WorldWideScience

Sample records for aura retracting particle-like

  1. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The following article, published online on 19 June 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor in Chief of Diabetic Medicine, Richard Holt and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to notification of dual publication. References Derosa G, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Fogari E, D'Angelo A, Maffioli P. Comparison of vildagliptin and glimepiride: effects on glycaemic control, fat tolerance and inflammatory markers in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2014; 31: 1515-1523. Derosa G, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, Fogari E, D'Angelo A, Maffioli P. Comparison of vildagliptin and glimepiride: effects on glycaemic control, fat tolerance and inflammatory markers in people with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 2014; 63: 957-967. PMID:27429055

  2. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Author 'TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer' by Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. The above article, published online on 4 June 2008, in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Peter Lichter, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. A university investigation involving the first and the second-to-last author determined that several figures from another published paper were manipulated or duplicated and re-used in this paper. Therefore, the authors are retracting the paper in its entirety although they maintain that these issues did not affect the major conclusions. They apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused. Reference Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. (2008), TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 123: 958-966. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23610. PMID:27534921

  3. Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of: Editor-in-Chief and Author 'TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer' by Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. The above article, published online on 4 June 2008, in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Peter Lichter, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. A university investigation involving the first and the second-to-last author determined that several figures from another published paper were manipulated or duplicated and re-used in this paper. Therefore, the authors are retracting the paper in its entirety although they maintain that these issues did not affect the major conclusions. They apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused. Reference Wang, Z., Song, W., Aboukameel, A., Mohammad, M., Wang, G., Banerjee, S., Kong, D., Wang, S., Sarkar, F. H. and Mohammad, R. M. (2008), TW-37, a small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, inhibits cell growth and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 123: 958-966. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23610.

  4. Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamarra LF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cárdenas WH, Mamani JB, Sibov TT, Caous CA, Amaro E Jr, Gamarra LF. Particokinetics: computational analysis of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles deposition process. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2699–2712.It was brought to our attention that the Cárdenas et al paper did not cite a key source paper for the mathematics and approach to modeling the particokinetics of nanoparticles: Hinderliter PM, Minard KR, Orr O, et al. ISDD: A computational model of particle sedimentation, diffusion and target cell dosimetry for in vitro toxicity studies. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2010;7:36.In addition to unacceptable similarities in equations, computer implementation, and use of parameters from the above reference, three of the figures appearing in the paper are nearly identical to those published in the abovementioned Hinderliter et al, while others are very similar to those published in Teeguarden JG, Hinderliter PM, Orr G, Thrall BD, Pounds JG. Particokinetics in vitro: dosimetry considerations for in vitro nanoparticle toxicity assessments. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95(2 300–312. A number of other relevant citations were not included:Bird RB, Stewart WE, Lightfoot EN. Transport Phenomena. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2002:97.Socolofsky SA, Jirka GH. Environmental Fluid Mechanics Part I: Mass Transfer and Diffusion Engineering – Lectures. 2nd edition. Karlsruhe-Germany; 2002:23.Probstein RF. Physicochemical Hydrodynamics – An Introduction. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2003:45.Bejan A. Convection Heat Transfer. 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc; 2004:515.We have no choice but to retract the publication by Cárdenas et al.

  5. Migraine aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Andrew; Hansen, Jakob Møller

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The migraine aura is a dramatic spontaneous change in brain activity resulting in a variety of transient neurological symptoms. The purpose of this review is to address recent advances in the understanding of aura and its role in migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: The formal...... classification of migraine aura is becoming both broader and more detailed. Traditionally viewed as a primary event that triggers a migraine attack, studies regarding the timing of aura relative to other symptoms of migraine indicate that it may not in fact play a primary role in initiating an attack. Careful...... recording and analysis of visual aura symptoms provides new insight into the initiation and propagation of the underlying brain phenomenon, and the different regions of visual cortex that produce different visual perceptions. Migraine with aura may have different responses to acute and preventive therapies...

  6. Retraction Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The article "Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas" by Kyung-Min Lee and Timothy J. Herrman has been retracted by the authors and the Scientific Editors. The retraction is necessary owing to several corrections requested by the authors that significantly affect the findings.

  7. Retraction Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Retraction:"Which lamp will be optimum to eye?Incandescent,fluorescent or LED etc"by Liang Chen and Xiao-Wei Zhang published on International Journal of Ophthalmology 2014;7(1):163-168.Authors of the above article failed to declare conflicts of interest,which violates the research ethics and moral norms.After a thorough investigation,we regret to announce that we must retract this article.We regret any adverse effects this article may have caused.

  8. Retractions in orthopaedic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; MacDonald, A.; Baisi, L-P.; Evaniew, N.; Bhandari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the fact that research fraud and misconduct are under scrutiny in the field of orthopaedic research, little systematic work has been done to uncover and characterise the underlying reasons for academic retractions in this field. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of retractions and identify the reasons for retracted publications in the orthopaedic literature. Methods Two reviewers independently searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1995 to current) using MeSH keyword headings and the ‘retracted’ filter. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications (www.retractionwatch.com). Two reviewers independently extracted data including reason for retraction, study type, journal impact factor, and country of origin. Results One hundred and ten retracted studies were included for data extraction. The retracted studies were published in journals with impact factors ranging from 0.000 (discontinued journals) to 13.262. In the 20-year search window, only 25 papers were retracted in the first ten years, with the remaining 85 papers retracted in the most recent decade. The most common reasons for retraction were fraudulent data (29), plagiarism (25) and duplicate publication (20). Retracted articles have been cited up to 165 times (median 6; interquartile range 2 to 19). Conclusion The rate of retractions in the orthopaedic literature is increasing, with the majority of retractions attributed to academic misconduct and fraud. Orthopaedic retractions originate from numerous journals and countries, indicating that misconduct issues are widespread. The results of this study highlight the need to address academic integrity when training the next generation of orthopaedic investigators. Cite this article: J. Yan, A. MacDonald, L-P. Baisi, N. Evaniew, M. Bhandari, M. Ghert. Retractions in orthopaedic research: A systematic review. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:263–268. DOI: 10

  9. The Aura Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Aura was designed to probe the chemistry of the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. Two instruments, the Microwave Limb Sounder, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have provided some remarkable information on pollution, long range pollution transport and strat-trop exchange. This talk will review some of the more startling observations and some new science that we are seeing in the Aura data.

  10. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  11. [Migraine with visual aura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidot, S; Biotti, D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine with visual aura is marked by recurrent episodes of transient visual disturbance, often followed by headaches. Its pathophysiology has not been fully understood, but visual auras might be related to a self-propagating wave of cortical depolarization called "cortical spreading depression", triggering a trigemino-vascular "storm" ultimately leading to headaches. The most specific visual symptom is the "fortification spectrum" consisting of glimmering jagged lines spreading from the center to the periphery, and leaving a transient scotoma in its wake. Other visual symptoms are numerous, ranging from elementary positive or negative visual phenomena to complex and elaborate hallucinations. The diagnosis can be made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders revised in 2013. The main goal of the treatment is to relieve the patient's pain quickly and to decrease the frequency of the episodes. PMID:27324232

  12. Important note! – Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Ji-Huan He, corresponding author of the paper (DOI: TSCI1305508D: Hao DOU, Hong-Yan LIU, Ping WANG, and Ji-Huan HE: A Belt-Like Superfine Film Fabricated by the Bubble-Electrospinning, published in THERMAL SCIENCE, Year 2013, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 1508-1510, asked Editor-in-chief to retract paper due to an unchangeable erratum, i.e. the experiment presented was wrongly described as another one, and the given figures do not fit experiment. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/TSCI1305508D

  13. Preputial retraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Abhinav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess preputial retractability in children at various ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine hundred and sixty boys attending the hospital were included in the study. Children with hypospadias or history of preputial manipulation were excluded. Preputial anatomy was studied and subjects were classified into five groups as described by Kayaba et al . RESULTS: The prepuce could not be retracted at all so as to make even the external urethral meatus visible in 61.4% children aged 0-6 months while this decreased to only 0.9% in children aged 10-12 years. At the other end of the spectrum, while prepuce could not be fully retracted in any child below 6 months, it could be done in about 60% in the age group of 10-12 years. CONCLUSION Preputial nonseparation is the major cause of preputial nonretraction in the pediatric age group. Prepuce spontaneously separates from the glans as age increases and true phimosis is rare in children. Surgical intervention should be avoided for nonseparation of prepuce.

  14. Occipital seizures imitating migraine aura.

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Sharoqi, I A; Agathonikou, A

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported in which symptoms of occipital seizures resembled the visual aura of migraine. Careful recording of the characteristics and timing of such visual effects will often resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  15. NASA 3D Models: Aura

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aura observes the chemical content of the atmosphere to track the state of the ozone layer and the dispersion of airborne pollution. Polygons: 6 Vertices: 4

  16. Aesthetic aura of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین آقا حسینی

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Denying lexical dogmatism and announcing free presence of lexical items in poetry deluded the minds that the mere presence of any lexical item in a poem rends it aesthetic value! Consequently, an enormous number of words, regardless of their poetical value, rushed into the world of poetry. Of course, no one can deny the fact that any lexical item can freely enter the poetical context of any literary work; however, it must be clarified from the very beginning that this presence would never guarantee the worth and cost of any such word. This aesthetic value could just be extracted from both words and the context surrounding any given word. This, in itself, means that the richness of any given word appeals to the linguistic environment in which it has been used. This environment is both linear and spatial; accordingly, we need a comprehensive model which is adaptable to paradigmatic and syntagmatic axes. This model, therefore, is based on Jacobsen linguistic model, through which we have come to a better understanding of this question, that is, where in the word does the aesthetic value lie? Key words: Lexical dogmatism, paradigmatic axis, syntagmatic axis, lexical items, context, aesthetic aura of meaning

  17. Notice of retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunali S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dear Colleagues,It has recently been brought to my attention that the following case report by Padeyappanavar et al., which was published online in the International Journal of Anatomical Variations (IJAV on February 23rd, 2010 (Padeyappanavar KV, Kazi AK, Nagaleekar A, Kulkarni D, Kulkarni U, Hukkeri V. Elongated styloid process – report of three cases. International Journal of Anatomical Variations. 2010; 3: 30–32. [1], has already been published in the Journal of the Anatomical Society of India in June 2008 [2], and in the Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences in January 2010 [3]. The manuscript has been submitted to IJAV in July 30th, 2009, and accepted for publication in January 22nd, 2010. It is obvious that the manuscript has been submitted to IJAV one year later to its initial publication in the Journal of the Anatomical Society of India. The editorial office of IJAV has confirmed that this case report by Padeyappanavar et al. was a duplicate publication, violating the publication agreement of IJAV. The most important condition of submission of a manuscript for publication is explicit declaration of the authors that the paper has not been published or is not under consideration for publication in any other journal. As such this manuscript represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system.We immediately contacted the corresponding author (Dr. Kiran V. Padeyappanavar, Department of Anatomy, Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences, India. E-mail: dr.kiranvp@gmail.com. Unfortunately, we could not get a satisfactory or logical explanation. Therefore, we hereby notice our readers that the paper by Padeyappanavar et al. [1] has been retracted.The institutions of the authors will also be advised via this notice of retraction.We deeply apologize to our readers and the international scientific community for this inconvenience that was totally occurred out of IJAV, and respectfully announce to the scientific world

  18. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  19. Improved description of the migraine aura by a diagnostic aura diary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, M B; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    1994-01-01

    We present a diagnostic aura diary for prospective recordings of migraine with aura. Three questionnaires are supplemented with sheets for drawings and plottings of visual and sensory auras. Twenty patients recorded 54 attacks of migraine with aura and 2 attacks of migraine aura without headache....... The visual and sensory aura were usually gradually progressive, reaching maximum development in 15 and 25 min (median) respectively and had a total duration of 20 and 55 min (median) respectively. Approximately 13% of the attacks had acute onset of visual aura associated with other features more typical...... of migraine. The visual and sensory auras always preceded typical migraine headache, and headache occurring before aura symptoms was always of the tension type. The migraine headache was milder than in attacks of migraine without aura and often did not have migraine characteristics. In attacks with unilateral...

  20. Fingertip aura and interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E

    1977-06-01

    Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction. PMID:16367230

  1. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  2. SHADOZ in the Aura Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Schmidlin, F.; Calpini, B.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Posny, F.; Vomel, H.; Chow, K. K.; Coetzee, G. R.; Kelder, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present comparisons of observed tropical and sub-tropical ozone from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project with satellite measurements using Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments. Satellite products of total and derived tropospheric column ozone from OMI and profiles of ozone in the UT/LS region from MLS are used.

  3. Reduced efficacy of sumatriptan in migraine with aura vs without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether acute migraine treatment outcome is different in migraine with aura compared with migraine without aura. METHODS: We examined pooled outcome data for sumatriptan treatment of migraine with and without aura from the sumatriptan/naratriptan aggregate patient database....... We also examined similar outcome data for inhaled dihydroergotamine (DHE) from a single, large randomized controlled study. RESULTS: The pooled pain-free rates 2 hours postdose for sumatriptan 100 mg were significantly higher in patients treating attacks without aura (32%) compared with the group who...... treated attacks with aura (24%) (p aura was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.54). The number needed to treat for 2 hours of pain freedom was 4.4 for attacks without aura and 6.2 for attacks with aura. For the clinical...

  4. Hemiplegic migraine aura begins with cerebral hypoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Schytz, Henrik W; Larsen, Vibeke A;

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies of spontaneous migraine aura have proved challenging because of the episodic and unpredictable nature of migraine attacks. Two patients with signs of acute ischemic stroke were evaluated for thrombolysis and turned out to suffer from familial hemiplegic migraine. It was possible...... to record the early phase of the hemiplegic aura with computed tomography with perfusion sequences and magnetic resonance imaging. We found cerebral hypoperfusion in the relevant cortical areas within the first hour after onset of aura symptoms. This report supports the concept that migraine aura across...... treatment, these cases underscore the importance of an accurate headache history, especially in younger patients....

  5. Clinical image: MRI during migraine with aura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeal, A.C. [Brooklyn VA Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Migraine refers to severe headaches that are usually unilateral, throbbing, and associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia. Migraine with aura (formerly called {open_quotes}classic migraine{close_quotes}) consists of the headache preceded or accompanied by neurological dysfunction. This dysfunction (aura) usually involves visual and sensory symptoms. The patient described herein experienced migraine with aura. MRI during and after the attack showed a reversible abnormality of the right posterior cerebral artery, with no parenchymal lesions. This appears to be the first report of abnormal MR vascular imaging during migraine with aura. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  6. On Retractable S-Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.KHOSRAVI

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a class of right S-acts called retractable S-acts which are right S-acts with homomorphisms into their all subacts.We also give some classifications of monoids by comparing such acts with flatness properties.

  7. Retracted publications in the drug literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Schumock, Glen T; Pickard, A Simon

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested an increase in the number of retracted scientific publications. It is unclear how broadly the issue of misleading and fraudulent publications pertains to retractions of drug therapy studies. Therefore, we sought to determine the trends and factors associated with retracted publications in drug therapy literature. A PubMed search was conducted to identify retracted drug therapy articles published from 2000-2011. Articles were grouped according to reason for retraction, which was classified as scientific misconduct or error. Scientific misconduct was further divided into data fabrication, data falsification, questions of data veracity, unethical author conduct, and plagiarism. Error was defined as duplicate publication, scientific mistake, journal error, or unstated reasons. Additional data were extracted from the retracted articles, including type of article, funding source, author information, therapeutic area, and retraction issue. A total of 742 retractions were identified from 2000-2011 in the general biomedical literature, and 102 drug studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 73 articles (72%) were retracted for a reason classified as scientific misconduct, whereas 29 articles (28%) were retracted for error. Among the 73 articles classified as scientific misconduct, those classified as unethical author conduct (32 articles [44%]) and data fabrication (24 articles [33%]) constituted the majority. The median time from publication of the original article to retraction was 31 months (range 1-130). Fifty percent of retracted articles did not state a funding source, whereas pharmaceutical manufacturer funding accounted for only 13 articles (13%) analyzed. Many retractions were due to repeat offenses by a small number of authors, with nearly 40% of the retracted studies associated with two individuals. We found that a greater proportion of drug therapy articles were retracted for reasons of misconduct and fraud compared with other

  8. Corticotomy-assisted retraction: An outcome assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vijayashri Sakthi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The rate of retraction with study group was twice as faster when compared to the control group, accelerating during the first 2 months of retraction. There was better anchorage control with the undecorticated molar segment during the retraction period but was found to increase as time advanced.

  9. Particle-like wave packets in complex scattering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gérardin, Benoît; Ambichl, Philipp; Prada, Claire; Rotter, Stefan; Aubry, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    A wave packet undergoes a strong spatial and temporal dispersion while propagating through a complex medium. This wave scattering is often seen as a nightmare in wave physics whether it be for focusing, imaging or communication purposes. Controlling wave propagation through complex systems is thus of fundamental interest in many areas, ranging from optics or acoustics to medical imaging or telecommunications. Here, we study the propagation of elastic waves in a cavity and a disordered waveguide by means of laser interferometry. We demonstrate how the direct experimental access to the information stored in the scattering matrix of these systems allows us to selectively excite scattering states and wave packets that travel along individual classical trajectories. Due to their limited dispersion, these particle-like scattering states will be crucially relevant for all applications involving selective wave focusing and efficient information transfer through complex media.

  10. Hemiplegic migraine aura begins with cerebral hypoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Schytz, Henrik W; Larsen, Vibeke A;

    2011-01-01

    Imaging studies of spontaneous migraine aura have proved challenging because of the episodic and unpredictable nature of migraine attacks. Two patients with signs of acute ischemic stroke were evaluated for thrombolysis and turned out to suffer from familial hemiplegic migraine. It was possible...... to record the early phase of the hemiplegic aura with computed tomography with perfusion sequences and magnetic resonance imaging. We found cerebral hypoperfusion in the relevant cortical areas within the first hour after onset of aura symptoms. This report supports the concept that migraine aura across...... the migraine spectrum is caused by similar mechanisms. In a setting with efficient cooperation between headache and stroke neurologists, thrombolysis centers provide the set-up and opportunity to record aura symptoms at an early phase. Furthermore, in the time of ready access to acute systemic thrombolysis...

  11. Aura, Self, and Aesthetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Battani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic experiences are generated in encounters with cultural objects and such experiences are marked by the free play of cognitive and numinous experience unstructured by concepts. Kant’s famous three types of pleasure, made infamous in social theory by Pierre Bourdieu, are examined in relation to the critical theoretical concept of aura, the social psychology of “flow,” and cognitive explanations of perception to explain experience in aesthetic fields. Theories of aesthetic experience developed at the crossroad of critical social thought and cognitive science hold promise for a social analysis able to avoid the usual sociological pitfalls of either ignoring aesthetics or reducing it to structurally determined differences of taste.

  12. Cluster-like headache aura status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, M; van der Naalt, J; Luijckx, GJ; De Keyser, J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a patient with successive attacks (40 to 90 minutes) of cluster-like headache associated with aphasia, and contralateral hemihypesthesia and hemiplegia. The condition can best be described as cluster-like headache aura status.

  13. A Case-Control Comparison of Retracted and Non-Retracted Clinical Trials: Can Retraction Be Predicted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grant Steen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Does scientific misconduct severe enough to result in retraction disclose itself with warning signs? We test a hypothesis that variables in the results section of randomized clinical trials (RCTs are associated with retraction, even without access to raw data. We evaluated all English-language RCTs retracted from the PubMed database prior to 2011. Two controls were selected for each case, matching publication journal, volume, issue, and page as closely as possible. Number of authors, subjects enrolled, patients at risk, and patients treated were tallied in cases and controls. Among case RCTs, 17.5% had ≤2 authors, while 6.3% of control RCTs had ≤2 authors. Logistic regression shows that having few authors is associated with retraction (p < 0.03, although the number of subjects enrolled, patients at risk, or treated patients is not. However, none of the variables singly, nor all of the variables combined, can reliably predict retraction, perhaps because retraction is such a rare event. Exploratory analysis suggests that retraction rate varies by medical field (p < 0.001. Although retraction cannot be predicted on the basis of the variables evaluated, concern is warranted when there are few authors, enrolled subjects, patients at risk, or treated patients. Ironically, these features urge caution in evaluating any RCT, since they identify studies that are statistically weaker.

  14. Frobenius groups and retract rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Ming-chang

    2012-01-01

    Let $k$ be any field, $G$ be a finite group acting on the rational function field $k(x_g:g\\in G)$ by $h\\cdot x_g=x_{hg}$ for any $h,g\\in G$. Define $k(G)=k(x_g:g\\in G)^G$. Noether's problem asks whether $k(G)$ is rational (= purely transcendental) over $k$. A weaker notion, retract rationality introduced by Saltman, is also very useful for the study of Noether's problem. We prove that, if $G$ is a Frobenius group with abelian Frobenius kernel, then $k(G)$ is retract $k$-rational for any field $k$ satisfying some mild conditions. As an application, we show that, for any algebraic number field $k$, for any Frobenius group $G$ with Frobenius complement isomorphic to $SL_2(\\bm{F}_5)$, there is a Galois extension field $K$ over $k$ whose Galois group is isomorphic to $G$, i.e. the inverse Galois problem is valid for the pair $(G,k)$. The same result is true for any non-solvable Frobenius group if $k(\\zeta_8)$ is a cyclic extension of $k$.

