTAAR5 activation up to 96%. Moreover, human psychophysical data showed that the presence of Timberol® increases the olfactory detection threshold for the characteristic fishy odor of trimethylamine by almost one order of magnitude. In conclusion, our results show that among tested receptors Timberol® is a specific and potent antagonist for the hTAAR5-mediated response to trimethylamine in a heterologous system. Furthermore, our data concerning the observed shift of the olfactory detection threshold in vivo implicate that hTAAR5 or other receptors that may be inhibited by Timberol® could be involved in the high affinity olfactory perception of trimethylamine in humans.

  10. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater→50% seawater→freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-04-25

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

  12. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiebel, L.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Mosquitoes that act as disease vectors rely upon olfactory cues to direct several important behaviors that are fundamentally involved in establishing their overall vectorial capacity. Of these, the propensity to select humans for blood feeding is arguably the most important of these olfactory driven

  13. Glomerular input patterns in the mouse olfactory bulb evoked by retronasal odor stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furudono, Yuichi; Cruz, Ginny; Lowe, Graeme

    2013-04-08

    Odorant stimuli can access the olfactory epithelium either orthonasally, by inhalation through the external nares, or retronasally by reverse airflow from the oral cavity. There is evidence that odors perceived through these two routes can differ in quality and intensity. We were curious whether such differences might potentially have a neural basis in the peripheral mechanisms of odor coding. To explore this possibility, we compared olfactory receptor input to glomeruli in the dorsal olfactory bulb evoked by orthonasal and retronasal stimulation. Maps of glomerular response were acquired by optical imaging of transgenic mice expressing synaptopHluorin (spH), a fluorescent reporter of presynaptic activity, in olfactory nerve terminals. We found that retronasally delivered odorants were able to activate inputs to multiple glomeruli in the dorsal olfactory bulb. The retronasal responses were smaller than orthonasal responses to odorants delivered at comparable concentrations and flow rates, and they displayed higher thresholds and right-shifted dose-response curves. Glomerular maps of orthonasal and retronasal responses were usually well overlapped, with fewer total numbers of glomeruli in retronasal maps. However, maps at threshold could be quite distinct with little overlap. Retronasal responses were also more narrowly tuned to homologous series of aliphatic odorants of varying carbon chain length, with longer chain, more hydrophobic compounds evoking little or no response at comparable vapor levels. Several features of retronasal olfaction are possibly referable to the observed properties of glomerular odorant responses. The finding that retronasal responses are weaker and sparser than orthonasal responses is consistent with psychophysical studies showing lower sensitivity for retronasal olfaction in threshold and suprathreshold tests. The similarity and overlap of orthonasal and retronasal odor maps at suprathreshold concentrations agrees with generally similar

  14. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  15. Olfactory neuroblastoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Ogata, Keiko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Okajima, Ryoko; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kotani, Takao; Aoki, Mika

    2006-05-01

    An 11-year-old thoroughbred gelding was euthanatized because of right nasal cavity tumor. The tumor consisted of round to oval cells with a scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Homer-Wright rosettes and pseudorosettes, as well as microcysts were seen. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to vimentin, S-100 protein, and neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtube-associated protein in varying degrees, indicating neurogenic nature. Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as an olfactory neuroblastoma. Since this type is an uncommon tumor showing histological variety, the nature is discussed.

  16. Olfactory Dysfunction in Nasal Bone Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sug Won; Park, Beom; Lee, Tae Geun; Kim, Ji Ye

    2017-06-01

    All nasal bone fractures have the potential for worsening of olfactory function. However, few studies have studied the olfactory outcomes following reduction of nasal bone fractures. This study evaluates posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction in patients with nasal bone fracture before and after closed reduction. A prospective study was conducted for all patients presenting with nasal bone fracture (n=97). Each patient consenting to the study underwent the Korean version of Sniffin' Sticks test (KVSS II) before operation and at 6 month after closed reduction. The nasal fractures were divided according to the nasal bone fracture classification by Haug and Prather (Types I-IV). The olfactory scores were compared across fracture types and between preoperative and postoperative settings. Olfactory dysfunction was frequent after nasal fracture (45/97, 46.4%). Our olfactory assessment using the KVSS II test revealed that fracture reduction was not associated with improvements in the mean test score in Type I or Type II fractures. More specifically, the mean posttraumatic Threshold, discrimination and identification score decreased from 28.8 points prior to operation to 23.1 point at 6 months for Type II fracture with septal fracture. Our study has revealed two alarming trends regarding post-nasal fracture olfactory dysfunction. First, our study demonstrated that almost half (46.4%) of nasal fracture patients experience posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction. Second, closed reduction of these fractures does not lead to improvements olfaction at 6 months, which suggest that olfactory dysfunction is probably due to factors other than the fracture itself. The association should be further explored between injuries that lead to nasal fracture and the mechanism behind posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction.

  17. Smelly primes - when olfactory primes do or do not work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M. A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141926600; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming.

  18. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  19. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona; Mombaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene-targeted strains of the OR-IRES-marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, "count every cell" strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain-specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17-fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene-targeted strains. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  1. Preliminary Modeling and Simulation Study on Olfactory Cell Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    This paper introduced olfactory sensory neuron's whole-cell model with a concrete voltage-gated ionic channels and simulation. Though there are many models in olfactory sensory neuron and olfactory bulb, it remains uncertain how they express the logic of olfactory information processing. In this article, the olfactory neural network model is also introduced. This model specifies the connections among neural ensembles of the olfactory system. The simulation results of the neural network model are consistent with the observed olfactory biological characteristics such as 1/f-type power spectrum and oscillations.

  2. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  3. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  4. Imaging the olfactory tract (Cranial Nerve no.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprez, Thierry P. [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Universite catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, 1200-Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Thierry.Duprez@uclouvain.be; Rombaux, Philippe [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Universite catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate, 10, 1200-Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: Philippe.Rombaux@uclouvain.be

    2010-05-15

    This review paper browses pros and cons of the different radiological modalities for imaging the olfactory tract and highlights the potential benefits and limitation of more recent advances in MR and CT technology. A systematic pictorial overview of pathological conditions affecting olfactory sense is given. Techniques for collecting quantitative data on olfactory bulb volume and on olfactory sulcus depth are described. At last, insights into functional imaging of olfactory sense are shown.

  5. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Shin; Homma, Ryota; Imamura, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit. PMID:25232305

  6. Neuronal organization of olfactory bulb circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin eNagayama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely, juxtaglomerular cells in the glomerular layer, tufted cells in the external plexiform layer, mitral cells in the mitral cell layer, and granule cells in the granule cell layer. More recently, numerous studies have revealed the heterogeneous nature of each of these cell types, allowing them to be further divided into subclasses based on differences in morphological, molecular, and electrophysiological properties. In addition, technical developments and advances have resulted in an increasing number of studies regarding cell types other than the conventionally categorized ones described above, including short-axon cells and adult-generated interneurons. Thus, the expanding diversity of cells in the olfactory bulb is now being acknowledged. However, our current understanding of olfactory bulb neuronal circuits is mostly based on the conventional and simplest classification of cell types. Few studies have taken neuronal diversity into account for understanding the function of the neuronal circuits in this region of the brain. This oversight may contribute to the roadblocks in developing more precise and accurate models of olfactory neuronal networks. The purpose of this review is therefore to discuss the expanse of existing work on neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb up to this point, so as to provide an overall picture of the olfactory bulb circuit.

  7. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  8. Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in olfactory epithelial injury by the sulfur mustard analogue 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Heidi C; Orlicky, David J; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B; Loader, Joan E; Day, Brian J; White, Carl W

    2011-08-01

    The inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM) causes substantial deposition in the nasal region. However, specific injury has not been characterized. 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) is an SM analogue used to model injury and screen potential therapeutics. After the inhalation of CEES, damage to the olfactory epithelium (OE) was extensive. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells were present by 4 hours, and maximal at 18-72 hours. Cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was maximal at 18 hours after the inhalation of 5% CEES. Olfactory marker protein (OMP)-positive olfactory neurons were markedly decreased at 18 hours. IHC-positive cells for 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) within epithelium were elevated by 8 hours, waning by 18 hours, and absent by 72 hours. AEOL 10150, a catalytic manganoporphyrin antioxidant, administered both subcutaneously (5 mg/kg) and intranasally (50 μM, "combined treatment"), decreased OE injury. CEES-induced increases in markers of cell death were decreased by combined treatment involving AEOL 10150. CEES-induced changes in OMP and 3-NT immunostaining were markedly improved by combined treatment involving AEOL 10150. The selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous), administered 1 hour after inhalation and thereafter every 4 hours (five doses), also reduced OE damage with improved OMP and 3-NT staining. Taken together, these data indicate that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important mediators in CEES-induced nasal injury.

  9. Corneal epithelium following penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, K; Mashima, Y; Murata, H; Yamada, M; Sato, N

    1995-03-01

    This study was designed to observe any changes to the corneal epithelium after penetrating keratoplasty. The corneal epithelia of 26 patients were observed by specular microscopy 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following penetrating keratoplasty. After re-epithelialisation was confirmed by biomicroscopy 1 week after surgery, specular microscopy revealed many abnormal cells, including spindle shaped cells, nucleated cells, large cells, as well as irregular cell configurations. Although these abnormal findings tended to decrease with time, they were still present in some cases as much as 6 months postoperatively. Computerised morphometric analysis yielded mean cell areas of 1121 (SD 168) microns 2, 1139 (675) microns 2, 1712 (496) microns 2, and 1400 (377) microns 2 at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months respectively, all significantly greater than that of age matched controls (710 (151) microns 2). The shape factor decreased with time, but was still greater than the control level at 6 months. This study demonstrates that epithelial abnormalities persist longer than expected after penetrating keratoplasty, and that these subtle changes can be detected by specular microscopic observation, potentially allowing for modification and enhancement of the wound healing process.

  10. [Olfactory bulb volume and depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Gang; Hang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    To explore the olfactory abilities in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), analyze the correlation between olfactory bulb (OB) volume with depth of olfactory sulcus (OS) and olfactory function in patients with AR. One hundred patients with AR were compared with one hundred controls in terms of olfactory function T&T testing, OB volume and depth of OS assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). T&T testing and MRI were done after a year in 100 AR patients,the results were compared with the initial results. The OB volume in AR patients was (29.53±3.95) mm3 on the left, (29.67±14.21)mm3 on the right, (29.61±4.05) mm3 on average; The OB volume in controls was (48.93±6.73)mm3 on the left side, (48.81±7.43)mm3 on the right side, (48.85±7.11)mm3 on average; The OB volume in AR patients was less then the control group(t= 6.321, 6.141, 6.221, P0.05). Olfactory discriminate threshold was negatively correlated with OB volume in AR patients (r=-0.46, P0.05). Among 100 followed-up AR patients, 43 showed increased in OB volume and olfactory function after a year, but there was no statistical difference (t= 0. 811,0. 843, 0.826, P>0.05; Z=1.911, P>0.05) ,and the other 57 showed no significant changes of OB volume and olfactory function. In AR patients, the OB volume and olfactory function decreased, but the depth of OS had no significant changes. The OB volume is correlated with olfactory function, while the depth of OS is no correlated with olfactory function. Conservative treatment had some clinical significance on the recovery of olfactory function in patients with AR.

  11. Magnetite-Based Magnetoreceptor Cells in the Olfactory Organ of Rainbow Trout and Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Cadiou, H.; Dixson, A. D.; Eder, S.; Kobayashi, A.; McNaughton, P. A.; Muhamad, A. N.; Raub, T. D.; Walker, M. M.; Winklhofer, M.; Yuen, B. B.

    2011-12-01

    Many vertebrate and invertebrate animals have a geomagnetic sensory system, but the biophysics and anatomy of how magnetic stimuli are transduced to the nervous system is a challenging problem. Previous work in our laboratories identified single-domain magnetite chains in olfactory epithelium in cells proximal to the ros V nerve, which, in rainbow trout, responds to magnetic fields. Our objectives are to characterize these magnetite-containing cells and determine whether they form part of the mechanism of magnetic field transduction in teleost fishes, as a model for other Vertebrates. Using a combination of reflection mode confocal microscopy and a Prussian Blue technique modified to stain specifically for magnetite, our Auckland group estimated that both juvenile rainbow trout (ca. 7 cm total length) olfactory rosettes have ~200 magnetite-containing cells. The magnetite present in two types of cells within the olfactory epithelium appears to be arranged in intracellular chains. All of our groups (Munich, Auckland, Cambridge and Caltech) have obtained different types of structural evidence that magnetite chains closely associate with the plasma membrane in the cells, even in disaggregated tissues. In addition, our Cambridge group used Ca2+ imaging to demonstrate a clear response by individual magnetite-containing cells to a step change in the intensity of the external magnetic field and a slow change in Ca2+ activity when the external magnetic field was cancelled. In the teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small (~4 cm adult length in captivity) genetic and developmental biology model organism, our Caltech group detected ferromagnetic material throughout the body, but concentrated in the rostral trunk, using NRM and IRM scans of whole adults. Our analysis suggests greater than one million, 80-100 nm crystals, with Lowrie-Fuller curves strongly consistent with single-domain magnetite in 100-100,000 magnetocytes. Ferromagentic resonance (FMR) spectra show crystals

  12. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...

  13. Parathyroid hormone-related protein and calcium regulation in vitamin D-deficient sea bream (Sparus auratus).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Hang, X.M.; Guerreiro, P.M.; Spanings, F.A.T.; Ross, H.A.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.) were fed a vitamin D-deficient diet for 22 weeks. Growth rate, whole body mineral pools and calcium balance were determined. Plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and calcitriol levels were assessed. Expression of mRNA for pthrp and pth1r was

  14. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation impaired olfactory function and changed SNAP25 proteins in olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Yan, Weiqun; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Yingqiao; Ma, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Formaldehyde inhalation exposure, which can occur through occupational exposure, can lead to sensory irritation, neurotoxicity, mood disorders, and learning and memory impairment. However, its influence on olfactory function is unclear. To investigate the mechanism and the effect of repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure on olfactory function. Rats were treated with formaldehyde inhalation (13·5±1·5 ppm, twice 30 minutes/day) for 14 days. Buried food pellet and locomotive activity tests were used to detect olfactory function and locomotion. Western blots were used to evaluate synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) protein levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) lysate and synaptosome, as well as mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron markers, olfactory marker protein (OMP), and Tuj-1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect SNAP25 mRNA amounts. Repeated formaldehyde inhalation exposure impaired olfactory function, whereas locomotive activities were unaffected. SNAP25 protein decreased significantly in the OB, but not in the occipital lobe. SNAP25 also decreased in the OB synaptosome when synaptophysin did not change after formaldehyde treatment. mRNA levels of SNAP25A and SNAP25B were unaffected. Mature and immature olfactory sensory neuron marker, OMP, and Tuj-1, did not change after formaldehyde treatment. Repeated formaldehyde exposure impaired olfactory function by disturbing SNAP25 protein in the OB.

  15. Analysis of olfactory function and the depth of olfactory sulcus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Youn; Lee, Won Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Dhong, Hun-Jong

    2007-08-15

    Olfactory deficit is known to occur frequently in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to explore olfactory deficit in PD and to investigate its possible correlation with the disease severity or the depth of the olfactory sulcus. Fifty-nine PD patients and 25 normal controls were examined by the odor identification test with the crosscultural smell identification test (CC-SIT). Among these subjects, the depth of the olfactory sulcus of 42 PD patients and 8 controls was measured in the plane of the posterior tangent through the eyeballs using the coronal view brain MRI. The CC-SIT scores of the PD patients were significantly lower than those of the normal control (P0.05). Our study confirms that CC-SIT is a helpful test in detecting the olfactory deficit in Korean PD patients. The absence of correlation of olfactory deficit with the disease severity or the depth of olfactory sulcus may suggest that olfactory loss precede the development of motor signs and not be a primary consequence of damage to the olfactory sulcus. Copyright (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Molecular recognition of ketamine by a subset of olfactory G protein–coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jeffery G.; Matsunami, Hiroaki; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine elicits various neuropharmacological effects, including sedation, analgesia, general anesthesia, and antidepressant activity. Through an in vitro screen, we identified four mouse olfactory receptors (ORs) that responded to ketamine. In addition to their presence in the olfactory epithelium, these G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are distributed throughout the central nervous system. To better understand the molecular basis of the interactions between ketamine and ORs, we used sequence comparison and molecular modeling to design mutations that (i) increased, reduced, or abolished ketamine responsiveness in responding receptors, and (ii) rendered non-responding receptors responsive to ketamine. We showed that olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that expressed distinct ORs responded to ketamine in vivo, suggesting that ORs may serve as functional targets for ketamine. The ability to both abolish and introduce responsiveness to ketamine in GPCRs enabled us to identify and confirm distinct interaction loci in the binding site, which suggested a signature ketamine-binding pocket that may guide exploration of additional receptors for this general anesthetic drug. PMID:25829447

  17. Acute Toxicity and Behavioral Changes of the Gold Fish (Carassius Auratus Exposed to Malathion and Hinosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Shahbazi Naserabad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture. Excessive use of pesticides has health risk for human and threatens non-target organisms. This research aimed to determine lethal concentrations of malathion and Hinosan for Carassius auratus (5±1 gr [mean ± SD]. Methods: Experiments were performed according to O.E.C.D for 4 days (96 h and concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg L-1 Hinosan and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 mg L-1 malathion with three replicates. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were determined using a probit analysis. Results: The results indicated that the 96 h LC50 value of Hinosan and malathion for Gold fish was 4.02 and 4.71 mg/L, respectively. Fishes exhibited irregular, erratic and darting swimming movements, hyper excitability, bruise in the caudal section, loss of equilibrium and sinking to the bottom. Conclusion: Malathion and Hinosan have medium toxicity for C. auratus and could cause irreversible harm and behavioral changes.

  18. Modeling olfactory bulb evolution through primate phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive characterizations of primates have usually included a reduction in olfactory sensitivity. However, this inference of derivation and directionality assumes an ancestral state of olfaction, usually by comparison to a group of extant non-primate mammals. Thus, the accuracy of the inference depends on the assumed ancestral state. Here I present a phylogenetic model of continuous trait evolution that reconstructs olfactory bulb volumes for ancestral nodes of primates and mammal outgroups. Parent-daughter comparisons suggest that, relative to the ancestral euarchontan, the crown-primate node is plesiomorphic and that derived reduction in olfactory sensitivity is an attribute of the haplorhine lineage. The model also suggests a derived increase in olfactory sensitivity at the strepsirrhine node. This oppositional diversification of the strepsirrhine and haplorhine lineages from an intermediate and non-derived ancestor is inconsistent with a characterization of graded reduction through primate evolution.

  19. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-02-02

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice, including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors, especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, with respect to both social and nonsocial odors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Cladistic Analysis of Olfactory and Vomeronasal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2010-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical “cortex.” We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses. PMID:21290004

  1. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Anmo J.; Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowe...

  2. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  3. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alino eMartinez-Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies’ view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical cortex. We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis, short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica and rats (Rattus norvegicus by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines. In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  4. Home-cage odors spatial cues elicit theta phase/gamma amplitude coupling between olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Roberta Ribas; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Guarnieri, Leonardo de Oliveira; Guerra, Julio Boriollo; Carvalho, Vinícius Rezende; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra

    2017-11-05

    The brain oscillations may play a critical role in synchronizing neuronal assemblies in order to establish appropriate sensory-motor integration. In fact, studies have demonstrated phase-amplitude coupling of distinct oscillatory rhythms during cognitive processes. Here we investigated whether olfacto-hippocampal coupling occurs when mice are detecting familiar odors located in a spatially restricted area of a new context. The spatial olfactory task (SOT) was designed to expose mice to a new environment in which only one quadrant (target) contains odors provided by its own home-cage bedding. As predicted, mice showed a significant higher exploration preference to the target quadrant; which was impaired by olfactory epithelium lesion (ZnSO4). Furthermore, mice were able to discriminate odors from a different cage and avoided the quadrant with predator odor 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), reinforcing the specificity of the SOT. The local field potential (LFP) analysis of non-lesioned mice revealed higher gamma activity (35-100Hz) in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and a significant theta phase/gamma amplitude coupling between MOB and dorsal hippocampus, only during exploration of home-cage odors (i.e. in the target quadrant). Our results suggest that exploration of familiar odors in a new context involves dynamic coupling between the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  6. Olfactory deficits in boys with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, R A; Sheehe, P R; McCanty, T; Vespasiano, M; Post, E M; Guzi, S; Wright, H

    1988-12-01

    An odor identification task was used to determine whether individuals with cleft palate (with or without cleft lip) also have an increased prevalence of olfactory deficits. Olfactory responses of 35 affected subjects (7 to 22 years of age) were compared with those of 68 subjects of comparable age without cleft palates. Subjects were requested to identify the smell of ten common household odors. They selected their responses from an alphabetized list of the test odorants. After a practice trial, the set of odorants was presented five times in randomized sequences. The percentage of correct responses increased with age for prepubertal and pubertal subjects without cleft palates. Although the olfactory scores of girls without cleft palates continued to increase after puberty, this trend was absent in boys. On the average, the girls with cleft palates, compared with only three of 34 boys without cleft palates, had olfactory scores less than 60% correct. There was no evidence of heterogeneity in the magnitude or direction of the relationship between any of the subtypes of cleft palate and olfactory dysfunction. In this study, cleft palate is more strongly associated with olfactory deficits in boys than in girls, suggesting the possibility that the deficit may be a sex-influenced trait.

  7. Innate Predator Odor Aversion Driven by Parallel Olfactory Subsystems that Converge in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Bleymehl, Katherin; Stein, Benjamin; Pyrski, Martina; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Munger, Steven D; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Zufall, Frank; Chamero, Pablo

    2015-05-18

    The existence of innate predator aversion evoked by predator-derived chemostimuli called kairomones offers a strong selective advantage for potential prey animals. However, it is unclear how chemically diverse kairomones can elicit similar avoidance behaviors. Using a combination of behavioral analyses and single-cell Ca(2+) imaging in wild-type and gene-targeted mice, we show that innate predator-evoked avoidance is driven by parallel, non-redundant processing of volatile and nonvolatile kairomones through the activation of multiple olfactory subsystems including the Grueneberg ganglion, the vomeronasal organ, and chemosensory neurons within the main olfactory epithelium. Perturbation of chemosensory responses in specific subsystems through disruption of genes encoding key sensory transduction proteins (Cnga3, Gnao1) or by surgical axotomy abolished avoidance behaviors and/or cellular Ca(2+) responses to different predator odors. Stimulation of these different subsystems resulted in the activation of widely distributed target regions in the olfactory bulb, as assessed by c-Fos expression. However, in each case, this c-Fos increase was observed within the same subnuclei of the medial amygdala and ventromedial hypothalamus, regions implicated in fear, anxiety, and defensive behaviors. Thus, the mammalian olfactory system has evolved multiple, parallel mechanisms for kairomone detection that converge in the brain to facilitate a common behavioral response. Our findings provide significant insights into the genetic substrates and circuit logic of predator-driven innate aversion and may serve as a valuable model for studying instinctive fear and human emotional and panic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Notch1 activity in the olfactory bulb is odour-dependent and contributes to olfactory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Nimpf, Johannes; Kretz, Robert; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2014-11-01

    Notch signalling plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory functions in both Drosophila and rodents. In this paper, we report that this feature is not restricted to hippocampal networks but also involves the olfactory bulb (OB). Odour discrimination and olfactory learning in rodents are essential for survival. Notch1 expression is enriched in mitral cells of the mouse OB. These principal neurons are responsive to specific input odorants and relay the signal to the olfactory cortex. Olfactory stimulation activates a subset of mitral cells, which show an increase in Notch activity. In Notch1cKOKln mice, the loss of Notch1 in mitral cells affects the magnitude of the neuronal response to olfactory stimuli. In addition, Notch1cKOKln mice display reduced olfactory aversion to propionic acid as compared to wildtype controls. This indicates, for the first time, that Notch1 is involved in olfactory processing and may contribute to olfactory behaviour. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relation of the volume of the olfactory bulb to psychophysical measures of olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Patricia Portillo; Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate whether changes in olfactory bulb volume relate to changes in specific olfactory functions. We studied currently available peer-reviewed articles on the volume of the human olfactory bulb that also included a psychophysical measure of olfactory function. In the present review, we observed a very clear and consistent correlation between general olfactory function and olfactory bulb (OB) volume. We were not able to find a clear relationship between a specific smell component and OB volume, even when analyzing pathologic conditions separately. In some cases, changes were observed for different subtests, but these changes did not significantly correlate with OB volume or had only a borderline correlation. In other cases, we found contradictory data. Several factors may contribute to the difficulties in finding correlations with the different components of smell: (1) the OB volume may be influenced by information from olfactory receptor neurons (bottom-up effect), information from central nervous system (top-down effect) and by direct damage; (2) most pathologic conditions affect more than one area of the olfactory pathway; (3) small sample sizes of hyposmic subjects were used. We believe that it is necessary to do further studies with larger numbers of subjects to answer the currently investigated question.

  10. Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinec Nováková Lenka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.

  11. Mechanisms of permanent loss of olfactory receptor neurons induced by the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile: Effects on stem cells and noninvolvement of acute induction of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Fang; Fang, Cheng [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Schnittke, Nikolai [Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Program in Cell, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Schwob, James E. [Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111 (United States); Ding, Xinxin, E-mail: xding@wadsworth.org [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We explored the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of two olfactory toxicants, the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN) and the anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMZ), on olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) regeneration in mouse olfactory epithelium (OE). DCBN, but not MMZ, induced inflammation-like pathological changes in OE, and DCBN increased interleukin IL-6 levels in nasal-wash fluid to much greater magnitude and duration than did MMZ. At 24 h after DCBN injection, the population of horizontal basal cells (HBCs; reserve, normally quiescent OE stem cells) lining the DMM became severely depleted as some of them detached from the basal lamina, and sloughed into the nasal cavity along with the globose basal cells (GBCs; heterogeneous population of stem and progenitor cells), neurons, and sustentacular cells of the neuroepithelium. In contrast, the layer of HBCs remained intact in MMZ-treated mice, as only the mature elements of the neuroepithelium were shed. Despite the respiratory metaplasia accompanying the greater severity of the DCBN lesion, residual HBCs that survived intoxication were activated by the injury and contributed to the metaplastic respiratory epithelium, as shown by tracing their descendants in a K5CreEr{sup T2}::fl(stop)TdTomato strain of mice in which recombination causes HBCs to express TdTomato in advance of the lesion. But, contrary to published observations with MMZ, the HBCs failed to form ORNs. A role for IL-6 in suppressing ORN regeneration in DCBN-treated mice was rejected by the failure of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone to prevent the subsequent respiratory metaplasia in the DMM, suggesting that other factors lead to HBC neuro-incompetence. - Highlights: • The herbicide dichlobenil (DCBN) can damage olfactory epithelium stem cells. • Another olfactory toxicant, methimazole, leaves the olfactory stem cells intact. • DCBN, but not methimazole, induces a prolonged increase in nasal IL-6 levels. • Dexamethasone

  12. Involvement of TRPV1 in the Olfactory Bulb in Rimonabant-Induced Olfactory Discrimination Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung

    2016-02-29

    Rimonabant is well recognized as a cannabinoid CB₁ receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Rimonabant not only antagonizes the effects induced by exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids at CB₁ receptors, it also exerts several pharmacological and behavioral effects independent of CB₁ receptor inactivation. For example, rimonabant can function as a low-potency mixed agonist/antagonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). Hence, it is important to explain the underlying mechanisms of the diverse physiological effects induced by rimonabant with caution. Interestingly, CB₁ receptor has recently been suggested to play a role in olfactory functions. Olfaction not only is involved in food intake, visual perception and social interaction, but also is proposed as a putative marker for schizophrenia and autism. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether CB₁ receptor and TRPV1 played a role in olfactory functions. We first used the genetic disruption approach to examine the role of CB₁ receptor in olfactory functions and found that CB₁ knockout mice exhibited olfactory discrimination deficit. However, it is important to point out that these CB₁ knockout mice, despite their normal locomotivity, displayed deficiencies in the olfactory foraging and novel object exploration tasks. These results imply that general exploratory behaviors toward odorant and odorless objects are compromised in CB₁ knockout mice. We next turned to the pharmacological approach to examine the role of CB₁ receptor and TRPV1 in olfactory functions. We found that the short-term administration of rimonabant, injected systemically or directly into the olfactory bulb (OB), impaired olfactory discrimination that was rescued by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (CPZ), via the same route of rimonabant, in wild-type mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 in the OB is involved in rimonabant-induced olfactory discrimination deficit. However, the

  13. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M F Kovtun; Ya V Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

      The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  14. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. F. Kovtun; Ya. V. Stepanyuk

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris...

  15. Antioxidant responses in Carassius auratus and Lolium perenne exposed to the laboratory pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing; Feng, Mingbao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xinghao

    2014-03-01

    Experiments conducted in the laboratories can produce numerous wastes, which could potentially affect the health of the researchers. In this study, the antioxidant responses in liver of Carassiua auratus and leaf of Lolium perenne were investigated after chronic exposure to the air pollution in four different laboratories. The obtained data showed that oxidative stress was induced in some laboratories, as indicated by some significantly altered biochemical parameters. Additionally, the toxicity order was tentatively proposed based on these responses. The results indicated that these biochemical indices can be used as the oxidative stress biomarkers to assess the effect of environmental pollution on the living organisms, and this study can facilitate the understanding of the risk assessment of laboratory pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  17. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchitchek, Nicolas; Safronetz, David; Rasmussen, Angela L; Martens, Craig; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki; Katze, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus) is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species. A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons). This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species. This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  18. Spatial patterns of gene expression in the olfactory bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, David M.; Yang, Yee Hwa; Scolnick, Jonathan A.; Brunet, Lisa J.; Marsh, Heather; Peng, Vivian; Okazaki, Yasushi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Speed, Terence P.; Ngai, John

    2004-01-01

    How olfactory sensory neurons converge on spatially invariant glomeruli in the olfactory bulb is largely unknown. In one model, olfactory sensory neurons interact with spatially restricted guidance cues in the bulb that orient and guide them to their target. Identifying differentially expressed molecules in the olfactory bulb has been extremely difficult, however, hindering a molecular analysis of convergence. Here, we describe several such genes that have been identified in a screen that com...

  19. Olfactory region schwannoma: Excision with preservation of olfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Salunke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory region schwannomas are rare, but when they occur, they commonly arise from the meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve and may present without involvement of the olfaction. A 24 year old lady presented with hemifacial paraesthesias. Radiology revealed a large olfactory region enhancing lesion. She was operated through a transbasal with olfactory preserving approach. This manuscript highlights the importance of olfactory preservation in such lesions.

  20. Minocycline restores olfactory bulb volume and olfactory behavior after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopi, Eleni; Calabria, Silvia; Plotkine, Michel; Marchand-Leroux, Catherine; Jafarian-Tehrani, Mehrnaz

    2012-01-20

    Permanent olfactory dysfunction can often arise after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and while one of the main causes is the immediate loss of neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), the emergent neuroinflammatory environment following TBI may further promote OB deterioration. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute anti-inflammatory treatment with minocycline on post-TBI olfactory behavior and on OB surface. The mouse model of closed-head injury by mechanical percussion was applied to anesthetized Swiss mice. The treatment protocol included three injections of minocycline (i.p.) at 5 min (90 mg/kg), 3 h, and 9 h (45 mg/kg) post-TBI. An olfactory avoidance test was run up to 12 weeks post-TBI. The mice were then sacrificed and their OB surface was measured. Our results demonstrated a post-TBI olfactory behavior deficit that was significant up to at least 12 weeks post-TBI. Additionally, substantial post-TBI OB atrophy was observed that was strongly correlated with the behavioral impairment. Minocycline was able to attenuate both the olfactory lesions and corresponding functional deficit in the short and long term. These results emphasize the potential role of minocycline as a promising neuroprotective agent for the treatment of TBI-related olfactory bulb lesions and deficits.

  1. Self-Ratings of Olfactory Function Reflect Odor Annoyance Rather than Olfactory Acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Kyvik, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:: Self-ratings of olfactory function correlates often poorly with results of objective smell tests. We explored them relative to self-rating of odor annoyance, to odor identification ability, and to mean perceived intensity of odors, and estimated relative genetic and environ......OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS:: Self-ratings of olfactory function correlates often poorly with results of objective smell tests. We explored them relative to self-rating of odor annoyance, to odor identification ability, and to mean perceived intensity of odors, and estimated relative genetic...... Kingdom rated their sense of smell and annoyance caused by ambient smells (e.g., smells of foods) using seven categories, and performed odor identification and evaluation task for six scratch-and-sniff odor stimuli. RESULTS:: The self-rating of olfactory function correlated with the self-rating of odor......-rating of olfactory function and support earlier findings of discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of olfactory function. In addition, the results imply that the self-rating of olfactory function arises from experienced odor annoyance rather than from actual olfactory acuity....

  2. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  3. Individual olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundo, Lavi; Snitz, Kobi; Weissler, Kineret; Pinchover, Liron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Loewenthal, Ron; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Frumin, Idan; Bar-Zvi, Dana; Shushan, Sagit; Sobel, Noam

    2015-07-14

    Each person expresses a potentially unique subset of ∼ 400 different olfactory receptor subtypes. Given that the receptors we express partially determine the odors we smell, it follows that each person may have a unique nose; to capture this, we devised a sensitive test of olfactory perception we termed the "olfactory fingerprint." Olfactory fingerprints relied on matrices of perceived odorant similarity derived from descriptors applied to the odorants. We initially fingerprinted 89 individuals using 28 odors and 54 descriptors. We found that each person had a unique olfactory fingerprint (P people on earth. Olfactory perception, however, fluctuates over time, calling into question our proposed perceptual readout of presumably stable genetic makeup. To test whether fingerprints remain informative despite this temporal fluctuation, building on the linkage between olfactory receptors and HLA, we hypothesized that olfactory perception may relate to HLA. We obtained olfactory fingerprints and HLA typing for 130 individuals, and found that olfactory fingerprint matching using only four odorants was significantly related to HLA matching (P < 10(-4)), such that olfactory fingerprints can save 32% of HLA tests in a population screen (P < 10(-6)). In conclusion, a precise measure of olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information.

  4. Does post-infectious olfactory loss affect mood more severely than chronic sinusitis with olfactory loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong G; Lee, Jun-Seok; Park, Gi C

    2014-11-01

    Olfactory deficits that develop after viral upper respiratory infection (URI) may have different effects on patient depression index compared to chronic sinusitis with olfactory loss. However, there have been no controlled trials to evaluate the different effects of chronic sinusitis and URI on depression index. Prospective study of 25 subjects in two groups. This study enrolled 25 participants who were diagnosed with post-URI olfactory loss as the study group and 25 patients with chronic sinusitis and olfactory loss as a control group. Control group participants were matched for age, sex, and degree of olfactory loss (threshold, discrimination, and identification [TDI]). We compared the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of each group and analyzed the correlation between TDI and BDI. The mean BDI score of the post-URI group was significantly higher than that of the control group (14.52 ± 6.59 vs. 9.32 ± 5.23; P=.002). Age, sex, and TDI score did not affect BDI score in the post-URI olfactory loss group. However, BDI score in the sinusitis group was inversely correlated with TDI score (R=-0.423; P=.035), and the BDI score of female subjects (11.00 ± 5.13) was significantly higher than that of male subjects (5.00 ± 2.16; P = .047). Post-URI olfactory loss affected patient mood more severely than chronic sinusitis with a similar degree of olfactory loss. This influence was not affected by sex, age, or TDI score in the post-URI olfactory loss group. 3b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. The First Record of Argulus Foliacesus (Crustacea: Branchiura Infesta­tion on Lionhead Goldfish (Carassius Auratus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shahmoradi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura, or the fish louse, is an ectoparasite of the skin or gill of the fresh water fish species. Clinical signs in infected fish include scratching on aquarium walls, erratic swimming, and poor growth. It causes pathological changes due to direct tissue dam­age and secondary infections. In the present study, lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus, taken from a goldfish aquarium with symptoms such as abnormal swimming, poor growth and death, were examined for ectoparasites. The parasites collected from the skin and fins of fish were identified as A. foliaceus. Then, treatment was carried out by trichlorfon. After administra­tion, no parasite was observed on the fish. This is the first report of infection with A. foliaceus of lionhead goldfish (Carassius auratus in Iran.

  6. Dual role for LIM-HD gene Lhx2 in the formation of the lateral olfactory tract (LOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Hari, Padmanabhan; Huilgol, Dhananjay; Tole, Shubha

    2007-01-01

    The development of the olfactory system in vertebrates is a multi-step process, in which several regulatory molecules are required at different stages. The development of the olfactory sensory epithelium and its projection to the olfactory bulb are both known to require LIM-HD transcription factor Lhx2. We examined whether Lhx2 plays a role in the development of the OB itself, and its projection to the olfactory cortex. Though there is no morphological OB protuberance in the Lhx2 mutant, mitral cells are normally specified and cluster in a displaced olfactory bulb-like structure (OBLS). The OBLS is not able to pioneer the LOT projection, in vivo or when provided control (host) telencephalic territory in an in vitro assay. Strikingly, the mutant OBLS is capable of projecting along the LOT, if provided with an existing normal LOT in the host explant. This is the first report of a role for a transcription factor expressed in the OB that selectively affects the axon guidance, but not the specification of mitral cells. Furthermore, the Lhx2 mutant lateral telencephalon does not support growth of a LOT projection from control OB explants. The defect correlates with the disruption of a cellular mechanism that is thought to be critical for LOT pathfinding: a specialized cell population, the “lot cells,” is mislocalized in the Lhx2 mutant. In addition, the expression of Sema6A is aberrantly upregulated. Together these findings reveal a dual role for Lhx2, in the OB as well as in the lateral telencephalon, for establishing the LOT projection. PMID:17329426

  7. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Olfactory functions are not systematically evaluated following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study aimed at comparing two smell tests that are used in a clinical setting. RESEARCH DESIGN: The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Alberta Smell...... Test were compared in terms of assessment time, cost and diagnosis. Parameters associated with olfactory loss such as injury severity, type of cerebral lesion and depressive data were considered. Forty-nine TBI patients admitted to an outpatient rehabilitation programme took part in this experiment....... RESULTS: The scores of the two smell tests were significantly correlated. Both tests indicated that patients with frontal lesion performed significantly worse than patients with other types of lesion. Mood and injury severity were not associated with olfactory impairment when age was taken into account...

  8. Olfactory coding in the turbulent realm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear. Here we focus on the coding of the plume temporal dynamics in moths. We compare responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs to sequences of pheromone stimuli either with white-noise patterns or with realistic turbulent temporal structures simulating a large range of distances (8 to 64 m from the odor source. For the first time, we analyze what information is extracted by the olfactory system at large distances from the source. Neuronal responses are analyzed using linear-nonlinear models fitted with white-noise stimuli and used for predicting responses to turbulent stimuli. We found that neuronal firing rate is less correlated with the dynamic odor time course when distance to the source increases because of improper coding during long odor and no-odor events that characterize large distances. Rapid adaptation during long puffs does not preclude however the detection of puff transitions in PNs. Individual PNs but not individual ORNs encode the onset and offset of odor puffs for any temporal structure of stimuli. A higher spontaneous firing rate coupled to an inhibition phase at the end of PN responses contributes to this coding property. This allows PNs to decode the temporal structure of the odor plume at any distance to the source, an essential piece of information moths can use in their tracking behavior.

  9. Olfactory coding in the turbulent realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Vincent; Monsempès, Christelle; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear. Here we focus on the coding of the plume temporal dynamics in moths. We compare responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) to sequences of pheromone stimuli either with white-noise patterns or with realistic turbulent temporal structures simulating a large range of distances (8 to 64 m) from the odor source. For the first time, we analyze what information is extracted by the olfactory system at large distances from the source. Neuronal responses are analyzed using linear-nonlinear models fitted with white-noise stimuli and used for predicting responses to turbulent stimuli. We found that neuronal firing rate is less correlated with the dynamic odor time course when distance to the source increases because of improper coding during long odor and no-odor events that characterize large distances. Rapid adaptation during long puffs does not preclude however the detection of puff transitions in PNs. Individual PNs but not individual ORNs encode the onset and offset of odor puffs for any temporal structure of stimuli. A higher spontaneous firing rate coupled to an inhibition phase at the end of PN responses contributes to this coding property. This allows PNs to decode the temporal structure of the odor plume at any distance to the source, an essential piece of information moths can use in their tracking behavior.

  10. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  11. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  12. Analysis of Egg Cytosol Proteins in the Polyploid Ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdorfii, by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    土方, 誠; 梶島, 孝雄

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gynogenetic development of ginbuna, Carassius auratus langsdorfii, the protein constitution of growing oocytes, full-grown oocytes, matured eggs and fertilized eggs obtained from triploid ginbuna and diploid funa were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results are as follows ; (1) the one polypeptide which exists in bisexual diploid funa and exceptional triploid ginbuna is lacked in gynogenetic triploid ginbuna which does not decondense the p...

  13. Drug-induced Parkinson's disease modulates protein kinase A and Olfactory Marker Protein in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucignat, Carla; Caretta, Antonio

    2017-01-26

    Olfaction is often affected in parkinsonian patients, but dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb are not affected by some Parkinson-inducing drugs. We investigated whether the drug MPTP produces the olfactory deficits typical of Parkinson and affects the olfactory bulb in mice. Lesioned and control mice were tested for olfactory search, for motor and exploratory behavior. Brains and olfactory mucosa were investigated via immunohistochemistry for thyrosine hydroxylase, Olfactory Marker Protein and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase as an intracellular pathway involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission. MPTP induced motor impairment, but no deficit in olfactory search. Thyrosine hydroxylase did not differ in olfactory bulb, while a strong decrease was detected in substantia nigra and tegmentum of MPTP mice. Olfactory Marker Protein decreased in the olfactory bulb of MPTP mice, while a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase increased in the inner granular layer of MPTP mice. MPTP mice do not present behavioural deficits in olfactory search, yet immunoreactivity reveals modifications in the olfactory bulb, and suggests changes in intracellular signal processing, possibly linked to neuron survival after MPTP.

  14. Measuring Olfactory Processes in Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellinck, Heather

    2017-09-04

    This paper briefly reviews the literature that describes olfactory acuity and odour discrimination learning. The results of current studies that examined the role of the neurotransmitters noradrenalin and acetylcholine in odour discrimination learning are discussed as are those that investigated pattern recognition and models of human disease. The methodology associated with such work is also described and its role in creating disparate results assessed. Recommendations for increasing the reliability and validity of experiments so as to further our understanding of olfactory processes in both healthy mice and those modelling human disease are made throughout the paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Olfactory cortical neurons read out a relative time code in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Rafi; Lanjuin, Anne; Madisen, Linda; Zeng, Hongkui; Murthy, Venkatesh N; Uchida, Naoshige

    2013-07-01

    Odor stimulation evokes complex spatiotemporal activity in the olfactory bulb, suggesting that both the identity of activated neurons and the timing of their activity convey information about odors. However, whether and how downstream neurons decipher these temporal patterns remains unknown. We addressed this question by measuring the spiking activity of downstream neurons while optogenetically stimulating two foci in the olfactory bulb with varying relative timing in mice. We found that the overall spike rates of piriform cortex neurons (PCNs) were sensitive to the relative timing of activation. Posterior PCNs showed higher sensitivity to relative input times than neurons in the anterior piriform cortex. In contrast, olfactory bulb neurons rarely showed such sensitivity. Thus, the brain can transform a relative time code in the periphery into a firing rate-based representation in central brain areas, providing evidence for the relevance of a relative time-based code in the olfactory bulb.

  17. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinayar, S; Oner, S; Can, S; Kizilay, A; Kamisli, S; Sarac, K

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is the most frequently seen non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to analyze selective olfactory dysfunction, and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) in subtypes of IPD, and compare them with those of the healthy controls. Our study included 41 patients with IPD and age and gender matched 19 healthy controls. IPD patients were either tremor dominant (65.9%; TDPD) or non-tremor dominant (34.1%; NTDPD) type. All patients underwent neurological, ear, nose, and throat examinations, and orthonasal olfaction testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure the volume of the olfactory bulb. A significant decrease in olfactory identification scores was found in the patient group. The patients had difficulty in discriminating between odors of mothballs, chocolate, Turkish coffee and soap. OBV did not differ between the patient, and the control groups. In the TDPD group, odor identification ability was decreased when compared to the control group. However, odor test results of NTDPD, control and TDPD groups were similar. OBV estimates of the TDPD group were not different from those of the control group, while in the NTDPD group OBVs were found to be decreased. In all patients with Parkinson's disease OBV values did not vary with age of the patients, duration of the disease, age at onset of the disease, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-m). Olfactory function is a complex process involving olfactory, and cortical structures as well. In Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, changes in OBV do not seem to be directly related to olfactory dysfunction.

  18. Reversible deafferentation of the adult zebrafish olfactory bulb affects glomerular distribution and olfactory-mediated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskin, Taylor R; Byrd-Jacobs, Christine A

    2012-12-01

    The olfactory system is a useful model for studying central nervous system recovery from damage due to its neuroplasticity. We recently developed a novel method of deafferentation by repeated exposure of Triton X-100 to the olfactory organ of adult zebrafish. This long-term, reversible method of deafferentation allows both degeneration and regeneration to be observed in the olfactory bulb. The aim of the present study is to examine olfactory bulb innervation, glomerular patterns, and olfactory-mediated behavior with repeated Triton X-100 treatment and the potential for recovery following cessation of treatment. Olfactory bulbs of control, chronic-treated, and recovery animals were examined for the presence or absence of glomeruli that have been identified in the zebrafish glomerular map. Following chronic treatment, the number of glomeruli was dramatically reduced; however, partial innervation remained in the lateral region of the bulb. When animals were given time to recover, complete glomerular distribution returned. A behavioral assay was developed to determine if innervation remaining correlated with behavior of the fish. Chronic-treated fish did not respond to odorants involved with social behavior but continued to react to odorants that mediate feeding behavior. Following recovery, responses to odorants involved with social behavior returned. The morphological and behavioral effects of chronic Triton X-100 treatment in the olfactory system suggest there may be differential susceptibility or resistance to external damage in a subset of sensory neurons. The results of this study demonstrate the remarkable regenerative ability of the olfactory system following extensive and long-term injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction of functional neuronal circuitry in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies using molecular genetics, electrophysiology, in vivo imaging, and behavioral analyses have elucidated detailed connectivity and function of the mammalian olfactory circuits. The olfactory bulb is the first relay station of olfactory perception in the brain, but it is more than a simple relay: olfactory information is dynamically tuned by local olfactory bulb circuits and converted to spatiotemporal neural code for higher-order information processing. Because the olfactory bulb processes ∼1000 discrete input channels from different odorant receptors, it serves as a good model to study neuronal wiring specificity, from both functional and developmental aspects. This review summarizes our current understanding of the olfactory bulb circuitry from functional standpoint and discusses important future studies with particular focus on its development and plasticity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Deconstructing the molecular architecture of olfactory areas using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachén-Montes, Mercedes; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2016-12-01

    The anatomy of the olfactory system is highly complex, comprising a system of olfactory receptors, pathways for the transmission of olfactory information, and structures for the recognition, discrimination, and memorization of odors. During the last years, proteomics has emerged as a large-scale comprehensive approach to characterize and quantify specific olfactory-related proteomes in different biological conditions such as olfactory learning, neurodegeneration, and ageing between others. The current work reviews recent applications of proteomics to olfaction with particular focus on quantitative proteome profiling studies performed on olfactory areas from laboratory animal models as well as proteomic characterizations performed on specific brain structures and fluids involved in human smell. Finally, we will also discuss the potential application of proteomics to study global proteome dynamics and posttranslationally modified proteomes in order to unravel cell-signaling networks that occur from peripheral structures to olfactory cortical areas during odor processing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Lateralized differences in olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume relate to nasal septum deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Salihoglu, Murat; Tekeli, Hakan; Saglam, Muzaffer; Cayonu, Melih; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common reasons for partial nasal obstruction is nasal septal deviation (NSD). The effect of a partial lateralized nasal obstruction on olfactory bulb (OB) volume remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the side differences in olfactory function and OB in patients with serious NSD. Sixty-five volunteers were included: 22 patients with serious right NSD and 43 patients with left NSD. The patients' mean age was 22 years. All participants received volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire brain and detailed lateralized olfactory tests. The majority of the patients exhibited an overall decreased olfactory function (as judged for the better nostril: functional anosmia in 3%, hyposmia in 72%, normosmia in 25%), which seems to be mostly due to the overall severe changes in nasal anatomy. As expected, olfactory function was significantly lower at the narrower side as indicated for odor thresholds, odor discrimination, and odor identification (P ≤ 0.005). When correlating relative scores and volumes (wider minus narrower side), a significantly positive correlation between the relative measures emerged for OB volume and odor identification, odor discrimination, and odor thresholds. Our study clearly highlights that septal deviation results in decreased olfactory function at the narrower side.