  15. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the o

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of visual aura in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor-Tuncer, Ozlem; Baykan, Betul; Altindag, Ebru; Bebek, Nerses; Gurses, Candan; Gokyigit, Aysen

    2012-12-01

    Some patients with idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE) experience visual aura, which can confuse the diagnosis. We sought to determine the frequency and characteristics of visual auras in IGE patients. Among the 176 IGE patients, 4 men and 7 women reported visual auras (mean age - 24 years). Syndromic diagnoses were juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in four, eyelid myoclonia with absences (EMA) in three, juvenile absence epilepsy in three, and other in one. Visual auras consisted of flashing lights, macropsia, illusional movements, and blindness. Eyelid myoclonia with absences was significantly more common in the group with visual aura (3 of 11 patients vs. 8 of 165 IGE patients; P=0.02). Furthermore, photosensitivity was found significantly more common in IGE patients with visual aura (90% vs 46% of the total IGE patients) (P=0.004). In conclusion, the visual auras do not exclude a diagnosis of IGE. The presence of visual aura in the EMA syndrome is also remarkable.

  17. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....

  18. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, M;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  19. EOS Aura and Future Satellite Studies of the Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The EOS Aura mission, launched in 2004, provides a comprehensive assessment of the stratospheric dynamics and chemistry. This talk will focus on results from Aura including the chemistry of polar ozone depletion. The data from Aura can be directly linked to UARS data to produce long term trends in stratospheric trace gases.

  20. Corticotomy-assisted retraction: An outcome assessment

    OpenAIRE

    S Vijayashri Sakthi; Vikraman, B; V R Shobana; S Kavitha Iyer; N R Krishnaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the efficiency and treatment outcome of patients treated with corticotomy-assisted en-masse orthodontic retraction as compared with the en-masse retraction without corticotomy. Materials and Methods: Forty adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion requiring correction of bidental proclination constituted the sample. The study group consisted of 22 patients (male 11, female 11) willing to undergo surgery to reduce the duration of their orthodontic treatment and 18 pa...

  1. A retractable barb needle for drug darts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. van Rooyen

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism and action of a new retractable barbneedle for drug darts are described. This dart needle is particularly successful in obviating unnecessary flight reactions andtrauma in darted animals, and facilitates the complete injection of the drug dose before the barb is retracted and the dart is dislogded from the animal. The whole process is completed within a few seconds and the expended dart can usually be retrieved in the immediate vicinity where the animal was darted.

  2. Aura photography: mundane physics or diagnostic tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, M

    Kirlian photography is often associated with the paranormal. Many people believe it records the auras of living objects and that it can be used as a diagnostic tool. This paper argues against these beliefs and maintains that there is a simple, scientific explanation of the Kirlian effect. PMID:8718173

  3. Improving Air Quality Forecasts with AURA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Biazer, A.; Khan, M.; Koshak, W. J.; Nair, U.; Fuller, K.; Wang, L.; Parker, Y.; Williams, R.; Liu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have identified model initial and boundary conditions as sources of reducible errors in air-quality simulations. In particular, improving the initial condition improves the accuracy of short-term forecasts as it allows for the impact of local emissions to be realized by the model and improving boundary conditions improves long range transport through the model domain, especially in recirculating anticyclones. During the August 2006 period, we use AURA/OMI ozone measurements along with MODIS and CALIPSO aerosol observations to improve the initial and boundary conditions of ozone and Particulate Matter. Assessment of the model by comparison of the control run and satellite assimilation run to the IONS06 network of ozonesonde observations, which comprise the densest ozone sounding campaign ever conducted in North America, to AURA/TES ozone profile measurements, and to the EPA ground network of ozone and PM measurements will show significant improvement in the CMAQ calculations that use AURA initial and boundary conditions. Further analyses of lightning occurrences from ground and satellite observations and AURA/OMI NO2 column abundances will identify the lightning NOx signal evident in OMI measurements and suggest pathways for incorporating the lightning and NO2 data into the CMAQ simulations.

  4. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  5. Topological stability through extremely tame retractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F : (Rn ×Rd, 0)¿(Rp ×Rd, 0) is a smoothly stable, Rd-level preserving germ which unfolds f : (Rn, 0)¿(Rp, 0); then f is smoothly stable if and only if we can find a pair of smooth retractions r : (Rn+d, 0)¿(Rn, 0) and s : (Rp+d, 0)¿(Rp, 0) such that f ¿ r = s ¿ F . Unfortunately, we do...... not know whether f will be topologically stable if we can find a pair of continuous retractions r and s. The class of extremely tame (E-tame) retractions, introduced by du Plessis and Wall, are defined by their nice geometric properties, which are sufficient to ensure that f is topologically stable....... In this article, we present the E-tame retractions and their relation with topological stability, survey recent results by the author concerning their construction, and illustrate the use of our techniques by constructing E-tame retractions for certain germs belonging to the E- and Z-series of...

  6. Retracted: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-02-15

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  7. Child Neurology: Migraine with aura in children

    OpenAIRE

    Amy A. Gelfand; Fullerton, Heather J.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for an acute hemiparesis in a child includes stroke, Todd paralysis, and hemiplegic migraine. In the context of an illustrative case, this review highlights the differences in clinical presentation among these entities and an approach to the diagnostic workup. Migraine with aura in children is reviewed, including migraine equivalents such as abdominal migraine and the particular presentation of hemiplegic migraine. An approach to the prophylactic and acute treatment...

  8. Visual aura in ice cream headache

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Luis-C.; Sádaba, Fernando; Cortina, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of cold-induced visual symptoms in a 74-year-old woman with a history of migraine headaches. Migraine without aura was the starting symptom. It coexisted later with a typical pain of ice cream or cold stimulus headache that persisted after the migraine vanished. Finally the headache disappeared and the course was characterised by episodes of pure visual symptoms, always after swallowing cold material. The vasodynamic effects underlying migraine are invoked to understand this...

  9. Aura-like features and photophobia in sightless migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Cardoso de Carvalho Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a central nervous system disorder frequently expressed with paroxysmal visual dysfunctions. Objective To test the hypothesis that normal visual input is vital for the migrainous aura and photophobia. Method We studied the migraine-related visual disturbances in 8 sightless migraineurs identified among 200 visually impaired subjects. Results The main findings were the visual aura and photophobia disappearance along with blindness development, the oddness of aura – too short, colourful (e.g. blue or fire-like, auditory in nature or different in shape (round forms – and the lack of photophobia. Conclusion We propose that the aura duration should be accepted as shorter in visually impaired subjects. The changes in aura phenotype observed in our patients may be the result of both cerebral plasticity induced by the visual impairment and/or the lack of visual input per se. Integrity of visual pathways plays a key role in migraine visual aura and photophobia.

  10. Aura-like features and photophobia in sightless migraine patients

    OpenAIRE

    Greice Cardoso de Carvalho Silva; Cristiana Pessoa de Queiroz Faria Góes; Maurice Borges Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Migraine is a central nervous system disorder frequently expressed with paroxysmal visual dysfunctions. Objective To test the hypothesis that normal visual input is vital for the migrainous aura and photophobia. Method We studied the migraine-related visual disturbances in 8 sightless migraineurs identified among 200 visually impaired subjects. Results The main findings were the visual aura and photophobia disappearance along with blindness development, the oddness of aura – too shor...

  11. Proof Systems for Retracts in Simply Typed Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Colin,

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns retracts in simply typed lambda calculus assuming βη-equality. We provide a simple tableau proof system which characterises when a type is a retract of another type and which leads to an exponential decision procedure.

  12. On the methodology of drug trials in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Hougaard, Anders; Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Specific problems occur in clinical treatment trials for migraine with aura that differ from those encountered in treatment trials for migraine without aura. DISCUSSION: Based on our experience with four such trials, we point to a number of possible solutions and outline areas...... for future inquiry. We make recommendations about subject selection; the choice, definition and assessment of outcome measures; optimal treatments in relation to aura and headache; and we provide samples of study report forms used to record occurrence of aura and headache in this population....

  13. Stochastic description of pilus retraction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2005-03-01

    Motility of certain gram-negative bacteria is mediated by retraction of type IV pili surface filaments, which are essential for infectivity. Type IV pili are helical filaments with 4 nm periodicity and 5 subunits per turn. The retraction is powered by a strong molecular motor protein, PilT, producing very high forces in excess of 100 pN[1]. One possible explanation for the high forces are that several ATP are hydrolyzed to retract each subunit.We consider a widely used class of discrete hopping models, which has been used to describe well-known motor proteins such as kinesin[2] and myosin[3]. The model describes recent experimental measurements[1] on Neisseria gonorrhoeae well, and makes several interesting predictions for the randomness of the retraction dynamics.1. Maier et al, PNAS 101:10961 (2004)2. M. E. Fisher and A. B. Kolomeisky, PNAS 98:7748 (2001)3. A. B. Kolomeisky and M. E. Fisher, Biophys. J. 84:1650 (2003)

  14. Fuzzy Retractions of Fuzzy Open Flat Robertson-Walker Space

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. El-Ahmady; A. S. Al-Luhaybi

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new types of fuzzy retractions of fuzzy open flat Robertson-Walker model. New types of the fuzzy deformation retracts of model are obtained. The relations between the fuzzy foldings and the fuzzy deformation retracts of model are deduced. Types of fuzzy minimal retractions are also presented. New types of homotopy maps are deduced. New types of conditional fuzzy folding are presented. Some commutative diagrams are obtained.

  15. Effect of retraction materials on gingival health: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatale Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival retraction methods are used in dentistry for impressions of subgingival crown margins, such as, mechanical, chemical, chemicomechanical, and surgical. These methods may injure the gingival sulcular epithelium. Hence, the present study is carried out to evaluate the effect of different retraction materials, such as, Expasyl, Magic Foam Cord, and impregnated retraction cord on the gingival sulcular epithelium. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cases of bilateral premolar extraction patients with Loe and Silness gingival index zero. Retraction materials were kept in the dry, isolated labial gingival sulcus for the required time. The retraction materials were removed by rinsing with water. Retracted gingiva of 2 - 3 mm from the gingival margin along with the tooth was extracted and the decalcified sections were microscopically studied. Data analysis: Data were analyzed by applying the chi-square test. Results: This study showed better results with retraction paste as compared to the retraction cord, and there was a significant association between retraction materials and the relative degree of injury to the sulcular epithelium. Conclusion: There is a significant association between retraction materials and gingival sulcular epithelium. It can be stated that impregnated retraction cord, may be used commonly but it needs proper tissue manipulation and is technique sensitive. Newly advanced material in the form of retraction paste like Expasyl or Magic Foam Cord was found to be better than cord as assessed histologically, it respects periodontium.

  16. Neurophysiology of visual aura in migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual processing in migraine has been targeted because the visual symptoms that are commonly associated with attack, either in the form of aura or other more subtle symptoms, indicate that the visual pathways are involved in migrainous pathophysiology. The visual aura of the migraine attack has been explained by the cortical spreading depression (CSD) of Leao, neuroelectric event beginning in the occipital cortex and propagating into contiguous brain region. Clinical observations suggest that hyperexcitability occurs not only during the attack, typically in the form of photophobia, but also between attacks. Numerous human neuroimaging, neurophysiological and psychophysical studies have identified differences in cortical visual processing in migraine. The possibility of imaging the typical visual aura with BOLD functional MRI has revealed multiple neurovascular events in the occipital cortex within a single attack that closely resemble CSD. As transient synchronized neuronal excitation precedes CSD, changes in cortical excitability underlie the migraine attack. Independent evidence for altered neuronal excitability in migraineurs between attacks emerges from visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), recordings of cortical potentials and psychophysics. Recently, both TMS and psychophysical studies measuring visual performance in migraineurs have used measures which presumably measure primary visual (V1) and visual association cortex. Our VEP and blink reflex study showed that migraine patients exhibiting allodynia might show central sensitization of braistem trigeminal neuron and had contrast modulation dysfunction during the cortical visual processing of V1 and visual association cortex in-between attacks. In pathophysiology of migraine, these neurophysiological and psychophysical studies indicate that abnormal visual and trigeminal hyperexcitability might persist between migraine attacks. The influence of migraine on cortical

  17. A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality of Retraction Notices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Bilbrey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When a scientific article is found to be either fraudulent or erroneous, one course of action available to both the authors and the publisher is to retract said article. Unfortunately, not all retraction notices properly inform the reader of the problems with a retracted article. This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction notices of 171 retracted articles from 15 journals. Results suggest the rubric to be a robust, if preliminary, tool. Analysis of the retraction notices suggest that their quality has not improved over the last 50 years, that it varies both between and within journals, and that it is dependent on the field of science, the author of the retraction notice, and the reason for retraction. These results indicate a lack of uniformity in the retraction policies of individual journals and throughout the scientific literature. The rubric presented in this study could be adopted by journals to help standardize the writing of retraction notices.

  18. Migraine with Prolonged Aura: Correlation of Clinical and EEG Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ogunyemi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine with prolonged aura has rarely been examined with regard to the sequence of the neurological symptoms and the associated EEG changes. This report describes five patients who underwent clinical assessment and EEG recordings during attacks of migraine with prolonged aura. CT scan of the brain was obtained in four of them. Follow-up EEG was also obtained. The aura symptoms either preceded the headache or were coincident with it. The aura symptoms evolved in a manner consistent with posterior-to-anterior dysfunction of the cerebral cortex. The EEG abnormalities were non-epileptiform and consisted of focal delta slow waves or theta slow waves. The EEG abnormalities showed good correlation with the patients' aura symptoms and resolved when the patients became symptom free. The posterior-to-anterior sequence of the aura symptoms is in accord with the findings during cerebral blood flow studies in patients having migraine with aura. Also the symptoms and EEG changes in our patients indicate dysfunction of the cerebral cortex, consistent with the notion that spreading cortical depression may be the underlying pathophysiological event in migraine with aura.

  19. On the methodology of drug trials in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Hougaard, Anders; Olesen, Jes

    2010-01-01

    future inquiry. We make recommendations about subject selection; the choice, definition and assessment of outcome measures; optimal treatments in relation to aura and headache; and we provide samples of study report forms used to record occurrence of aura and headache in this population....

  20. Lower incisor retraction with a modified corticotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeç, Derya; Giray, Bahadir; Kocadereli, Ilken; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment facilitated with a new conservative corticotomy technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with protrusive profile, severe anterior crowding, an anterior crossbite, and Class III dental relationship. Orthodontic treatment consisted of the extraction of four first premolars with maximum anchorage. A modified corticotomy technique, in which the lingual vertical and subapical horizontal cuts were eliminated, was combined with orthodontic therapy for the retraction of the lower anterior teeth. Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics dramatically reduced the treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of the teeth. The main advantages of this modified corticotomy technique were the elimination of the lingual cuts and flap, the reduction of surgery time, and minimum discomfort to the patient. At the end of active orthodontic therapy, balanced occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved. PMID:17029527

  1. Ratchet model for type IV pilus retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, Martin; Tuohimaa, Tomi; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Type IV pilus rectraction is required for twitching motility in a wide range of bacteriae, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Myxococcus xanthus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of retraction is believed to be filament disassembly mediated by PilT, a member of the AAA family of motor proteins. Recent laser tweezer measurements of the force-velocity relation of PilT in N. gonorrhoeae, reveal that single PilT complexes generate forces of over 100 pN. We assume that PilT forms a cyclic ATPase surrounding the base of the pilus and formulate a model of retraction in terms of coupled flashing ratchets. We obtain a force-velocity relation by numerical simulation of the model which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Fluctuations in type IV pilus retraction

    CERN Document Server

    Linden, M; Jonsson, A B; Wallin, M; Linden, Martin; Johansson, Emil; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The type IV pilus retraction motor is found in many important bacterial pathogens. It is the strongest known linear motor protein and is required for bacterial infectivity. We characterize the dynamics of type IV pilus retraction in terms of a stochastic chemical reaction model. We find that a two state model can describe the experimental force velocity relation and qualitative dependence of ATP concentration. The results indicate that the dynamics is limited by an ATP-dependent step at low load and a force-dependent step at high load, and that at least one step is effectively irreversible in the measured range of forces. The irreversible nature of the sub-step(s) lead to interesting predictions for future experiments: We find different parameterizations with mathematically identical force velocity relations but different fluctuations (diffusion constant). We also find a longer elementary step compared to an earlier analysis, which agrees better with known facts about the structure of the pilus filament and e...

  3. Noninvasive measurement of eye retraction during blinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Candela, David; Doménech Amigot, Begoña; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Illueca Contri, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous meas...

  4. Platelets and fibrin strands during clot retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, E; Korell, U; Richter, J

    1984-03-15

    The ultrastructure of platelet fibrin contacts (PFC) and the course of the strands was investigated in serial sections of retracted clots with the help of specimen tilting. We found after retraction in a test tube as well as under isometric conditions in the resonance thrombograph, after HARTERT, an uniform type of PFC. The side to side contact between platelet surface and fibrin strands displayed a 15 nm wide space which was bridged of 10 - 30 nm by filamentary structure. In each case the direction of the fibrin strands changed on contact with the platelet surface (bend). These bends recurred if the adhering strands ran over a longer distance on the platelet surface. The bends can be explained by non-directional movement of the platelets or of their pseudopodia. Microfilaments (actomyosin) which run straight in pseudopodia and often also twisted in the platelet body support this assumption. The described mechanism - contact of the thrombin activated platelets with fibrin strands and simultaneous nondirectional movement of the platelets which bind further sections of the adhering strands to their surface - would provide a more satisfactory explanation for the retraction of the clot to 1/10 of its original volume. PMID:6539004

  5. Pure menstrual migraine with sensory aura: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Jy; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Chen, Dem-Lion

    2012-07-01

    Hormonal changes related to the menstrual cycle have a great impact on migraines in women. Menstrual migraine attacks are almost invariably without aura. Categorizing migraines into menstrual or non-menstrual types is one way to stratify migraines without aura according to the appendix criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. We report a peri-menopausal woman whose sensory aura exclusively heralded menstrual migraine. A 51-year-old woman had suffered from monthly episodic headaches since the age of 46. Before a headache, and within 1 h on the first day of her menstruation, she always experienced numbness in her entire left upper limb. After the sensory aura, migrainous headaches occurred with nausea and photophobia. In the postmenopausal period, she no longer had sensory aura, and her headache pattern changed and became less severe. Her physical and neurologic exams as well as electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and conventional angiography were all normal. She fulfilled the diagnosis of pure menstrual migraine with typical sensory aura. To our knowledge, this is the first formal case report of pure menstrual migraine with aura.

  6. 强可收缩半群%Strongly Retractable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻秉钧

    2000-01-01

    A semigroup S is called strongly retractable, if each of its subsemigroups is aretract of S. In this paper, strongly retractable groups, strongly retractable completelysimple semigroups, strongly retractable semilattices and strongly retractable regularsemigroups are successively characterized and finally a structure theorem for generalstrongly retractable semigroups is given.%称半群S强可收缩,若S的每个子半群都是它的一个缩回.本文逐次刻划了强可收缩的群、完全单半群、强可收缩的半格及正则半群的结构,在此基础上给出了任意强可收缩半群的结构定理.

  7. Injective objects and retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2011-01-01

    We present a purely category-theoretic characterization of retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits. For this aim, we consider a natural version of injectivity with respect to a pair of categories (a category and its subcategory). It turns out that retracts of Fra\\"iss\\'e limits are precisely the objects that are injective relatively to such a pair. One of the applications is a characterization of non-expansive retracts of Urysohn's universal metric space.

  8. Fixed Simplex Property for Retractable Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapart Anna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retractable complexes are defined in this paper. It is proved that they have the fixed simplex property for simplicial maps. This implies the theorem of Wallace and the theorem of Rival and Nowakowski for finite trees: every simplicial map transforming vertices of a tree into itself has a fixed vertex or a fixed edge. This also implies the Hell and Nešetřil theorem: any endomorphism of a dismantlable graph fixes some clique. Properties of recursively contractible complexes are examined.

  9. Study of Semi-projective Retractable Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Haghany; M.R.Vedadi

    2007-01-01

    For a semi-projective retractable module MR with endomorphism ring S,we prove u.dim MR = u.dim Ss,and find necessary and sufficient conditions on M in order that S be respectively semiprime,right nonsingular,finitely cogenerated,cocyclic,or weakly co-Hopfian.Precise descriptions of the right singular ideal of S and the socle of M are given,and in addition if S is a semiprime ring,it is shown that MR is FI-extending if and only if Ss is FI-extending.

  10. An adjunctive minor surgical procedure for increased rate of retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthodontic treatment is based on the principle that if prolonged pressure is applied to the tooth, tooth movement will occur as the bone around the tooth re-models. In this study osteotomy of buccal alveolar plate and undermining of interseptal bone was performed at premolar extraction site and rate of en-masse retraction and canine retraction was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Patients between the age of 18 and 25 years, requiring retraction of anterior teeth are selected for the study. Osteotomy with undermining of interseptal bone at the extraction site was performed. The procedure was performed on all four quadrants. Results: The average retraction in the maxillary arch was 0.98 mm/quadrant in 3 weeks, i.e., a total retraction of 5.89 mm in a span of 9 weeks. The average retraction in the mandibular arch was 0.96 mm/quadrant in 3 weeks, i.e., a total retraction of 5.75 mm in a span of 9 weeks. Conclusion: This method of achieving faster en masse retraction immediately after extraction definitely reduced the initial retraction time. We recommend that such procedure must be carried out with appropriate anchorage conservation methods.