  2. The diversified function and potential therapy of ectopic olfactory receptors in non-olfactory tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Hong; Fu, Nian; Chen, Linxi

    2017-03-24

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin, and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline. Ectopic ORs induce glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Ectopic ORs regulate systemic blood pressure by increasing renin secretion and vasodilation. Ectopic ORs participate in the process of tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and invasiveness. Ectopic ORs accelerate the occurrence of obesity, angiogenesis and wound-healing processes. Ectopic ORs affect fetal hemoglobin levels in sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Finally, we also elaborate some ligands targeting for ORs. Obviously, the diversified function and related signal pathway of ectopic ORs may play a potential therapeutic target in non-olfactory tissues. Thus, this review focuses on the latest research results about the diversified function and therapeutic potential of ectopic ORs in non-olfactory tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  4. Spotlight on olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Violante M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mayela Rodríguez-Violante,1,2 Natalia Ospina-García,1,2 Christian Pérez-Lohman,1,2 Amin Cervantes-Arriaga1,2 1Movement Disorders Clinic, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Clinical Neurodegenerative Research Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Olfactory dysfunction is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD. A correlation between olfactory dysfunction and the pathophysiological process of the disease has been confirmed. On the other hand, olfaction disturbances are also prevalent in other neurodegenerative diseases, and may be related to other factors such as gender, age, smoking, and trauma. Clinically, hyposmia is commonly assessed by smell identification testing. Good diagnostic accuracy has been widely reported, but differences in sensitivity and specificity due to sociocultural factors have also been reported. Since hyposmia may be present before the onset of motor symptoms, it has the potential to serve as a biomarker for the identification of subjects at risk of developing PD. Several studies have been conducted to assess the utility of smell testing as an isolated or combined biomarker for this end. Finally, severe olfactory dysfunction has been associated with faster disease progression and higher risk of cognitive decline in patients with PD. Olfactory dysfunction assessment in PD will continue to be relevant in research and clinical practice. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, olfaction, smell identification test, biomarker 

  5. Neural crest origin of olfactory ensheating glia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barraud, P; Seferiadis, A.A.; Tyson, L.D.; Zwart, M.F.; Szabo-Rogers, H.L.; Ruhrberg, C; Liu, K.J.; Baker, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique class of glial cells with exceptional translational potential because of their ability to support axon regeneration in the central nervous system. Although OECs are similar in many ways to immature and nonmyelinating Schwann cells, and can myelinate

  6. Olfactory Environment Design for Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, C. S.; Holland, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    Smell is usually deemed the least important of the five senses. To contradict this assertion, however, there is no shortage of scientific literature which concludes that olfaction is of very great significance to humans. Odours have been shown to have a variety of effects on humans, and are capable of changing both behaviour and cognitive processing in ways that we are frequently completely unconscious of. Examples of this include alertness, alteration of mood, capacity for ideation and intellectual performance. To date, the design of human spacecraft has concentrated on making their olfactory environments, where possible, `odour neutral' - that is ensuring that all unpleasant and/or offensive odours are removed. Here it suggested that spacecraft (and other extraterrestrial facilities for human inhabitation) might benefit from having their olfactory environments designed to be `odour positive', that is to use odours and olfaction for the positive benefit of their residents. This paper presents a summary of current olfactory research and considers both its positive and negative implications for humans in space. It then discusses `odour positive' design of spacecraft olfactory environments and the possible benefits accruing from this approach before examining its implications for the architecture of spacecraft environmental control systems.

  7. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  8. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  9. Olfactory perception, cognition, and dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    The main functions of olfaction relate to finding food, avoiding predators and disease, and social communication. Its role in detecting food has resulted in a unique dual mode sensory system. Environmental odorants are 'smelled' via the external nostrils, while volatile chemicals in food-detected by the same receptors-arrive via the nasopharynx, contributing to flavor. This arrangement allows the brain to link the consequences of eating with a food's odor, and then later to use this information in the search for food. Recognizing an odorant-a food, mate, or predator-requires the detection of complex chemical blends against a noisy chemical background. The brain solves this problem in two ways. First, by rapid adaptation to background odorants so that new odorants stand out. Second, by pattern matching the neural representation of an odorant to prior olfactory experiences. This account is consistent with olfactory sensory physiology, anatomy, and psychology. Odor perception, and its products, may be subject to further processing-olfactory cognition. While olfactory cognition has features in common with visual or auditory cognition, several aspects are unique, and even those that are common may be instantiated in different ways. These differences can be productively used to evaluate the generality of models of cognition and consciousness. Finally, the olfactory system can breakdown, and this may be predictive of the onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's, as well as having prognostic value in other disorders such as schizophrenia. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:273-284. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1224 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Promotion of cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis emergence caused by olfactory receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenhaël Sanz

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, where they detect odorants, but also in other tissues with additional functions. Some ORs are even overexpressed in tumor cells. In this study, we identified ORs expressed in enterochromaffin tumor cells by RT-PCR, showing that single cells can co-express several ORs. Some of the receptors identified were already reported in other tumors, but they are orphan (without known ligand, as it is the case for most of the hundreds of human ORs. Thus, genes coding for human ORs with known ligands were transfected into these cells, expressing functional heterologous ORs. The in vitro stimulation of these cells by the corresponding OR odorant agonists promoted cell invasion of collagen gels. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells, the stimulation of the PSGR (Prostate Specific G protein-coupled Receptor, an endogenously overexpressed OR, by β-ionone, its odorant agonist, resulted in the same phenotypic change. We also showed the involvement of a PI3 kinase γ dependent signaling pathway in this promotion of tumor cell invasiveness triggered by OR stimulation. Finally, after subcutaneous inoculation of LNCaP cells into NSG immunodeficient mice, the in vivo stimulation of these cells by the PSGR agonist β-ionone significantly enhanced metastasis emergence and spreading.

  11. Roles of GSK3β in odor habituation and spontaneous neural activity of the mouse olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixiang; Wang, Li; Chen, Guo; Rao, Xiaoping; Xu, Fuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multifaceted kinase, is abundantly expressed in the brain, including the olfactory bulb (OB). In resting cells, GSK3β is constitutively active, and its over-activation is presumably involved in numerous brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the functions of the constitutively active GSK3β in the adult brain under physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we studied the possible functions of GSK3β activity in the OB. Odor stimulation, or blockade of peripheral olfactory inputs caused by either transgenic knock-out or ZnSO4 irrigation to the olfactory epithelium, all affected the expression level of GSK3β in the OB. When GSK3β activity was reduced by a selective inhibitor, the spontaneous oscillatory activity was significantly decreased in the granule cell layer of the OB. Furthermore, local inhibition of GSK3β activity in the OB significantly impaired the odor habituation ability. These results suggest that GSK3β plays important roles in both spontaneous neural activity and odor information processing in the OB, deepening our understanding of the potential functions of the constitutively active GSK3β in the brain under physiological conditions.

  12. Semaphorin 3A is required for guidance of olfactory axons in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarting, G A; Kostek, C; Ahmad, N; Dibble, C; Pays, L; Püschel, A W

    2000-10-15

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a membrane-associated secreted protein that has chemorepulsive properties for neuropilin-1 (npn-1)- expressing axons. Although mice lacking the Sema3A protein display skeletal abnormalities and heart defects, most axonal projections in the CNS develop normally. We show here that Sema3A is expressed in the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium (OE) and by ensheathing cells in the nerve layer of the ventral olfactory bulb (OB) throughout development. Subsets of sensory neurons expressing npn-1 are distributed throughout the OE and extend fibers to the developing OB. In wild-type mice, npn-1-positive (npn-1(+)) axons extend to lateral targets in the rostral OB and medial targets in the caudal OB, avoiding regions expressing Sema3A. In Sema3A homozygous mutant mice, many npn-1(+) axons are misrouted into and through the ventral nerve layer, beginning as early as embryonic day 13 and continuing at least until birth. At postnatal day 0, npn-1(+) glomeruli are atypically located in the ventral OB of Sema3A(-/-) mice, indicating that aberrant axon trajectories are not corrected during development and that connections are made in inappropriate target regions. In addition, subsets of OCAM(+) axons that normally project to the ventrolateral OB and some lactosamine-containing glycan(+) axons that normally target the ventral OB are also misrouted in Sema3A mutants. These observations indicate that Sema3A expression by ensheathing cells plays an important role in guiding olfactory axons into specific compartments of the OB.

  13. Protection of ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila by treating Ixora coccinea active principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Paulraj; Thangaviji, Vijayaragavan; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-02-01

    Herbals such as Ixora coccinea, Daemia extensa and Tridax procumbens were selected to screen in vitro antibacterial and immunostimulant activity against the freshwater fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Initial screening results revealed that, ethyl acetate extracts and its purified fraction of I. coccinea was able to suppress the A. hydrophila strains at more than 15 mm of zone of inhibition and positive immunostimulant activity. The purified active fraction, which eluted from H40: EA60 mobile phase was structurally characterized by GC-MS analysis. Two compounds such as Diethyl Phthalate (1,2-Benzene dicarboxylic acid, monobutyl ester) and Dibutyl Phthalate were characterized using NIST database search. In order to study the in vivo immunostimulant influence of the compounds, the crude extracts (ICE) and purified fractions (ICF) were incorporated to the artificial diets at the concentration of 400 mg kg⁻¹ and fed to the ornamental gold fish Carassius auratus for 30 days. After termination of feeding experiment, they were challenged with highly virulent A. hydrophila AHV-1 which was isolated from infected gold fish and studied the survival, specific bacterial load reduction, serum biochemistry, haematology, immunology and histological parameters. The control diet fed fishes succumbed to death within five days at 100% mortality whereas ICE and ICF fed groups survived 60 and 80% respectively after 10 days. The diets also helped to decrease the Aeromonas load after challenge and significantly (P ≤ 0.01) improved the serum albumin, globulin and protein. The diets also helped to increase the RBC and haemoglobin level significantly (P ≤ 0.05) from the control group. Surprisingly the immunological parameters like phagocytic activity, serum bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001) in the experimental diets. Macrophages and erythrocytes were abundantly expressed in the

  14. Bestrophins. Potential candidates for olfactory Ca{sup 2+}-aktivated Cl{sup -}-channels; Bestrophine. Potentielle Kanditaten fuer olfaktorische Ca{sup 2+}-aktivierte Cl{sup -}-Kanaele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehl, A.

    2005-12-01

    cyclic nucleotid-gated (CNGA2) channels, it is still uncertain whether Bestrophins form Ca{sup 2+}- activated Cl--channels in the olfactory epithelium.

  15. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Derivation of an inhalation reference concentration based upon olfactory neuronal loss in male rats following subchronic acetaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, David C; Struve, Melanie F; Wong, Brian A; Gross, Elizabeth A; Parkinson, Carl; Willson, Gabrielle A; Tan, Yu-Mei; Campbell, Jerry L; Teeguarden, Justin G; Clewell, Harvey J; Andersen, Melvin E

    2008-02-01

    Acetaldehyde inhalation induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic responses in the rodent nasal cavity. This experiment further characterizes the dose-response relationship for nasal pathology, nasal epithelial cell proliferation, and DNA-protein cross-link formation in F-344 rats exposed subchronically to acetaldehyde. Animals underwent whole-body exposure to 0, 50, 150, 500, or 1500 ppm acetaldehyde for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for up to 65 exposure days. Respiratory tract histopathology was evaluated after 4, 9, 14, 30, and 65 exposure days. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with reduced body weight gain or other evidence of systemic toxicity. Histologic evaluation of the nasal cavity showed an increased incidence of olfactory neuronal loss (ONL) following acute to subchronic exposure to > or = 150 ppm acetaldehyde and increased olfactory epithelial cell proliferation following exposure to 1500 ppm acetaldehyde. The severity of the ONL demonstrated dose- and temporal-dependent behaviors, with minimal effects noted at 150-500 ppm acetaldehyde and moderately severe lesions seen in the highest exposure group, with increased lesion severity and extent as the exposure duration increased. Acetaldehyde exposure was also associated with inflammation, hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium. These responses were seen in animals exposed to > or = 500 ppm acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde exposure was not associated with increased DNA-protein cross-link formation in the respiratory or olfactory epithelium. A model of acetaldehyde pharmacokinetics in the nose was used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC) of 0.4 ppm, based on the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 50 ppm for the nasal pathology seen in this study.

  17. Olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyseller, Bayram; Ozucer, Berke; Degirmenci, Nazan; Gurbuz, Defne; Tambas, Makbule; Altun, Musa; Aksoy, Fadullah; Ozturan, Orhan

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary method of treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and many side effects were reported in patients receiving radiation to this area. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of radiotherapy following NPC on olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory function. Twenty-four patients with NPC who received radiotherapy at least 12 months ago were recruited. Fourteen healthy subjects with similar demographical characteristics were recruited as the healthy control group. All volunteers were subjected to a nasoendoscopical examination, and abnormalities that could potentially cause olfactory dysfunction were the exclusion criteria from the study. An experienced radiologist segmented the MRI coronal, axial and sagittal slices manually for three-dimensional OB volume measurement in a blinded manner. Olfactory function was assessed using the Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center (CCCRC) test, and average score (0: worst, 7: best) was calculated as the total CCCRC olfactory score. The mean CCCRC score was 5.5 ± 1.1 for the nasopharyngeal cancer patients, whereas the mean score of healthy control group was 6.4 ± 0.4. There was a significant difference in the olfactory scores (p=0.003). The mean OB volume in the NPC group was 46.7 ± 12.1mm(3). Among the patients with NPC, the cisplatin receiving group had a mean OB volume of 47.2mm(3), whereas the cisplatin+docetaxel receiving group had a mean OB volume of 46.5mm(3), and they were similar. The MRI measurement of the healthy control group was 58.6 ± 13.8mm(3). The OB volumes of the healthy control group were significantly higher (polfactory function. Chemosensory olfactory dysfunction might be a contributing factor to lack of appetite, cancer cachexia and consequent lowered quality of life in NPC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  19. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  20. Composition of Gut Microbiota in the Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) Varies with Host Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghao; Zhou, Li; Yu, Yuhe; Ni, Jiajia; Xu, Wenjie; Yan, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    To understand how a bacteria-free fish gut ecosystem develops microbiota as the fish ages, we performed a 1-year study on the gut microbiota of hatchling gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Our results indicate that the gut microbial diversity increases significantly as the fish develop. The gut microbial community composition showed significant shifts corresponding to host age and appeared to shift at two time points despite consistent diet and environmental conditions, suggesting that some features of the gut microbial community may be determined by the host's development. Dietary and environmental changes also seem to cause significant shifts in the fish gut microbial community. This study revealed that the gut microbiota of gibel carp assemble into distinct communities at different times during the host's development and that this process is less affected by the surrounding environment than by the host diet and development. Community phylogenetic analyses based on the net relatedness index further showed that environmental filtering (host selection) deterministically governs the gut microbial community composition. More importantly, the influence of host-associated deterministic filtering tends to weaken significantly over the course of the host's development. However, further studies are needed to assess whether this host development-dependent shift in gut microbiota will still exist under different rearing strategies.

  1. Results of phenol red thread test in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Sadjadi, Reza; Sabzevari, Amin; Ghaffari, M Selk

    2013-11-01

    To determine the normal reference range for phenol red thread test (PRTT) values in clinically normal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Sixteen healthy adult Syrian hamsters (eight males and eight females) were used in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed without chemical restraint. PRTT values were evaluated in both eyes of all Syrian hamsters using a commercial PRTT strip of a single lot number. No statistically significant differences between right and left eyes were found for any of the results. The mean ± SD PRTT values for the study population were 6.8 ± 2.5 mm/15 s with a range from 3 to 11.5 mm/15 s. Mean PRTTs in male animals were 5.1 ± 1.2 mm/15 s, whereas mean PRTTs in female hamsters were 8.5 ± 2.3 mm/15 s. Comparison between mean PRTT values in males and females showed a significant difference (P = 0.004). Mean weights for males and females were 80.9 ± 4.8 and 90.6 ± 8.5 g, respectively. No linear relationship between mean PRTT and body weight was found in female (P = 0.46) and male (P = 0.92) hamsters. This study provides novel data for normal reference ranges of PRTT values in healthy Syrian hamsters. Results of this study may assist veterinarians in the diagnosis of ocular surface disease and syndromes affecting the tear film in these species. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Immunomodulatory treatment with thalidomide in experimental leptospirosis in Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luciane Marieta; Macedo, Julio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Everton Cruz; Santos, Cleiton Silva; Sampaio, Marina de Queiroz; dos Santos, Andréia Carvalho; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Athanazio, Daniel Abensur

    2014-02-01

    The benefit of antibiotics in leptospirosis is limited when treatment is started four days after symptoms appear, and new adjuvant therapeutic options are urgently needed. Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected by Leptospira interrogans strain L1-130, and groups were assigned based on no treatment (NONE), thalidomide only (TAL), ampicillin only (AMP) or both (AMP-TAL). Treatment was started two days after the onset of symptoms (experiment 1) and immediately after detection of the first death (experiment 2). Experiment 1: all hamsters from the groups AMP and AMP-TAL survived (n=8), while all hamsters from groups NONE (n=6) and TAL (n=8) died. The AMP and the AMP-TAL groups showed no renal or liver pathology and absent or very low leptospiral burden in target organs. Experiment 2: lethal outcome was observed in 6/6 hamsters in the NONE group, 8/8 in the TAL group, and 6/8 in both the AMP and AMP-TAL groups. Thalidomide showed no survival benefit when compared to hamsters treated with ampicillin alone. The TAL, AMP and AMP-TAL groups had very low tissue leptospiral counts. Thalidomide had minimal impact on survival in the late treatment of leptospirosis hamster model.

  3. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  4. Innate immune response and disease resistance in Carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts.

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    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2009-09-01

    This study reports the effect of aqueous, ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract from Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum and Curcuma longa on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish (Carassius auratus) against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of 0, 5, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) body weight of each triherbal solvent extracts. The functional immunity in terms of percentage mortality and Relative Percent Survival (RPS) and innate immune response was assessed on week 1, 2 and 4 by challenging with live A. hydrophila (1 x 10(7) cells ml(-1)). All the chosen innate immune parameters were enhanced in the ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extract treatment after week 2. However, the aqueous triherbal extract was enhanced only after week 4. The ethanol and methanol triherbal solvent extracts administration preceding the challenge with live A. hydrophila decreased the percentage mortality in the experimental groups with the consequence increase in RPS values. The study indicates that all the doses of ethanol or methanol triberbal solvent extracts could be positively influence the immune response and protect the heath status of goldfish against A. hydrophila infection. 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of dietary antioxidant of tomato extract and lycopene on Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus

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    Cynthia Montoya M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the effect on tegument pigmentation, survival, growth and antioxidant capacity in diets supplemented with tomato extract and lycopene as additives in experimental feed for Carassius auratus and Xiphophorus maculatus. Materials and methods. The additives were added in different concentrations to a basic diet. We performed beginning and an ending biometrics for 100% of the population in each bioassay. The growth and survival of organisms were evaluated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by ABTS assay, both in the tomato extract sample as well as in foods used in different bioassays. The concentration of lycopene was determined in food and liver and muscle samples of fish fed with it. Acquired pigmentation of fish was assessed through photographs analyzed with Adobe Photoshop®. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance, and when differences were found (p0.05 on pigmentation and growth of the organisms under the established experimental conditions was obtained. Significant differences in antioxidant capacity (p<0.05 were obtained in foods with added lycopene. Conclusions. The inclusion of lycopene or tomato extract in food for the organisms used is not recommended to improve pigmentation, but further studies are needed to demonstrate antioxidant effect.

  6. Acute toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, Carassius auratus

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    Wise, M.L.; Stiebel, C.L.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrofurazone (5-nitro-2-furaldehyde semicarbazone) is a nitrofuran, a group of organic compounds which have inhibitory activity against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and against some protozoan parasites. Although not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use with food fish, nitrofurazone has been found effective in fish against external and internal infections by various species of Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and myxobacteria and can be administered either as a food additive or as a bath treatment. Attempts to control the microsporidian parasite Pleistophora ovariae in golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, with nitrofurazone met with equivocal results. The following experiment was performed to determine acute toxicity, including lesions, of nitrofurazone to channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and goldfish, carassius auratus, fingerlings. Toxicity of nitrofurazone to channel catfish was determined with low dissolved oxygen concentrations (2 mg/L) to simulate conditions frequently encountered in channel catfish culture. Information abut toxic levels of drugs and the lesions occurring in exposed fish is important to determine the safety of treatment levels and the effects of toxic concentrations.

  7. Histopathological findings on Carassius auratus hepatopancreas upon exposure to acrylamide: correlation with genotoxicity and metabolic alterations.

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    Larguinho, Miguel; Costa, Pedro M; Sousa, Gonçalo; Costa, Maria H; Diniz, Mário S; Baptista, Pedro V

    2014-12-01

    Acrylamide is an amide used in several industrial applications making it easily discharged to aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity of acrylamide to aquatic organisms is scarcely known, although previous studies with murine models provided evidence for deleterious effects. To assess the effects of acrylamide to freshwater fish, goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were exposed to several concentrations of waterborne acrylamide and analysed for genotoxic damage, alterations to detoxifying enzymes and histopathology. Results revealed a dose-dependent increase in total DNA strand breakage, the formation of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities and in the levels of hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, acrylamide induced more histopathological changes to pancreatic acini than to the hepatic parenchyma, regardless of exposure concentration, whereas hepatic tissue only endured significant alterations at higher concentrations of exposure. Thus, results confirm the genotoxic potential of acrylamide to fish and its ability to induce CYP1A, probably as a direct primary defence mechanism. This strongly suggests the substance's pro-mutagenic potential in fish, similarly to what is known for rodents. However, the deleterious effects observed in the pancreatic acini, more severe than in the liver, could indicate a specific, albeit unknown toxic mechanism of acrylamide to fish that overran the organism's metabolic defences against a chemical agent rather than causing a general systemic failure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus

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    F. Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os tempos de indução e recuperação de quinguios (Carassius auratus expostos a dois anestésicos, eugenol e benzocaína. Foram utilizados 128 juvenis com peso médio de 2,07±0,53g e comprimento total médio de 5,51±0,56cm. A benzocaína mostrou ser mais eficiente do que o eugenol em relação ao tempo, tanto para indução ao coma quanto para a recuperação à fuga e também no que diz respeito à sobrevivência. As doses de benzocaína com melhores resultados foram de 87,5 e 100mg.L-1. O eugenol proporcionou demora na indução e na recuperação dos animais, além de ter apresentado mortalidades quando as doses anestésicas foram elevadas.

  9. Cloning and characterization of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

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    Robinson, B M; Tellam, D J; Smart, D; Mohammad, Y N; Brennand, J; Rivier, J E; Lovejoy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin belong to a superfamily of neuropeptides that includes the urotensins-I in fishes and the insect diuretic peptides. Sequence analysis suggests that urocortin is the mammalian ortholog of urotensin-I, although the physiological role for this peptide in mammals is not known. Within the Rodentia, hamsters belong to a phylogenetically older lineage than that of mice and rats and possess significant differences in hypothalamic organization. We have, therefore, cloned the coding region of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin mature peptide by polymerase chain reaction. Hamster urocortin was prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and its pharmacological actions on human corticotropin-releasing factor R1 and R2 receptors were investigated. The deduced hamster corticotropin-releasing factor amino acid sequence and cleavage site is identical to that in rat, whereas the urocortin sequence is unique among the urocortin/urotensin-I/sauvagine family in possessing asparagine and alanine in positions 38 and 39, respectively. The hamster urocortin carboxy terminus sequence bears greater structural similarity to the insect diuretic peptide family, suggesting either retrogressive mutational changes within the mature peptide or convergent sequence evolution. Despite these changes, human and hamster urocortin are generally equipotent at cAMP activation, neuronal acidification rate, and R1/R2 receptor affinities.

  10. Morphology and morphometric relationships of the sagitta of Diapterus auratus (Perciformes: Gerreidae) from Veracruz, Mexico.

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    Félix, Verónica Rivera; Martínez-Pérez, José Antonio; Molina, Jacob Rubio; Emiliano, Rafael; Zuñiga, Quintanar; López, Jonathan Franco

    2013-03-01

    Sagittae otoliths are the most studied because of their morphological variability and size; the sagittae may also have valuable taxonomic use and for D. auratus has not yet been described. In the present study we present a morphological description of the sagitta otolith and an analysis of its correlation with various morphometric parameters. The biological material was captured with a beach seine in the coasts of Alvarado and Port of Veracruz, from November 2009 to June 2010. Sagittae were extracted, cleaned, photographed (SEM and optical), and measured. The analysis included the correlations between sagitta's length and width, versus the fish standard length, height and weight, for a total of 449 fishes. The comparison between left and right sagitta showed no significant difference in both otolith length and width (t-tests, p<0.05) for each sex. The right otolith was used for the correlations for both males and females and the Fisher test (d.f. 161 and 143, p<0.001) showed no significant differences in the slopes and intersections between them. The otolith length vs. fish weight correlation showed a positive allometric growth in males (b=3.9754, p<0.05) and females (b=4.3168, p<0.05).

  11. The effects of stimulus parameters on auditory evoked potentials of Carassius auratus.

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    Garabon, Jessica R; Higgs, Dennis M

    2017-11-01

    Whole-brain responses to sound are easily measured through auditory evoked potentials (AEP), but it is unclear how differences in experimental parameters affect these responses. The effect of varying parameters is especially unclear in fish studies, the majority of which use simple sound types and then extrapolate to natural conditions. The current study investigated AEPs in goldfish (Carassius auratus) using sounds of different durations (5, 10, and 20 ms) and frequencies (200, 500, 600 and 700 Hz) to test stimulus effects on latency and thresholds. We quantified differences in latency and threshold in comparison to a 10-ms test tone, a duration often used in AEP fish studies. Both response latency and threshold were significantly affected by stimulus duration, with latency patterning suggesting that AEP fires coincident with a decrease in stimulus strength. Response latency was also significantly affected by presentation frequency. These results show that stimulus type has important effects on AEP measures of hearing and call for clearer standards across different measures of AEP. Duration effects also suggest that AEP measures represent summed responses of duration-detecting neural circuit, but more effort is needed to understand the neural drivers of this commonly used technique.

  12. Tunicamycin impairs olfactory learning and synaptic plasticity in the olfactory bulb.

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    Tong, Jia; Okutani, Fumino; Murata, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Mutsuo; Namba, Toshiharu; Wang, Yu-Jie; Kaba, Hideto

    2017-03-06

    Tunicamycin (TM) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits N-glycosylation in cells. ER stress is associated with neuronal death in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and most patients complain of the impairment of olfactory recognition. Here we examined the effects of TM on aversive olfactory learning and the underlying synaptic plasticity in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). Behavioral experiments demonstrated that the intrabulbar infusion of TM disabled aversive olfactory learning without affecting short-term memory. Histological analyses revealed that TM infusion upregulated C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a marker of ER stress, in the mitral and granule cell layers of MOB. Electrophysiological data indicated that TM inhibited tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the dendrodendritic excitatory synapse from mitral to granule cells. A low dose of TM (250nM) abolished the late phase of LTP, and a high dose (1μM) inhibited the early and late phases of LTP. Further, high-dose, but not low-dose, TM reduced the paired-pulse facilitation ratio, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of TM on LTP are partially mediated through the presynaptic machinery. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that TM-induced ER stress impairs olfactory learning by inhibiting synaptic plasticity via presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms in MOB. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural sensitivity to odorants in deprived and normal olfactory bulbs.

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    Francisco B Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Early olfactory deprivation in rodents is accompanied by an homeostatic regulation of the synaptic connectivity in the olfactory bulb (OB. However, its consequences in the neural sensitivity and discrimination have not been elucidated. We compared the odorant sensitivity and discrimination in early sensory deprived and normal OBs in anesthetized rats. We show that the deprived OB exhibits an increased sensitivity to different odorants when compared to the normal OB. Our results indicate that early olfactory stimulation enhances discriminability of the olfactory stimuli. We found that deprived olfactory bulbs adjusts the overall excitatory and inhibitory mitral cells (MCs responses to odorants but the receptive fields become wider than in the normal olfactory bulbs. Taken together, these results suggest that an early natural sensory stimulation sharpens the receptor fields resulting in a larger discrimination capability. These results are consistent with previous evidence that a varied experience with odorants modulates the OB's synaptic connections and increases MCs selectivity.

  14. OLAF: standardization of international olfactory tests.

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    Hummel, C; Zucco, G M; Iannilli, E; Maboshe, W; Landis, B N; Hummel, T

    2012-03-01

    Developed in the 1990 s, the "Sniffin 'Sticks" test for the assessment of olfactory threshold, odor identification and discrimination has become a widely used tool both in clinical and research settings. Originally pencil-and-paper documented, it may now be applied using a computer program. The "Filemaker" based software "OLAF" guides the examiner through any user-defined arrangement of the test battery, stores all data in a database, and offers results sheets to be printed out for convenience. The royalty-free program may be downloaded from http://www.tu-dresden.de/medkhno/riechen_schmecken/olaf.zip as a runtime solution application. It is currently available in four languages (English, French, German, and Italian) which can be toggled by a single mouse click, and is suitable for Windows as well as Apple platforms. In conclusion, the currently described software is expected to further facilitate and standardize olfactory testing with the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.

  15. Topographical representation of odor hedonics in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Florence; Midroit, Maëllie; Kuczewski, Nicola; Forest, Jérémy; Thévenet, Marc; Sacquet, Joëlle; Benetollo, Claire; Richard, Marion; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2016-07-01

    Hedonic value is a dominant aspect of olfactory perception. Using optogenetic manipulation in freely behaving mice paired with immediate early gene mapping, we demonstrate that hedonic information is represented along the antero-posterior axis of the ventral olfactory bulb. Using this representation, we show that the degree of attractiveness of odors can be bidirectionally modulated by local manipulation of the olfactory bulb's neural networks in freely behaving mice.

  16. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

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    Hitte Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47% of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of

  17. Profound Olfactory Dysfunction in Myasthenia Gravis

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    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E.; Bayona, Edgardo A.; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Osman, Allen; Doty, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease strongly identified with deficient acetylcholine receptor transmission at the post-synaptic neuromuscular junction, is accompanied by a profound loss of olfactory function. Twenty-seven MG patients, 27 matched healthy controls, and 11 patients with polymiositis, a disease with peripheral neuromuscular symptoms analogous to myasthenia gravis with no known central nervous system involvement, were tested. All were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and the Picture Identification Test (PIT), a test analogous in content and form to the UPSIT designed to control for non-olfactory cognitive confounds. The UPSIT scores of the myasthenia gravis patients were markedly lower than those of the age- and sex-matched normal controls [respective means (SDs) = 20.15 (6.40) & 35.67 (4.95); p<0.0001], as well as those of the polymiositis patients who scored slightly below the normal range [33.30 (1.42); p<0.0001]. The latter finding, along with direct monitoring of the inhalation of the patients during testing, implies that the MG-related olfactory deficit is unlikely due to difficulties sniffing, per se. All PIT scores were within or near the normal range, although subtle deficits were apparent in both the MG and PM patients, conceivably reflecting influences of mild cognitive impairment. No relationships between performance on the UPSIT and thymectomy, time since diagnosis, type of treatment regimen, or the presence or absence of serum anti-nicotinic or muscarinic antibodies were apparent. Our findings suggest that MG influences olfactory function to the same degree as observed in a number of neurodegenerative diseases in which central nervous system cholinergic dysfunction has been documented. PMID:23082113

  18. Circadian regulation of insect olfactory learning.

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    Decker, Susan; McConnaughey, Shannon; Page, Terry L

    2007-10-02

    Olfactory learning in insects has been used extensively for studies on the neurobiology, genetics, and molecular biology of learning and memory. We show here that the ability of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae to acquire olfactory memories is regulated by the circadian system. We investigated the effect of training and testing at different circadian phases on performance in an odor-discrimination test administered 30 min after training (short-term memory) or 48 h after training (long-term memory). When odor preference was tested by allowing animals to choose between two odors (peppermint and vanilla), untrained cockroaches showed a clear preference for vanilla at all circadian phases, indicating that there was no circadian modulation of initial odor preference or ability to discriminate between odors. After differential conditioning, in which peppermint odor was associated with a positive unconditioned stimulus of sucrose solution and vanilla odor was associated with a negative unconditioned stimulus of saline solution, cockroaches conditioned in the early subjective night showed a strong preference for peppermint and retained the memory for at least 2 days. Animals trained and tested at other circadian phases showed significant deficits in performance for both short- and long-term memory. Performance depended on the circadian time (CT) of training, not the CT of testing, and results indicate that memory acquisition rather than retention or recall is modulated by the circadian system. The data suggest that the circadian system can have profound effects on olfactory learning in insects.

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

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    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. © 2014 Guven-Ozkan and Davis; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Higher Body Mass Index Is Associated with Subjective Olfactory Dysfunction

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    Z. M. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Morbidly obese patients demonstrate altered olfactory acuity. There has been no study directly assessing Body Mass Index (BMI in patients with olfactory dysfunction. Our purpose was to compare BMI in a group of patients with subjective olfactory dysfunction to those without subjective olfactory complaints. Methods. Retrospective matched case-control study. Sixty patients who presented to a tertiary care otolaryngology center with subjective smell dysfunction over one year were identified. Neoplastic and obstructive etiologies were excluded. Demographics, BMI, and smoking status were reviewed. Sixty age, gender, and race matched control patients were selected for comparison. Chi-square testing was used. Results. 48 out of 60 patients (80% in the olfactory dysfunction group fell into the overweight or obese categories, compared to 36 out of 60 patients (60% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the olfactory dysfunction and control groups for this stratified BMI (p= 0.0168.  Conclusion. This study suggests high BMI is associated with olfactory dysfunction. Prospective clinical research should examine this further to determine if increasing BMI may be a risk factor in olfactory loss and to elucidate what role olfactory loss may play in diet and feeding habits of obese patients.

  1. The sorting behaviour of olfactory and vomeronasal axons during regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; St John, James; Key, Brian

    2005-09-01

    In order to begin to understand how primary olfactory and vomeronasal organ (VNO) axons target specific regions of the olfactory bulb, we examined the sorting behaviour of these axons following neonatal unilateral olfactory bulbectomy. Bulbectomy induced widespread ipsilateral death of the primary olfactory and VNO neurons. After 4 weeks, many new sensory axons had re-grown into the cranial cavity and established a prominent plexus with evidence of dense tufts that were similar in gross appearance to glomeruli. Axons expressing the cell adhesion molecule OCAM, which normally innervate the ventrolateral and rostral halves of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively, sorted out and segregated from those axons not expressing this molecule within the plexus. In addition, VNO axons formed large discrete bundles that segregated from main olfactory axons within the plexus. Thus, VNO and primary olfactory axons as well as discrete subpopulations of both are able to sort out and remain segregated in the absence of the olfactory bulb. Sorting and convergence of axons therefore occur independently of the olfactory bulb and are probably attributable either to inherent properties of the axons themselves or to interactions between the axons and accompanying glial ensheathing cells.

  2. Transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelium induced by the influence of lens epithelium in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopashov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The influence of lens epithelium (LE) of adult frogs on the character of transdifferentiation of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) of adult frogs and tadpoles of Rana temporaria has been studied. After a period of intense proliferation RPE cultured in vivo in contact with LE in the tadpole orbit almost exclusively transforms into retina. RPE precultivated in vitro in contact with LE for three days in protein-free medium does not manifest cell divisions and mostly transdifferentiates into lentoids. The problem of the relative significance of inducing determinants and the role of activation or inhibition of proliferation in transdifferentiation is discussed.

  3. Retro- and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Kurt, Onuralp; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Baskoy, Kamil; Altundag, Aytug; Saglam, Muzaffer; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients. All participants whose olfactory and taste functions were evaluated with orthonasal olfaction (discrimination, identification and threshold), retronasal olfaction, taste function and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) measurement. The patients were separated into three groups according to orthonasal olfaction: anosmic IHH (aIHH), hyposmic IHH (hIHH) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). Discrimination, identification and threshold scores of patients with KS were significantly lower than controls. Threshold scores of patients with nIHH were significantly lower than those of controls, but discrimination and identification scores were not significantly different. Retronasal olfaction was reduced only in the aIHH group compared to controls. Identification of bitter, sweet, sour, and salty tastes was not significantly different when compared between the anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic IHH groups and controls. OBV was lower bilaterally in all patient groups when compared with controls. The OBV of both sides was found to be significantly correlated with TDI scores in IHH patients. 1) There were no significant differences in gustatory function between controls and IHH patients; 2) retronasal olfaction was reduced only in anosmic patients but not in orthonasally hyposmic participants, possibly indicating presence of effective compensatory mechanisms; 3) olfactory bulb volumes were highly correlated with olfaction scores in the HH group. The current results indicate a continuum from anosmia to normosmia in IHH patients. Copyright © 2017

  4. β3GnT2 null mice exhibit defective accessory olfactory bulb innervation.

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    Henion, Timothy R; Madany, Pasil A; Faden, Ashley A; Schwarting, Gerald A

    2013-01-01

    Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) extend axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synaptic connections that relay pheromone signals to the brain. The projections of apical and basal VSNs segregate in the AOB into anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB) compartments. Although some aspects of this organization exhibit fundamental similarities with the main olfactory system, the mechanisms that regulate mammalian vomeronasal targeting are not as well understood. In the olfactory epithelium (OE), the glycosyltransferase β3GnT2 maintains expression of axon guidance cues required for proper glomerular positioning and neuronal survival. We show here that β3GnT2 also regulates guidance and adhesion molecule expression in the vomeronasal system in ways that are partially distinct from the OE. In wildtype mice, ephrinA5(+) axons project to stereotypic subdomains in both the aAOB and pAOB compartments. This pattern is dramatically altered in β3GnT2(-/-) mice, where ephrinA5 is upregulated exclusively on aAOB axons. Despite this, apical and basal VSN projections remain strictly segregated in the null AOB, although some V2r1b axons that normally project to the pAOB inappropriately innervate the anterior compartment. These fibers appear to arise from ectopic expression of V2r1b receptors in a subset of apical VSNs. The homotypic adhesion molecules Kirrel2 and OCAM that facilitate axon segregation and glomerular compartmentalization in the main olfactory bulb are ablated in the β3GnT2(-/-) aAOB. This loss is accompanied by a two-fold increase in the total number of V2r1b glomeruli and a failure to form morphologically distinct glomeruli in the anterior compartment. These results identify a novel function for β3GnT2 glycosylation in maintaining expression of layer-specific vomeronasal receptors, as well as adhesion molecules required for proper AOB glomerular formation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Distinct functions of two olfactory marker protein genes derived from teleost-specific whole genome duplication.

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    Suzuki, Hikoyu; Nikaido, Masato; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-11-10

    Whole genome duplications (WGDs) have been proposed to have made a significant impact on vertebrate evolution. Two rounds of WGD (1R and 2R) occurred in the common ancestor of Gnathostomata and Cyclostomata, followed by the third-round WGD (3R) in a common ancestor of all modern teleosts. The 3R-derived paralogs are good models for understanding the evolution of genes after WGD, which have the potential to facilitate phenotypic diversification. However, the recent studies of 3R-derived paralogs tend to be based on in silico analyses. Here we analyzed the paralogs encoding teleost olfactory marker protein (OMP), which was shown to be specifically expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons and is expected to be involved in olfactory transduction. Our genome database search identified two OMPs (OMP1 and OMP2) in teleosts, whereas only one was present in other vertebrates. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggested that OMP1 and 2 were derived from 3R. Both OMPs showed distinct expression patterns in zebrafish; OMP1 was expressed in the deep layer of the olfactory epithelium (OE), which is consistent with previous studies of mice and zebrafish, whereas OMP2 was sporadically expressed in the superficial layer. Interestingly, OMP2 was expressed in a very restricted region of the retina as well as in the OE. In addition, the analysis of transcriptome data of spotted gar, a non-teleost fish, revealed that single OMP gene was expressed in the eyes. We found distinct expression patterns of zebrafish OMP1 and 2 at the tissue and cellular level. These differences in expression patterns may be explained by subfunctionalization as the model of molecular evolution. Namely, single OMP gene was speculated to be originally expressed in the OE and the eyes in the common ancestor of all Osteichthyes (bony fish including tetrapods). Then, two OMP gene paralogs derived from 3R-WGD reduced and specialized the expression patterns. This study provides a good example for analyzing a

  6. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  7. Interneurons and beta-amyloid in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory tubercle in APPxPS1 transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; De La Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2013-09-01

    Impaired olfaction has been described as an early symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroanatomical changes underlying this deficit in the olfactory system are largely unknown. Given that interneuron populations are crucial in olfactory information processing, we have quantitatively analyzed somatostatin- (SOM), parvalbumin- (PV), and calretinin-expressing (CR) cells in the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and olfactory tubercle in PS1 x APP double transgenic mice model of AD. The experiments were performed in wild type and double transgenic homozygous animal groups of 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of age to analyze early stages of the pathology. In addition, beta-amyloid (Aβ) expression and its correlation with SOM cells have been quantified under confocal microscopy. The results indicate increasing expressions of Aβ with aging as well as an early fall of SOM and CR expression, whereas PV was decreased later in the disease progression. These observations evidence an early, preferential vulnerability of SOM and CR cells in rostral olfactory structures during AD that may be useful to unravel neural basis of olfactory deficits associated to this neurodegenerative disorder. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Skin healing and scale regeneration in fed and unfed sea bream, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canario Adelino VM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish scales are an important reservoir of calcium and phosphorus and together with the skin function as an integrated barrier against environmental changes and external aggressors. Histological studies have revealed that the skin and scales regenerate rapidly in fish when they are lost or damaged. In the present manuscript the histological and molecular changes underlying skin and scale regeneration in fed and fasted sea bream (Sparus auratus were studied using a microarray 3 and 7 days after scale removal to provide a comprehensive molecular understanding of the early stages of these processes. Results Histological analysis of skin/scales revealed 3 days after scale removal re-epithelisation and formation of the scale pocket had occurred and 53 and 109 genes showed significant up or down-regulation, respectively. Genes significantly up-regulated were involved in cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation and adhesion, immune response and antioxidant activities. 7 days after scale removal a thin regenerated scale was visible and only minor changes in gene expression occurred. In animals that were fasted to deplete mineral availability the expression profiles centred on maintaining energy homeostasis. The utilisation of fasting as a treatment emphasised the competing whole animal physiological requirements with regard to barrier repair, infection control and energy homeostasis. Conclusions The identification of numerous genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint and cell proliferation indicate that the experimental procedure may be useful for understanding cell proliferation and control in vertebrates within the context of the whole animal physiology. In response to skin damage genes of immune surveillance were up-regulated along with others involved in tissue regeneration required to rapidly re-establish barrier function. Additionally, candidate fish genes were identified that may be involved in cytoskeletal re

  9. The environmental regulation of maturation in goldfish, Carassius auratus: effects of various LED light spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-02-01

    While there have been a number of studies on the effects of photoperiod and duration of light and dark exposure, much less information is available on the importance of light intensity. This study investigated the effects of exposure of goldfish, Carassius auratus exposed to white fluorescent bulbs, and red (peak at 630nm), and green (530nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at approximately 0.9W/m(2) (12-h light:12-h dark) for four months on a number of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of native GnRH molecules (gonadotropin-releasing hormones; salmon GnRH, sGnRH; and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), gonadotropin hormones (GTHα; follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH-β; luteinizing hormone, LH-β2), kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) mRNA levels. Furthermore, we measured LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in plasma and we performed gonad histological observations. GnRHs, Kiss1, GPR54 and GTH mRNA and plasma LH and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone levels in the in vivo and in vitro groups exposed to green LEDs were significantly higher than the other groups. Histological analysis revealed the presence of oocytes in the yolk stage in fish exposed to green light. These results suggest that green wavelengths regulate the HPG axis and enhance sexual maturation in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Parsons

    Full Text Available Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  11. Mechanisms explaining nursery habitat association: how do juvenile snapper (Chrysophrys auratus) benefit from their nursery habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Darren M; Middleton, Crispin; Spong, Keren T; Mackay, Graeme; Smith, Matt D; Buckthought, Dane

    2015-01-01

    Nursery habitats provide elevated survival and growth to the organisms that associate with them, and as such are a crucial early life-stage component for many fishes and invertebrates. The exact mechanisms by which these benefits are afforded to associated organisms, however, are often unclear. Here we assessed potential explanations of the nursery function of structurally complex habitats for post-settlement snapper, Chrysophrys auratus, in New Zealand. Specifically, we deployed Artificial Seagrass Units (ASUs) and used a combination of video observation, netting and diet analysis of associated post-settlement snapper as well describing potential prey within the micro-habitats surrounding ASUs. We did not observe any predation attempts and few potential predators, suggesting that for snapper the nursery value of structurally complex habitats is not as a predation refuge. The diet of post-settlement snapper mostly consisted of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, which were most commonly sampled from within the water column. Nearly all suspected feeding events were also observed within the water column. When considering the velocity of water flow at each ASU, plankton sampling revealed a greater availability of copepods with increasing current strength, while netting and video observation demonstrated that the abundance of snapper was highest at sites with intermediate water velocity. This study highlights that the interaction between water flow and food availability may represent an important trade-off between energy expenditure and food intake for post-settlement snapper. Structurally complex habitats may mediate this relationship, allowing snapper to access sites with higher food availability while reducing swimming costs. This mechanism may have broader relevance, potentially explaining the importance of estuarine nursery habitats for other species.

  12. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Bevelander, G.S.; Rotllant, J.; Canario, A.V.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and

  13. Analysis of ethanol effects on corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joo Youn; Yu, Ji Min; Ko, Jung Hwa

    2013-06-04

    Ethanol is widely used in ocular surface surgeries and for the treatment of corneal diseases. However, ethanol is a toxic agent that is related to the development of a number of alcohol-related diseases. Despite the common use of ethanol for therapeutic purposes in ophthalmology, effects of ethanol on the ocular surface have been poorly defined. Hence, we performed this study to investigate effects of ethanol on corneal epithelium from various aspects. We exposed corneal epithelial cells in culture to different concentrations of ethanol for 30 seconds and evaluated the cells for toxicity, survival, and expression of cell-specific markers and inflammatory cytokines at 24, 48, and 72 hours after ethanol exposure. We found that ethanol markedly decreased the viability of cells in a concentration-dependent manner by causing cell lysis, suppressing proliferation, and inducing apoptosis. Also, expression of corneal epithelial cell-specific markers, both stem cell and differentiation markers, was significantly reduced by ethanol exposure. Expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines was highly increased in corneal epithelial and stromal cells that were exposed to ethanol. Together, data suggest that brief exposure of the corneal surface to ethanol may have long-term effects by disrupting the integrity of corneal epithelium and generating inflammation, both of which are precursors to a number of ocular surface diseases.