  11. Auditory aura in frontal opercular epilepsy: sounds from afar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen A; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Bingaman, William; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Bulacio, Juan; Nair, Dileep; So, Norman K

    2015-06-01

    Auditory auras are typically considered to localize to the temporal neocortex. Herein, we present two cases of frontal operculum/perisylvian epilepsy with auditory auras. Following a non-invasive evaluation, including ictal SPECT and magnetoencephalography, implicating the frontal operculum, these cases were evaluated with invasive monitoring, using stereoelectroencephalography and subdural (plus depth) electrodes, respectively. Spontaneous and electrically-induced seizures showed an ictal onset involving the frontal operculum in both cases. A typical auditory aura was triggered by stimulation of the frontal operculum in one. Resection of the frontal operculum and subjacent insula rendered one case seizure- (and aura-) free. From a hodological (network) perspective, we discuss these findings with consideration of the perisylvian and insular network(s) interconnecting the frontal and temporal lobes, and revisit the non-invasive data, specifically that of ictal SPECT.

  12. Variability of clinical features in attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Goadsby, Peter J; Charles, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in the clinical presentation of migraine, both among patients, and between attacks in an individual patient. We examined clinical features of migraine with aura in a large group of patients enrolled in a clinical trial, and compared retrospective...... migraine attack characteristics reported upon enrollment in the trial with those recorded prospectively in the trial. METHODS: Patients with migraine (n = 267) with typical visual aura in more than 30% of their attacks were enrolled from 16 centers for a clinical trial. Upon enrollment, patients provided...... a detailed retrospective description of the clinical features of their attacks of migraine. During the trial, clinical symptoms in migraine attacks starting with aura were recorded prospectively in 861 attacks. RESULTS: Retrospectively reported visual aura symptoms were variable and often overlapping...

  13. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  14. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements Under New Maneuver Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Auras Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Auras frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under no-slew operations

  15. Aura neo&Aura Groove 新音乐时代的优雅小清新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    如果你认为只要一提到Hi-Fi便逃离不了傻、大、粗、笨、丑等传统字眼的话那么当你看到Aura neo CD播放器与Aura Groove合并功放时,你必然会被他们的小清新风格所打动。

  16. Bilateral upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazunami; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case with upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy. Topical bimatoprost 0.03% was administered to a 69-year-old woman with bilateral normal-tension glaucoma. It was first administered to the left eye, and 3 weeks later, therapy on the right side of the eye was initiated. One week after the initiation of therapy on the right side, right upper eyelid retraction occurred, and 63 days after starting treatment on the left side (42 days after initiation on the right side), conspicuous bilateral upper eyelid retraction was observed. Bimatoprost instillation was then stopped and the medication was switched to latanoprost 0.005%. Upper eyelid retraction was reversed to normal levels approximately 1 week after cessation of bimatoprost therapy. In conclusion, a rare case of upper eyelid retraction caused by topical bimatoprost therapy, which was reversed after discontinuation of the medication, is reported.

  17. Opening and retraction of particulate soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timounay, Yousra; Lorenceau, Elise; Rouyer, Florence

    2015-07-01

    We study for the first time the bursting dynamics of thin liquid films laden with hydrophobic micronic particles either with free or constrained edges. We highlight that the particles can arrange in bilayer or monolayer configurations and explore a range of particles coverage from zero to random close packing. When the particles bridge the two interfaces (monolayer configuration) of free-edge films, the hole opens intermittently. For the other cases, we observe constant retraction velocities, modeled by balancing liquid and particles inertia against surface tension as in Taylor-Culick theory. But, this approach is only valid up to a critical value of particles coverage due to the interplay between the interfaces and the friction between particles.

  18. The visual aura rating scale as an outcome predictor for persistent visual aura without infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y-F; Fuh, J-L; Chen, W-T; Wang, S-J

    2008-12-01

    Persistent visual aura without infarction is rare. Its pathogenic mechanism is unknown, and the response to migraine prophylactic agents varies. A systematic analysis of 29 patients (23 from the literature and six in the present report; 6M/23F, mean age 37.6 years) was carried out in terms of demographics, headache and visual symptom profiles, treatment regimens and outcomes. Patterns of visual disturbances (VDs) were re-assessed with the Visual Aura Rating Scale (VARS, score 0-10). Even though the majority of patients had headache improvement, only eight (27.6%) had complete resolution of persistent VD, without definite relevance to any specific agent. Patients with complete resolution of VD tended to have scotoma (50.0% vs. 0%; P = 0.003), unilateral/homonymous involvement (62.5% vs. 9.5%; P = 0.008), higher VARS scores (1.88 +/- 1.73 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.30; P outcome. For those with a potential for complete resolution, improvement would occur early in the course.

  19. An aura of confusion Part 2: the aided eye--"imaging the aura?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Tim

    2004-05-01

    The second of three papers considers claims made for the perception or detection of vital energy. Many systems of complementary and alternative medicine assume the existence of a vital force that mediates therapeutic efficacy, for example chi or qi in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Vital energy directly perceived or imaged that surrounds living organisms is frequently termed the aura. A range of devices or techniques are claimed to image the aura. These include Kirlian photography, gas discharge visualisation (GDV) and polychromatic interference photography (PIP). This paper explores such claims and argues that the images produced can be explained using concepts from the physical sciences. It is suggested that techniques such as KP, GDV or PIP currently offer insufficient reliable research evidence concerning their use as diagnostic or imaging alternatives. Consequently their clinical use is debatable. Kirlian photography and its derivatives may however be useful as a research tool by providing visual records of complex bodily responses to experimental situations. For example, responses to physiological or psychological stressors. PMID:15135764

  20. 强可收缩半群%Strongly Retractable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻秉钧

    2002-01-01

    A semigroup S is called strongly retractable, if each of its subsemigroups is a retract of S. In this paper, strongly retractable groups, strongly retractable completely simple semigroups, strongly retractable semilattices and strongly retractable regular semigroups are successively characterized and finally a structure theorem for general strongly retractable semigroups is given.%设S为半群,H为S的子半群,称H是S的一个缩回,若存在满同态φ:S→H满足φ|H=1H(H上的恒等映射),称半群S是强可收缩的,若S的每个子半群都是S的一个缩回.首先证明了群G为强可收缩半群的充要条件为G是一族初等Abel群的限制直积,接着得到完全单半群S强可收缩的充要条件是SG×(I×Λ),其中G为强可收缩群,I×Λ是矩形带.还证明了一个半格是强可收缩半群的充要条件是它为局部有限树.在这些结论的基础上最后得到一个半群是强可收缩半群的完整刻划.

  1. Retraction dynamics of aquous drops upon impact on nonwetting surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, D; Bonn, D; Bartolo, Denis; Josserand, Christophe; Bonn, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We study the impact and subsequent retraction dynamics of liquid droplets upon high-speed impact on hydrophobic surfaces. Performing extensive experiments, we show that the drop retraction rate is a material constant and does not depend on the impact velocity. We show that when increasing the Ohnesorge number, $\\Oh=\\eta/\\sqrt{\\rho R_{\\rm I} \\gamma}$, the retraction, i.e. dewetting, dynamics crosses over from a capillaro-inertial regime to a capillaro-viscous regime. We rationalize the experimental observations by a simple but robust semi-quantitative model for the solid-liquid contact line dynamics inspired by the standard theories for thin film dewetting.

  2. Duane's retraction syndrome associated with morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Fujita, S

    1981-01-01

    A 9-year-old boy with Duane's retraction syndrome and morning glory syndrome is presented. The right eye showed a grayish-pink optic disc, which had a deep excavation containing a white mass in its center and was surrounded by an annulus of pigment disturbance, i.e., consistent with the features of morning glory syndrome. The left eye had a congenital disturbance of ocular motility, which was typical of Duane's retraction syndrome. This is probably the first report of the association of Duane's retraction syndrome and morning glory syndrome. It is hypothesized that a noxious stimulus given at around two months of gestation was responsible for this rare association.

  3. Optical cryptography topology based on a three-dimensional particle-like distribution and diffractive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, coherent diffractive imaging has been considered as a promising alternative for information retrieval instead of conventional interference methods. Coherent diffractive imaging using the X-ray light source has opened up a new research perspective for the measurement of non-crystalline and biological specimens, and can achieve unprecedentedly high resolutions. In this paper, we show how a three-dimensional (3D) particle-like distribution and coherent diffractive imaging can be applied for a study of optical cryptography. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding approach is used, and the plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in a 3D space. A topology concept is also introduced into the proposed optical cryptosystem. During image decryption, a retrieval algorithm is developed to extract the plaintext from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed optical cryptography topology are also analyzed.

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography of intracranial and extracranial arteries in patients with spontaneous migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Hougaard, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Extracranial arterial dilatation has been hypothesised to be the cause of pain in patients who have migraine without aura. To test that hypothesis, we aimed to measure extracranial and intracranial arteries during attacks of migraine without aura.......Extracranial arterial dilatation has been hypothesised to be the cause of pain in patients who have migraine without aura. To test that hypothesis, we aimed to measure extracranial and intracranial arteries during attacks of migraine without aura....

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases during and outside of migraine attacks without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, M.; Tvedskov, J.F.; Thiesen, Kerstin Lipka;

    2010-01-01

    Ashina M, Tvedskov JF, Lipka K, Bilello J, Penkowa M & Olesen J. Matrix metalloproteinases during and outside of migraine attacks without aura. Cephalalgia 2009. London. ISSN 0333-1024To test the hypothesis that permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered during migraine attack due...... to enhanced activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we investigated MMP-3, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1 in the external jugular vein during and outside of migraine attacks in 21 patients with migraine without aura. In addition, we measured plasma levels of several other...... and interictal plasma levels of MMP-7, -8, -10 and TIMP-2 (P > 0.05). Our data suggest that plasma MMP-9 cannot be used as a biomarker of BBB disruption in migraine without aura. Decreased MMP-3 levels are an interesting and unexpected finding warranting further investigation....

  6. Relationship between primary restless legs syndrome and migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Acar, Türkan; Alagöz, Aybala Neslihan; Karacan, Alper; Varım, Ceyhun; Uyanık, Mehmet Şevki; Kaya, Tezcan; Akdemir, Ramazan

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of definite migraine in primary restless legs syndrome (pRLS) patients and matched control patients (CPs) were investigated. We evaluated 63 consecutive adult pRLS patients and 141 age- and sex-matched controls in this case-control study. The diagnosis of migraine and its subtypes were defined based on The International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. Only those with "definite" migraine were included in the study. The mean age of 63 adult pRLS patients (15 men and 48 women) who participated in the study was 49.4 years. A total of 27 patients (42.9%) had definite migraine. Of these migraineurs, seven (11.1%) were without aura and 20 (31.8%) were with aura. The mean age of the 141 matched CPs was 48.7 years. A total of 32 CPs (22.7%) experienced migraine. Among these 32 migraineurs, 28 (19.9%) were without aura and four (2.8%) were with aura. Migraine and migraine with aura were significantly more common in pRLS patients than in CPs. pRLS patients with migraine were more anxious and experienced a shorter duration of RLS symptoms than pRLS patients without migraine. Migraineurs in the pRLS group tended to have high scores for severity of migraine headache by Visual Analog Scale score and high levels of disability by Migraine Disability Assessment grading than those in the control group. pRLS patients showed a positive association with definite migraine headaches. In contrast to results highlighted in recent studies, we found a strong link between migraine with aura and pRLS. PMID:27523456

  7. Relationship between primary restless legs syndrome and migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Acar, Türkan; Alagöz, Aybala Neslihan; Karacan, Alper; Varım, Ceyhun; Uyanık, Mehmet Şevki; Kaya, Tezcan; Akdemir, Ramazan

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the prevalence and characteristics of definite migraine in primary restless legs syndrome (pRLS) patients and matched control patients (CPs) were investigated. We evaluated 63 consecutive adult pRLS patients and 141 age- and sex-matched controls in this case-control study. The diagnosis of migraine and its subtypes were defined based on The International Classification of Headache Disorders-II. Only those with "definite" migraine were included in the study. The mean age of 63 adult pRLS patients (15 men and 48 women) who participated in the study was 49.4 years. A total of 27 patients (42.9%) had definite migraine. Of these migraineurs, seven (11.1%) were without aura and 20 (31.8%) were with aura. The mean age of the 141 matched CPs was 48.7 years. A total of 32 CPs (22.7%) experienced migraine. Among these 32 migraineurs, 28 (19.9%) were without aura and four (2.8%) were with aura. Migraine and migraine with aura were significantly more common in pRLS patients than in CPs. pRLS patients with migraine were more anxious and experienced a shorter duration of RLS symptoms than pRLS patients without migraine. Migraineurs in the pRLS group tended to have high scores for severity of migraine headache by Visual Analog Scale score and high levels of disability by Migraine Disability Assessment grading than those in the control group. pRLS patients showed a positive association with definite migraine headaches. In contrast to results highlighted in recent studies, we found a strong link between migraine with aura and pRLS.

  8. Dipyridamole may induce migraine in patients with migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, C; Lassen, L H; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg;

    2006-01-01

    Dipyridamole inhibits phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) and adenosine re-uptake. The most prominent side-effect is headache. We examined the migraine-generating effects of dipyridamole as well as the cerebral blood velocity response in a single-blind study, including 10 patients with migraine without aura...... repeatedly. Headache was induced in all migraine patients and in eight of 10 healthy subjects (P = 0.47) with no significant difference in headache intensity (P = 0.53). However, five patients but only one healthy subject experienced the symptoms of migraine without aura, according to ICHD-2 criteria, within...

  9. Provocation of migraine with aura using natural trigger factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal; Hauge, Anne Werner;

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that migraine attacks can be precipitated by various stimuli. More than 50% of patients with migraine with aura (MA) know of at least one stimulus that always or often triggers their MA attacks. The objective of this study was to expose patients with MA to their self-reported tri......It is well-known that migraine attacks can be precipitated by various stimuli. More than 50% of patients with migraine with aura (MA) know of at least one stimulus that always or often triggers their MA attacks. The objective of this study was to expose patients with MA to their self...

  10. The Chinese Translation of Walter Benjamin's Aura Revisited%也谈本雅明的aura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰

    2014-01-01

    本雅明的美学概念aura,国内已有多种译法,多从“光”的角度来译,譬如最近甚为流行的“光晕”.但若以德语工具书词条(耶格尔和蒂德曼)、古罗马经典作家用语(贺拉斯和维吉尔)、本雅明同时代作家用词(沃尔夫斯凯尔和施坦纳)这三方面的文献为基础,则可自“气”的角度来译aura,译作“霞气”.

  11. An explicit construction of sunny nonexpansive retractions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Reich

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An explicit algorithmic scheme for constructing the unique sunny nonexpansive retraction onto the common fixed point set of a nonlinear semigroup of nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space is analyzed and a proof of convergence is given.

  12. Retracted: Post-stroke epilepsy in Polish paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyta, Ilona; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata

    2015-08-01

    The above article, published online on 5 October 2013 in Wiley Online Library Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr Peter Baxter, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to several errors in the statistics. These errors make interpretation of the data difficult and the validity of the conclusions questionable.

  13. Tsemendirahva kolmekordne pidu / Tapio Aura, Aleksander Nikolajev ; interv. Sulev Oll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aura, Tapio

    2005-01-01

    Kunda tsemenditootmisel täitus 135 aastat ja Kunda sadamal 200 aastat. Oma ettevõtete käekäigust räägivad AS-i Kunda Nordic Tsement tegevdirektor Tapio Aura ja Kunda sadama direktor Aleksander Nikolajev

  14. Cryptocoryne aura (Araceae), a new species from West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongso, Suwidji; Ipor, Isa B.; Tawan, Cheksum S.;

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cryptocoryne aura Wongso & Ipor, from West Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Cryptocoryne species primarily by having a transparent, ciliate membrane along the leaf margin and a short spathe with a yellow, forward-twisted limb. It has...

  15. Endothelial Function in Migraine With Aura – A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Franzmann, Ulriche; Kruuse, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased risk of ischemic stroke is repeatedly reported in young subjects with migraine with aura (MA). Such may be caused by changes in endothelial function. The present review evaluates current evidence on endothelial function in MA patients. METHODS: A systematic search...

  16. Epileptic aura and perception of self-control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Allan; Kjaer, Troels W; Sabers, Anne;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The health locus of control is the subjective perception of control over one's health. It has been studied for years as one of several factors that determine patient health-related behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate how the epileptic aura is associated with the health...

  17. Migraine with persistent aura in a Mexican patient: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, O D; Zermeño, P F

    2007-05-01

    Persistent aura symptoms in patients with migraine are rare but well documented. The International Headache Society defines persistent aura without infarction as when the aura symptoms persist for > 1 week without radiographic evidence of infarction. The visual aura of migraine attacks has been explained by cortical spreading depression. We describe a case of a 28-year-old Mexican woman, who presented with persistent aura symptoms, and a literature review. The patient had a 24-year history of migraine headache. In November 2005 the patient had an attack which started with scintillating scotomas bilaterally associated with photopsias and amaurosis followed by migraine headache. All imaging studies were negative. The episode lasted 35 days and probably resolved with nimodipine therapy. Persistent aura symptoms are rare entities. This is the first case documented of a Mexican patient with persistent aura without infarction and probably resolved with nimodipine therapy.

  18. Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors.

  19. A Multi-dimensional Investigation of the Effects of Publication Retraction on Scholarly Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Shuai, Xin; Rollins, Jason; Custis, Tonya; Schilder, Frank; Edmunds, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the rate of publication retractions has increased dramatically in academia. In this study, we investigate retractions from a quantitative perspective, aiming to answer two fundamental questions. One, how do retractions influence the scholarly impact of retracted papers, authors, and institutions? Two, does this influence propagate to the wider academic community through scholarly associations? Specifically, we analyzed a set of retracted articles indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS), and ran multiple experiments to compare changes in scholarly impact against a control set of non-retracted articles, authors, and institutions. We further applied the Granger Causality test to investigate whether different scientific topics are dynamically affected by retracted papers occurring within those topics. Our results show two key findings: first, the scholarly impact of retracted papers and authors significantly decreases after retraction, and the most severe impact decrease correla...

  20. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  1. Typology of Retractable Roof Structures in Stadiums and Sports Halls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Mahovič

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Retractable roof structures are one of the four fundamental systems (in addition to the playing area, stands and facade in a stadium and sports hall. The roof protects users against various weather conditions and creates optimum circumstances for carrying out different activities. Stadiums and sports halls with retractable roof structures can host a greater variety of activities, improve the quality of their implementation and the quality of visitors’ experience, and affect the perception and experience of people using or observing such buildings. A retractable roof structure allows for natural lighting and ventilation of the venue, gives optimal conditions for grass growth on the playing field, and reduces costs of use and maintenance of the building. Different typologies of movement of roof structures (frequency of opening and closing, design of the structure, and methods of movement are categorised in terms of their architectural and structural design. Application of different retractable roof systems worldwide is indicator of their effectiveness and efficiency, and is basis for use of movement also in other fundamental systems of stadiums and sports halls. Research and identification of characteristics of retractable roof structures lead to the design of new moving systems that can with the application of the moving principle change the purpose of movable elements or assume the characteristics of other fundamental systems.

  2. Retraction statement: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  3. Home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowich, Paul

    2012-10-01

    This study examined whether the home advantage varies for open-air, domed, or retractable-roof baseball stadia, and whether having the roof open or closed affects the home advantage in retractable-roof baseball stadia. Data from Major League Baseball (MLB) games played between 2001 and 2009 were analyzed for whether or not the presence of a home-advantage was dependent on the type of home stadium used. Home advantage was robust for all three types of stadia. A significant effect of stadium type on home advantage was found, with a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to open-air stadia, replicating a previous study. There was a greater home advantage for teams playing home games in domed stadia relative to retractable-roof stadia. No other differences in the home advantage were found; results are discussed in terms of familiarity with the facility.

  4. Limits of fuzzy retractions of fuzzy hyperspheres and their foldings

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. El-Ahmady

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the types of fuzzy retractions of fuzzy hyperspheres $ \\tilde{S}^n\\subset R^{n+1} $ and the corresponding induced fuzzy retractions of the two fuzzy systems $ \\bigcup \\overline{\\tilde{S}}^n $, $ \\bigcup \\underline{\\tilde{S}}^n $ when the fuzzification is regular or irregular. Also, the fuzzy folding of fuzzy hyperspheres $ \\tilde{S}^n $ into itself and the induces two chains of fuzzy folding of $ \\bigcup \\overline{\\tilde{S}}^n $, $ \\bigcup \\underline{\\tilde{S}}^n $. Th...

  5. Family of deployable/retractable structures for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, J.; Weisz, J.; Rivacoba, J.; Uríen, I. Ruiz; Capitanio, R. S.