  14. Visualizing olfactory learning functional imaging of experience-induced olfactory bulb changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L; Bendahmane, Mounir

    2014-01-01

    The anatomical organization of sensory neuron input allows odor information to be transformed into odorant-specific spatial maps of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of sensory stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning or experience. Similarly, several studies have demonstrated both structural and physiological experience-induced changes throughout the olfactory system. As experience-induced changes within this circuit likely serve as an initial site for odor memory formation, the olfactory bulb is an ideal site for optical imaging studies of olfactory learning, as they allow for the visualization of experience-induced changes in the glomerular circuit following learning and how these changes impact of odor representations with the bulb. Presently, optical imaging techniques have been used to visualize experience-induced changes in glomerular odor representations in a variety of paradigms in short-term habituation, chronic odor exposure, and olfactory associative conditioning. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  16. Loss of olfactory cell adhesion molecule reduces the synchrony of mitral cell activity in olfactory glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovska, Maria; McGinley, Matthew J; Bensen, AeSoon; Westbrook, Gary L

    2011-04-15

    Odours generate activity in olfactory receptor neurons, whose axons contact the dendritic tufts of mitral cells within olfactory bulb glomeruli. These axodendritic synapses are anatomically separated from dendrodendritic synapses within each glomerulus. Mitral cells within a glomerulus show highly synchronized activity as assessed with whole-cell recording from pairs of mitral cells. We examined glomerular activity in mice lacking the olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM). Glomeruli in mice lacking OCAM show a redistribution of synaptic subcompartments, but the total area occupied by axonal inputs was similar to wild-type mice. Stimulation of olfactory nerve bundles showed that excitatory synaptic input to mitral cells as well as dendrodendritic inhibition was unaffected in the knockout. However, correlated spiking in mitral cells was significantly reduced, as was electrical coupling between apical dendrites. To analyse slow network dynamics we induced slow oscillations with a glutamate uptake blocker. Evoked and spontaneous slow oscillations in mitral cells and external tufted cells were broader and had multiple peaks in OCAM knockout mice, indicating that synchrony of slow glomerular activity was also reduced. To assess the degree of shared activity between mitral cells under physiological conditions, we analysed spontaneous sub-threshold voltage oscillations using coherence analysis. Coherent activity was markedly reduced in cells from OCAM knockout mice across a broad range of frequencies consistent with a decrease in tightly time-locked activity. We suggest that synchronous activity within each glomerulus is dependent on segregation of synaptic subcompartments.

  17. Anatomic olfactory structural abnormalities in congenital smell loss: magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of olfactory bulb, groove, sulcal, and hippocampal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Lucien M; Degnan, Andrew J; Sethi, Ila; Henkin, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    There are 2 groups of patients with congenital smell loss: group 1 (12% of the total), in which patients exhibit a familial smell loss in conjunction with severe anatomical, somatic, neurological, and metabolic abnormalities such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; and a larger group, group 2 (88% of the total), in which patients possess a similar degree of smell loss but without somatic, neurological, or anatomical abnormalities or hypogonadism. Both groups are characterized by similar olfactory dysfunction, and both have been reported to have absent or decreased olfactory bulbs and grooves, which indicates some overlap in olfactory pathophysiology and anatomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with congenital smell loss, primarily among group 2 patients, comparing brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results in patients with types of hyposmia. Forty group 2 patients were studied by measurements of taste (gustometry) and smell (olfactometry) function and by use of MRI in which measurements of olfactory bulbs, olfactory sulcus depth, olfactory grooves, and hippocampal anatomy were performed. Anatomical results were compared with similar studies in group 1 patients and in 22 control subjects with normal sensory function. Olfactometry was abnormal in all patients with no patient reporting ever having normal olfaction. No patient had a familial history of smell loss. On MRI, all exhibited at least 1 abnormality in olfactory system anatomy, including absence or decreased size of at least 1 olfactory bulb, decreased depth of an olfactory sulcus, and abnormalities involving hippocampal anatomy with hippocampal malrotations. One patient had bilateral bulb duplication. Normal subjects with normal smell and taste function exhibited some but very few or significant neuroanatomical changes on MRI. Although both groups have similar abnormalities of smell function, group 2 patients demonstrate anatomical anomalies in olfactory structures that are neither as

  18. Phenotypic and molecular variation in the green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus (Anura: Dendrobatidae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The green and black poison-dart frog Dendrobates auratus exhibits high intraspecific variation in hue color and pattern throughout its range, making it a very popular species in the pet trade. We analyzed the correspondence between color variation and molecular variation of D. auratus from Costa Rica using RAPD analysis. Twenty-six random primers were analyzed for variation in 99 individuals from seven populations. Color pattern was scored from digital images of the dorsal and ventral views. In general, frogs from the Caribbean coast had significantly more light coloration than black color but cannot be grouped by population based only on hue pattern. Only 3 RAPD primers were found to be polymorphic, representing a total of 16 loci. Most of the molecular variation encountered here occurs within populations, thus making unclear the degree of population structure and differentiation. Further examination of COI mtDNA sequences from our samples also supports these results. Partial Mantel correlations suggested that the pattern of molecular variation is not congruent with the variation in color pattern in this species, an outcome that is discussed in terms of phenotypic evolution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 313-321. Epub 2009 November 30.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative damage induced by tetrabromobisphenol A in Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Huahong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: huahongshi@tom.com; Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Luo Yi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su Yan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2005-09-30

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs). To confirm its putative oxidative stress-inducing activity, freshwater fish Carassius auratus were injected intraperitoneally with TBBPA. One experiment lasted 3 h to 28 days after a single injection of 100 mg/kg TBBPA, and the other lasted 24 h after a single injection of 0-300 mg/kg TBBPA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were trapped by phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) and detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Protein carbonyl (PCO) and lipid peroxidation product (LPO) content were also determined. A six-line EPR spectrum was detected in the sample prepared in air, and a multiple one was obtained in nitrogen. The observed spectrum in nitrogen fits the simulation one with PBN/{center_dot}OCH{sub 3} and PBN/{center_dot}CH{sub 3} quite well. As compared to the control group, TBBPA significantly induced ROS production marked by the intensity of the prominent spectra in liver and bile. TBBPA (100 mg/kg) also significantly increased PCO content in liver starting 24 h and LPO content 3 days after injection. Either PCO or LPO content showed significant relation with ROS production. Based on the hyperfine constants and shape of the spectrum, ROS induced by TBBPA was determined as {center_dot}OH. The results clearly indicated that TBBPA could induce {center_dot}OH generation and result in oxidative damage in liver of C. auratus.

  20. In vitro and in vivo antiparasitic activity of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. in Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2012-05-01

    Argulus is one of the most common and predominant ectoparasites which cause serious parasitic disease and is a potent carrier of viruses and bacteria in the ornamental fish industry. In recent years, organic (herbs)-based medicines are widely used to cure the disease, and neem (Sarbaroganibarini) medicine is very popular and effective throughout the world. The present study was conducted to find the effects of Azadirachtin against Argulus spp. on Carassius auratus under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) for Azadirachtin EC 25% against Carassius auratus was found to be 82.115 mg L(-1). The antiparasitic activity test under in vitro and in vivo was evaluated at 1 (T1), 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 mg L(-1) (T5) to treat Argulus for 3 h and 72 h, respectively. In vitro effect of Azadirachtin solution led to 100% mortality of Argulus at 20 and 15 mg L(-1) for 2.5 and 3 h, respectively. Whereas, under in vivo test, the 100% antiparasitic efficacy of Azadirachtin solution was found at 15 and 20 mg L(-1) for 72 and 48 h, respectively. The EC(50) for 48 h was 20 mg L(-1), and thus, therapeutic index is 4.10. The results provided evidence that Azadirachtin can be used as a potential agent for controlling Argulus.

  1. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  2. Construction of odor representations by olfactory bulb microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    Like other sensory systems, the olfactory system transduces specific features of the external environment and must construct an organized sensory representation from these highly fragmented inputs. As with these other systems, this representation is not accurate per se, but is constructed for utility, and emphasizes certain, presumably useful, features over others. I here describe the cellular and circuit mechanisms of the peripheral olfactory system that underlie this process of sensory construction, emphasizing the distinct architectures and properties of the two prominent computational layers in the olfactory bulb. Notably, while the olfactory system solves essentially similar conceptual problems to other sensory systems, such as contrast enhancement, activity normalization, and extending dynamic range, its peculiarities often require qualitatively different computational algorithms than are deployed in other sensory modalities. In particular, the olfactory modality is intrinsically high dimensional, and lacks a simple, externally defined basis analogous to wavelength or pitch on which elemental odor stimuli can be quantitatively compared. Accordingly, the quantitative similarities of the receptive fields of different odorant receptors (ORs) vary according to the statistics of the odor environment. To resolve these unusual challenges, the olfactory bulb appears to utilize unique nontopographical computations and intrinsic learning mechanisms to perform the necessary high-dimensional, similarity-dependent computations. In sum, the early olfactory system implements a coordinated set of early sensory transformations directly analogous to those in other sensory systems, but accomplishes these with unique circuit architectures adapted to the properties of the olfactory modality. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-15

    Nov 15, 2016 ... Background: Pregnant women require normal olfactory function in order to develop good appetite for healthy living and normal fetal development. This study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant women. Methods: This was a case control study ...

  4. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system is hig...

  5. Olfactory G proteins: simple and complex signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, F A; Chess, A

    1998-06-04

    In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory perception is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Recent work, in both mouse and Caenorhabditis elegans, sheds light on the role of specific G proteins in olfactory signal transduction, neuronal morphology and axon guidance.

  6. The role of main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The great diversity of signals used in chemical communication indicates that this communication is not mediated exclusively by pheromones. A number of pheromonal responses are not dependent on the vomeronasal system, but on the main olfactory system. The dual olfactory systems also have overlappng functons.

  7. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ... Pregnant women have olfactory dysfunction more than the non-pregnant women of reproductive age group. Also, they ..... Olfaction is linked to important cognitive and emotional domains such as the ...

  8. A second look at the structure of human olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L

    2009-07-01

    How do we remember olfactory information? Is the architecture of human olfactory memory unique compared with that of memory for other types of stimuli? Ten years ago, a review article evaluated these questions, as well as the distinction between long- and short-term olfactory memory, with three lines of evidence: capacity differences, coding differences, and neuropsychological evidence, though serial position effects were also considered. From the data available at the time, the article preliminarily suggested that olfactory memory was a two-component system that was not qualitatively different from memory systems for other types of stimuli. The decade that has elapsed since then has ushered in considerable changes in theories of memory structure and provided huge advances in neuroscience capabilities. Not only have many studies exploring various aspects of olfactory memory been published, but a model of olfactory perception that includes an integral unitary memory system also has been presented. Consequently, the structure of olfactory memory is reevaluated in the light of further information currently available with the same theoretical lines of evidence previously considered. This evaluation finds that the preponderance of evidence suggests that, as in memory for other types of sensory stimuli, the short-term-long-term distinction remains a valuable dissociation for conceptualizing olfactory memory, though perhaps not as architecturally separate systems.

  9. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  10. Semaphorins and their receptors in olfactory axon guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Verhaagen, J

    The mammalian olfactory system is capable of discriminating among a large variety of odor molecules and is therefore essential for the identification of food, enemies and mating partners. The assembly and maintenance of olfactory connectivity have been shown to depend on the combinatorial actions of

  11. Comparison between olfactory function of pregnant women and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnant women require normal olfactory function in order to develop good appetite for healthy living and normal fetal development. This study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant women. Methods: This was a case control study of women in ...

  12. The age of olfactory bulb neurons in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Olaf; Liebl, Jakob; Bernard, Samuel; Alkass, Kanar; Yeung, Maggie S Y; Steier, Peter; Kutschera, Walter; Johnson, Lars; Landén, Mikael; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L; Frisén, Jonas

    2012-05-24

    Continuous turnover of neurons in the olfactory bulb is implicated in several key aspects of olfaction. There is a dramatic decline postnatally in the number of migratory neuroblasts en route to the olfactory bulb in humans, and it has been unclear to what extent the small number of neuroblasts at later stages contributes new neurons to the olfactory bulb. We have assessed the age of olfactory bulb neurons in humans by measuring the levels of nuclear bomb test-derived (14)C in genomic DNA. We report that (14)C concentrations correspond to the atmospheric levels at the time of birth of the individuals, establishing that there is very limited, if any, postnatal neurogenesis in the human olfactory bulb. This identifies a fundamental difference in the plasticity of the human brain compared to other mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation contribute both to the appreciation of food flavours. Although acquired loss of smell has profound consequences on the pleasure of eating, food habits and body weight, less is known about the impact of congenital olfactory impairment on gustatory processing. Here we examined...... taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The f......MRI results demonstrated that olfactory impaired individuals had reduced activation in medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) relative to normosmic subjects while tasting. In addition, olfactory performance as measured with the Sniffin׳ Sticks correlated positively with taste-induced BOLD signal increases...

  14. Understanding smell--the olfactory stimulus problem.

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    Auffarth, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The main problem with sensory processing is the difficulty in relating sensory input to physiological responses and perception. This is especially problematic at higher levels of processing, where complex cues elicit highly specific responses. In olfaction, this relationship is particularly obfuscated by the difficulty of characterizing stimulus statistics and perception. The core questions in olfaction are hence the so-called stimulus problem, which refers to the understanding of the stimulus, and the structure-activity and structure-odor relationships, which refer to the molecular basis of smell. It is widely accepted that the recognition of odorants by receptors is governed by the detection of physico-chemical properties and that the physical space is highly complex. Not surprisingly, ideas differ about how odor stimuli should be classified and about the very nature of information that the brain extracts from odors. Even though there are many measures for smell, there is none that accurately describes all aspects of it. Here, we summarize recent developments in the understanding of olfaction. We argue that an approach to olfactory function where information processing is emphasized could contribute to a high degree to our understanding of smell as a perceptual phenomenon emerging from neural computations. Further, we argue that combined analysis of the stimulus, biology, physiology, and behavior and perception can provide new insights into olfactory function. We hope that the reader can use this review as a competent guide and overview of research activities in olfactory physiology, psychophysics, computation, and psychology. We propose avenues for research, particularly in the systematic characterization of receptive fields and of perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An olfactory demography of a diverse metropolitan population

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    Keller Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human perception of the odour environment is highly variable. People vary both in their general olfactory acuity as well as in if and how they perceive specific odours. In recent years, it has been shown that genetic differences contribute to variability in both general olfactory acuity and the perception of specific odours. Odour perception also depends on other factors such as age and gender. Here we investigate the influence of these factors on both general olfactory acuity and on the perception of 66 structurally and perceptually different odours in a diverse subject population. Results We carried out a large human olfactory psychophysics study of 391 adult subjects in metropolitan New York City, an ethnically and culturally diverse North American metropolis. 210 of the subjects were women and the median age was 34.6 years (range 19–75. We recorded ~2,300 data points per subject to obtain a comprehensive perceptual phenotype, comprising multiple perceptual measures of 66 diverse odours. We show that general olfactory acuity correlates with gender, age, race, smoking habits, and body type. Young, female, non-smoking subjects had the highest average olfactory acuity. Deviations from normal body type in either direction were associated with decreased olfactory acuity. Beyond these factors we also show that, surprisingly, there are many odour-specific influences of race, age, and gender on olfactory perception. We show over 100 instances in which the intensity or pleasantness perception of an odour is significantly different between two demographic groups. Conclusions These data provide a comprehensive snapshot of the olfactory sense of a diverse population. Olfactory acuity in the population is most strongly influenced by age, followed by gender. We also show a large number of diverse correlations between demographic factors and the perception of individual odours that may reflect genetic differences as well as different

  16. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

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    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  17. Olfactory ensheathing glia are required for embryonic olfactory axon targeting and the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons

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    Perrine Barraud

    2013-06-01

    Kallmann's syndrome is caused by the failure of olfactory axons and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons to enter the embryonic forebrain, resulting in anosmia and sterility. Sox10 mutations have been associated with Kallmann's syndrome phenotypes, but their effect on olfactory system development is unknown. We recently showed that Sox10 is expressed by neural crest-derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. Here, we demonstrate that in homozygous Sox10lacZ/lacZ mouse embryos, OEC differentiation is disrupted; olfactory axons accumulate in the ventromedial olfactory nerve layer and fewer olfactory receptor neurons express the maturation marker OMP (most likely owing to the failure of axonal targeting. Furthermore, GnRH neurons clump together in the periphery and a smaller proportion enters the forebrain. Our data suggest that human Sox10 mutations cause Kallmann's syndrome by disrupting the differentiation of OECs, which promote embryonic olfactory axon targeting and hence olfactory receptor neuron maturation, and GnRH neuron migration to the forebrain.

  18. Effect of finasteride on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA and on prostate of hamster Mesocricetus auratus (hMa Efeito da finasterida no antígeno prostático específico (PSA sérico e na próstata do hamster Mesocricetus auratus (hMa

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    Dimas José Araújo Vidigal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the effects of finasteride on the serum PSA and on the prostate of hamster-Mesocricetus auratus(hMa. METHODS: Twenty hMa male adults were split in groups control and experimental (n=10. Animals of the experimental group received 7.14ng/mL of finasteride, subcutaneously (SC on the back three times per week, during 90 days. The finasteride dose was equivalent to 5.0mg administered to a 70kg man. At the end of the experiment the mean age for the animals in the control group was 15.2±1.13months and for the experimental group was 17.7±0.67 months. There was a statistically significant difference between mean ages of both groups (t value=5.98; p=0.001. The animals of the control group weighted 129.0±18.8g and the experimental group weighted 145.0±15.5g, t=1.88 e p=0.0514. The serum PSA was assessed through ELISA method. Prostates of those animals were collected and processed to histology and morphometry: the diameter of the acinous glands and the acinous epithelium, apoptosis, AgNORs and cellularity were assessed in both groups. RESULTS: Serum PSA decreased in the experimental group, 0.003ng/mL versus 0.763ng/mL, H= 7.982 e p= 0.0047. Decrease in the acinous area occurred in animals that received finasteride, 238.000±24.600 μm² versus 398.600±55.320 μm²; t= 2.653; p= 0.0122. A remarkable decrease in the area of the acinous epithelium occurred in the animals that received finasteride, 111.900±12.820 μm² versus 160.400±18.430 μm² t= 2.162; p= 0.0361. AgNORs were less expressed in finasteride treated animals, 2.846±0.877 versus 3.68 ±1.07 argyrophilic clusters for μm², p= OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da finasterida no PSA sérico e na próstata do hamster-Mesocricetus auratus (hMa. MÉTODOS: 20 hMa adultos machos foram divididos em grupos de 10 animais. No experimento foram administrados 7,14 ng/mL de finasterida, subcutâneo (SC, no dorso, três vezes por semana, por 90 dias, dose equivalente a 5,0 mg usada em homem

  19. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

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    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  20. Olfactory sex recognition investigated in Antarctic prions.

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    Francesco Bonadonna

    Full Text Available Chemical signals can yield information about an animal such as its identity, social status or sex. Such signals have rarely been considered in birds, but recent results have shown that chemical signals are actually used by different bird species to find food and to recognize their home and nest. This is particularly true in petrels whose olfactory anatomy is among the most developed in birds. Recently, we have demonstrated that Antarctic prions, Pachyptila desolata, are also able to recognize and follow the odour of their partner in a Y-maze.However, the experimental protocol left unclear whether this choice reflected an olfactory recognition of a particular individual (i.e. partner or a more general sex recognition mechanism. To test this second hypothesis, male and female birds' odours were presented simultaneously to 54 Antarctic prions in a Y-maze. Results showed random behaviour by the tested bird, independent of its sex or reproductive status. Present results do not support the possibility that Antarctic prions can distinguish the sex of a conspecific through its odour but indirectly support the hypothesis that they can distinguish individual odours.

  1. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

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    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  2. The evaluation of olfactory function in individuals with chronic halitosis.

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    Altundag, Aytug; Cayonu, Melih; Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Salihoglu, Murat; Tekeli, Hakan; Cayonu, Sibel; Akpinar, Meltem Esen; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Halitosis and olfactory dysfunction may disrupt an individual's quality of life remarkably. One may ask whether halitosis has effects on olfactory functions or not? Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the olfactory abilities of subjects with chronic halitosis evaluated using the measurements of volatile sulfur compounds. This study was carried out in 77 subjects, with a mean age of 40.1±13.3 years, ranging from 18 to 65 years. Forty-three participants were diagnosed as halitosis according to the gas chromatography results and constituted the halitosis group. Also, a control group was created from individuals without a complaint of halitosis and also who had normal values for volatile sulfur compounds. Each subject's orthonasal olfactory and retronasal olfactory functions were assessed using "Sniffin' Sticks" and retronasal olfactory testing. The results showed that odor threshold scores were lower in participants with halitosis compared with controls. Also, hyposmia was seen more common in the halitosis group than in controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation was found between odor threshold scores and volatile sulfur compounds levels, particularly with hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide levels. The results suggest that the chronic presence of volatile sulfur compounds may have a negative effect on olfactory function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

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    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  4. Olfactory Pathology in Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases.

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    DeLuca, Gabriele C; Joseph, Albert; George, Jithin; Yates, Richard L; Hamard, Marie; Hofer, Monika; Esiri, Margaret M

    2015-09-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Olfactory bulb and tract pathology in MS and other demyelinating diseases remain unexplored. A human autopsy cohort of pathologically confirmed cases encompassing the spectrum of demyelinating disease (MS; n = 17), neuromyelitis optica [(NMO); n = 3] and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis [(ADEM); n = 7] was compared to neuroinflammatory [herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE); n = 3], neurodegenerative [Alzheimer's disease (AD); n = 4] and non-neurologic (n = 8) controls. For each case, olfactory bulbs and/or tracts were stained for myelin, axons and inflammation. Inferior frontal cortex and hippocampus were stained for myelin in a subset of MS and ADEM cases. Olfactory bulb/tract demyelination was frequent in all demyelinating diseases [MS 12/17 (70.6%); ADEM 3/7 (42.9%); NMO 2/3 (66.7%)] but was absent in HSE, AD and non-neurologic controls. Inflammation was greater in the demyelinating diseases compared to non-neurologic controls. Olfactory bulb/tract axonal loss was most severe in MS where it correlated significantly with the extent of demyelination (r = 0.610, P = 0.009) and parenchymal inflammation (r = 0.681, P = 0.003). The extent of olfactory bulb/tract demyelination correlated with that found in the adjacent inferior frontal cortex but not hippocampus. We provide unequivocal evidence that olfactory bulb/tract demyelination is frequent, can occur early and is highly inflammatory, and is specific to demyelinating disease. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  5. Awake intranasal insulin delivery modifies protein complexes and alters memory, anxiety, and olfactory behaviors.

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    Marks, David R; Tucker, Kristal; Cavallin, Melissa A; Mast, Thomas G; Fadool, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    The role of insulin pathways in olfaction is of significant interest with the widespread pathology of diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic and neuronal comorbidities. The insulin receptor (IR) kinase is expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb, in which it suppresses a dominant Shaker ion channel (Kv1.3) via tyrosine phosphorylation of critical N- and C-terminal residues. We optimized a 7 d intranasal insulin delivery (IND) in awake mice to ascertain the biochemical and behavioral effects of insulin to this brain region, given that nasal sprays for insulin have been marketed notwithstanding our knowledge of the role of Kv1.3 in olfaction, metabolism, and axon targeting. IND evoked robust phosphorylation of Kv1.3, as well as increased channel protein-protein interactions with IR and postsynaptic density 95. IND-treated mice had an increased short- and long-term object memory recognition, increased anxiolytic behavior, and an increased odor discrimination using an odor habituation protocol but only moderate change in odor threshold using a two-choice paradigm. Unlike Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion that alters metabolism, adiposity, and axonal targeting to defined olfactory glomeruli, suppression of Kv1.3 via IND had no effect on body weight nor the size and number of M72 glomeruli or the route of its sensory axon projections. There was no evidence of altered expression of sensory neurons in the epithelium. In mice made prediabetic via diet-induced obesity, IND was no longer effective in increasing long-term object memory recognition nor increasing anxiolytic behavior, suggesting state dependency or a degree of insulin resistance related to these behaviors.