    New trends in the frame of space applications lead to the necessity of using deployable/retractable structures, working either as beams (with payloads all along their length) or masts (loaded at their tip). SENER—under ESA/ESTEC and Spanish Space Program contracts—are developing a family of structures with deployment and retraction capabilities (LTS, SENERMAST, CTM) so as to cover all ranges of potential necessities in the space community (antennas, experiment support, solar arrays, heat rejection systems …). This paper consists of a summary of the performances and range of applications of LTS, SENERMAST and CTM, and pays special attention to the large truss structure (LTS) development and verification.

  6. Retracted: Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma associated with rivaroxaban treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas Tuna, A; Palabiyik, O; Beyaz, S G

    2015-08-01

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jcpt.12228/pdf The above article, published online on 10 November 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, A. Li Wan Po, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because, unknown to the authors, another group published a similar study based on the same material in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology: Kocayigit I, Can Y, Sahinkus S, et al. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma during rivaroxaban therapy. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;46(3):339-340. doi:10.4103/0253-7613.132193.

  7. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  8. Characteristics of Retractions from Korean Medical Journals in the KoreaMed Database: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Flawed or misleading articles may be retracted because of either honest scientific errors or scientific misconduct. This study explored the characteristics of retractions in medical journals published in Korea through the KoreaMed database. Methods We retrieved retraction articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from January 1990 to January 2016. Three authors each reviewed the details of the retractions including the reason for retraction, adherence to retraction guidelines, and appropriateness of retraction. Points of disagreement were reconciled by discussion among the three. Results Out of 217,839 articles in KoreaMed published from 1990 to January 2016, the publication type of 111 articles was retraction (0.051%). Of the 111 articles (addressing the retraction of 114 papers), 58.8% were issued by the authors, 17.5% were jointly issued (author, editor, and publisher), 15.8% came from editors, and 4.4% were dispatched by institutions; in 5.3% of the instances, the issuer was unstated. The reasons for retraction included duplicate publication (57.0%), plagiarism (8.8%), scientific error (4.4%), author dispute (3.5%), and other (5.3%); the reasons were unstated or unclear in 20.2%. The degree of adherence to COPE’s retraction guidelines varied (79.8%–100%), and some retractions were inappropriate by COPE standards. These were categorized as follows: retraction of the first published article in the case of duplicate publication (69.2%), authorship dispute (15.4%), errata (7.7%), and other (7.7%). Conclusion The major reason for retraction in Korean medical journals is duplicate publication. Some retractions resulted from overreaction by the editors. Therefore, editors of Korean medical journals should take careful note of the COPE retraction guidelines and should undergo training on appropriate retraction practices. PMID:27706245

  9. Calcitonin gene-related peptide and migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob M; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    levels of CGRP in MA patients are comparable to MO, but CGRP levels varied among studies. A number of animal studies, including knock-ins of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) genes, have examined the relationship between CGRP and cortical spreading depression. In patients, CGRP does not trigger migraine......BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathophysiology. Most studies have focused on CGRP in relation to migraine without aura (MO). About one-third of migraine patients have attacks with aura (MA), and this is a systematic review of the current literature...... in FHM, but is a robust trigger of migraine-like headache both in MA and MO patients. The treatment effect of CGRP antagonists are well proven in the treatment of migraine, but no studies have studied the effect specifically in MA patients. CONCLUSION: This systematic review indicates that the role...

  10. Monitoring of the Canadian Oil Sands from the Aura Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Shephard, M. W.; Fioletov, V.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Krotkov, N. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Li, C.; Luo, M.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two instruments on-board the NASA Aura satellite, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), have been used to monitor air pollution over the Canadian oil sands region. Between them they provide a unique perspective on the distributions, evolution, and sources of several key pollutants. This presentation will detail some highlights from these Aura-based oil sands studies: (i) the evolution of OMI-measured nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide enhancements over the past decade, including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from TES special-observation transects, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  11. Photography as a tool of alienation: aura (Chapter 7)

    OpenAIRE

    Germen, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Regular photographic imaging records volumetric planes with smooth surfaces. The reason is the camera’s defi ciency in perceiving and documenting the visual richness of “persuasive” details in life. HDR imaging methods used in creating the artwork series titled Aura helped invisible textures to emerge through different exposures and layering multiple surfaces in an image. A major objective in this series was to facilitate the experiential visual complexity between the animate and inanimate t...

  12. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl measurements

    OpenAIRE

    L. Froidevaux; Jiang, Y.B.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N.J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Fuller, R. A.; Marcy, T. P.; Popp, P. J.; R. S. Gao; Fahey, D. W.; Jucks, K. W.; Stachnik, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Christensen, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite has provided daily global HCl profiles since August 2004. We provide a characterization of the resolution, random and systematic uncertainties, and known issues for the version 2.2 MLS HCl data. The MLS sampling allows for comparisons with many (similar to 1500 to more than 3000) closely matched profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform ...

  13. The occurrence and characteristics of auras in a large epilepsy cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakken, K O; Solaas, M H; Kjeldsen, M J;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - Despite several studies, estimates of the frequency with which auras occur in conjunction with epilepsy continue to be imprecise. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and characteristics of auras in a large population-based epilepsy cohort. Materials and methods...... - Subjects with verified epilepsy were recruited from population-based twin registries in the USA, Denmark and Norway. Using a structured interview in which a list of auras was provided, subjects were asked about the warning symptoms preceding their epileptic attacks. Results - 31% of the total sample (n...... = 1897) and 39% of those with active epilepsy (n = 765) had experienced an aura. Six percent reported more than one type. Non-specified auras were most frequently reported (35%), followed by somatosensory (11%) and vertiginous (11%). While the majority of those reporting auras (59%) had focal epilepsies...

  14. The epileptic aura in literature: aesthetic and philosophical dimensions. An essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter

    2013-03-01

    In literary accounts of epilepsy the aura has a prominent place as the subjective aspect of the seizure experience. Descriptions by authors with their own aura experiences stand out by their precision and authenticity. Many different aura types are mentioned, but the ecstatic aura described by Dostoyevsky has received particular attention and is echoed in many later works. Some authors are interested primarily in the possibilities provided by auras to react, for example, by hiding, seeking help, counteracting the oncoming seizure, or taking measures to prevent damage. Others by their unique aura experiences are inspired to create specific literary flavors like oxymora, spectacular metaphors, or the depiction of complex perceptions and states of mind. Some authors, adding a philosophical dimension, proceed to analyze the consequences of patients' subjective seizure experiences for their identity and their self-perception as creative or religious persons. To sum up, the works discussed herein strongly support that literary texts provide valuable insights beyond those of medical texts.

  15. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  16. Prospective study of tympanic membrane retraction, hearing loss, and multifrequency tympanometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Hunter, L L; Margolis, R H; Levine, S C; Lindgren, B; Daly, K; Giebink, G S

    1999-11-01

    Tympanic membrane retraction is a significant sequela of OME and has been linked clinically to atelectasis, ossicular erosion, and cholesteatoma. We investigated important factors for prediction of tympanic membrane retraction in a prospective study of 112 children. After 4 to 6 years of follow-up, 12% of ears had pars tensa retraction without atrophy, and 28% had various degrees of retraction with atrophy. Mild pars flaccida retraction was present in 23%, and severe pars flaccida retraction was present in 12%. Retraction severity was related to hearing level and multifrequency tympanometry. Three factors were significantly related to retraction severity: type of tube, male sex, and percent of visits in the second year with abnormal tympanograms. This study shows that type of tube was the most important factor in long-term outcome after tympanostomy tube treatment of OME. PMID:10547462

  17. New Collections of Aura Atmospheric data Products at the GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James; Ahmad, Suraiya; Gerasimov, Irina; Lepthoukh, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is the primary archive of atmospheric composition data from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Microwave Limb sounder (MLS), and High-Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instruments. The most recent versions of Aura OMI, MLS and HIRDLS data are available free to the public (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura). TES data are at ASDC (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov).

  18. Ergodic Retractions for Families of Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeidi Shahram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some theorems for the existence of ergodic retractions onto the set of common fixed points of a family of asymptotically nonexpansive mappings. Our results extend corresponding results of Benavides and Ramírez (2001, and Li and Sims (2002.

  19. Head of Human Genome Project Retracts 5 Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Karla

    1996-01-01

    Five published leukemia studies have been retracted by the director of the Human Genome Project because they were based on falsified data from a graduate student, although some of the conclusions are still supported. Inconsistencies were discovered by a peer reviewer and were also found in the student's other work. (MSE)

  20. 'Visual snow' - a disorder distinct from persistent migraine aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Christoph J; Maniyar, Farooq H; Digre, Kathleen B; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Patients with 'visual snow' report continuous tiny dots in the entire visual field similar to the noise of an analogue television. As they frequently have migraine as a comorbidity with ophthalmological, neurological and radiological studies being normal, they are offered various diagnoses, including persistent migraine aura, post-hallucinogen flashback, or psychogenic disorder. Our aim was to study patients with 'visual snow' to characterize the phenotype. A three-step approach was followed: (i) a chart review of patients referred to us identified 22 patients with 'visual snow'. Fifteen had additional visual symptoms, and 20 patients had comorbid migraine, five with aura; (ii) to identify systematically additional visual symptoms, an internet survey (n = 275) of self-assessed 'visual snow' subjects done by Eye On Vision Foundation was analysed. In two random samples from 235 complete data sets, the same eight additional visual symptoms were present in >33% of patients: palinopsia (trailing and afterimages), entoptic phenomena (floaters, blue field entoptic phenomenon, spontaneous photopsia, self-light of the eye), photophobia, and nyctalopia (impaired night vision); and (iii) a prospective semi-structured telephone interview in a further 142 patients identified 78 (41 female) with confirmed 'visual snow' and normal ophthalmological exams. Of these, 72 had at least three of the additional visual symptoms from step (ii). One-quarter of patients had 'visual snow' as long as they could remember, whereas for the others the mean age of onset was 21 ± 9 years. Thirty-two patients had constant visual symptoms, whereas the remainder experienced either progressive or stepwise worsening. Headache was the most frequent symptom associated with the beginning or a worsening of the visual disturbance (36%), whereas migraine aura (seven patients) and consumption of illicit drugs (five, no hallucinogens) were rare. Migraine (59%), migraine with aura (27%), anxiety and depression

  1. Timing and topography of cerebral blood flow, aura, and headache during migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Friberg, L; Olsen, T S;

    1990-01-01

    reduction and aura symptoms in the great majority of patients were unilateral, one-third had bilateral headache. Unilateral headache usually localized to the side on which regional cerebral blood flow was reduced and from which the aura symptoms originated (i.e., aura symptoms were perceived to occur...... contralaterally but presumably originated in the hypoperfused hemisphere). Our results suggest a simple model for migraine attacks: A pathological disturbance in one cerebral hemisphere causes the aura symptoms and after a time delay, it also causes the headache by stimulating local vascular nociceptors...

  2. Distinctive anatomical and physiological features of migraine aura revealed by 18 years of recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Baca, Serapio Michael; Vanvalkenburgh, Paul;

    2013-01-01

    insight into basic aura mechanisms. An individual made detailed drawings of his visual percept of migraine aura in real time during more than 1000 attacks of migraine aura without headache over 18 years. Drawings were made in a consistent fashion documenting the shape and location of the aura wavefront...... propagated from peripheral to central regions of the visual field-these typically followed the reverse path of those travelling in the opposite direction. The mean velocity of the perceived visual phenomenon did not differ between attacks starting peripherally and centrally. The estimated speed...

  3. 14 CFR 23.729 - Landing gear extension and retraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Landing gear extension and retraction... Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.729 Landing gear extension and retraction system. (a) General. For airplanes with retractable landing gear, the following apply: (1) Each landing gear...

  4. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  5. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  6. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.

  7. Using NASA's Aura Satellite Data for Inquiry Based Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Bojkov, B.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing Satellite Aura was launched in 2004, and since that time has been collecting a wealth of data that contributes to scientists' understanding of the complexity of air quality issues. The Aura spacecraft monitors five of the six EPA criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and CO). Data from one of the criteria pollutants, NO2, are now available in a format useful to educators and students. The data by itself is not enough for students to engage in the scientific reasoning process. Thus, inquiry-driven supporting material in the form of lessons, project based learning scenarios, and curricular support for online data have all been adapted as part of the scaffolding necessary to help students gain an understanding of issues pertaining to air quality. These materials are delivered online which makes them readily accessible to the education community. Currently, NO2 data are available for manipulation using tools such as GoogleEarth and MY NASA DATA (http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov). These tools are used to investigate common relationships between spatial distribution and variability of NO2 concentrations. Through guided investigations in the Earth Exploration Toolbook (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/index.html) or MY NASA DATA, students gain an understanding of NO2 variability. Students are then asked to extrapolate their knowledge and understanding to investigate other air quality issues relating to NO2. Within the coming year, the lessons built around Aura data will be introduced in professional development workshops. Feedback from those attending the professional development workshops about how the data and lessons are used in the classroom will be used to help shape future lesson development on new data. Subsequent data on criteria pollutants of SO2, aerosols, and O3 will soon be made available in a similar format to the education community, helping to further student understanding of the complex nature of air quality issues.

  8. Cerebral oxygen extraction, oxygen consumption, and regional cerebral blood flow during the aura phase of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, Jes; Lassen, N A;

    1994-01-01

    The aura phase of migraine is associated with focal blood flow changes, but it has been largely unknown whether these changes are correlated to changes in the cerebral metabolism.......The aura phase of migraine is associated with focal blood flow changes, but it has been largely unknown whether these changes are correlated to changes in the cerebral metabolism....

  9. 75 FR 13806 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Loan From the Aura...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Loan From the Aura Collection of a... hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Loan from the Aura Collection of...

  10. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HNO3 Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Santee, M. L.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Lambert, A.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Read, W. G.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Livesey, N. J.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Cofield, R. E.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Cuddy, D. T.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Daffer, W. H.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Drouin, B. J.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Froidevaux, L.; JPL; Fuller, R. A.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Jarnot, R. F.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Knosp, B. W.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Manney, G. L.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Perun, V. S.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA; Snyder, W. V.; JPL, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA

    2007-01-01

    We assess the quality of the version 2.2 (v2.2) HNO3 measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Earth Observing System Aura satellite. The MLS HNO3 product has been greatly improved over that in the previous version (v1.5), with smoother profiles, much more realistic behavior at the lowest retrieval levels, and correction of a high bias caused by an error in one of the spectroscopy files used in v1.5 processing. The v2.2 HNO3 data are scientifically useful over t...

  11. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  12. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  13. No abnormalities of intrinsic brain connectivity in the interictal phase of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, F M; Magon, S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional neuroimaging studies have shown hyperresponsiveness of cortical areas to visual stimuli in migraine patients with aura outside of attacks. This may be a key feature in the initiation of aura episodes and possibly also migraine headache attacks. It is unknown...... resting-state functional brain connectivity in migraineurs with aura outside of attacks using functional magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Forty patients suffering from migraine with visual aura and 40 individually age and gender matched healthy controls with no history or family history of migraine...... were investigated. Following advanced denoising, the data were analyzed both in a hypothesis-driven fashion, testing for abnormalities involving 27 different brain areas of potential relevance to migraine with aura including the cortical visual areas, the amygdala and peri-aqueductal grey matter...

  14. Retraction With Face Saving: modelling conversational interaction through dynamic hypermedia

    OpenAIRE

    Baldry, Anthony; Piastra, Marco; Bolognesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes RWFS (Retraction With Face Saving), a hypermedia application which models an interview between a lawyer and his client - a lorry driver - facing court charges of reckless driving. At one level RWFS takes the form of a sophisticated game in which different outcomes to the interview are possible according to the learner's degree of skill. At another level, RWFS is designed to encourage the language learner's awareness and understanding of the pragmatic features of conversat...

  15. Adjustable sutures in eyelid surgery for ptosis and lid retraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J R; O'Donnell, B A

    1994-01-01

    New techniques are described and illustrated for ptosis and lid retraction surgery in which the sutures holding the upper eyelid position are adjustable postoperatively. In the anterior approach, the sutures pass from the levator muscle through the anterior surface of the tarsal plate at the position of the skin crease and are tied at the skin crease incision. In the posterior approach, the sutures pass from the levator muscle through the cut upper edge of the tarsal plate and are tied at the...

  16. Retraction of Savine, McDaniel, Shelton, and Scullin (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Reports the retraction of "A characterization of individual differences in prospective memory monitoring using the Complex Ongoing Serial Task" by Adam C. Savine, Mark A. McDaniel, Jill Talley Shelton and Michael K. Scullin (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2012[May], Vol 141[2], 337-362). The following article from the May 2012 issue is being retracted. This retraction follows the results of an investigation into the work of Adam C. Savine, published in the Federal Register by the Office of Research Integrity on March 7, 2013. The Office of Research Integrity found that Adam C. Savine engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results to show that prospective memory is influenced by three dissociable underlying monitoring patterns, which are stable within individuals over time and are influenced by personality and cognitive differences. Data were modified to support the three category model and to show (1) that individuals fitting into each of the three categories exhibited differential patterns of prospective memory performance and ongoing task performance in Tables 1-3 and Figures 5-8; and (2) that certain cognitive and personality differences were predictive of distinct monitoring approaches within the three categories in Figure 9. His co-authors were unaware of his actions and were not involved in falsifying data. (The abstract of the original article appeared in record 2011-25213-001.). PMID:23915125

  17. Optimizing Anterior En Masse Retraction with Miniscrew Anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In severely protrusive patients, skeletal anchorage from miniscrew is often used to avoid anchorage loss with preferred miniscrew location near centre of resistance (Cres of posterior teeth. Biomechanical requirement for directing retraction force towards Cres of posterior teeth demands the insertion of miniscrew in loose mucosa, where risk of infection and failure increases. In addition, undesirable biomechanical side effects on anterior and posterior segments may be possible in all three planes, when continuous arch sliding mechanics are installed with miniscrew anchorage. This paper describes technique of molar-stabilizing power arm (MSPA for simultaneous intrusion and retraction of anteriors with miniscrew placement at attached gingiva between 1st molar and 2nd premolar. Advantages of this technique include (i the need of miniscrews placement in loose mucosa apically near the Cres of the posterior teeth is eliminated, (ii the risk of infection and miniscrew failure is lowered since the miniscrew is placed in attached gingiva rather than the loose mucosa, and (iii by adjusting vertical length or replacing MSPA, alteration of the retraction force vector is possible in all three planes; thus, need of removal and repositioning of the miniscrew (e.g., in correction of occlusal cant can be eliminated.

  18. Optimizing anterior en masse retraction with miniscrew anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2011-01-01

    In severely protrusive patients, skeletal anchorage from miniscrew is often used to avoid anchorage loss with preferred miniscrew location near centre of resistance (Cres) of posterior teeth. Biomechanical requirement for directing retraction force towards Cres of posterior teeth demands the insertion of miniscrew in loose mucosa, where risk of infection and failure increases. In addition, undesirable biomechanical side effects on anterior and posterior segments may be possible in all three planes, when continuous arch sliding mechanics are installed with miniscrew anchorage. This paper describes technique of molar-stabilizing power arm (MSPA) for simultaneous intrusion and retraction of anteriors with miniscrew placement at attached gingiva between 1st molar and 2nd premolar. Advantages of this technique include (i) the need of miniscrews placement in loose mucosa apically near the Cres of the posterior teeth is eliminated, (ii) the risk of infection and miniscrew failure is lowered since the miniscrew is placed in attached gingiva rather than the loose mucosa, and (iii) by adjusting vertical length or replacing MSPA, alteration of the retraction force vector is possible in all three planes; thus, need of removal and repositioning of the miniscrew (e.g., in correction of occlusal cant) can be eliminated. PMID:22567438

  19. Ampullary Adenoma Treated by Endoscopic Double-Snare Retracting Papillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Hiromitsu; Miyata, Naoteru; Hozawa, Shigenari; Higuchi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yuji; Saeki, Keita; Kameyama, Kaori; Masugi, Yohei; Yahagi, Naohisa; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-09-23

    We report herein improved methods for the safe and successful completion of endoscopic papillectomy (EP). Between January 2008 and November 2011, 12 patients underwent double-snare retracting papillectomy for the treatment of lesions of the major duodenal papilla. The main outcomes were en bloc resection rates, pathological findings, and adverse events. All of the patients (mean age, 60.1 years; range, 38 to 80 years) were diagnosed with ampullary adenoma by endoscopic forceps biopsies prior to endoscopic snare papillectomy. En bloc resection by double-snare retracting papillectomy was successfully performed for all lesions (median size, 12.3 mm), comprising six tubular adenomas, one tubulovillous adenoma, three cases of epithelial atypia, one hamartomatous polyp, and one case of duodenitis with regenerative change. Significant hemorrhage and pancreatitis were observed in one case after EP. Adenoma recurrence occurred in three patients during follow-up (median, 28.5 months) at a mean interval of 2 months postoperatively (range, 1 to 3 months). No serious adverse events were observed. Double-snare retracting papillectomy is effective and feasible for treating lesions of the major duodenal papilla. Further treatment experience, including a single-arm phase II study, needs to be accumulated before conducting a randomized controlled study. PMID:26087781

  20. Type-IV Pilus Deformation Can Explain Retraction Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric filament like type IV Pilus (TFP) can transfer forces in excess of 100pN during their retraction before stalling, powering surface translocation(twitching). Single TFP level experiments have shown remarkable nonlinearity in the retraction behavior influenced by the external load as well as levels of PilT molecular motor protein. This includes reversal of motion near stall forces when the concentration of the PilT protein is lowered significantly. In order to explain this behavior, we analyze the coupling of TFP elasticity and interfacial behavior with PilT kinetics. We model retraction as reaction controlled and elongation as transport controlled process. The reaction rates vary with TFP deformation which is modeled as a compound elastic body consisting of multiple helical strands under axial load. Elongation is controlled by monomer transport which suffer entrapment due to excess PilT in the cell periplasm. Our analysis shows excellent agreement with a host of experimental observations and we prese...