  6. Awake Intranasal Insulin Delivery Modifies Protein Complexes and Alters Memory, Anxiety, and Olfactory Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D.R.; Tucker, K.; Cavallin, M.A.; Mast, T.G.; Fadool, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of insulin pathways in olfaction is of significant interest with the widespread pathology of Diabetes mellitus and its associated metabolic and neuronal co-morbidities. The insulin receptor kinase (IR) is expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb (OB), where it suppresses a dominant Shaker ion channel (Kv1.3) via tyrosine phosphorylation of critical N- and C-terminal residues. We optimized a seven day intranasal insulin delivery (IND) in awake mice to ascertain the biochemical and behavioral effects of insulin to this brain region, given that nasal sprays for insulin have been marketed notwithstanding our knowledge of the role of Kv1.3 in olfaction, metabolism, and axon targeting. IND evoked robust phosphorylation of Kv1.3, as well as increased channel protein-protein interactions with IR and post-synaptic density 95. IND-treated mice had an increased short- and long-term object memory recognition, increased anxiolytic behavior, and an increased odor-discrimination using an odor habituation protocol but only moderate change in odor threshold using a two-choice paradigm. Unlike Kv1.3 gene-targeted deletion that alters metabolism, adiposity, and axonal targeting to defined olfactory glomeruli, suppression of Kv1.3 via IND had no effect on body weight nor the size and number of M72 glomeruli or the route of its sensory axon projections. There was no evidence of altered expression of sensory neurons in the epithelium. In mice made pre-diabetic via diet-induced obesity, IND was no longer effective in increasing long-term object memory recognition nor increasing anxiolytic behavior, suggesting state dependency or a degree of insulin resistance related to these behaviors. PMID:19458242

  7. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

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    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  8. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  9. Intranasal administration of rotenone in mice attenuated olfactory functions through the lesion of dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, Hitoshi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Many environmental chemicals are thought to affect brain function. It was reported that chemicals in the nasal cavity directly reach the brain through the connection between olfactory neurons and the olfactory bulb (OB). In this 'olfactory transport,' xenobiotics absorbed at the nasal mucosa reach the brain by bypassing some physical barriers and defenses, and thus olfactory transport is suspected to be a vulnerable mechanism of the brain against invasion threats of environmental chemicals. In this study, we focused on the neuronal toxicity of rotenone administered intranasally to mice. The results showed that the mice that were administered rotenone had attenuated olfactory functions. We also found that intranasally administered rotenone induced acute mitochondrial stress at the OB. The repeated administration of rotenone resulted in a decrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons, which are inhibitory interneurons in the OB. Taken together, our findings suggest that the inhalation of environmental toxins induces the neurodegeneration of cranial neurons through olfactory transport, and that olfactory dysfunction may be induced as an earliest symptom of neurodegeneration caused by inhaled neurotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Value of MRI olfactory bulb evaluation in the assessment of olfactory dysfunction in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

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    Braun, J J; Noblet, V; Kremer, S; Molière, S; Dollfus, H; Marion, V; Goetz, N; Muller, J; Riehm, S

    2016-07-01

    Olfactory bulb (OB) volume evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to be related to olfactory dysfunction in many different diseases. Olfactory dysfunction is often overlooked in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) patients and is rarely objectively evaluated by MRI. We present a series of 20 BBS patients with olfactory dysfunction. The OB was evaluated separately and blindly by two radiologists (SR and SM) with 3 Tesla MRI imaging comparatively to 12 normal control subjects by global visual evaluation and by quantitative measurement of OB volume. In the 12 control cases OB visual evaluation was considered as normal in all cases for radiologist (SR) and in 10 cases for radiologist (SM). In the 20 BBS patients, OB visual evaluation was considered as abnormal in 18 cases for SR and in all cases for SM. OB volumetric evaluation for SR and SM in BBS patients was able to provide significant correlation between BBS and olfactory dysfunction. This study indicates that OB volume evaluation by MRI imaging like structural MRI scan for gray matter modifications demonstrates that olfactory dysfunction in BBS patients is a constant and cardinal symptom integrated in a genetical syndrome with peripheral and central olfactory structure alterations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expression of polysialyltransferases (STX and PST) in adult rat olfactory bulb after an olfactory associative discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mione, J; Manrique, C; Duhoo, Y; Roman, F S; Guiraudie-Capraz, G

    2016-04-01

    Neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis occur in the adult hippocampus and in other brain structures such as the olfactory bulb and often involve the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM. During an olfactory associative discrimination learning task, NCAM polysialylation triggers neuronal plasticity in the adult hippocampus. The PST enzyme likely modulates this polysialylation, but not STX, a second sialyltransferase. How the two polysialyltransferases are involved in the adult olfactory bulb remains unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of olfactory associative learning on plasticity and neurogenesis. After a hippocampo-dependent olfactory associative task learning, we measured the expression of both PST and STX polysialyltransferases in the olfactory bulbs of adult rats using quantitative PCR. In parallel, immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate both NCAM polysialylation level and newly-born cells, with or without learning. After learning, no changes were observed neither in the expression level of PST and NCAM polysialylation, nor in STX gene expression level and newly-born cells number in the olfactory bulb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Canonical Wnt signaling promotes the proliferation and neurogenesis of peripheral olfactory stem cells during postnatal development and adult regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Yamagami, Takashi; Gan, Qini; Wang, Yongping; Zhao, Tianyu; Hamad, Salaheddin; Lott, Paul; Schnittke, Nikolai; Schwob, James E; Zhou, Chengji J

    2011-05-01

    The mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) has a unique stem cell or progenitor niche, which is responsible for the constant peripheral neurogenesis throughout the lifespan of the animal. However, neither the signals that regulate the behavior of these cells nor the lineage properties of the OE stem cells are well understood. Multiple Wnt signaling components exhibit dynamic expression patterns in the developing OE. We generated Wnt signaling reporter TOPeGFP transgenic mice and found TOPeGFP activation predominantly in proliferating Sox2(+) OE basal cells during early postnatal development. FACS-isolated TOPeGFP(+) OE basal cells are required, but are not sufficient, for formation of spheres. Wnt3a significantly promotes the proliferation of the Sox2(+) OE sphere cells. Wnt-stimulated OE sphere cells maintain their multipotency and can differentiate into most types of neuronal and non-neuronal epithelial cells. Also, Wnt activators shift the production of differentiated cells toward olfactory sensory neurons. Moreover, TOPeGFP(+) cells are robustly increased in the adult OE after injury. In vivo administration of Wnt modulators significantly alters the regeneration potential. This study demonstrates the role of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the regulation of OE stem cells or progenitors during development and regeneration.

  13. Abnormally Increased Secretion in Olfactory Neuronal Precursors from a Case of Schizophrenia Is Modulated by Melatonin: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercós, Montserrat G; Galván-Arrieta, Tania; Valdés-Tovar, Marcela; Solís-Chagoyán, Héctor; Argueta, Jesús; Benítez-King, Gloria; Trueta, Citlali

    2017-07-13

    The alterations that underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) include the dysregulation of structural and functional properties of neurons. Among these, the secretion of neurotransmitters and hormones, which plays a key role for neuronal communication and development, is altered. Neuronal precursors from the human olfactory epithelium have been recently characterized as a reliable model for studying the etiopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Our previous work has shown that melatonin enhances the development of morphological and functional features of cloned olfactory neuronal precursors (ONPs) from a healthy subject. In this work we found that primary cultures of ONPs obtained from a schizophrenic patient display an increased potassium-evoked secretion, when compared with ONPs from an age- and gender-matched healthy control subject (HCS). Secretion was evaluated by FM1-43 fluorescence cumulative changes in response to depolarization. Interestingly, a 12 h-melatonin treatment modulated the abnormally increased secretion in SCZ ONPs and brought it to levels similar to those found in the HCS ONPs. Our results suggest that the actin cytoskeleton might be a target for melatonin effects, since it induces the thickening of actin microfilament bundles. Further research will address the mechanisms by which melatonin modulates neurochemical secretion from ONPs.

  14. A CLCA regulatory protein present in the chemosensory cilia of olfactory sensory neurons induces a Ca2+-activated Cl-current when transfected into HEK293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Casilda V; Delgado, Ricardo; Delgado, María Graciela; Restrepo, Diego; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2017-08-11

    CLCA is a family of metalloproteases that regulate Ca 2+ -activated Cl - fluxes in epithelial tissues. In HEK293 cells, CLCA1 promotes membrane expression of an endogenous Anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also termed TMEM16A)-dependent Ca 2+ -activated Cl - current. Motif architecture similarity with CLCA2, 3 and 4 suggested that they have similar functions. We previously detected the isoform CLCA4L in rat olfactory sensory neurons, where Anoctamin 2 is the principal chemotransduction Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channel. We explored the possibility that this protein plays a role in odor transduction. We cloned and expressed CLCA4L from rat olfactory epithelium in HEK293 cells. In the transfected HEK293 cells we measured a Cl - -selective Ca 2+ -activated current, blocked by niflumic acid, not present in the non-transfected cells. Thus, CLCA4L mimics the CLCA1 current on its ability to induce the ANO1-dependent Ca 2+ -activated Cl - current endogenous to these cells. By immunocytochemistry, a CLCA protein, presumably CLCA4L, was detected in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons co-expressing with ANO2. These findings suggests that a CLCA isoform, namely CLCA4L, expressed in OSN cilia, might have a regulatory function over the ANO2-dependent Ca 2+ -activated Cl - channel involved in odor transduction.

  15. Characteristic Response to Chemosensory Signals in GABAergic Cells of Medial Amygdala Is Not Driven by Main Olfactory Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from same species (conspecific) and different species (heterospecific) elicit categorically different immediate-early gene (IEG) response patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. All heterospecific stimuli activate anterior medial amygdala (MeA) but only especially salient heterospecific stimuli, such as those from predators activate posterior medial amygdala (MeP). We previously reported that characteristic patterns of response in separate populations of cells in MeA and MeP distinguish between different conspecific stimuli. Both gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (ir) cells and GABA-receptor-ir cells make this distinction. Here, using zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium, we show evidence that main olfactory input does not contribute to the characteristic patterns of response in GABA-ir cells of male hamster amygdala, either for conspecific or heterospecific stimuli. Some GABAergic cells are output neurons carrying information from medial amygdala to behavioral executive regions of basal forebrain. Thus, the differential response to different conspecific signals can lead to differential activation of downstream circuits based on nonolfactory input. Finally, we show that an intact vomeronasal organ is necessary and sufficient to produce the characteristic patterns of response to conspecific and heterospecific chemosensory stimuli in hamster medial amygdala. Although main olfactory input may be critical in species with less prominent vomeronasal input for equivalent medial amygdala responses, work presented here suggests that hamster medial amygdala uses primarily vomeronasal input to discriminate between important unlearned conspecific social signals, to distinguish them from the social signals of other species, and may convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  16. An experimental model for amoebic abscess production in the cheek pouch of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M A; Kobayashi, S; Hussainy, A S; Hamada, A; Okuzawa, E; Smego, R A; Hussain, R

    2004-09-01

    A new experimental model was developed in hamsters for amoebic abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica. E. histolytica trophozoites were cultured in a liquid axenic medium, and then injected intradermally into the cheek pouch of the Syrian golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Inoculation consistently resulted in abscess formation at the site in 20 of 22 (91%) study animals. The amoebic nature of the abscesses was confirmed by light microscopy and histopathologic examination. Abscess formation was maximal at day 12 post-inoculation. Potential applications of this simple and reliable model include further elucidation of the pathogenesis of invasive amoebiasis, studies of the host response to amoebae, and in vivo evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents that show in vitro efficacy against E. histolytica.

  17. Seco-limonoid derived from Raputia heptaphylla promotes the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Falla, Diana; Gomez-Galindo, Angela; Daza, Alejandro; Robledo, Sara; Coy-Barrera, Carlos; Cuca, Luis; Delgado, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µ m at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).

  18. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp.

  19. Assessment of the olfactory function in Italian patients with type 3 von Willebrand disease caused by a homozygous 253 Kb deletion involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cenedese

    Full Text Available Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF. A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16 or anoctamin (ANO. TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT. The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability.

  20. Oral epithelium in diabetics: A cytomorphometric correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Nandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to establish an etiological association between diabetes and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity by cytomorphometric analysis of the oral epithelium. Study Design: Smears were obtained from three distinct oral sites - buccal mucosa, dorsum of the tongue and the floor of the mouth in ten controls and ten patients previously diagnosed with type II diabetes. The oral smears were stained with Papanicolaou SA-36 solution. An eye - piece graticule was used to obtain the cytoplasm and nuclear dimension; where larger dimension was denoted as "D" and the smaller dimension was denoted as "d". The nuclear area (NA, nuclear diameter (ND, cytoplasmic area (CA and the cytoplasmic / nuclear ratio (C/N were evaluated from 50 cells predominant in each oral site. Statistical Analysis: The cytomorphometric data obtained was compared between the group of diabetic patients and the control groups using the student′s t- test (SPSS version 11.0. Results: Results showed that the nuclear area and the nuclear diameter of oral epithelial cells were increased in diabetic patients, as compared to non- diabetics, while the non- diabetic patients demonstrated an increase in nuclear ratio. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in oral epithelial cells that are detectable with exfoliative cytology.

  1. Primary culture of chinchilla middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; DeMaria, T F; Lim, D J; van Blitterswijk, C A

    1991-09-01

    Chinchilla middle ear epithelium was successfully cultured in medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, Ham's F12 mixture, and fetal bovine serum. After 3 to 5 days, the explants produced outgrowths of primarily flat polygonal and ciliated cells that persisted for up to 10 days in culture. These cells in the outgrowth often formed a "dome" indicating the presence of functional polarization and fluid transportation capability. The ciliated cells were more frequently found near the explant, and were fewer in number in the area distant from the explant. This finding suggests that the ciliated cells in the outgrowth are migrated ciliated cells deriving from the explant. That secretory cells were not identified in the outgrowth indicated that the present culture technique did not support secretory activity. Using the present culture technique, we were able to maintain the explants and primary cultured cells for up to 14 days in a majority of cases; hence, these techniques appear to be applicable to a number of in vitro studies.

  2. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  3. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  4. Olfactory and gustatory functions in bipolar disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, Francois; Richa, Sami; Desmidt, Thomas; Lemaire, Mathieu; Atanasova, Boriana; El Hage, Wissam

    2017-05-12

    Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions have been described in different psychiatric disorders. Several studies have found gustatory and olfactory function change in bipolar disorders with various results. The aim of this study is to have a systematic review of studies evaluating gustatory and olfactory function in bipolar disorders. After a systematic search, 15 studies on olfaction and 5 studies on taste were included in this review. The UPSIT (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test) and Sniffin' Sticks were the most widely used tests to evaluate smell. Some studies on olfaction described dysfunctions in smell identification as potential markers for bipolar disorders. Moreover, olfactory acuity was associated with psychosocial and cognitive performances. For taste, only few studies used standardized tests to evaluate gustation. These studies showed that patients with Bipolar disorders had more gustatory dysfunction compared to controls, and to non-bipolar depressed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AASERT: Hydrodynamic Interaction Between Olfactory Antennae and Odor Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koehl, M

    2002-01-01

    We trained graduate and undergraduate students by involving them in research elucidating ways in which the structure and the motions of olfactory antennae affect how they encounter the concentration...

  6. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  7. Parasite and predator risk assessment: nuanced use of olfactory cues

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, John G.; Garnick, Sarah; Mark A Elgar; Coulson, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Foraging herbivores face twin threats of predation and parasite infection, but the risk of predation has received much more attention. We evaluated, experimentally, the role of olfactory cues in predator and parasite risk assessment on the foraging behaviour of a population of marked, free-ranging, red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus). The wallabies adjusted their behaviour according to these olfactory cues. They foraged less, were more vigilant and spent less time at feeders placed in...

  8. Spotlight on olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Violante,Mayela; Ospina-García,Natalia; Pérez-Lohman,Christian; Cervantes-Arriaga,Amin

    2017-01-01

    Mayela Rodríguez-Violante,1,2 Natalia Ospina-García,1,2 Christian Pérez-Lohman,1,2 Amin Cervantes-Arriaga1,2 1Movement Disorders Clinic, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Clinical Neurodegenerative Research Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Olfactory dysfunction is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD). A correlation between olfactory dysfunction and the pathophy...

  9. Modeling of Spatial and Temporal Dynamics in Biological Olfactory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-21

    34 Neuron, 2001. 1371 B. Quenet, D. Horn, G. Dreyfus , and R. Dubois, "Temporal coding in an olfactory oscillatory model," Neurocomputing, vol. 38-40, pp...in Engineering (ANNIE 2004) Conference, St. Louis , Missouri, November 7-10, 2004, pp.791-799 Progress Report Zurada JM, Lozowskl AG, Modeling of...Engineering (ANNIE 2004) Conference, St. Louis , Missouri, November 7-10, 2004, pp.791- 799 SIMULATION OF PULSE DISTRIBUTION OBSERVED IN OLFACTORY BULB

  10. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  11. Reference values of olfactory function for Mexico City inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hudson, Robyn; López-Palacios, Martha; Drucker-Colín, René

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants. We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to 916 men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1) ability to detect an odor, 2) to discriminate between odors, and 3) to identify odors. We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers. In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants. The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Marine; El-Hage, Wissam; Gomes, Marlène; Gaillard, Philippe; Belzung, Catherine; Atanasova, Boriana

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE) through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram) against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture), to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker) that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker). These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment). They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  13. The fate of the inner nose: odor imagery in patients with olfactory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, E L R; Arshamian, A; Wieser, M J; Hummel, C; Larsson, M; Mühlberger, A; Hummel, T

    2014-05-30

    Cerebral activations during olfactory mental imagery are fairly well investigated in healthy participants but little attention has been given to olfactory imagery in patients with olfactory loss. To explore whether olfactory loss leads to deficits in olfactory imagery, neural responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and self-report measures were investigated in 16 participants with acquired olfactory loss and 19 control participants. Participants imagined both pleasant and unpleasant odors and their visual representations. Patients reported less vivid olfactory but not visual images than controls. Results from neuroimaging revealed that activation patterns differed between patients and controls. While the control group showed stronger activation in olfactory brain regions for unpleasant compared to pleasant odors, the patient group did not. Also, activation in critical areas for olfactory imagery was correlated with the duration of olfactory dysfunction, indicating that the longer the duration of dysfunction, the more the attentional resources were employed. This indicates that participants with olfactory loss have difficulties to perform olfactory imagery in the conventional way. Regular exposure to olfactory information may be necessary to maintain an olfactory imagery capacity. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recency and suffix effects with immediate recall of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C; Jenkins, R

    2000-05-01

    In contrast to our understanding of the immediate recall of auditory and visual material, little is known about the corresponding characteristics of short-term olfactory memory. The current study investigated the pattern of immediate serial recall and the associated suffix effect using olfactory stimuli. Subjects were trained initially to identify and name correctly nine different odours. Experiment 1 established an immediate correct recall span of approximately six items. In Experiment 2 participants recalled serially span equivalent lists which were followed by a visual, auditory, or olfactory suffix. Primacy was evident in the recall curves for all three suffix conditions. Recency, in contrast, was evident in the auditory and visual suffix conditions only; there was a strong suffix effect in the olfactory suffix condition. Experiment 3 replicated this pattern of effects using seven-item lists, and demonstrated that the magnitude of the recency and suffix effects obtained in the olfactory modality can equate to that obtained in the auditory modality. It is concluded that the pattern of recency and suffix effects in the olfactory modality is reliable, and poses difficulties for those theories that rely on the presence of a primary linguistic code, sound, or changing state as determinants of these effects in serial recall.

  15. Gustatory and olfactory responses to stimulation of the human insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Laure; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Catenoix, Hélène; Montavont, Alexandra; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François

    2017-09-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting the role of insular cortex in the processing of gustatory and olfactory inputs, the exact location of olfactogustatory representation in the insula remains controversial. Here we provide a functional mapping of olfactory-gustatory responses to stimulation of the human insular cortex. We reviewed 651 electrical stimulations of the insula that were performed in 221 patients, using stereotactically implanted depth electrodes, during the presurgical evaluation of drug-refractory epilepsy. Gustatory sensations were evoked in 15 (2.7%) of the 550 stimulations that elicited a clinical response. They were exclusively obtained after stimulation of a relatively delimited zone of insula, located in its mid-dorsal part (posterior short gyrus). Six olfactory sensations (1.1%) could be obtained during stimulations of an insular region that partially overlapped with the gustatory representation. Our study provides a functional mapping of gustatory representation in the insular posterior short gyrus and the first detailed description of olfactory sensations obtained by direct stimulation of mid-dorsal insula. Our data also show a spatial overlap between gustatory, olfactory, and oral somatosensory representation in the mid-dorsal insula, and suggest that this part of the insula may be an integrated oral sensory region that plays a key role in flavor perception. It also indicates that dysfunction in this region should be considered during the evaluation of gustatory and olfactory epileptic seizures. Ann Neurol 2017;82:360-370. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  16. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  17. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  18. Human ovarian surface epithelium in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, N; Siemens, C H; Myrdal, S E

    1984-10-01

    The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) represents a minute fraction of the cell mass of the ovary but gives rise to over 80% of human ovarian carcinomas. No experimental models for the study of human OSE exist. To characterize OSE cells in culture, explants of ovarian surface from normal ovary of premenopausal women were grown on plastic, glass, and collagen gel in 25% fetal bovine serum/Waymouth's medium 752/1. About 25% of explants produced epithelial outgrowths. Morphologically, these outgrowths resembled OSE in vivo and endothelial and mesothelial cells in culture, but they differed from cultured ovarian stromal, granulosa, and luteal cells. Only OSE among ovarian cell types were intensely keratin positive by immunofluorescence. Keratin also distinguished OSE cells from the keratin-negative endothelial cells. Most but not all OSE colonies tested showed 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity, which was absent in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Colonies from most patients were limited to a few millimetres and became stationary within a few weeks. Changes that accompanied cessation of growth included senescence, increased keratin content, or the formation of multicellular papillary aggregates. With time, OSE cells tended to assume a fibroblast-like morphology but remained keratin positive and continued to resemble OSE by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subcultured OSE cells persisted in a stationary keratin-positive form for many weeks. Throughout this study, all pavementlike epithelial outgrowths that were contiguous with an explant stained for keratin; thus, such colonies can be assumed to be OSE. Conversely, fibroblast-shaped cells may represent OSE as indicated by keratin content and SEM appearance. The methods presented here permit culture of normal human OSE under conditions in which the cells exhibit morphologic plasticity, variable 17 beta-HSD activity, and presence of keratin.

  19. The 3-layered ductal epithelium in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegoor, Robert; Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Buerger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J

    2012-05-01

    Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality in the male breast and has been associated with male breast cancer, but whether there is an etiological role remains unknown. In the present study we conducted an immunohistochemical investigation to further characterize gynecomastia. A total of 46 cases of gynecomastia were immunohistochemically stained on tissue microarrays for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, HER2, androgen receptor, cytokeratins (CK5, CK14, CK7, and CK8/18), p63, E-cadherin, BRST2, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, p53, p16, p21, and Ki67. In addition, 8 cases of male ductal carcinoma in situ and normal breast tissue obtained from autopsies (n=10) and adjacent to male breast cancer (n=5) were studied. Normal ductal male breast epithelial cells were very often ER and Bcl-2 positive (>69%), and progesterone receptor and androgen receptor expression was also common (>39%). Gynecomastia showed a consistent 3-layered pattern: 1 myoepithelial and 2 epithelial cell layers with a distinctive immunohistochemical staining pattern. The intermediate luminal layer, consisting of vertically oriented cuboidal-to-columnar cells, is hormone receptor positive and expresses Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. The inner luminal layer is composed of smaller cells expressing CK5 and often CK14 but is usually negative for hormone receptors and Bcl-2. Male ductal carcinoma in situ was consistently ER positive and CK5/CK14 negative. In conclusion, for the first time we describe the 3-layered ductal epithelium in gynecomastia, which has a distinctive immunohistochemical profile. These results indicate that different cellular compartments exist in gynecomastia, and therefore gynecomastia does not seem to be an obligate precursor lesion of male breast cancer.

  20. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  1. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayasri; Tribeni

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility...

  2. Bronchial epithelium: morphology, function and pathophysiology in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der V.H.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Versnel, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Summary : Human bronchial epithelium has a number of mechanical functions, including mucociliary clearance and protection against noxious agents. Bronchial epithelial cells are also able to release a variety of mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and arachidonic acid

  3. Olfactory hallucinations elicited by electrical stimulation via subdural electrodes: effects of direct stimulation of olfactory bulb and tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gogi; Juhász, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2012-06-01

    In 1954, Penfield and Jasper briefly described that percepts of unpleasant odor were elicited by intraoperative electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb in patients with epilepsy. Since then, few peer-reviewed studies have reported such phenomena elicited by stimulation mapping via subdural electrodes implanted on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe. Here, we determined what types of olfactory hallucinations could be reproduced by such stimulation in children with focal epilepsy. This study included 16 children (age range: 5 to 17 years) who underwent implantation of subdural electrodes to localize the presumed epileptogenic zone and eloquent areas. Pairs of electrodes were electrically stimulated, and clinical responses were observed. In case a patient reported a perception, she/he was asked to describe its nature. We also described the stimulus parameters to elicit a given symptom. Eleven patients reported a perception of smell in response to electrical stimulation while the remaining five did not. Nine patients perceived an unpleasant smell (like bitterness, smoke, or garbage) while two perceived a pleasant smell (like strawberry or good food). Such olfactory hallucinations were induced by stimulation proximal to the olfactory bulb or tract on either hemisphere but not by that of orbitofrontal gyri lateral to the medial orbital sulci. The range of stimulus parameters employed to elicit olfactory hallucinations was comparable to those for other sensorimotor symptoms. Our systematic study of children with epilepsy replicated stimulation-induced olfactory hallucinations. We failed to provide evidence that a positive olfactory perception could be elicited by conventional stimulation of secondary olfactory cortex alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in Barrett's epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, W. H.; Roelofs, H. M.; Hectors, M P; Nagengast, F. M.; Jansen, J B

    1993-01-01

    Glutathione content, enzyme activity and isoenzyme composition of glutathione S-transferases were assayed in normal and Barrett's esophageal epithelium of ten patients with Barrett's esophagus. In addition, gastric and duodenal specimens from the same patients were also investigated. Glutathione content, glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity as well as glutathione S-transferase pi content were all significantly lower in Barrett's epithelium as compared to normal esophageal mucosa. In cont...

  5. Culture and characterization of rat middle-ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Blitterswijk, C A; Ponec, M; van Muijen, G N; Wijsman, M C; Koerten, H K; Grote, J J

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to design a method for the culture of rat middle-ear epithelium and to apply the method to investigate the characteristics of this epithelium. Culture of explants of middle-ear epithelium in the presence of the epidermal growth factor was successful, whereas serial cultivation required 3T3 feeder cells in addition to the epidermal growth factor. Cultured middle-ear epithelium was studied by phase-contrast microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and combined light and scanning electron microscopy (LM/SEM). These techniques showed similarity between the cultured and the natural middle-ear epithelium. Explants and outgrowths showed both flat polygonal and ciliated epithelial cells. In serial cultivation, however, only the first of these cell types was observed. Frequently, a single primary cilium was found on the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed cross-linked envelopes whose formation was promoted by ionophore X537A. Cytokeratin was demonstrated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoperoxidase methods, using an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. The model described here permits study of the differentiation of middle-ear epithelium in vitro and may be of future value for the study of chronic middle-ear diseases.

  6. Notch1 maintains dormancy of olfactory horizontal basal cells, a reserve neural stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Daniel B; Lin, Brian; Peterson, Jesse; Schnittke, Nikolai; Schwob, James E

    2017-07-11

    The remarkable capacity of the adult olfactory epithelium (OE) to regenerate fully both neurosensory and nonneuronal cell types after severe epithelial injury depends on life-long persistence of two stem cell populations: the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), which are quiescent and held in reserve, and mitotically active globose basal cells. It has recently been demonstrated that down-regulation of the ΔN form of the transcription factor p63 is both necessary and sufficient to release HBCs from dormancy. However, the mechanisms by which p63 is down-regulated after acute OE injury remain unknown. To identify the cellular source of potential signaling mechanisms, we assessed HBC activation after neuron-only and sustentacular cell death. We found that ablation of sustentacular cells is sufficient for HBC activation to multipotency. By expression analysis, next-generation sequencing, and immunohistochemical examination, down-regulation of Notch pathway signaling is coincident with HBC activation. Therefore, using HBC-specific conditional knockout of Notch receptors and overexpression of N1ICD, we show that Notch signaling maintains p63 levels and HBC dormancy, in contrast to its suppression of p63 expression in other tissues. Additionally, Notch1, but not Notch2, is required to maintain HBC dormancy after selective neuronal degeneration. Taken together, our data indicate that the activation of HBCs observed after tissue injury or sustentacular cell ablation is caused by the reduction/elimination of Notch signaling on HBCs; elimination of Jagged1 expressed by sustentacular cells may be the ligand responsible.

  7. The histopathological comparison on the destruction of the periodontal tissue between normal junctional epithelium and long junctional epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, S; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Yoshinaga, Y; Nakamura, H; Takamori, Y; Yamashita, Y; Hara, Y

    2017-02-01

    The barrier function of long junctional epithelium is thought to be important after periodontal initial therapy and periodontal surgery. Although the difference between long junctional epithelium and normal junctional epithelium regarding their resistance to destruction of periodontal tissue has been investigated, the mechanism still remains unclear. Using our rat experimental periodontitis model in which loss of attachment and resorption of alveolar bone is induced by the formation of immune complexes, we investigated the resistance of periodontal tissue containing long junctional epithelium and normal junctional epithelium to destruction. Rats were divided into four groups. In the immunized long junctional epithelium (I-LJE) group, rats were immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and curettage and root planing procedures were performed on the palatal gingiva of the maxillary first molars to obtain reattachment by long junctional epithelium. In the immunized normal junctional epithelium (I-JE) group, rats were immunized without curettage and root planing procedures. In the nonimmunized long junctional epithelium (nI-LJE) group, rats were not immunized but curettage and root-planing procedures were performed. In the control group, neither immunization nor curettage and root-planing was performed. In all rats, periodontal inflammation was induced by topical application of LPS into the palatal gingival sulcus of maxillary first molars. The rats were killed at baseline and after the third and fifth applications of LPS. Attachment loss and the number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the four groups were compared histopathologically and histometrically. After the third application of LPS in the I-LJE group, attachment loss showed a greater increase than in control and nI-LJE groups, and inflammatory cell infiltration and osteoclasts were increased more than in the other groups. After the fifth application of LPS, attachment loss was greater and there was a

  8. A TAP1 null mutation leads to an enlarged olfactory bulb and supernumerary, ectopic olfactory glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Cruz, Nicole M.; Ly, Xuan; Welander, Beth A.; Hanson, Kyle; Kronberg, Eugene; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are well known for their immunological role in mediating tissue graft rejection. Recently, these molecules were discovered to be expressed in distinct neuronal subclasses, dispelling the long-held tenet that the uninjured brain is immune-privileged. Here, we show that MHCI molecules are expressed in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of adult animals. Furthermore, we find that mice with diminished levels of MHCI expression have enlarged MOBs containing an increased number of small, morphologically abnormal and ectopically located P2 glomeruli. These findings suggest that MHCI molecules may play an important role in the proper formation of glomeruli in the bulb. PMID:23697805

  9. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Takato Honda; Chi-Yu Lee; Maki Yoshida-Kasikawa; Ken Honjo; Katsuo Furukubo-Tokunaga

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by C...

  10. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  11. Centrifugal telencephalic afferent connections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; de Moya-Pinilla, Miguel; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2012-01-01

    Parallel to the olfactory system, most mammals possess an accessory olfactory or vomeronasal system. The olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, which in turn project to adjacent areas of the telencephalon, respectively. New data indicate that projections arising from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs partially converge in the rostral telencephalon and are non-overlapping at caudal telencephalic levels. Therefore, the basal telencephalon should be reclassified in olfactory, vomeronasal, and mixed areas. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virtually all olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures send reciprocal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Further, non-chemosensory recipient structures also projects centrifugally to the olfactory bulbs. These feed-back projections appear to be essential modulating processing of chemosensory information. The present work aims at characterizing centrifugal projections to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs arising from olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic areas. This issue has been addressed by using tracer injections in the rat and mouse brain. Tracer injections were delivered into the main and accessory olfactory bulbs as well as in olfactory, vomeronasal, mixed, and non-chemosensory recipient telencephalic structures. The results confirm that olfactory- and vomeronasal-recipient structures project to the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, respectively. Interestingly, olfactory (e.g., piriform cortex), vomeronasal (e.g., posteromedial cortical amygdala), mixed (e.g., the anterior medial amygdaloid nucleus), and non-chemosensory-recipient (e.g., the nucleus of the diagonal band) structures project to the main and to the accessory olfactory bulbs thus providing the possibility of simultaneous modulation and interaction of both systems at different stages of chemosensory processing

  12. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  13. Using insect electroantennogram sensors on autonomous robots for olfactory searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Arhidi, Lotfi; Demondion, Elodie; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Lucas, Philippe

    2014-08-04

    Robots designed to track chemical leaks in hazardous industrial facilities or explosive traces in landmine fields face the same problem as insects foraging for food or searching for mates: the olfactory search is constrained by the physics of turbulent transport. The concentration landscape of wind borne odors is discontinuous and consists of sporadically located patches. A pre-requisite to olfactory search is that intermittent odor patches are detected. Because of its high speed and sensitivity, the olfactory organ of insects provides a unique opportunity for detection. Insect antennae have been used in the past to detect not only sex pheromones but also chemicals that are relevant to humans, e.g., volatile compounds emanating from cancer cells or toxic and illicit substances. We describe here a protocol for using insect antennae on autonomous robots and present a proof of concept for tracking odor plumes to their source. The global response of olfactory neurons is recorded in situ in the form of electroantennograms (EAGs). Our experimental design, based on a whole insect preparation, allows stable recordings within a working day. In comparison, EAGs on excised antennae have a lifetime of 2 hr. A custom hardware/software interface was developed between the EAG electrodes and a robot. The measurement system resolves individual odor patches up to 10 Hz, which exceeds the time scale of artificial chemical sensors. The efficiency of EAG sensors for olfactory searches is further demonstrated in driving the robot toward a source of pheromone. By using identical olfactory stimuli and sensors as in real animals, our robotic platform provides a direct means for testing biological hypotheses about olfactory coding and search strategies. It may also prove beneficial for detecting other odorants of interests by combining EAGs from different insect species in a bioelectronic nose configuration or using nanostructured gas sensors that mimic insect antennae.

  14. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Márquez

    Full Text Available We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1: (i a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm presented against (ii a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm. In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2. We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  15. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post‐operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Study Design Prospective computational study. Materials and Methods Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post‐operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS‐SM model). The calculated three‐dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post‐operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady‐state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. Results The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS‐SM model than in the other models. Conclusion We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS‐SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. Level of Evidence NA. PMID:28894833

  16. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active forgetting of olfactory memories in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob A; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Failure to remember, or forgetting, is a phenomenon familiar to everyone and despite more than a century of scientific inquiry, why we forget what we once knew remains unclear. If the brain marshals significant resources to form and store memories, why is it that these memories become lost? In the last century, psychological studies have divided forgetting into decay theory, in which memory simply dissipates with time, and interference theory, in which additional learning or mental activity hinders memory by reducing its stability or retrieval (for review, Dewar et al., 2007; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, these psychological models of forgetting posit that forgetting is a passive property of the brain and thus a failure of the brain to retain memories. However, recent neuroscience research on olfactory memory in Drosophila has offered evidence for an alternative conclusion that forgetting is an "active" process, with specific, biologically regulated mechanisms that remove existing memories (Berry et al., 2012; Shuai et al., 2010). Similar to the bidirectional regulation of cell number by mitosis and apoptosis, protein concentration by translation and lysosomal or proteomal degradation, and protein phosphate modification by kinases and phosphatases, biologically regulated memory formation and removal would be yet another example in biological systems where distinct and separate pathways regulate the creation and destruction of biological substrates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic properties of Drosophila olfactory electroantennograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckel, Julia; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H; French, Andrew S

    2008-05-01

    Time-dependent properties of chemical signals are probably crucially important to many animals, but little is known about the dynamics of chemoreceptors. Behavioral evidence of dynamic sensitivity includes the control of moth flight by pheromone plume structure, and the ability of some blood-sucking insects to detect varying concentrations of carbon dioxide, possibly matched to host breathing rates. Measurement of chemoreceptor dynamics has been limited by the technical challenge of producing controlled, accurate modulation of olfactory and gustatory chemical concentrations over suitably wide ranges of amplitude and frequency. We used a new servo-controlled laminar flow system, combined with photoionization detection of surrogate tracer gas, to characterize electroantennograms (EAG) of Drosophila antennae during stimulation with fruit odorants or aggregation pheromone in air. Frequency response functions and coherence functions measured over a bandwidth of 0-100 Hz were well characterized by first-order low-pass linear filter functions. Filter time constant varied over almost a tenfold range, and was characteristic for each odorant, indicating that several dynamically different chemotransduction mechanisms are present. Pheromone response was delayed relative to fruit odors. Amplitude of response, and consequently signal-to-noise ratio, also varied consistently with different compounds. Accurate dynamic characterization promises to provide important new information about chemotransduction and odorant-stimulated behavior.

  19. Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with chronic rhinonasal sinusitis using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda A. Alarabawy

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: MRI with volumetric analysis is a useful tool in assessment of the olfactory bulb volume in patients with olfactory loss and appears to be of help in assessment of the degree of recovery in patients after sinus surgery.

  20. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities associated with olfactory memory tasks: different rhythms for different functional networks?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Claire; Ravel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    .... The anatomy of the olfactory network (olfactory bulb, piriform, and entorhinal cortices) and its unique direct access to the limbic system makes it particularly attractive to study how sensory processing could be modulated by learning and memory...

  1. No evidence for visual context-dependency of olfactory learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarali, Ayse; Mayerle, Moritz; Nawroth, Christian; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-08-01

    How is behaviour organised across sensory modalities? Specifically, we ask concerning the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster how visual context affects olfactory learning and recall and whether information about visual context is getting integrated into olfactory memory. We find that changing visual context between training and test does not deteriorate olfactory memory scores, suggesting that these olfactory memories can drive behaviour despite a mismatch of visual context between training and test. Rather, both the establishment and the recall of olfactory memory are generally facilitated by light. In a follow-up experiment, we find no evidence for learning about combinations of odours and visual context as predictors for reinforcement even after explicit training in a so-called biconditional discrimination task. Thus, a ‘true’ interaction between visual and olfactory modalities is not evident; instead, light seems to influence olfactory learning and recall unspecifically, for example by altering motor activity, alertness or olfactory acuity.

  2. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  3. Ablation of mouse adult neurogenesis alters olfactory bulb structure and olfactory fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Valley

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant fl ux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the subventricular zone (SVZ. Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral defi cit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local fi eld potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.

  4. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  5. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  6. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oboti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB. Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents.

  7. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insect olfactory receptors: contributions of molecular biology to chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Merlin, Christine

    2004-12-01

    Our understanding of the molecular basis of chemical signal recognition in insects has been greatly expanded by the recent discovery of olfactory receptors (Ors). Since the discovery of the complete repertoire of Drosophila melanogaster Ors, candidate Ors have been identified from at least 12 insect species from four orders (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera), including species of economic or medical importance. Although all Ors share the same G-protein coupled receptor structure with seven transmembrane domains, they present poor sequence homologies within and between species, and have been identified mainly through genomic data analyses. To date, D. melanogaster remains the only insect species where Ors have been extensively studied, from expression pattern establishment to functional investigations. These studies have confirmed several observations made in vertebrates: one Or type is selectively expressed in a subtype of olfactory receptor neurons, and one olfactory neuron expresses only one type of Or. In addition, all olfactory neurons expressing one Or type converge to the same glomerulus in the antennal lobe. The olfactory mechanism, thus, appears to be conserved between insects and vertebrates. Although Or functional studies are in their initial stages in insects (mainly Drosophila), insects appear to be good models to establish fundamental concepts of olfaction with the development of powerful genetic, imaging, and behavioral tools. This new field of study will greatly contribute to the understanding of insect chemical communication mechanisms, particularly with agricultural pests and disease vectors, and could result in future strategies to reduce their negative effects.

  9. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

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    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  10. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

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    Jia Li Liu

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME, a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  11. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

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    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT, olfactory discrimination (OD, olfactory identification (OI, and TDI using “Sniffin’ sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS score measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p=0.67 and taste (p=0.84 of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p<0.05. Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Nutrient Sensing: Another Chemosensitivity of the Olfactory System

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    A-Karyn Julliard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is a major sensory modality involved in real time perception of the chemical composition of the external environment. Olfaction favors anticipation and rapid adaptation of behavioral responses necessary for animal survival. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that there is a direct action of metabolic peptides on the olfactory network. Orexigenic peptides such as ghrelin and orexin increase olfactory sensitivity, which in turn, is decreased by anorexigenic hormones such as insulin and leptin. In addition to peptides, nutrients can play a key role on neuronal activity. Very little is known about nutrient sensing in olfactory areas. Nutrients, such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids, could play a key role in modulating olfactory sensitivity to adjust feeding behavior according to metabolic need. Here we summarize recent findings on nutrient-sensing neurons in olfactory areas and delineate the limits of our knowledge on this topic. The present review opens new lines of investigations on the relationship between olfaction and food intake, which could contribute to determining the etiology of metabolic disorders.

  13. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a GPCR-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3Kγ and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3Kβ. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein α and β subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3Kγ and β isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction. PMID:20132480

  14. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

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    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  15. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study of Anal Canal Epithelium in Humans and Swine, Focusing on the Anal Transitional Zone Epithelium and the Anal Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Futoshi; Nakajima, Tomoyuki; Iwaya, Mai; Ishii, Keiko; Higuchi, Kayoko; Ogiwara, Naoko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2017-12-12

    To better understand the cellular origins and differentiation of anal canal epithelial neoplasms, the immunohistochemical profiles of the anal canal epithelium in humans and swine were evaluated. Formalin-fixed tissue sections were immunostained for mucin (MUC: MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B), desmoglein 3 (DGS3), p63, CDX2, SOX2, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The anal transitional zone (ATZ) epithelium covered the anal sinus and consisted of a stratified epithelium with mucous cells interspersed within the surface lining. Anal glands opened into the anal sinus. Ducts and acini of intraepithelial or periepithelial mucous type were the main structures of human anal glands, whereas those of swine were compound tubuloacinar mixed glands. Distal to the ATZ epithelium, non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium merged with the keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the perianal skin. MUC5AC expression predominated over MUC5B expression in the ATZ epithelium, while MUC5B expression was higher in the anal glands. SOX2 was positive in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium except in the perianal skin. In humans, DGS3 was expressed in the ATZ epithelium, anal gland ducts, and squamous epithelium. p63 was detected in the ATZ epithelium, anal glands, and squamous epithelium. Myoepithelial cells positive for α-SMA and p63 were present in the anal glands of swine. Colorectal columnar cells were MUC5B+ /MUC2+ /CDX2+ /MUC5AC- /SOX2- . The ATZ epithelium seems to be a distinctive epithelium, with morphological and functional features allowing smooth defecation. The MUC5AC+ /SOX2+ /MUC2- /CDX2- profile of the ATZ epithelium and anal glands is a useful feature for diagnosing adenocarcinoma arising from these regions. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Olfactory auras caused by a very focal isolated epileptic network in the amygdala

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    Tadashi Hamasaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic olfactory auras manifesting as simple partial seizures are rare. We report a patient who presented with olfactory auras after hemorrhage from a cavernous angioma in the left mesial temporal region. His olfactory auras persisted 12 years after two surgeries for a cavernous angioma. Intracranial depth electrodes revealed a very focal isolated epileptogenic zone in the amygdala. Olfactory auras were successfully treated by focus resection.

  18. Azithromycin ameliorates airway remodeling via inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanqi; Pu, Yue; Li, Diandian; Zhou, Liming; Wan, Lihong

    2017-02-01

    Azithromycin can benefit treating allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. In the present study, we hypothesized that azithromycin alleviated airway epithelium injury through inhibiting airway epithelium apoptosis via down regulation of caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl2 ratio in vivo and in vitro. Ovalbumin induced rat asthma model and TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cell apoptosis model were established, respectively. In vivo experiments, airway epithelium was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to histologically evaluate the airway inflammation and remodeling. Airway epithelium apoptotic index (AI) was further analyzed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), while expression of apoptosis related gene (Bax, Bcl2, Caspase-3) in lungs were measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. In vitro experiments, apoptosis were evaluated by Flow cytometry (FCM) and TUNEL. Above apoptosis related gene were also measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Compared with the OVA group, azithromycin significantly reduced the inflammation score, peribronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, epithelial thickening and goblet cell metaplasia (Pazithromycin-treated rats (Pazithromycin significantly suppressed TGF-β1-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis (PAzithromycin is an attractive treatment option for reducing airway epithelial cell apoptosis by improving the imbalance of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inhibiting Caspase-3 level in airway epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

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    C. P. Martinelli-Kläy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus.

  20. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, S.; Salvado, F.

    2017-01-01

    Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus. PMID:29093979

  1. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  2. Evaluation of the olfactory bulb volume and olfactory threshold in patients with nasal polyps and impact of functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammad; Amali, Amin; Ezabadi, Sara Rahavi; Motiee-Langroudi, Maziar; Farshchi, Samireh; Mokhtari, Zahra

    2015-04-01

    Debate still persists on the relation between olfactory bulb volume (OBV) and olfactory function. Many studies suggest that olfactory deprivation decreases the OBV. The aim of this study was to compare the olfactory threshold and OBV of patients with nasal polyps to healthy individuals and to evaluate the impact of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on OBV and olfactory threshold. A longitudinal study was carried out in Tehran between 2011 and 2012. Twenty-two patients with nasal polyps were compared with 37 healthy individuals. Olfactory threshold test and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on all participants. Twenty-two patients in case group were followed for 6 months after FESS. OBV and olfactory threshold were measured after 6 months. There was no significant difference between the age, gender, and OBV of the 2 groups. However, the difference between olfactory threshold was significant (p = 0.005). The olfactory threshold showed no significant relation with OBV (p > 0.05). The correlation between Lund-Mackay score and the mean total OBV and left OBV was significant (r = -0.15, p = 0.045; r = -0.22, p = 0.047; respectively). The decrease in olfactory threshold measured after FESS was statistically significant. Right, left, and total OBV significantly increased after FESS. The results of our study show that FESS has a significant impact on OBV increment and olfactory threshold decrement. The olfactory bulb is a plastic structure and improvement in peripheral olfactory function results in increase in OBV. However, further studies are mandated, in order to establish this result. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Executive function and memory in relation to olfactory deficits in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Drexler, Arthur; Hausmann, Armand; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Kurz, Martin

    2006-08-01

    Prior research indicates that chronic alcoholism is accompanied by olfactory deficits. These have been suggested to reflect dysfunctions in olfactory brain regions. The present study investigated the role of neurocognitive functioning in tests (executive function and memory) sensitive to the functional integrity of brain areas that are crucial to olfactory processing in patients with alcohol dependence. Performance on olfactory functions (detection threshold, quality discrimination, identification), executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), and memory (German version of the California Verbal Learning Test) was assessed in 32 alcohol-dependent patients and 30 healthy comparison subjects, comparable in age, gender, and smoking status. Compared with controls, alcohol-dependent patients were impaired in all 3 domains, olfactory functions, executive function, and memory. In patients, olfactory discrimination ability was positively correlated with executive function performance. Regression analyses conducted to clarify the relation between group (patients vs controls), executive function, memory, and olfactory functions indicated that group was the only significant predictor of olfactory detection threshold and identification, and both group and executive function were found to be the significant predictors of olfactory discrimination. Olfactory deficits in alcohol dependence appear to be associated with prefrontal cognitive dysfunction. Results indicate that olfactory quality discrimination deficits are related to executive function impairment. These findings add to the available research on frontal lobe dysfunction in alcoholism, suggesting that alcohol-related olfactory discrimination deficits may be associated with impairment in the functional integrity of the prefrontal lobe.