  1. Cooperative retraction of bundled type IV pili enables nanonewton force generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Biais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bears retractable filamentous appendages called type IV pili (Tfp. Tfp are used by many pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria to carry out a number of vital functions, including DNA uptake, twitching motility (crawling over surfaces, and attachment to host cells. In N. gonorrhoeae, Tfp binding to epithelial cells and the mechanical forces associated with this binding stimulate signaling cascades and gene expression that enhance infection. Retraction of a single Tfp filament generates forces of 50-100 piconewtons, but nothing is known, thus far, on the retraction force ability of multiple Tfp filaments, even though each bacterium expresses multiple Tfp and multiple bacteria interact during infection. We designed a micropillar assay system to measure Tfp retraction forces. This system consists of an array of force sensors made of elastic pillars that allow quantification of retraction forces from adherent N. gonorrhoeae bacteria. Electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy were used in combination with this novel assay to assess the structures of Tfp. We show that Tfp can form bundles, which contain up to 8-10 Tfp filaments, that act as coordinated retractable units with forces up to 10 times greater than single filament retraction forces. Furthermore, single filament retraction forces are transient, whereas bundled filaments produce retraction forces that can be sustained. Alterations of noncovalent protein-protein interactions between Tfp can inhibit both bundle formation and high-amplitude retraction forces. Retraction forces build over time through the recruitment and bundling of multiple Tfp that pull cooperatively to generate forces in the nanonewton range. We propose that Tfp retraction can be synchronized through bundling, that Tfp bundle retraction can generate forces in the nanonewton range in vivo, and that such high forces could affect infection.

  2. Soliton-Like Pulses in Vertical Granular Chain Under Gravity: Particle-Like or Wave-Like?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ai-Guo; HONG Jongbae

    2001-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation, reflection and collision of soliton-like pulses in the vertical granular chain under gravity. For the pure granular chain system, during the propagation and reflection processes at the fixed end, it behaves like a particle. When it is reflected at the free end, it behaves as neither particle-like nor wave-like.When the strengths of the two colliding soliton-like pulses are close, they collide just like particles. When their strengths are greatly different, they collide just like waves. For the soliton behavior in the collision process, from particle-like to wave-like, there is a critical value θC for the ratio θ of the strengths of the two initial pulses. For the two-layer granular chain, if the mass of the grains in the second layeris less than that in the first layer, the soliton-like pulse in the first layer usually excites about [1/m] soliton-like pulses in the second layer.``

  3. Epileptic auras and their role in driving safety in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Vineet; Farooque, Pue; Chen, William; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Berg, Anne T; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of auras in preventing motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) among patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The Multicenter Study of Epilepsy Surgery database was used to perform a case-control study by identifying patients who had seizures while driving that led to MVAs (cases) and those who had seizures while driving without MVAs (controls). We compared presence of reliable auras and other aura-related features between the two groups. Two hundred fifteen of 553 patients reported having seizure(s) while driving; 74 were identified as "controls" and 141 as "cases." The two groups had similar demographic and clinical features. The presence of reliable auras was not different between the two groups (67% in cases vs. 65% in controls; odds ratio [OR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.61, p = 0.76). In addition, the groups did not differ in the proportion of patients who reported longer (>1 min) auras (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.28-1.76, p = 0.47), or who thought that their auras were of sufficient duration to be protective (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.62-2.00, p = 0.77). Our study questions the long-held belief of a protective role of reliable auras against MVAs in people with epilepsy.

  4. Effects of tonabersat on migraine with aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Schytz, Henrik W;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine with aura is thought likely to be caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). Tonabersat inhibits CSD, and we therefore investigated whether tonabersat has a preventive effect in migraine with aura. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover...... trial, 40 mg tonabersat once daily was compared with matched placebo in patients who had at least one aura attack per month during the past 3 months. Randomisation was by computer-generated list. Patients kept a detailed diary to enable objective diagnosis of each attack as migraine with aura, migraine...... without aura, or other type of headache. Primary endpoints were a reduction in aura attacks with or without headache and a reduction in migraine headache days with or without an aura. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered, number NCT00332007. FINDINGS: 39 patients were included in the study...

  5. In Vivo Investigation of the Effectiveness of a Hyper-viscoelastic Model in Simulating Brain Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenxi; An, Yong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-07-01

    Intraoperative brain retraction leads to a misalignment between the intraoperative positions of the brain structures and their previous positions, as determined from preoperative images. In vitro swine brain sample uniaxial tests showed that the mechanical response of brain tissue to compression and extension could be described by the hyper-viscoelasticity theory. The brain retraction caused by the mechanical process is a combination of brain tissue compression and extension. In this paper, we first constructed a hyper-viscoelastic framework based on the extended finite element method (XFEM) to simulate intraoperative brain retraction. To explore its effectiveness, we then applied this framework to an in vivo brain retraction simulation. The simulation strictly followed the clinical scenario, in which seven swine were subjected to brain retraction. Our experimental results showed that the hyper-viscoelastic XFEM framework is capable of simulating intraoperative brain retraction and improving the navigation accuracy of an image-guided neurosurgery system (IGNS).

  6. In Vivo Investigation of the Effectiveness of a Hyper-viscoelastic Model in Simulating Brain Retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Chenxi; An, Yong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative brain retraction leads to a misalignment between the intraoperative positions of the brain structures and their previous positions, as determined from preoperative images. In vitro swine brain sample uniaxial tests showed that the mechanical response of brain tissue to compression and extension could be described by the hyper-viscoelasticity theory. The brain retraction caused by the mechanical process is a combination of brain tissue compression and extension. In this paper, we first constructed a hyper-viscoelastic framework based on the extended finite element method (XFEM) to simulate intraoperative brain retraction. To explore its effectiveness, we then applied this framework to an in vivo brain retraction simulation. The simulation strictly followed the clinical scenario, in which seven swine were subjected to brain retraction. Our experimental results showed that the hyper-viscoelastic XFEM framework is capable of simulating intraoperative brain retraction and improving the navigation accuracy of an image-guided neurosurgery system (IGNS). PMID:27387301

  7. Surgical management of retraction pockets of the pars tensa with cartilage and perichondrial grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, P; Mills, R

    2006-09-01

    Stable, self-cleansing retraction pockets of the pars tensa are common incidental findings and require no treatment. In other cases, recurrent discharge occurs and there may also be associated conductive hearing loss. In a minority of cases, cholesteatoma may develop. This paper presents the results of surgery using a graft composed of cartilage and perichondrium for retraction pockets involving the posterior half of the tympanic membrane, as well as early results using a larger graft designed to manage retraction of the entire tympanic membrane. Data on 51 patients with posterior retraction pockets are presented. Forty-two (82 per cent) patients had no aural discharge one year following surgery and the tympanic membrane was not retracted in 43 (84 per cent). The larger 'Mercedes-Benz' graft was used in four patients and the results obtained suggested that it may prove a successful technique for extensive retraction pockets. PMID:16740207

  8. CASE REPORT How to Repair the Lower Eyelid Retraction, Resulting From the Primary Surgery for Epiblepharon?

    OpenAIRE

    Asamura, Shinichi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Matsushima, Seika; Morotomi, Tadaaki; Isogai, Noritaka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Among the surgical procedures used to correct the positions of the eyelids or improve their cosmetic appearance, procedures for treating eyelid retraction are some of the most challenging. Lower eyelid retraction can occur iatrogenically after various surgical procedures. We performed a successful corrective procedure for lower eyelid retraction, which had occurred at some point in the 2 decades after primary surgery for epiblepharon. Method: A 23-year-old woman underwent primary s...

  9. Space-time Geodesics of the 5D Schwarzschild field and its deformation retract

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Nasr

    2014-01-01

    In this article we introduce some types of the deformtion retracts of the $5D$ Schwarzchild space making use of Lagrangian equations. The retraction of this space into itself and into geodesics has been presented. The relation between folding and deformation retract of this space has been achieved. A relation for energy conservation similar to the one obtained in four dimensions has been obtained for the five dimensional case.

  10. Experimental lead poisoning in Turkey Vultures, Cathartes aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.W.; Pattee, O.H.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus. We orally dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with BB-sized lead shot from January 1988 through July 1988 to determine physiological response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. Two turkey vultures died and two became so intoxicated they were euthanized. Overall, responses of measured parameters were comparable to other species exposed to lead although there was considerable individual variation. Survival time (143-211 days), even with the large number of shot and constant redosing, was much longer than reported for other species of birds, suggesting considerable tolerance by turkey vultures to the deleterious effects of lead ingestion. Based on these observations, turkey vultures appear to be poor models for assessing the risk of lead poisoning to California condors or predicting their physiological response.

  11. Summary of Aqua, Aura, and Terra High Interest Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Single-obs tracking Sparsely tracked objects are an unfortunate reality of CARA operations Terra vs. 32081: new track with bad data was included in OD solution for secondary object and risk became high CARA and JSpOC discussed tracking and OSAs threw out the bad data. Event no longer presented high risk based on new OD Improvement: CARA now sends JSpOC a flag indicating when a single obs is included, so OSAs can evaluate if manual update to OD is required. Missing ASW OCMsAura vs. 87178, TCA: 317 at 08:04 UTC. Post-maneuver risk (conjunction was identified in OO results)CARA confirmed with JSpOC that ASW OCMs should have been received in addition to OO OCMsJSpOC corrected the manual error in their script that prevented the data from being delivered to CARAJSpOC QAd their other scripts to ensure this error did not exist in other places.

  12. Magnetic resonance image abnormality in migraine with aura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.K.; Batnitzky, S.; Barter, R.; McMillan, J.H. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States). Medical Center)

    1991-07-01

    Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 patients with migraine characterized by aura consisting of both visual symtoms and parasthesias. 15 headache-free individuals of the same age range were used as controls. Records were radomized and read in blind fashion by two neuroradiologists. Small subcortical white matter lesions were seen in three migraine cases and two controls. In one migraine case cortical infarctions were seen. In two controls, small areas of increased density similar to those in migraine were seen. No consistent correlation of migraine or its duration with cerebral atrophy was found. It is concluded that identification of both these MRI findings (small subcortical white lesions and cerebral atrophy) as significantly associated with migraine is doubtful. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Direct Observations of PMC Local Time Variations by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite obtains unique measurements for polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) analysis. Its wide cross-track viewing swath and high along-track spatial resolution makes it possible to directly evaluate PMC occurrence frequency and brightness variations between 6S" and 8S' latitude as a function of local time over a 12-14 h continuous period. OMI PMC local time variations are closely coupled to concurrent variations in measurement scattering angle, so that ice phase function effects must be considered when interpreting the observations. Two different phase functions corresponding to bright and faint clouds are examined in this analysis. OMI observations show maximum frequency and albedo values at 8-10 h local time in the Northern Hemisphere, with decreasing amplitude at higher latitudes. Southern Hemisphere values reach a minimum at 18-20 h LT. Larger variations are seen in Northern Hemisphere data. No statistically significant longitudinal dependence was seen.

  14. Simultaneous Occurrence of Duane Retraction Syndrome with Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue, while Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is a congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder (CCDD which can be transmitted as autosomal dominant disorder in 5–10% of patients. In this paper, we present an 8-year-old girl who presented with left eye DRS and bilateral subluxation of the lens associated with MFS in absence of familial involvement. To our knowledge this is the first case report of DRS with MFS. The occurrence of these syndromes together is very rare and appears to be coincidental.

  15. Unusual "ratchet syndrome": spontaneous lead retraction after a generator exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejima, Koichiro; Shoda, Morio; Yashiro, Bun; Yoshida, Kentaro; Nuki, Toshiaki; Kato, Ken; Manaka, Tetsuyuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2014-07-01

    A 72-year-old female with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent a generator exchange for a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator with a full-pocket capsulectomy. The lead position after the operation was identical to that before the operation on the chest X-ray. After 4 months, a subacute exacerbation of her heart failure was caused by cardiac resynchronization therapy failure due to a dislodgement of the left ventricular lead. An aggressive adhesiotomy of the connective tissue around the leads made it possible for the lead to retract by a ratchet-like movement through the suture sleeve, so-called "ratchet syndrome", after the generator exchange.

  16. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder HCl Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, L.; Jiang, Y. B.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Waters, J. W.; Fuller, R. A.; Marcy, T. P.; Popp, P. J.; Gao, R. S.; Fahey, D. W.; Jucks, K. W.; Stachnik, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Christensen, L. E.; Webster, C. R.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Walker, K. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Harwood, R. S.; Manney, G. L.; Schwartz, M. J.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite has provided daily global HCl profiles since August 2004. We provide a characterization of the resolution, random and systematic uncertainties, and known issues for the version 2.2 MLS HCl data. The MLS sampling allows for comparisons with many (1500 to more than 3000) closely matched profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). These data sets provide HCl latitudinal distributions that are, overall, very similar to those from (coincident) MLS profiles, although there are some discrepancies in the upper stratosphere between the MLS and HALOE gradients. As found in previous work, MLS and ACE HCl profiles agree very well (within approximately 5%, on average), but the MLS HCl abundances are generally larger (by 10-20%) than HALOE HCl. The bias versus HALOE is unlikely to arise mostly from MLS, as a similar systematic bias (of order 15%) is not observed between average MLS and balloon-borne measurements of HCl, obtained over Fort Sumner, New Mexico, in 2004 and 2005. At the largest pressure (147 hPa) for MLS HCl, a high bias (approximately 0.2 ppbv) is apparent in analyses of low to midlatitude data versus in situ aircraft chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) HCl measurements from the Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) campaigns in 2004, 2005, and 2006; this bias is also observed in comparisons of MLS and aircraftHCl/O3 correlations. Good agreement between MLS and CIMS HCl is obtained at 100 to 68 hPa. The recommended pressure range for MLS HCl is from 100 to 0.15 hPa.

  17. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCNO2) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  18. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC11) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  19. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCCFC12) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of...

  20. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Geopotential Height Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCGPH) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  1. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Nitric Acid (HNO3) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCHNO3) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  2. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Water Vapor (H2O) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCH2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS data...

  3. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Dinitrogen Pentoxide (N2O5) Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFCN2O) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  4. HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "HIRDLS/Aura Level 3 Extinction at 8.3 Microns Zonal Fourier Coefficients" version 7 data product (H3ZFC8MEXT) contains the entire mission (~3 years) of HIRDLS...

  5. Visualization, Analysis and Subsetting Tools for EOS Aura Data Products in HDF-EOS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.; Ahmad, S.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aura data products are among the first to use the new version 5 of the Hierarchical Data Format for the Earth Observing System, or HDF-EOS5. This presentation discusses the common HDF-EOS5 file layout that is adopted for most of the EOS Aura standard data products. Details of the various tools that can be used to access, visualize and subset these data will also be provided. Aura, the NASA Earth Observing System's atmospheric chemistry mission, was successfully launched July 15, 2004. The Aura spacecraft includes four instruments: the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). Data from the HIRDLS, MLS and OMI will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while TES data will be archived at the NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. For more information see http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

  6. EOS Aura Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting @ LASP (Boulder, CO) April 13, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, William J.; Fisher, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Presentation reflects EOS Aura mission status, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage, orbit maintenance maneuvers, conjunction assessment events, orbital parameters trends and predictions.

  7. Investigations of functional and structural changes in migraine with aura by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Migraine sufferers with aura often report visual discomfort outside of attacks and many consider bright or flickering light an attack-precipitating factor. The nature of this visual hypersensitivity and its relation to the underlying pathophysiology of the migraine aura is unknown. A useful...... technology to study these features of migraine with aura (MA) is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has the potential not only to detect, but also to localize hypersensitive cortex. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the cortical responsivity of patients with MA during...... visual stimulation using fMRI. To optimize sensitivity, we applied a within-patient design by assessing functional interhemispheric differences in patients consistently experiencing visual aura in the same visual hemifield. To validate our data analysis methods, we initially studied healthy volunteers...

  8. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... with frequent side-locked MA, i.e. visual aura consistently occurring in the same hemifield. METHODS: We applied a highly sensitive within-patient design to assess anatomical differences with both voxel-based morphometry and surface-based morphometry on a whole-hemisphere level and for specific anatomical...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...

  9. Retraction Assembly for Space Shuttle Extended Nose Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley S.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of a project to encourage the use of shape memory alloy actuators for space actuators, this mechanism uses a nitinol ribbon to provide the necessary motion to help retract the proposed extended nose landing gear (ENLG) for the space shuttle. Initial proof-of-concept design of the ENLG did not include the ability to retract the gear automatically. One proposed actuator for this purpose was designed at Johnson Space Center and uses resistive heating to rotate the ribbon around a cylinder. This rotation then allows the assembly to pull down a wedge that is used to hold the landing gear strut in place, thus returning the landing gear to its previous height before extension. The presentation will follow the design of this assembly from working with the nitinol ribbon to providing mechanical connections and allowing minimal friction for motion of three wraps around a cylinder. Also to be presented is preliminary work on design of a shape memory alloy gripper, a design project to demonstrate uses of NiTi.

  10. Performances in cerebellar and neuromuscular transmission tests are correlated in migraine with aura

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, A; Sándor, P S; De Pasqua, V; Pierelli, F; Schoenen, J.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we described subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions in migraineurs. The aim of this study was to search if these two functions are correlated in the same patient. Thirteen migraineurs [five without aura (MO) and eight with aura (MA)] underwent both stimulation-SFEMG and 3D-movement analysis. Single fiber EMG (SFEMG) results were expressed as the "mean value of consecutive differences" (mean MCD). Precision of arm-reaching movement...

  11. Magnetic suppression of perceptual accuracy is not reduced in episodic migraine without aura

    OpenAIRE

    Rauschel, Veronika; Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Eggert, Thomas; Straube, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Altered cortical excitability is thought to be part of migraine pathophysiology. Reduced magnetic suppression of perceptual accuracy (MSPA) has been found in episodic migraine with aura and in chronic migraine, and has been interpreted as reduced inhibition of the occipital cortex in these migraine subtypes. Results are less clear for episodic migraine without aura. In the present study we compared MSPA between 24 healthy controls and 22 interictally measured episodic migraine pat...

  12. A Decade of Volcanic Observations from Aura and the A-Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Krotkov, Nickolay Anatoly; Yang, Kai; Krueger, Arlin J.; Hughes, Eric J.; Wang, Jun; Flower, Verity; Telling, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Aura observations have made many seminal contributions to volcanology. Prior to the Aura launch, satellite observations of volcanic degassing (e.g., from TOMS) were mostly restricted to large eruptions. However, the vast majority of volcanic gases are released during quiescent 'passive' degassing between eruptions. The improved sensitivity of Aura OMI permitted the first daily, space-borne measurements of passive volcanic SO2 degassing, providing improved constraints on the source locations and magnitude of global SO2 emissions for input to atmospheric chemistry and climate models. As a result of this unique sensitivity to volcanic activity, OMI data were also the first satellite SO2 measurements to be routinely used for volcano monitoring at several volcano observatories worldwide. Furthermore, the Aura OMI SO2 data also offer unprecedented sensitivity to volcanic clouds in the UTLS, elucidating the transport, fate and lifetime of volcanic SO2 and providing critical input to aviation hazard mitigation efforts. Another major advance has been the improved vertical resolution of volcanic clouds made possible by synergy between Aura and other A-Train instruments (e.g., AIRS, CALIPSO, CloudSat), advanced UV SO2 altitude retrievals, and inverse trajectory modeling of detailed SO2 cloud maps. This altitude information is crucial for climate models and aviation hazards. We will review some of the highlights of a decade of Aura observations of volcanic activity and look ahead to the future of volcanic observations from space.

  13. An Analysis of the Concept "Aura" in Benjamin's Literature Criticism%对本雅明文艺批评中"Aura"概念的梳理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洪举

    2004-01-01

    "Aura"在本雅明的文艺批评中是一个非常重要的概念,本文采取文本细读的方式,对有关此概念的论述进行梳理,以对"Aura"进行多层次的界定,并以此作为契入点,来考察本雅明对现代艺术和古典艺术的看法.

  14. 76 FR 472 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Landing Gear Retracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes--Landing Gear Retracting Mechanisms and Pilot... transport category airplanes on landing gear retracting mechanisms and the pilot compartment view. This... in a stalling maneuver, and would add an additional requirement to keep the landing gear and doors...

  15. 77 FR 1614 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Airplanes-Landing Gear Retracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Register on January 5, 2011 (76 FR 472). The NPRM proposed to amend the standards for landing gear... Transport Category Airplanes--Landing Gear Retracting Mechanisms and Pilot Compartment View AGENCY: Federal... the airworthiness standards for transport category airplanes on landing gear retracting mechanisms...

  16. Interhemispheric differences of fMRI responses to visual stimuli in patients with side-fixed migraine aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hoffmann, Michael B;

    2014-01-01

    Migraine sufferers with aura often report photosensitivity and visual discomfort outside of attacks and many consider bright or flickering light an attack-precipitating factor. The nature of this visual hypersensitivity and its relation to the underlying pathophysiology of the migraine aura...... is unknown. Using fMRI measurements during visual stimulation we examined the visual cortical responsiveness of patients with migraine with aura. We applied a within-patient design by assessing functional interhemispheric differences in patients consistently experiencing visual aura in the same visual...... hemifield. We recruited 20 patients with frequent side-fixed visual aura attacks (≥90% of auras occurring in the same visual hemifield) and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls and compared the fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses to visual stimulation between symptomatic...

  17. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  18. A General Version of the Retract Method for Discrete Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josef DIBL(I)K; Irena R(U)(Z)I(C)KOV(A); Miroslava R(U)(Z)I(C)KOV(A)

    2007-01-01

    We study a problem concerning the compulsory behavior of the solutions of systems of iscrete equations u(k + 1) = F(k, u(k)), k ∈ N(a) = {a, a + 1, a + 2, ...}, a ∈ N, N = {0, 1, ...} and : N(a)×Rn → Rn. A general principle for the existence of at least one solution with graph staying for very k ∈ N(a) in a previously prescribed domain is formulated. Such solutions are defined by means f the corresponding initial data and their existence is proved by means of retract type approach. For he development of this approach a notion of egress type points lying on the defined boundary of a iven domain and with respect to the system considered is utilized. Unlike previous investigations,the boundary can contain points which are not points of egress type, too. Examples are inserted to llustrate the obtained result.

  19. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  20. Retractable tube design issues in ITER CXRS UPP no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The retractable tube is located in the upper port plug no. 3 of ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (cCXRS) that carries the cleaning system of the first mirror. ► Various manufacturing methods were investigated for the proper layout of the tube cooling structure. ► The tube support boundary conditions were examined. ► A flexible compensator element was developed between the floating and structural flange of the tube. -- Abstract: The retractable tube is located in the upper port plug no. 3 of ITER core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (cCXRS), where it is surrounded by a set of mirrors, diagnostic shielding module (DSM), outer shell, cleaning device and shutter. Accordingly to the recent port plug concept the tube is an optional unit that carries the cleaning system of the first mirror. The cleaning device shall be a compact instrument at the tube head that influences the tube diameter primarily. Independently of the cleaning device the tube cooling channels and its proper support concept has to be developed. Various manufacturing methods are investigated for the proper layout of the tube cooling structure. They are the gun-drilled deep holes, the solid state bonded sheets forming cooling channels between the welded layers, ‘tube-in-tube’ approach. Most of them were analyzed in view of their thermal conditions. The tube support system design is a complex task, that has to take into account several boundary conditions and limitations. The tube must be compatible with the assumed ITER generic installation procedure, withstand the electromagnetic (EM) and thermal loads. Furthermore, the tube has to be exchanged several times during its lifetime. The paper summarizes the tube cooling layout possibilities and the assumptions on its support concepts

  1. Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Pumphrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is an important atmospheric constituent, particularly in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. These events can inject large amounts of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, where it is oxidised to form sulfate aerosols; these in turn have a significant effect on the climate. The MLS instrument on the Aura satellite has observed the SO2 mixing ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from August 2004 to the present, during which time a number of volcanic eruptions have significantly affected those regions of the atmosphere. We describe the MLS SO2 data and how various volcanic events appear in the data. As the MLS SO2 data are currently not validated we take some initial steps towards their validation. First we establish the level of internal consistency between the three spectral regions in which MLS is sensitive to SO2. We compare SO2 column values calculated from MLS data to total column values reported by the OMI instrument. The agreement is good (within about 1 DU in cases where the SO2 is clearly at altitudes above 147 hPa.

  2. Observational Diagnoses of Extratropical Ozone STE During the Aura Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Mark A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquie C.; Kaplan, Trevor B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the extratropical troposphere is an important boundary condition to tropospheric chemistry. However, previous direct estimates from models and indirect estimates from observations have poorly constrained the magnitude of ozone stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE). In this study we provide a direct diagnosis of the extratropical ozone STE using data from the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura and output of the MERRA reanalysis over the time period from 2005 to the present. We find that the mean annual STE is about 275 Tg/yr and 205 Tg/yr in the NH and SH, respectively. The interannual variability of the magnitude is about twice as great in the NH than the SH. We find that this variability is dominated by the seasonal variability during the late winter and spring. A comparison of the ozone flux to the mass flux reveals that there is not a simple relationship between the two quantities. This presentation will also examine the magnitude and distribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere relative to the years of maximum and minimum ozone STE. Finally, we will examine any possible signature of increased ozone STE in the troposphere using sonde and tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) data, and output from the Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry Transport Model (GMI CTM).

  3. Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Pumphrey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur dioxide (SO2 is an important atmospheric constituent, particularly in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. These events can inject large amounts of SO2 into the lower stratosphere, where it is oxidised to form sulphate aerosols; these in turn have a significant effect on the climate. The MLS instrument on the Aura satellite has observed the SO2 mixing ratio in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from August 2004 to the present, during which time a number of volcanic eruptions have significantly affected those regions of the atmosphere. We describe the MLS SO2 data and how various volcanic events appear in the data. As the MLS SO2 data are currently not validated we take some initial steps towards their validation. First we establish the level of internal consistency between the three spectral regions in which MLS is sensitive to SO2. We compare SO2 column values calculated from MLS data to total column values reported by the OMI instrument. The agreement is good in cases where the SO2 is clearly at altitudes above 147 hPa.

  4. Tapio Aura - tsemenditehas tuleb järgmisele põlvkonnale üle anda natuke paremas seisus / Tapio Aura ; interv. Toomas Kään

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aura, Tapio

    2005-01-01

    AS Kunda Nordic Tsement juhatuse esimees on kümne Eestis elatud ja töötatud aastaga ära õppinud eesti keele ning teinud tehasest tugeva, jätkusuutliku ja konkurentsivõimelise ettevõtte. Lisa: Eino Tapio Aura. Kommenteerib maxit Estonia AS tegevdirektor Viktor Valkiainen

  5. Características clínicas da enxaqueca sem aura Clinical characteristics of migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ PAULO DE QUEIROZ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo aprofundado das características clínicas da enxaqueca sem aura (ESA revela alguns dados interessantes. Um questionário foi respondido por 200 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios da Sociedade Internacional de Cefaléia para ESA. O pico do início da enxaqueca foi entre 10 e 19 anos de idade. A cefaléia era restrita a um lado em 19%. Era exclusivamente bilateral em 9%. A maioria (86,2% dos pacientes que descreveram cefaléias em um único local localizou-a na área fronto-temporal. Cervicalgia estava associada aos ataques de enxaqueca em 70,5% e dor facial em 73,5%. O caráter latejante foi notado por 81%. Todos os pacientes descreveram a cefaléia como moderada a severa. Somente 55% disseram que a dor era agravada por atividades físicas rotineiras. Náusea ocorreu em 91%, foto e fonofobia em 77% e vômitos em 50%. Este olhar detalhado na ESA demonstra a grande complexidade dos seus sintomas.A detailed study of the clinical characteristics of migraine without aura (MOA reveals some interesting data. A questionnaire was returned by 200 patients who met the International Headache Society criteria for MOA. The peak of onset of migraine was between 10 and 19 years of age. The headache was side-locked in 19%. It was exclusively bilateral in 9%. The majority (86.2% of the patients who described headaches in only one site located them in the fronto-temporal area. Neck pain was associated with migraine attacks in 70.5% and face pain in 73.5%. A pounding quality was noted by 81%. Every patient described the headache as moderate to severe. Only 55% stated that it was aggravated by routine physical activity. Nausea occurred in 91%, photo and phonophobia in 77%, and vomiting in 50%. This close look at MOA uncovers a great complexity of symptoms.

  6. Electromagnetic panel deployment and retraction using the geomagnetic field in LEO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Sugawara, Yoshiki; Satou, Yasutaka

    2015-12-01

    Increasingly, spacecraft are installed with large-area structures that are extended and deployed post-launch. These extensible structures have been applied in several missions for power generation, thermal radiation, and solar propulsion. Here, we propose a deployment and retraction method using the electromagnetic force generated when the geomagnetic field interacts with electric current flowing on extensible panels. The panels are installed on a satellite in low Earth orbit. Specifically, electrical wires placed on the extensible panels generate magnetic moments, which interfere with the geomagnetic field. The resulting repulsive and retraction forces enable panel deployment and retraction. In the proposed method, a satellite realizes structural deployment using simple electrical wires. Furthermore, the satellite can achieve not only deployment but also retraction for avoiding damage from space debris and for agile attitude maneuvers. Moreover, because the proposed method realizes quasi-static deployment and the retraction of panels by electromagnetic forces, low impulsive force is exerted on fragile panels. The electrical wires can also be used to detect the panel deployment and retraction and generate a large magnetic moment for attitude control. The proposed method was assessed in numerical simulations based on multibody dynamics. Simulation results shows that a small cubic satellite with a wire current of 25 AT deployed 4 panels (20 cm × 20 cm) in 500 s and retracted 4 panels in 100 s.

  7. Retracted: Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The above article, published online on 20 December 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor L Popescu and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been requested by the University of Florida, Office of Research, in response to their investigation which concluded fabrication of data in Figures 2, 3 and 4. Reference Pan Q, Luo X, Chegini N. Retracted: differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids. J Cell Mol Med 12: 227-240. Doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00207.x.

  8. Retraction. I148M PNPLA3 variant and progressive liver disease: A new paradigm in hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Retraction: The following editorial from HEPATOLOGY, "I148M PNPLA3 variant and progressive liver disease: A new paradigm in hepatology", by Luca Valenti, Anna Alisi and Valerio Nobili, posted online on 2 December 2011 as an Accepted Article in Wiley Online Library (www.wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the AASLD, the journal Editor in Chief, Michael H. Nathanson, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to the fact that an incorrect version was posted online. The correct version of the Editorial has been issued under a separate DOI, 10.1002/hep.25617.

  9. Attachment styles in children affected by migraine without aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Anna Di Dona,1 Serena Marianna Lavano,2 Michele Roccella,4 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, The Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: In recent years, great attention has been given to the presence of psychological problems and psychiatric comorbidity that are also present in children affected by primary headaches. The relationship between pain and attachment has been identified, and it may be that pain perception may change in relation with specific attachment styles. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalent attachment style and verify its putative relationship and correlation with the main characteristics of migraine attacks, in school-aged children affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 219 children (103 males, 116 females aged between 6 and 11 years (mean 8.96 ± 2.14 years, consecutively referred for MoA compared with 381 healthy controls (174 males, 207 females; mean age 9.01 ± 1.75 years randomly selected from schools. All the children were classified according to the attachment typologies of the Italian modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test; monthly headache frequency and mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children. Headache intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The chi-square test and t-test, where appropriate, were applied, and the Spearman rank correlation test was applied to explore the relationship between the types of attachment

  10. Exploiting Aura OMI Level 2 Data with High Resolution Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. C.; Yang, W.; Johnson, J. E.; Zhao, P.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Pham, L.; Vicente, G. A.; Shen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite data products are important for a wide variety of applications that can bring far-reaching benefits to the science community and the broader society. These benefits can best be achieved if the satellite data are well utilized and interpreted, such as model inputs from satellite, or extreme event (such as volcano eruption, dust storm, …etc) interpretation from satellite. Unfortunately, this is not always the case, despite the abundance and relative maturity of numerous satellite data products provided by NASA and other organizations. One way to help users better understand the satellite data is to provide data along with 'Images', including accurate pixel-level (Level 2) information, pixel coverage area delineation, and science team recommended quality screening for individual geophysical parameters. Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) always strives to best support (i.e., Software-as-a-service, SaaS) the user-community for NASA Earth Science Data. In this case, we will present a new visualization tool that helps users exploiting Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level 2 data. This new visualization service utilizes Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard-compliant Web Mapping Service (WMS) and Web Coverage Service (WCS) calls in the backend infrastructure. The functionality of the service allows users to select data sources (e.g., multiple parameters under the same measurement, like NO2 and SO2 from OMI Level 2 or same parameter with different methods of aggregation, like NO2 in OMNO2G and OMNO2D products), defining area-of-interest and temporal extents, zooming, panning, overlaying, sliding, and data subsetting and reformatting. The interface will also be able to connect to other OGC WMS and WCS servers, which will greatly enhance its expandability to integrate additional outside data/map sources (such as Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS)).

  11. Air Quality Research and Applications Using AURA OMi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, P.K.; Gleason, J.F.; Torres, O.; Levelt, P.; Liu, X.; Ziemke, J.; Chandra, S.; Krotkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS Aura is a new generation of satellite remote sensing instrument designed to measure trace gas and aerosol absorption at the UV and blue wavelengths. These measurements are made globally at urban scale resolution with no inter-orbital gaps that make them potentially very useful for air quality research, such as the determination of the sources and processes that affect global and regional air quality, and to develop applications such as air quality forecast. However, the use of satellite data for such applications is not as straight forward as satellite data have been for stratospheric research. There is a need for close interaction between the satellite product developers, in-situ measurement programs, and the air quality research community to overcome some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting data from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. In this talk we will discuss the challenges and opportunities in using OMI products for air quality research and applications. A key conclusion of this work is that to realize the full potential of OMI measurements it will be necessary to combine OMI data with data from instruments such as MLS, MODIS, AIRS, and CALIPSO that are currently flying in the "A-train" satellite constellation. In addition similar data taken by satellites crossing the earth at different local times than the A-train (e.g., the recently MetOp satellite) would need to be processed in a consistent manner to study diurnal variability, and to capture the effects on air quality of rapidly changing events such as wild fires.

  12. Abnormal sensorimotor plasticity in migraine without aura patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierelli, Francesco; Iacovelli, Elisa; Bracaglia, Martina; Serrao, Mariano; Coppola, Gianluca

    2013-09-01

    The period between migraine attacks is characterized by paradoxical responses to repetitive sensory and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Abnormal long-term cortical functional plasticity may play a role and can be assessed experimentally by paired associative stimulation (PAS), in which somatosensory peripheral nerve stimuli are followed by TMS of the motor cortex. Changes in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes were recorded in 16 migraine without aura patients (MO) and 15 healthy volunteers (HV) before and after PAS, which consisted of 90 peripheral electrical right ulnar nerve stimulations and subsequent TMS pulses over the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle activation site with a delay of 10 ms (excitability depressing) or 25 ms (excitability enhancing). As a control experiment of the 31 subjects studied, 8 (4 MO and 4 HV) also underwent PAS10 earlier, the recording of somatosensory high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) reflecting thalamocortical activation (early HFOs). Although PAS10 reduced MEP amplitudes in HV (-17.7%), it significantly increased amplitudes in MO (+35.9%). Although in HV MEP amplitudes were significantly potentiated (+55.1) after PAS25, only a slight, nonsignificant increase was observed in MO (+18.8%). In the control experiment, performed on 8 subjects pooled together, Pearson's correlation showed an inverse relationship between the percentage of MEP amplitude changes after PAS10 and early HFO amplitudes (r=-0.81; P=.01). Because we observed that the more deficient the long-term PAS-induced change, the more the thalamocortical activation decreased, we hypothesize that the abnormalities in long-term cortical plasticity observed in the interictal period between migraine episodes could be due to altered thalamic control.

  13. Science Objectives of EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levelt, P. F.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chance, K. V.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Maelkki, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    OMI is a UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter spectrograph, which provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 sq km. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from the European satellite instruments GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will measure solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm and a spectral sampling of about 2-3 per FWHM. From these observations, total columns of O3, NO2, BrO and SO2 will be derived from the back-scattered solar radiance using differential absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The TOMS total ozone record will also be continued by employing the well established TOMS algorithm. Because of the high accuracy and spatial resolution of the measurements, a good estimate of tropospheric amounts of ozone and NO2 are expected. Ozone profiles will be derived using the optimal estimation method. The spectral aerosol optical depth will be determined from measurements between 340 and 500 nm. This will provide information on aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and aerosol type. This wavelength range makes it possible to retrieve aerosol information over both land and sea. OMI observations will also allow retrievals of cloud coverage and cloud heights. From these products, the UV-B flux at the surface can then be derived with high spatial resolution.

  14. [Surgical technique of displacement and retraction of the heart with a pigtail shaped hook and Tentacles Heart Positioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yoshiei; Mochizuki, Y; Yamada, Y; Eda, K; Shibasaki, I; Inoue, Y; Miyoshi, S

    2007-07-01

    We describe a novel heart retracting system with Tentacles Heart Positioner (Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). The heart retracting system is composed of a pigtail shaped hook attached to a flexible Universal Stabilizer Arm (Estech, Minneapolis). After Tentacles suction device is applied on the surface of the heart, the retracting system is fixed on the sternal retracter so that the hook can hang and support the retracting tubes of the sucker. By regulating the shape of the Universal Stabilizer Arm and the position of the hook, the retracting system can lift the heart sufficiently and maintain the optimal position of the heart during OPCAB procedure. Together with Tentacles Heart Positioner, the heart retracting system provides excellent exposure of target coronary arteries with minimal effect on hemodynamics.

  15. Familial hemiplegic migraine locus on 19p13 is involved in the common forms of migraine with and without aura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. May (Arne); R.A. Ophoff (Roel); G.M. Terwindt (Gisela); C. Urban; R. van Eijk (Ronald); J. Haan (Joost); H.C. Diener (Hans Christoph); D. Lindhout (Dick); R.R. Frants (Rune); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk); M.D. Ferrari (Michel)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMigraine is a common neurological disease of two main types: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Familial clustering suggests that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of migraine. Recently, a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine, a rare autosomal dominant subtype of m

  16. Abnormal brain processing of pain in migraine without aura: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, L L; Jensen, R; Buchgreitz, L;

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we used high-density EEG brain mapping to investigate spatio-temporal aspects of brain activity in response to experimentally induced muscle pain in 17 patients with migraine without aura and 15 healthy controls. Painful electrical stimuli were applied to the trapezius muscle...... to the tonic muscle pain condition (z = 29 mm vs. z =¿-13 mm, P aura....

  17. Interhemispheric differences of fMRI responses to visual stimuli in patients with side-fixed migraine aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hoffmann, Michael B; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, Henrik B W; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-06-01

    Migraine sufferers with aura often report photosensitivity and visual discomfort outside of attacks and many consider bright or flickering light an attack-precipitating factor. The nature of this visual hypersensitivity and its relation to the underlying pathophysiology of the migraine aura is unknown. Using fMRI measurements during visual stimulation we examined the visual cortical responsiveness of patients with migraine with aura. We applied a within-patient design by assessing functional interhemispheric differences in patients consistently experiencing visual aura in the same visual hemifield. We recruited 20 patients with frequent side-fixed visual aura attacks (≥90% of auras occurring in the same visual hemifield) and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls and compared the fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses to visual stimulation between symptomatic and asymptomatic hemispheres during the interictal phase and between migraine patients and controls. BOLD responses were selectively increased in the symptomatic hemispheres. This was found in the inferior parietal lobule (P = 0.002), the inferior frontal gyrus (P = 0.003), and the superior parietal lobule (P = 0.017). The affected cortical areas comprise a visually driven functional network involved in oculomotor control, guidance of movement, motion perception, visual attention, and visual spatial memory. The patients also had significantly increased response in the same cortical areas when compared to controls (P aura. These findings suggest a hyperexcitability of the visual system in the interictal phase of migraine with visual aura.

  18. Cerebral blood flow velocities are reduced during attacks of unilateral migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    1995-01-01

    aura in 25 patients. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery was lower on the headache side (59 cm/s) than on the non-headache side (65 cm/s) during the migraine attack. No such difference was found outside of attack (65 cm/s both sides). The difference (headache side minus non-headache side......) was on average -6.1 cm/s during attack compared to -0.4 cm/s outside of attack (p = 0.01). Assuming that rCBF is unchanged during attacks of migraine without aura, our results suggest a 9% increase in middle cerebral artery lumen (cross-sectional area) on the affected side during unilateral attacks of migraine...... without aura. The findings, however, do not necessarily mean that arterial dilatation is the only or even the most significant cause of pain....

  19. Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Garde, Ellen; Blaabjerg, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years...... identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were established according to the International Headache Society criteria. Cases with migraine with aura......% confidence interval): 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.41) cm(3)] and a similar difference was present in analyses restricted to twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura [adjusted mean difference 0.21 (-0.20 to 0.63)], but these differences did not reach statistical significance. We found no evidence of an association...