  4. A subtype-specific critical period for neurogenesis in the postnatal development of mouse olfactory glomeruli.

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    Yasuko Kato

    Full Text Available Sensory input is essential for the normal development of sensory centers in the brain, such as the somatosensory, visual, auditory, and olfactory systems. Visual deprivation during a specific developmental stage, called the critical period, results in severe and irreversible functional impairments in the primary visual cortex. Olfactory deprivation in the early postnatal period also causes significant developmental defects in the olfactory bulb, the primary center for olfaction. Olfactory bulb interneurons are continuously generated from neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone, suggesting that the olfactory system has plasticity even in adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of transient neonatal olfactory deprivation on the addition of interneurons to the glomerular layer of the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We found that the addition of one subtype of interneurons was persistently inhibited even after reopening the naris. BrdU pulse-chase experiments revealed that the neonatal olfactory deprivation predominantly affected an early phase in the maturation of this neuronal subtype in the olfactory bulb. Subjecting the mice to odor stimulation for 6 weeks after naris reopening resulted in significant recovery from the histological and functional defects caused by the olfactory deprivation. These results suggest that a subtype-specific critical period exists for olfactory bulb neurogenesis, but that this period is less strict and more plastic compared with the critical periods for other systems. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of postnatal neurogenesis and a biological basis for the therapeutic effect of olfactory training.

  5. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Zhengwei; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-01-01

    Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1) how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2) whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3) whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4) whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  6. Neuronal circuits and computations: pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb.

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    Friedrich, Rainer W; Wiechert, Martin T

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the olfactory bulb transform odor-evoked activity patterns across the input channels, the olfactory glomeruli, into distributed activity patterns across the output neurons, the mitral cells. One computation associated with this transformation is a decorrelation of activity patterns representing similar odors. Such a decorrelation has various benefits for the classification and storage of information by associative networks in higher brain areas. Experimental results from adult zebrafish show that pattern decorrelation involves a redistribution of activity across the population of mitral cells. These observations imply that pattern decorrelation cannot be explained by a global scaling mechanism but that it depends on interactions between distinct subsets of neurons in the network. This article reviews insights into the network mechanism underlying pattern decorrelation and discusses recent results that link pattern decorrelation in the olfactory bulb to odor discrimination behavior. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Of mice and men: olfactory neuroblastoma among animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubojemska, A; Borejko, M; Czapiewski, P; Dziadziuszko, R; Biernat, W

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumour of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium and has unpredictable clinical course. As the sense of smell is phylogenetically one of the first senses and olfactory neuroepithelium is evolutionary conserved with striking similarities among different species, we performed an extensive analysis of the literature in order to evaluate the similarities and differences between animals and humans on the clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular level. Our analysis revealed that ONB was reported mainly in mammals and showed striking similarities to human ONB. These observations provide rationale for introduction of therapy modalities used in humans into the veterinary medicine. Animal models of neuroblastoma should be considered for the preclinical studies evaluating novel therapies for ONB. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evidence for a Peripheral Olfactory Memory in Imprinted Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Moody, William J., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The remarkable homing ability of salmon relies on olfactory cues, but its cellular basis is unknown. To test the role of peripheral olfactory receptors in odorant memory retention, we imprinted coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to micromolar concentrations of phenyl ethyl alcohol during parr-smolt transformation. The following year, we measured phenyl ethyl alcohol responses in the peripheral receptor cells using patch clamp. Cells from imprinted fish showed increased sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol compared either to cells from naive fish or to sensitivity to another behaviorally important odorant (L-serine). Field experiments verified an increased behavioral preference for phenyl ethyl alcohol by imprinted salmon as adults. Thus, some component of the imprinted olfactory homestream memory appears to be retained peripherally.

  10. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  11. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1 how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2 whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3 whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4 whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  12. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  13. Pathogenic bacteria induce aversive olfactory learning in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Lu, Hang; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2005-11-10

    Food can be hazardous, either through toxicity or through bacterial infections that follow the ingestion of a tainted food source. Because learning about food quality enhances survival, one of the most robust forms of olfactory learning is conditioned avoidance of tastes associated with visceral malaise. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans feeds on bacteria but is susceptible to infection by pathogenic bacteria in its natural environment. Here we show that C. elegans modifies its olfactory preferences after exposure to pathogenic bacteria, avoiding odours from the pathogen and increasing its attraction to odours from familiar nonpathogenic bacteria. Particular bacteria elicit specific changes in olfactory preferences that are suggestive of associative learning. Exposure to pathogenic bacteria increases serotonin in ADF chemosensory neurons by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Serotonin functions through MOD-1, a serotonin-gated chloride channel expressed in sensory interneurons, to promote aversive learning. An increase in serotonin may represent the negative reinforcing stimulus in pathogenic infection.

  14. Behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Heiss, Rebecca S; Baglione, Vittorio; Canestrari, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Processing of Sensory Information in the Olfactory System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The olfactory system is an attractive model system due to the easy control of sensory input and the experimental accessibility in animal studies. The odorant signals are processed from receptor neurons to a neural network of mitral and granular cells while various types of nonlinear behaviour can...... and equation-free techniques allow for a better reproduction and understanding of recent experimental findings. Talks: Olfaction as a Model System for Sensory-Processing Neural Networks (Jens Midtgaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Nonlinear Effects of Signal Transduction in Olfactory Sensory Neurons......, Bayer Technology Services) Axonal Pathfinding and Sorting in the Olfactory System (Noemi Hummel, ETH Zuerich, Switzerland; Simon Kokkendorff and Jens Starke, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark) Analysis of Macroscopic Network Activities (Jens Starke, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark...

  16. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity.If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference.Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  17. Olfactory modulation of affective touch processing - A neurophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Drechsler, Edda; Hamilton, Paul; Hummel, Thomas; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-07-15

    Touch can be highly emotional, and depending on the environment, it can be perceived as pleasant and comforting or disgusting and dangerous. Here, we studied the impact of context on the processing of tactile stimuli using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm. This was achieved by embedding tactile stimulation in a variable olfactory environment. Twenty people were scanned with BOLD fMRI while receiving the following stimulus blocks: Slow stroking Touch, Civette odor (feces like), Rose odor, Touch+Civette, and Touch+Rose. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity of tactile stimuli and ratings of disgust and intensity of olfactory stimuli were collected. The impact of the olfactory context on the processing of touch was studied using covariance analyses. Coupling between olfactory processing and somatosensory processing areas was assessed with psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI). A subjectively disgusting olfactory environment significantly reduced the perceived pleasantness of touch. The touch fMRI activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, operculum 1 (OP1), was positively correlated with the disgust towards the odors. Decreased pleasantness of touch was related to decreased posterior insula activity. PPI analysis revealed a significant interaction between the OP1, posterior insula, and regions processing the disgust of odors (orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala). We conclude that the disgust evaluation of the olfactory environment moderates neural reactivity in somatosensory regions by upregulation of the OP1 and downregulation of the posterior insula. This adaptive regulation of affective touch processing may facilitate adaptive reaction to a potentially harmful stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning.

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    Mareike Selcho

    Full Text Available Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt as well as appetitive (odor-sugar associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive

  19. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jia

    Full Text Available We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.

  20. Functional MRI of the Olfactory System in Conscious Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hao; Pustovyy, Oleg M.; Waggoner, Paul; Beyers, Ronald J.; Schumacher, John; Wildey, Chester; Barrett, Jay; Morrison, Edward; Salibi, Nouha; Denney, Thomas S.; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2014-01-01

    We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology. PMID:24466054

  1. Kinetics Analysis of Respiratory Epithelium by Virtual Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor HARGAŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with measurement and analysis of kinetic parameters of human respiratory epithelium. The article shows possibilities of data acquisition (videosequences and postprocessing using virtual instrumentation – LabVIEW. The designed methods enable analysis and measurement of two parameters: cilia beat frequency (CBF and trajectory of cilia of respiratory epithelium. The problem task is divided into videosequence acquisition of cilia from the microscope, region of interest (ROI selection for analyzed data reduction, preprocessing of reduced sequences. Frequency analysis is done by intensity method, which records and evaluates intensity variations in ROI. Trajectory analysis uses sophisticated algorithms of object detection in the image called pattern matching. Results of this work are used for diagnostics of some pathology of respiratory apparatus and epithelium. All solution steps are realized in LabVIEW development system.

  2. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.

  3. STUDIES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF TOPSIN M 70 PU FUNGICIDE ON CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO BLOCH L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Mihai Udroiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to see how the metylthiophanate fungicide influences the energetic metabolism and the breathing rhythm at Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch L. 1758. Experimental samples were subjected to under-lethal concentrations of 3.75mg/l, 7.5mg/l, 15mg/l and 30mg/l methyl-thiophanate fungicide from 24 to 336 hours. The physiologic parameter with the highest growth rate was the oxygen consumption, which, at the concentration of 7.5mg/l grew by 40.3% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values, registering the value of 179.52 mg oxygen/l/h compared to 127.95 mg oxygen/l/h. Also, the breathing rhythm grew at the concentration of 7.5 mg/l by 24.76% in 6 hours, compared to the witness values. At the concentration of 30mg/l, both physiologic parameters decreased. So, after 6 hours, the oxygen consumption decrease up to 31.38% from the witness values, registering the value of 51.503mg oxygen/l/h compared to 164.09mg oxygen/l/h, and the breathing rhythm decreased to 84.3% compared to the witness martor.

  4. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus) with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiuping; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut) of goldfish (Carassius auratus) after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+). And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L), bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+), the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut), rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle). The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG) increased significantly, and after Zn(2+) exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) were the main target for Zn(2+), while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+) were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  5. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under changing food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage.

  6. Standard metabolic rate predicts growth trajectory of juvenile Chinese crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under changing food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Qing; Zhang, An-Jie; Killen, Shaun S; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2017-09-15

    Phenotypic traits vary greatly within populations and can have a significant influence on aspects of performance. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of individual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR) on growth rate and tolerance to food deprivation in juvenile Chinese crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) under varying levels of food availability. To address this issue, 19 high and 16 low SMR individuals were randomly assigned to a satiation diet for 3 weeks, whereas another 20 high and 16 low SMR individuals were assigned to a restricted diet (approximately 50% of satiation) for the same period. Then, all fish were completely food-deprived for another 3 weeks. High SMR individuals showed a higher growth rate when fed to satiation, but this advantage of SMR did not exist in food-restricted fish. This result was related to improved feeding efficiency with decreased food intake in low SMR individuals, due to their low food processing capacity and maintenance costs. High SMR individuals experienced more mass loss during food deprivation as compared to low SMR individuals. Our results here illustrate context-dependent costs and benefits of intraspecific variation in SMR whereby high SMR individuals show increased growth performance under high food availability but had a cost under stressful environments (i.e. food shortage). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The stimulatory effect of LED light spectra on genes related to photoreceptors and skin pigmentation in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Suk; Choi, Cheol Young

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to assess differences in genes related to skin color of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to light-emitting diodes (LEDs): red, green, and purple. We investigated differences in the expression of mammalian-like melanopsin (Opn4m), rhodopsin (RH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), melanin-concentrating hormone receptor (MCH-R), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in goldfish exposed to different LED light spectra. Opn4m, RH, MCH, and MCH-R mRNA levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the white fluorescent bulb (control) and red LED groups. Furthermore, skin cells were isolated to measure the MCH-R mRNA expression levels. The results show that the mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the green and purple LED groups than in the control and red LED groups. In addition, body weights in the green and purple LED groups were significantly higher than those in the control and red LED groups. However, POMC mRNA expression levels in the green and purple LED groups were significantly lower than those in the control and red LED groups. These results suggest that specific wavelengths regulate fish skin color through neuropeptide hormones and photoreceptors, and POMC, which is related to stress hormones and melatonin, is associated with stress levels as well as skin color.

  8. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding haptoglobin, an acute phase protein in Syrian hamster, Mesacricetus auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Matsui, I; Nakatani, T; Matsuura, K; Sinohara, H

    1998-02-01

    One of the most prominent acute phase proteins in Syrian hamster (Mesacricetus auratus) was identified as haptoglobin and cDNA encoding this protein was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein is 83.6, 80.5, 79.6, and 76.1% identical to those of mouse, rat, human (1 s isoform), and dog homologues, respectively. As compared with six known members of this family, including human haptoglobin-related protein, hamster haptoglobin had 11 unique substitutions and one unique codon deletion, that is, the corresponding residues have been conserved in all other members. This indicates that hamster haptoglobin gene has accumulated these unique mutations after the time of cricetid-murid split while the ancestral sequence has been conserved in all other species examined. Hamster haptoglobin, however, contains nine cysteine residues, all of which are found in conserved positions in primate and rodent homologues. Molecular phylogenetic trees of alpha- and beta-chains show that the alpha-chain is more divergent than the beta-chain and that the difference in genetic distance between canine and hamster alpha-chains is much greater than that of corresponding beta-chains.

  10. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  11. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  12. Preliminary study on the relationship between dexamethasone and pathogen susceptibility on crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Dong-Liang; Tu, Xiao; Song, Chen-Guang; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Dexamethasone, a known immunosuppressant, can inhibit the immune response and increase the amount of pathogen in body, but the role of dexamethasone affecting susceptibility of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to pathogen is unclear. The effects of dexamethasone on susceptibility of crucian carp to Aeromonas hydrophila were investigated in this study. The fish were divided into four groups randomly and injected intraperitoneally by dexamethasone for 0 day (group D), 3 days (group C), 6 days (group B), and 9 days (group A), respectively. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly declined in group A, B and C. Relative immune gene expression such as il-1β, cxcl-8, tnfα and crp in kidney were down-regulation compared to group D. After that crucian carp were infected with A. hydrophila, crucian carp treated by dexamethasone had higher mortality (group A 95%, group B 76%, group C 31%) when compared to group D (4% mortality); the amount of pathogen in was significantly increased (P dexamethasone may be induced by the decrease of lysozyme activity and the down-regulation of some immune genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  14. (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach to study the toxic effects of dichlorvos on goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Ting; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Hua-Dong; Jia, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Jian-Fa; Wang, Jun-Song

    2015-11-01

    Dichlorvos (DDVP), one of the most widely used organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), has caused serious pollution in environment. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach combined with histopathological and immunohistochemical examination, and biochemical assays were used to investigate toxicities of DDVP on goldfish (Carassius auratus). After 10 days' exposure of DDVP at three dosages of 5.18, 2.59 and 1.73 mg/L, goldfish tissues (gill, brain, liver and kidney) and serum were collected. Histopathology revealed severe impairment of gills, livers and kidneys, and immunohistochemistry disclosed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive reactive astrocytes in brains. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OSC-PLS-DA) of NMR profiles disclosed that DDVP influenced many metabolites (glutamate, aspartate, acetylcholine, 4-aminobutyrate, glutathione, AMP and lactate in brain; glutathione, glucose, histamine in liver; BCAAs, AMP, aspartate, glutamate, riboflavin in kidney) dose-dependently, involved with imbalance of neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and disorders of energy and amino acid metabolism. Several self-protection mechanisms concerning glutamate degradation and glutathione (GSH) redox system were found in DDVP intoxicated goldfish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of propofol as an anesthetic and its efficacy on some hematological values of ornamental fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourkanani, Hosna; Ahadizadeh, Samaneh

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of anesthesia attained in Carassius auratus using a propofol bath administration and using values of haematological profile of blood and examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of propofol for gold fish were found 96 h LC50 6.353 mg/L, 96 h LC1 2.966 mg/L and 96 h LC99 13.609 mg/L. Time to induce anesthesia in propofol experiment was significantly higher than Clove oil (p leukogram indices (p > 0.05). MCHC (%) level of propofol experiment (13.93 ± 1.36) showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease than Clove oil anesthesia (94.95 ± 24.50) and control (62.46 ± 21.90). Hb(g/dl) content (5.20 ± 0.73) showed decrease in propofol exposure compared with control (15.41 ± 4.76) and clove oil experiment (25.39 ± 5.73) (p < 0.05).

  16. Ghrelin Facilitates GLUT2-, SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated Intestinal Glucose Transport in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Ramesh, Naresh; Delgado, María Jesús; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-03-24

    Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells. Some cells containing GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 coexpressed the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Intraperitoneal glucose administration led to a significant increase in serum ghrelin levels, as well as an upregulation of intestinal preproghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase and ghs-r1 expression. In vivo and in vitro ghrelin treatment caused a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2. These effects were abolished by the GHS-R1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, suggesting that ghrelin actions on glucose transporters are mediated by GHS-R1a via the PLC/PKC signaling pathway. Finally, ghrelin stimulated the translocation of GLUT2 into the plasma membrane of goldfish primary intestinal cells. Overall, data reported here indicate an important role for ghrelin in the modulation of glucoregulatory machinery and glucose homeostasis in fish.

  17. Spontaneous polyploidy, gynogenesis and androgenesis in second generation (F2) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delomas, T A; Gomelsky, B; Anil, A; Schneider, K J; Warner, J L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetics of second generation (F 2 ) koi Cyprinus carpio × goldfish Carassius auratus hybrids. Spermatozoa produced by a novel, fertile F 1 male were found to be diploid by flow-cytometric analysis. Backcross (F 1 female × C. carpio male and C. carpio female × F 1 male) juveniles were triploid, confirming that female and male F 1 hybrids both produced diploid gametes. The vast majority of surviving F 2 juveniles was diploid and small proportions were aneuploid (2·1n-2·3n and 3·1n-3·9n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid (4n). Microsatellite genotyping showed that F 2 diploids repeated either the complete maternal or the complete paternal genotype. Fish with the maternal genotype were female and fish with the paternal genotype were male. This demonstrates that F 2 diploids were the result of spontaneous gynogenesis and spontaneous androgenesis. Analysis of microsatellite inheritance and the sex ratio in F 2 crosses showed that spontaneous gynogenesis and androgenesis did not always occur in equal proportions. One cross was found to have an approximate equal number of androgenetic and gynogenetic offspring while in several other crosses spontaneous androgenesis was found to occur more frequently than spontaneous gynogenesis. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Cortical plasticity and olfactory function in early blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Araneda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, functional brain imaging has provided insight in the maturation processes and has helped elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in brain plasticity in the absence of vision. In case of congenital blindness, drastic changes occur within the deafferented visual cortex that starts receiving and processing nonvisual inputs, including olfactory stimuli. This functional reorganization of the occipital cortex gives rise to compensatory perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that help blind persons to achieve perceptual tasks, leading to superior olfactory abilities in these subjects. This view receives support from psychophysical testing, volumetric measurements and functional brain imaging studies in humans, which are presented here.

  19. Nuclear architecture and gene silencing in olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelin-Correa, Lucia M; Nagai, Maíra H; Leme Silva, Artur G; Malnic, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Odorants are discriminated by hundreds of odorant receptor (OR) genes, which are dispersed throughout the mammalian genome. The OR genes are expressed in a highly specialized type of cell, the olfactory sensory neuron. Each one of these neurons expresses one of the 2 alleles from one single OR gene type. The mechanisms underlying OR gene expression are unclear. Here we describe recent work demonstrating that the olfactory sensory neuron shows a particular nuclear architecture, and that the genomic OR loci are colocalized in silencing heterochromatin compartments within the nucleus. These discoveries highlight the important role played by epigenetic modifications and nuclear genome organization in the regulation of OR gene expression.

  20. Non-Thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Damage to Lens Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bormusov, Elvira; P.Andley, Usha; Sharon, Naomi; Sch?chter, Levi; Lahav, Assaf; Dovrat, Ahuva

    2008-01-01

    High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. The objective of this study was to investigate the non-thermal effects of high frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation (1.1GHz, 2.22 mW) on the eye lens epithelium in situ. Bovine lenses were incubated in organ culture at 35?C for 10-15 days. A novel computer-controlled microwave source was us...

  1. Olfactory dysfunction and neurotransmitter disturbance in olfactory bulb of transgenic mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Xiao, Qian; Le, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a multi-system neurodegenerative disease characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms occurring in more than 90% of Parkinson disease cases, which can precede motor symptoms even several years. Up to now, the relationship between hyposmia and Parkinson disease remains elusive. Lack of proper animal models of hyposmia restricts the investigation. In this study we assessed olfactory function in Prp-A53T-α-synuclein transgenic (αSynA53T) mice which had been reported to show age-dependent motor impairments and intracytoplasmic inclusions. We also examined cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice by immunofluorescent staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. We found that compared to wild type littermates, αSynA53T mice at 6 months or older displayed a deficit of odor discrimination and odor detection. No significant changes were found in olfactory memory and odor habituation. Furthermore compared to wildtype littermates, in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice at 10 months old we detected a marked decrease of cholinergic neurons in mitral cell layer and a decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity, while dopaminergic neurons were found increased in glomerular layer, accompanied with an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Our studies indicate that αSynA53T mice have olfactory dysfunction before motor deficits occur, and the cholinergic and dopaminergic disturbance might be responsible for the Parkinson disease-related olfactory dysfunction.

  2. Olfactory dysfunction and neurotransmitter disturbance in olfactory bulb of transgenic mice expressing human A53T mutant α-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Zhang

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is a multi-system neurodegenerative disease characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms occurring in more than 90% of Parkinson disease cases, which can precede motor symptoms even several years. Up to now, the relationship between hyposmia and Parkinson disease remains elusive. Lack of proper animal models of hyposmia restricts the investigation. In this study we assessed olfactory function in Prp-A53T-α-synuclein transgenic (αSynA53T mice which had been reported to show age-dependent motor impairments and intracytoplasmic inclusions. We also examined cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice by immunofluorescent staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and western blot. We found that compared to wild type littermates, αSynA53T mice at 6 months or older displayed a deficit of odor discrimination and odor detection. No significant changes were found in olfactory memory and odor habituation. Furthermore compared to wildtype littermates, in olfactory bulb of αSynA53T mice at 10 months old we detected a marked decrease of cholinergic neurons in mitral cell layer and a decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity, while dopaminergic neurons were found increased in glomerular layer, accompanied with an increase of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Our studies indicate that αSynA53T mice have olfactory dysfunction before motor deficits occur, and the cholinergic and dopaminergic disturbance might be responsible for the Parkinson disease-related olfactory dysfunction.

  3. The mannose receptor is expressed by olfactory ensheathing cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Litia A; Nobrega, Alberto F; Soares, Igor D P; Carvalho, Sergio L; Allodi, Silvana; Baetas-da-Cruz, Wagner; Cavalcante, Leny A

    2013-12-01

    Complex carbohydrate structures are essential molecules of infectious bacteria, parasites, and host cells and are involved in cell signaling associated with immune responses, glycoprotein homeostasis, and cell migration. The uptake of mannose-tailed glycans is usually carried out by professional phagocytes to trigger MHC class I- and MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation or, alternatively, to end inflammation. We have detected the mannose receptor (MR) in cultured olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), so we investigated by flow cytometry whether recently dissociated cells of the olfactory bulb (OB) nerve fiber layer (ONL) could bind a mannosylated ligand (fluorescein conjugate of mannosyl bovine serum albumin; Man/BSA-FITC) in a specific manner. In addition, we estimated the relative proportion of ONL OECs, microglia, and astrocytes, tagged by 2'3'-cycl