  20. Migraine without aura is not associated with incomplete circle of Willis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezzatian-Ahar, Shabnam; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Obaid, Hayder Ghani;

    2014-01-01

    the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in migraineurs and controls. In the present study we compared the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in female migraine patients without aura to female healthy non-migraine controls.Using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance angiography we recorded three......-dimensional time-of-flight angiograms in 85 female participants (48 migraine patients without aura [median age 28 years] and 37 healthy controls [median age 25 years]). The images were subsequently analysed blindly by a neuroradiologist to detect incomplete circle of Willis. FINDINGS: We found no difference...... between the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in patients, 20/47 (43%), and controls, 15/37 (41%), p = 0.252. Post hoc analysis showed a significant relationship between age and prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis, p = 0.003. CONCLUSION: We found no relationship between migraine without aura...

  1. Tools and Data Services from the GSFC Earth Sciences DAAC for Aura Science Data Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, S.; Johnson, J.; Leptoukh, G.; Ahmad, S.; Pham, L.; Eng, E.; Berrick, S.; Teng, W.; Vollmer, B.

    2004-01-01

    In these times of rapidly increasing amounts of archived data, tools and data services that manipulate data and uncover nuggets of information that potentially lead to scientific discovery are becoming more and more essential. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great strides in facilitating science and applications research by, in consultation with its users, developing innovative tools and data services. That is, as data users become more sophisticated in their research and more savvy with information extraction methodologies, the GES DAAC has been responsive to this evolution. This presentation addresses the tools and data services available and under study at the GES DAAC, applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric data. Now, with the data from NASA's latest Atmospheric Chemistry mission, Aura, being readied for public release, GES DAAC tools, proven successful for past atmospheric science missions such as MODIS, AIRS, TRMM, TOMS, and UARS, provide an excellent basis for similar tools updated for the data from the Aura instruments. GES DAAC resident Aura data sets are from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). Data obtained by these instruments afford researchers the opportunity to acquire accurate and continuous visualization and analysis, customized for Aura data, will facilitate the use and increase the usefulness of the new data. The Aura data, together with other heritage data at the GES DAAC, can potentially provide a long time series of data. GES DAAC tools will be discussed, as well as the GES DAAC Near Archive Data Mining (NADM) environment, the GIOVANNI on-line analysis tool, and rich data search and order services. Information can be found at: http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/upperatm/aura/. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Pranab

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Duane′s retraction syndrome is a well known congenital musculo-facial anomaly. Various explanations have been given for the aetiology of this syndrome. Inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome is a condition with reverse clinical features. Abduction of the affected eye is possible to some extent and is accompanied by retraction of the eyeball, narrowing of the palpebral fissure and pseudoptosis. There may be some restriction of movement on adduction. The primary lesion is suspected to be in the medial rectus muscle. Frequently the muscle is found to be entrapped following trauma to the medial wall of the orbit. A case of bilateral inverse Duane′s retraction syndrome and convergent squint along with left-sided perceptive deafness is reported. As is usually the case there was no structural abnormality or entrapment of the muscle from trauma.

  3. A retractable electron emitter for the creation of unperturbed pure electron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkery, John W.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Sampedro, Luis

    2007-01-01

    A retractable electron emitter has been constructed for the creation of unperturbed pure electron plasmas on magnetic surfaces in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus stellarator. The previous method of electron emission using emitters mounted on stationary rods limited the confinement time to 20 ms. A pneumatically driven system that can retract from the magnetic axis to the last closed flux surface in less than 20 ms while filling the surfaces with electrons was designed. The motion of the retractable emitter was modeled with a system of dynamical equations. The measured position versus time of the emitter agrees well with the model and the fastest axis-to-edge retraction was measured to be 20 ms with 40 psig helium gas driving the pneumatic piston.

  4. Retraction Note: Radiation Sialadenitis Induced by High-dose Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National Univ. Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The senior author (J. Lee) and the first author (S. Y. Jeong) have retracted this review article due to misconduct. They have discovered multiple instances of misreferencing and misquotation in the text which raise the concern of potential plagiarism.

  5. Pars tensa retraction pockets in children: treatment by excision and ventilation tube insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V; Banhegyi, G; O'Sullivan, G; Sherman, I W

    2000-08-01

    Tympanic membrane retraction pockets involving the pars tensa are not uncommon in clinical practice. Recurrent infections, ossicular erosion and cholesteatoma are the recognized sequelae. The management options include surveillance, medical treatment and surgery. The surgical procedures range from grommet insertion to extensive tympanoplasty procedures. We report our experience with simple excision and grommet insertion, performed in 31 ears in 26 patients as day cases. The follow-up ranged from 8 to 34 months with a mean of 16 months. The procedure was successful in 23 ears (success rate of 74%). Recurrence of retraction occurred in seven ears and in one ear there was a persistent perforation. Age, previous grommet insertion and severity of retraction did not have a statistically significant influence on the final outcome. We conclude that excision and grommet insertion is a simple, safe and efficient procedure for the management of tympanic membrane retraction pockets and can be considered in preference to extensive tympanoplasty. PMID:10971530

  6. Academic medical libraries' policies and procedures for notifying library users of retracted scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical libraries have a responsibility to inform library users regarding retracted publications. Many have created policies and procedures that identify flawed journal articles. A questionnaire was sent to the 129 academic medical libraries in the United States and Canada to find out how many had policies and procedures for identifying retracted publications. Of the returned questionnaires, 59% had no policy and no practice for calling the attention of the library user to retracted publications. Forty-one percent of the libraries called attention to retractions with or without a formal policy for doing so. Several responding libraries included their policy statement with the survey. The increasing number of academic medical libraries that realize the importance of having policies and practices in place highlights the necessity for this procedure.

  7. Calcitonin gene-related peptide triggers migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Olesen, Jes;

    2010-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key molecule in migraine pathogenesis. Intravenous CGRP infusion triggers delayed migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine without aura (MO). In contrast to patients with MO, in prior studies patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) did...... not report more migraine-like attacks compared to controls. Whether CGRP triggers migraine in patients with typical (non-hemiplegic) migraine with aura is (MA) unknown. In the present study we examined the migraine inducing effect of CGRP infusion in patients suffering from MA and healthy controls....

  8. Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Wienecke, T; Olesen, J;

    2009-01-01

    Schytz HW, Wienecke T, Olesen J & Ashina M. Carbachol induces headache, but not migraine-like attacks, in patients with migraine without aura. Cephalalgia 2009. London. ISSN 0333-1024Carbachol induces headache in healthy subjects, but the migraine eliciting effect of carbachol has not previously...... been studied. We hypothesized that the cholinomimetic agonist carbachol would induce headache and migraine-like attacks in migraineurs. Carbachol (3 microg/kg) or placebo was randomly infused into 18 patients with migraine without aura in a double-blind crossover study. Headache was scored on a verbal...

  9. Peri-ictal changes of cortical excitability in children suffering from migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Reich, Anna-Lena; Shepherd, Alex J;

    2009-01-01

    regional excitability of the occipital (phosphene threshold [PT] and suppression of visual perception) and motor (resting motor threshold and cortical silent period) cortex in ten children suffering from migraine without aura and ten healthy age-matched controls. Patients were studied 1-2 days before...... aftereffect. Motor cortex excitability was not altered in patients and did not change during the migraine cycle. These findings show that pediatric migraine without aura is associated with a systematic shift in occipital excitability preceding the migraine attack. Similar systematic fluctuations in cortical...

  10. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of unilateral vertical retraction syndrome with atypical strabismus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-yue; MAN Feng-yuan; WANG Zhen-chang; YU Gang; WU Qian; JIAO Yong-hong; ZHAO Kan-xing

    2011-01-01

    We report two patients with unilateral vertical retraction syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbits of the two cases showed similar size and location of the orbital structure, but with dramatically different strabismus type. MRI sagittal reconstruction of the orbits suggested that abnormal muscle tissue arised from the inferior rectus, which might be associated with retraction and narrowing of the palpebral fissure and atypical strabismus as well.

  12. RETRACTED: Test Taking Strategies Instruction and Iranian EFL Learners’ Performance on International Language Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ghabelju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see AIAC PTY.LTD. Policy on Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.(http://www.aiac.org.au/journals/Subtemps/PEPMS.pdfThis article has been retracted based on the editorial decision upon conducting a thorough invesitigatiosn. It came to our notice that the author has plagirised this paper from an unpblished thesis carried out in Iran in 2010.

  13. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination. PMID:11844038

  14. Retraction: Two novel duck antibacterial peptides, avian β-defensins 9 and 10, with antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The article by Ma et al. that published in the Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (2009, 19: 1447-1455) was used the same data in two journal articles (Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica, 2009, 40(9): 1320-1326, Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 2009, 42(4): 1406-1412). Therefore, the article is retracted from JMB as a misconduct of the authors. JMB as the publisher regrets for any inconvenience may have caused by the retraction to readers.

  15. In Vivo Investigation of the Effectiveness of a Hyper-viscoelastic Model in Simulating Brain Retraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Li; Weiwei Wang; Chenxi Zhang; Yong An; Zhijian Song

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative brain retraction leads to a misalignment between the intraoperative positions of the brain structures and their previous positions, as determined from preoperative images. In vitro swine brain sample uniaxial tests showed that the mechanical response of brain tissue to compression and extension could be described by the hyper-viscoelasticity theory. The brain retraction caused by the mechanical process is a combination of brain tissue compression and extension. In this paper, w...

  16. Migraine with aura is associated with an incomplete circle of willis: results of a prospective observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cucchiara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of an incomplete circle of Willis in patients with migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and control subjects, and correlate circle of Willis variations with alterations in cerebral perfusion. METHODS: Migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and control subjects were prospectively enrolled in a 1∶1∶1 ratio. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed to examine circle of Willis anatomy and arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow. A standardized template rating system was used to categorize circle of Willis variants. The primary pre-specified outcome measure was the frequency of an incomplete circle of Willis. The association between circle of Willis variations and cerebral blood flow was also analyzed. RESULTS: 170 subjects were enrolled (56 migraine with aura, 61 migraine without aura, 53 controls. An incomplete circle of Willis was significantly more common in the migraine with aura compared to control group (73% vs. 51%, p = 0.02, with a similar trend for the migraine without aura group (67% vs. 51%, p = 0.08. Using a quantitative score of the burden of circle of Willis variants, migraine with aura subjects had a higher burden of variants than controls (p = 0.02. Compared to those with a complete circle, subjects with an incomplete circle had greater asymmetry in hemispheric cerebral blood flow (p = 0.05. Specific posterior cerebral artery variants were associated with greater asymmetries of blood flow in the posterior cerebral artery territory. CONCLUSIONS: An incomplete circle of Willis is more common in migraine with aura subjects than controls, and is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow.

  17. Analysis and implications of retraction period and coauthorship of fraudulent publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Tan, Xin Ji Alan

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the number and frequency of fraudulent publications being retracted are not subsiding even with greater awareness of such incidents in the recent decades. In this study, the trends of retraction period, number of citations and coauthors of 5 selected researchers who had ≥ 15 fraudulent publications retracted were analyzed. The obtained results shows that the retraction period is 48.96 ± 32.16 months for the 113 publications affiliated to the 5 studied researchers. There are a total of 180 coauthors with 6.40 ± 3.26 coauthors per researcher's retracted publication. The linear regression analysis indicates that there is limited correlation (R(2) = .008) between the citation counts and retraction period. The p value for multiple F-tests to assess the number of coauthors to a fraudulent publication on an interresearcher basis is found to be ranging from < .001 to .458. It is also found that a better correlation (R(2) = .592) exists between the likelihood of a researcher to involve different individuals for isolated fraudulent publications while only selecting very few to be their frequent coauthors of their mischievous acts. With this study, the possible use of coauthors as a strategy for publishing fraudulent work and a potential approach to tighten coauthorship are discussed.

  18. The Surgical Management of Tympanic Membrane Retraction Pockets Using Cartilage Tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbekar, Anand V; Patel, Virjen; Rubasinghe, Mihiri; Srinivasan, Venkat

    2014-12-01

    Evaluate the surgical treatment of tympanic membrane (TM) retractions with modified cartilage augmentation tympanoplasty. Retrospective review of subjects with Charachon stage II and III TM retractions who underwent modified cartilage augmentation tympanoplasty following excision of the retracted TM segment. Pre and postoperative symptoms and air-bone gaps were recorded. Forty two ears were included in the study. Twenty six ears were of stage II and 16 were stage III retractions. 35 (83 %) ears had ossicular erosion and cholesteatoma was found in 13 (31 %) ears, all in stage III retractions. Follow-up ranged 12-102 months. The air-bone gap (ABG) improved in 29 (76 %) and worsened in seven (19 %). Ears without cholesteatoma had a greater improvement in ABG. The results of our modified cartilage tympanoplasty technique are comparable to the published literature and should provide a safe and acceptable result. The high rate of cholesteatoma found preoperatively in stage III retractions advocates early surgical intervention. PMID:26396960

  19. Scientific Validation of Disease Diagnosis System, Using Human Energy Field (Aura For GIT Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Pahwa

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: It was found that the aura diagnosis machine helped a lot in confirmed diseased cases and its symptoms diagnosis for GIT cases. The technology played major role in our research and helped in the validation of our age old traditional knowledge. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 69-72

  20. Vitamin supplementation as possible prophylactic treatment against migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munvar Miya; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.

  1. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A.; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Boersma, Folkert; Veefkind, J.P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consis

  2. Inimlik eksitus Lätis saatis kontrolli kõik Aura mahlajoogid / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Õlletehase liiga suure säilitusaine sisalduse tõttu Lätis müügilt kõrvaldatud Aura Arcticu mahlajoogid tõid kaasa kogu tootesarja ulatusliku kontrolli. Rohkem eksimusi uuring ei tuvastanud. Lisa: Bensoehape

  3. The Virtual Aura--Is There Space for Enchantment in a Technological World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazan, Susan

    As Walter Benjamin described in his famous essay, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction", the role of art in society and the notion that art has become modified through mechanical reproduction has engaged not only artists, but also curators and the museum public. Benjamin embraced the severing of the quasi-mystical "aura" from the…

  4. Prostaglandin (E2) induces immediate migraine-like attack in migraine patients without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonova, Maria; Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes;

    2012-01-01

    without aura were randomly allocated to receive 0.4 µg/kg/min PGE(2) (Prostin®E2, dinoprostone) or placebo over 25 minutes in a two-way, crossover study. Headache intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale, middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (V(MCA)) was measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD...

  5. Highlights from a Decade of OMI-TOMS Total Ozone Observations on EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, David P.; Bhartia, Pawan K.; McPeters, Richard D.; Joiner, Joanna; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Vassilkov, Alexander; Labow, Gordon J.; Chiou, Er-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Total ozone measurements from OMI have been instrumental in meeting Aura science objectives. In the last decade, OMI has extended the length of the TOMS total ozone record to over 35 years to monitor stratospheric ozone recovery. OMI-TOMS total ozone measurements have also been combined synergistically with measurements from other Aura instruments and MLS in particular, which provides vertically resolved information that complements the total O3 mapping capability of OMI. With this combined approach, the EOS Aura platform has produced more accurate and detailed measurements of tropospheric ozone. This has led in turn to greater understanding of the sources and transport of tropospheric ozone as well as its radiative forcing effect. The combined use of OMI and MLS data was also vital to the analysis of the severe Arctic ozone depletion event of 2011. The quality of OMI-TOMS total O3 data used in these studies is the result of several factors: a mature and well-validated algorithm, the striking stability of the OMI instrument, and OMI's hyperspectral capabilities used to derive cloud pressures. The latter has changed how we think about the effects of clouds on total ozone retrievals. We will discuss the evolution of the operational V8.5 algorithm and provide an overview and motivation for V9. After reviewing results and developments of the past decade, we finally highlight how ozone observations from EOS Aura are playing an important role in new ozone mapping missions.

  6. Intact neurovascular coupling during executive function in migraine without aura: interictal near-infrared spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Ciftçi, K; Akin, A;

    2010-01-01

    An altered neurovascular coupling has been proposed in migraine. We aimed to investigate neurovascular coupling during a mental task interictally in patients with migraine without aura (MO) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twelve migraineurs and 12 healthy controls were included. Using NIRS...

  7. A case of strictly unilateral migraine without aura transformed in an episodic hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Rossana; Cevoli, Sabina; Nicodemo, Marianna; Pierangeli, Giulia; Grimaldi, Daniela; Cortelli, Pietro

    2011-02-01

    According to the diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society classification, hemicrania continua is a strictly unilateral continuous headache of moderate intensity with painful exacerbations associated with ipsilateral autonomic signs without pain-free periods. We report a case of a 42-year-old woman suffered of a remitting form of hemicrania continua evolved from a strictly unilateral migraine without aura.

  8. La "visión del aura" como experiencia alucinatoria en individuos no-clinicos The aura experience as cognitive perceptual schizotypy in non-clinical population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Parra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuos que dicen ver el aura/energía en forma espontánea también tienden a tener un nivel más elevado de actividad imaginativa/fantaseosa o de propensidad a la fantasía. Hay indicadores que muestran que quienes experimentan alta capacidad de absorción, usualmente experimentan también diversas formas parasomáticas, alucinaciones táctiles, y sensaciones de energías sutiles, asi como también ideación esquizotípica, error perceptual, y mayor sinestesia. El objetivo es correlacionar puntajes de absorción psicológica, disociación, propensidad a la fantasía, intensidad de la imaginería, y tendencia a la esquizotipia en individuos que dicen ver el aura (N=83 en comparación con un grupo sin experiencias (N=503. La muestra incluyó 678 estudiantes de psicología de ambos sexos, 449 (76,5% mujeres y 139 (23,5% varones, cuya rango etario es de 17 y 57 años (Media=25,54; SD=7,22 residentes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores. Ningun estudiante recibió compensación económica. Respecto a la experiencia de ver el aura, se formuló la pregunta de la siguiente manera: "¿Ha tenido alguna experiencia usted es capaz de ver campos de energia o luces alrededor del cuerpo de una persona? (si duda, por favor, responda no". Si la respuesta es afirmativa, la pregunta también mapea tres dimensiones de la experiencia: frecuencia de la experiencia, explicación subjetiva (racional, desconocida y paranormal de la experiencia, y positivo o negativo impacto (emocional en una escala Likert, siendo 1 positivo y 7 negativo. Los resultados muestran mayor nivel de esquizotipia cognitivo perceptual en comparación con quienes no tienen la experiencia. Posiblemente, estas personas tienen mucha más intensa vida imaginativa. Esta experiencia no necesariamente posee un significado psicopatológico para el individuo; quienes ven el aura simplemente podrían ser sensibles a las experiencias perceptuales anómalas.Individuals who claim being able to

  9. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. PMID:26468088

  10. Aura Atmospheric Data Products and Their Availability from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Gopalan, A.; Smith, P.; Leptoukh, G.; Kempler, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft was launched successfully on July 15, 2004. The four instruments onboard the spacecraft are the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HBDLS). The Aura instruments are designed to gather earth sciences measurements across the ultraviolet, visible, infra-red, thermal and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Aura will provide over 70 distinct standard atmospheric data products for use in ozone layer and surface UV-B monitoring, air quality forecast, and atmospheric chemistry and climate change studies (http://eosaura.gsfc.nasa.gov/). These products include earth-atmosphere radiances and solar spectral irradiances; total column, tropospheric, and profiles of ozone and other trace gases, surface W-B flux; clouds and aerosol characteristics; and temperature, geopotential height, and water vapor profiles. The MLS, OMI, and HIRDLS data products will be archived at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), while data from TES will be archived at NASA Langley Research Center DAAC. Some of the standard products which have gone through quick preliminary checks are already archived at the GES DAAC (http://daac.nsfc.nasa.gov/) and are available to the Aura science team and data validation team members for data validation; and to the application and visualization software developers, for testing their application modules. Once data are corrected for obvious calibration problems and partially validated using in-situ observations, they would be made available to the broader user community. This presentation will provide details of the whole suite of Aura atmospheric data products, and the time line of the availability of the rest of the preliminary products and of the partially validated provisional products. Software and took available for data access, visualization, and data

  11. Self-concept evaluation and migraine without aura in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Laura Castaldo,1 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Michele Roccella,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Self-esteem is related to the broadly understood concept of self-schemas and is a crucial mechanism for a correct psychological development in children and adolescents. The impact of the many psychological difficulties linked to the migraine without aura (MoA and recurrent headache attacks, such as anger and separation anxiety, on self-esteem has not yet been well investigated. The aims of the present study were to assess self-esteem levels in an objective way and to verify their possible relationship and correlation with the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, in a population of children and adolescents affected by MoA.Methods: The study population was comprised of 185 children (88 males [M], 97 females [F] aged between 6 and 12 years (mean 9.04 ± 2.41 years referred consecutively for MoA to the Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples and of 203 healthy controls (95 M, 108 F with mean age 9.16 ± 2.37 years, recruited from schools in Campania. The monthly headache frequency and the mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children, and MoA intensity was assessed on a VAS (visual analog scale. To further evaluate their level of self-concept, all

  12. Perpetuation of Retracted Publications Using the Example of the Scott S. Reuben Case: Incidences, Reasons and Possible Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann-Cimenti, Helmar; Szilagyi, Istvan S; Sandner-Kiesling, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In 2009, Scott S. Reuben was convicted of fabricating data, which lead to 25 of his publications being retracted. Although it is clear that the perpetuation of retracted articles negatively effects the appraisal of evidence, the extent to which retracted literature is cited had not previously been investigated. In this study, to better understand the perpetuation of discredited research, we examine the number of citations of Reuben's articles within 5 years of their retraction. Citations of Reuben's retracted articles were assessed using the Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters, NY). All citing articles were screened to discriminate between articles in which Reuben's work was quoted as retracted, and articles in which his data was wrongly cited without any note of the retraction status. Twenty of Reuben's publications had been cited 274 times between 2009 and 1024. In 2014, 45 % of the retracted articles had been cited at least once. In only 25.8 % of citing articles was it clearly stated that Reuben's work had been retracted. Annual citations decreased from 108 in 2009 to 18 in 2014; however, the percentage of publications correctly indicating the retraction status also declined. The percentage of citations in top-25 %-journals, as well as the percentage of citations in journals from Reuben's research area, declined sharply after 2009. Our data show that even 5 years after their retraction, nearly half of Reuben's articles are still being quoted and the retraction status is correctly mentioned in only one quarter of the citations.

  13. Genotype-phenotype correlation in migraine without aura focusing on the rs1835740 variant on 8q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Francke; Le, Han; Kirchmann, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    A large two-stage GWAS by Antilla et al. reported the minor allele of rs1835740 on 8q22.1 to be associated with common types of migraine. The objective of the present study was to determine the clinical correlate of the variant in migraine without aura (MO). Clinical data on 339 successfully...... genotyped MO patients (patients with attacks of migraine without aura and no attacks of migraine with aura) were obtained by an extensive validated semi-structured telephone interview performed by a physician or a trained senior medical student. Reliable, systematic and extensive data on symptoms, age...

  14. A Miniature Robot for Retraction Tasks under Vision Assistance in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tortora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS is one of the main aims of modern medicine. It enables surgery to be performed with a lower number and severity of incisions. Medical robots have been developed worldwide to offer a robotic alternative to traditional medical procedures. New approaches aimed at a substantial decrease of visible scars have been explored, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES. Simple surgical tasks such as the retraction of an organ can be a challenge when performed from narrow access ports. For this reason, there is a continuous need to develop new robotic tools for performing dedicated tasks. This article illustrates the design and testing of a new robotic tool for retraction tasks under vision assistance for NOTES. The retraction robots integrate brushless motors to enable additional degrees of freedom to that provided by magnetic anchoring, thus improving the dexterity of the overall platform. The retraction robot can be easily controlled to reach the target organ and apply a retraction force of up to 1.53 N. Additional degrees of freedom can be used for smooth manipulation and grasping of the organ.

  15. Effect of a cordless retraction paste on titanium surface: a topographic, chemical and biocompatibility evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Good exposure of the preparation margins and haemostasis in the sulcular gingiva are necessary for accurate impressions to produce precise restorations. The use of cordless retraction paste material in implant dentistry is a relatively novel application. However, few studies have been conducted on the use of retraction pastes and their possible interaction with implant surfaces. Recent literature has described remnants on titanium implant surfaces and expressed the need for an assessment of the biocompatibility of the exposed surface (Chang et al.. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of a cordless gingival retraction paste on sterile titanium disks. Surface chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and further investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. After exposure to retraction paste, surface chemistry alterations were identified. A fibroblast cell line (L929 was exposed to the disks and the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to determine any effects on the proliferation and health of cells. The disks exposed to the retraction paste showed fewer dead cells compared to the unexposed disks. This was statistically significant.

  16. Swing-leg retraction: a simple control model for stable running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, André; Geyer, Hartmut; Herr, Hugh

    2003-08-01

    In running, the spring-like axial behavior of stance limbs is a well-known and remarkably general feature. Here we consider how the rotational behavior of limbs affects running stability. It is commonly observed that running animals retract their limbs just prior to ground contact, moving each foot rearward towards the ground. In this study, we employ a conservative spring-mass model to test the effects of swing-leg retraction on running stability. A feed-forward control scheme is applied where the swing-leg is retracted at constant angular velocity throughout the second half of the swing phase. The control scheme allows the spring-mass system to automatically adapt the angle of attack in response to disturbances in forward speed and stance-limb stiffness. Using a return map to investigate system stability, we propose an optimal swing-leg retraction model for the stabilization of flight phase apex height. The results of this study indicate that swing-leg retraction significantly improves the stability of spring-mass running, suggesting that swing-phase limb dynamics may play an important role in the stabilization of running animals. PMID:12819262

  17. Breast Retraction Assessment: an objective evaluation of cosmetic results of patients treated conservatively for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) is an objective evaluation of the amount of cosmetic retraction of the treated breast in comparison to the untreated breast in patients who receive conservative treatment for breast cancer. A clear acrylic sheet supported vertically and marked as a grid at 1 cm intervals is employed to perform the measurements. Average BRA value in 29 control patients without breast cancer was 1.2 cm. Average BRA value in 27 patients treated conservatively for clinical Stage I or II unilateral breast cancer was 3.7 cm. BRA values in breast cancer patients ranged from 0.0 to 8.5 cm. Patients who received a local radiation boost to the primary tumor bed site had statistically significantly less retraction than those who did not receive a boost. Patients who had an extensive primary tumor resection had statistically significantly more retraction than those who underwent a more limited resection. In comparison to qualitative forms of cosmetic analysis, BRA is an objective test that can quantitatively evaluate factors which may be related to cosmetic retraction in patients treated conservatively for breast cancer

  18. Effect of a cordless retraction paste on titanium surface: a topographic, chemical and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katherine; Bennani, Vincent; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Reid, Malcolm; Stirling, Claudine; Dias, George

    2013-01-01

    Good exposure of the preparation margins and haemostasis in the sulcular gingiva are necessary for accurate impressions to produce precise restorations. The use of cordless retraction paste material in implant dentistry is a relatively novel application. However, few studies have been conducted on the use of retraction pastes and their possible interaction with implant surfaces. Recent literature has described remnants on titanium implant surfaces and expressed the need for an assessment of the biocompatibility of the exposed surface (Chang et al.). This in vitro study evaluated the effect of a cordless gingival retraction paste on sterile titanium disks. Surface chemistry was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and further investigated using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). After exposure to retraction paste, surface chemistry alterations were identified. A fibroblast cell line (L929) was exposed to the disks and the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay was used to determine any effects on the proliferation and health of cells. The disks exposed to the retraction paste showed fewer dead cells compared to the unexposed disks. This was statistically significant. PMID:23739788

  19. Cell-mediated retraction versus hemodynamic loading - A delicate balance in tissue-engineered heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdregt, Inge A E W; Argento, Giulia; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Oomens, Cees W J; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2014-06-27

    Preclinical studies of tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) showed retraction of the heart valve leaflets as major failure of function mechanism. This retraction is caused by both passive and active cell stress and passive matrix stress. Cell-mediated retraction induces leaflet shortening that may be counteracted by the hemodynamic loading of the leaflets during diastole. To get insight into this stress balance, the amount and duration of stress generation in engineered heart valve tissue and the stress imposed by physiological hemodynamic loading are quantified via an experimental and a computational approach, respectively. Stress generation by cells was measured using an earlier described in vitro model system, mimicking the culture process of TEHVs. The stress imposed by the blood pressure during diastole on a valve leaflet was determined using finite element modeling. Results show that for both pulmonary and systemic pressure, the stress imposed on the TEHV leaflets is comparable to the stress generated in the leaflets. As the stresses are of similar magnitude, it is likely that the imposed stress cannot counteract the generated stress, in particular when taking into account that hemodynamic loading is only imposed during diastole. This study provides a rational explanation for the retraction found in preclinical studies of TEHVs and represents an important step towards understanding the retraction process seen in TEHVs by a combined experimental and computational approach. PMID:24268314

  20. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 Near Real Time data is made available from the OMI SIPS NASA for the public access. The Ozone Monitoring...

  1. α-FUZZY PAIRWISE RETRACT OF L-VALUED PAIRWISE STRATIFICATION SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. H. GHANIM; F. S. MAHMOUD; M. A. FATH ALLA; M.A. HEBESHI

    2004-01-01

    The notion of a fuzzy retract was introduced by Rodabaugh (1981). The notion of a fuzzy pairwise retract was introduced in 2001. Some weak forms and some strong forms of α-continuous mappings were introduced in 1988 and 1997. The authors extend some of these forms to the L-fuzzy bitopological setting and construct various α-fuzzy pairwise retracts. The concept of weakly induced spaces in the case L = [0, 1] was introduced by Martin (1980). Lin and Luo (1987) generalized this notion to the case that L is an arbitrary F-lattice and introduced the notion of induced L-fts. Several results are obtained, especially, for L-valued pairwise stratification spaces.

  2. Severe bidentoalveolar protrusion treated with orthodontic microimplant-dependent en-masse retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2007-07-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 14.5-year-old girl with severe bidentoalveolar protrusion. Specially designed sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) orthodontic microimplants (C-implants, Cimplant Co, Seoul, Korea) were placed in the alveolar bone in all 4 quadrants to provide anchorage for en-masse retraction without the help of banded or bonded molars. Successful retraction was achieved. The mandibular dentition was detailed by using conventional orthodontic appliances during the finishing stage. The osseointegration potential of these microimplants allows them to resist rotational force moments and control 3-dimensional movements of the anterior teeth during retraction. Facial esthetics improved for the patient, fullness of the upper and lower lips was reduced, and the interdental relationship was corrected. Biomechanical considerations, efficacy, and potential complications of the treatment technique are discussed.

  3. RETRACTED: Influence of temperature and microstructure on the mechanical properties of sintered nanosilver joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Wang, Yi-Zhe [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Mei, Yunhui, E-mail: yunhui@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Lin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Li, Xin [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Chen, Xu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-02-25

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy)). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please note that the reason for this retraction has been updated in July 2015, as follows: The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in 'Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), 2010 3rd', 1-6, (101109/ESTC.2010.5642948). One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and that no substantial portion has appeared in a publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  4. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wei Su; Meng-Nan Zhu; Hsu-Ling Chang

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366) This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-We...

  5. RETRACTED: Translating Connotative Meaning in Literary Texts at the University of Petra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram M. Beiruti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted: please see AIAC PTY.LTD. Policy on Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.(http://www.aiac.org.au/journals/Subtemps/PEPMS.pdfThis article has been retracted based on the editorial decision upon conducting a thorough invesitigatiosn. It came to our notice that Akram Beirtui, supposedly the author of this paper, has plagirised the entire paper from an unpublished paper conducted by Ahmad Al-Hassan, who is the main author of the paper from the same university. Upon his proof to us, we reserve his rights and removed the paper.  

  6. Retraction statement: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The above article, published online on 28 February 2013 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, William Foster, and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the publication of a similar paper by the same authors (with the exclusion of P Mardones) in Frontiers in Bioscience in January 2014. The authors believed that they had taken the necessary steps to withdraw their paper from Frontiers in Bioscience before they submitted to Biological Reviews in June 2012.

  7. Retracted: Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on mineralization potential of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The following article from the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 'Effects of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines on Mineralization Potential of Rat Dental Pulp Stem Cells' by Yang X, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Jansen JA, Fan M, published online on 11 July 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to two authors (Walboomers XF, and Jansen JA) not having been involved in the research described, nor made aware of their names being listed on the manuscript, nor told of its submission to the journal.

  8. Calculatoin and experimental study of the retracting force for magnetic spring of two types

    CERN Document Server

    Tsivilitsin, V; Goncharuk, V; Bondar, I

    2014-01-01

    Designs for magnetic springs of two types have been proposed, and the methods of calculation of their retracting forces have been developed. Formulas are obtained for the retracting force in the main section of spring force characteristics. Experimental data are in good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. The force characteristics of the proposed magnetic spring constructions can be varied for a specific application. The derived formulas are verified experimentally. Ways to change the force characteristics of magnetic springs according to specific requirements are demonstrated.

  9. Maintaining Aura's Orbit Requirements While Performing Orbit Maintenance Maneuvers Containing an Orbit Normal Delta-V Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan R.; Petersen, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon Constellation consists of five member missions (GCOM-W1, Aqua, CALIPSO, CloudSat, and Aura), each of which maintain a frozen, sun-synchronous orbit with a 16-day repeating ground track that follows the Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2). Under nominal science operations for Aura, the propulsion system is oriented such that the resultant thrust vector is aligned 13.493 degrees away from the velocity vector along the yaw axis. When performing orbit maintenance maneuvers, the spacecraft performs a yaw slew to align the thrust vector in the appropriate direction. A new Drag Make Up (DMU) maneuver operations scheme has been implemented for Aura alleviating the need for the 13.493 degree yaw slew. The focus of this investigation is to assess the impact that no-slew DMU maneuver operations will have on Aura's Mean Local Time (MLT) which drives the required along track separation between Aura and the constellation members, as well as Aura's frozen orbit properties, eccentricity and argument of perigee. Seven maneuver strategies were analyzed to determine the best operational approach. A mirror pole strategy, with maneuvers alternating at the North and South poles, was implemented operationally to minimize impact to the MLT. Additional analysis determined that the mirror pole strategy could be further modified to include frozen orbit maneuvers and thus maintain both MLT and the frozen orbit properties under noslew operations.

  10. Existence of positively-defined particle-like solution of nonlinear differential equation psi/sup 4/-Bpsi/sup 6/ theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirkhanov, I.V.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The nonlinear equation: d/sup 2//dx/sup 2/ psi(x) - (l(l + 1)/x/sup 2/ + 1) psi(x) (4 psi/sup 2/(x)/x/sup 2/ - 3eta psi/sup 4/(x)/x/sup 4/), eta > 0, for boundary conditions psi(0) = psi(infinity) = 0, was investigated with arbitrary integer value of l. By means of variational approach the existence of positively-defined particle-like solution of the boundary value problem is proved.

  11. 再论光的粒子性以及多普勒效应%Restudy Particle-like Nature of Light and Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宜和; 乔庆鹏; 樊超杰

    2012-01-01

      利用光的粒子性考查了特殊情形下的光的多普勒效应,给出了光的多普勒效应更一般的形式,结果与以光的波动性为出发点得到的结论一致%  Doppler effect is studied using particle-like nature of light under special situation. General form of Doppler effect is provided, and it is agreed with the results obtained by undulatory property of light.

  12. Validation of the Aura High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder geopotential heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Global satellite observations from the EOS Aura spacecraft's High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS of temperature and geopotential height (GPH are discussed. The accuracy, resolution and precision of the HIRDLS version 7 algorithms are assessed and data screening recommendations are made. Comparisons with GPH from observations, reanalyses and models including European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim, National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS version 5, and EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS illustrate the HIRDLS GPH have a precision ranging from 2 m to 30 m and an accuracy of ±100 m. Comparisons indicate HIRDLS GPH may have a slight low bias in the tropics and a slight high bias at high latitudes. Geostrophic winds computed with HIRDLS GPH qualitatively agree with winds from other data sources including ERA-Interim, NCEP and GEOS-5.

  13. A Response to Elvis' 2015 Critique of the AURA Report "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths"

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara; Postman, Marc; Tumlinson, Jason; Mather, John C

    2015-01-01

    To ensure progress in astronomy over the coming decades, the key questions are "what facilities will we build, and when?" Toward this end, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) recently commissioned a study on future space-based options for UV and optical astronomy. The resulting study - "From Cosmic Births to Living Earths" - concluded that a space telescope equipped with a 12-meter class primary mirror would make fundamental advances across virtually all of astrophysics, including finding and characterizing the atmospheres of dozens of Earth-like planets. This ambitious telescope concept is referred to as the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST). In a recent arXiv white paper, Elvis (2015) critiqued a subset of the findings of the AURA study, focusing on the detection and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone. In this response, we clarify these issues to confirm that HDST would play a transformative role in the study of terrestrial worlds. Its capabilities f...

  14. Validation of Aura OMI by Aircraft and Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Kroon, M.

    2006-12-01

    Both aircraft-based and ground-based measurements have been used to validate ozone measurements by the OMI instrument on Aura. Three Aura Validation Experiment (AVE) flights have been conducted, in November 2004 and June 2005 with the NASA WB57, and in January/February 2005 with the NASA DC-8. On these flights, validation of OMI was primarily done using data from the CAFS (CCD Actinic Flux Spectroradiometer) instrument, which is used to measure total column ozone above the aircraft. These measurements are used to differentiate changes in stratospheric ozone from changes in total column ozone. Also, changes in ozone over high clouds measured by OMI were checked in a flight over tropical storm Arlene on a flight on June 11th. Ground-based measurements were made during the SAUNA campaign in Sodankyla, Finland, in March and April 2006. Both total column ozone and the ozone vertical distribution were validated.

  15. Investigations of functional and structural changes in migraine with aura by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    visual stimulation using fMRI. To optimize sensitivity, we applied a within-patient design by assessing functional interhemispheric differences in patients consistently experiencing visual aura in the same visual hemifield. To validate our data analysis methods, we initially studied healthy volunteers...... technology to study these features of migraine with aura (MA) is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has the potential not only to detect, but also to localize hypersensitive cortex. The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the cortical responsivity of patients with MA during...... and between migraine patients and controls. BOLD responses were selectively increased in the symptomatic hemispheres and localized in the inferior parietal lobule, the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior parietal lobule. The affected cortical areas comprise a visually driven functional network involved...

  16. A neural network algorithm for cloud fraction estimation using NASA-Aura OMI VIS radiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Saponaro, G.; Kolmonen, P.; J. Karhunen; Tamminen, J.; De Leeuw, G.

    2013-01-01

    The discrimination of cloudy from cloud-free pixels is required in almost any estimate of a parameter retrieved from satellite data in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) or infrared (IR) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper we report on the development of a neural network (NN) algorithm to estimate cloud fractions using radiances measured at the top of the atmosphere with the NASA-Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We present and discuss the results obtained from the app...

  17. [Asomatognosia as a manifestation of migraine with aura. case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano Parada, María de la Paz; Buonanotte, Carlos Federico

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Durante años el estudio de la migraña con aura ha sorprendido por la versatilidad de su forma de presentación. Las auras se manifiestan con el desarrollo gradual de síntomas neurológicos que van desde alteraciones visuales hasta trastornos de la percepción. Estos últimos son formas de presentación poco frecuentes siendo el motivo de este artículo. Caso Clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 53 años con diagnóstico de migraña con aura la cual hace un relato autobiográfico de sus crisis, con especial énfasis en una variante de asomatognosia como forma de presentación. A continuación se discute sobre la asomatognosia como un fenómeno perteneciente a las alteraciones del esquema corporal y los diferentes conceptos y formas clínicas relacionados con estas y se hacer un breve repaso sobre las posibles localizaciones anatómicas de estas afecciones. Conclusión: La migraña con aura puede manifestarse con una variada sintomatología previa al dolor. La asomatognosia es una forma infrecuente de presentación. Un campo de interés en la investigación de esta área incluyen un esfuerzo por definir la especificidad y localización de la lesión como un método para la mejor comprensión de cómo las lesiones a áreas muy específicas del cerebro afectan la percepción y la memoria.

  18. Reification, aura and innovation: A study of technological sound reproduction and artist authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Sten, Fredrik Sven Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Today the potential for artists to retake control of artistic value of their own music may have come to a tipping point. While digital technology has provided groundbreaking opportunities for musical creativity, the relationship between the musician and the listener has become further distanced since the beginning of musical performance. Some important words relating to the core ideas of this thesis are industry, technological advancement, aura, time and distance, form...

  19. Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaist, David; Garde, Ellen; Blaabjerg, Morten; Nielsen, Helle H; Krøigård, Thomas; Østergaard, Kamilla; Møller, Harald S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Madsen, Camilla G; Iversen, Pernille; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-07-01

    A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were established according to the International Headache Society criteria. Cases with migraine with aura, their co-twins, and unrelated migraine-free twins (controls) were invited to a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan performed at a single centre. Brain scans were assessed for the presence of infarcts, and white matter hyperintensities (visual rating scales and volumetric analyses) blinded to headache diagnoses. Comparisons were based on 172 cases, 34 co-twins, and 139 control subjects. Compared with control subjects, cases did not differ with regard to frequency of silent brain infarcts (four cases versus one control), periventricular white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): -0.1 (-0.5 to 0.2)] or deep white matter hyperintensity scores [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.1 (-0.8 to 1.1)] assessed by Scheltens' scale. Cases had a slightly higher total white matter hyperintensity volume compared with controls [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.41) cm(3)] and a similar difference was present in analyses restricted to twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura [adjusted mean difference 0.21 (-0.20 to 0.63)], but these differences did not reach statistical significance. We found no evidence of an association between silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, and migraine with aura. PMID:27190013

  20. Study Pollution Impacts on Upper-Tropospheric Clouds with Aura, CloudSat, and CALIPSO Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact of pollution on clouds in the Upper Troposphere. Using the data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), CloudSat, CALIPSO the presentation shows signatures of pollution impacts on clouds in the upper troposphere. The presentation demonstrates the complementary sensitivities of MLS , CloudSat and CALIPSO to upper tropospheric clouds. It also calls for careful analysis required to sort out microphysical changes from dynamical changes.

  1. Philips Aura 螺旋CT故障维修3例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德坤; 万金鑫; 张毅

    2010-01-01

    @@ Aura螺旋CT是Philips公司推出的亚秒级的单排螺旋CT,其机架转速可达0.65 s/圈,Aura与其同系列产品Secura一起具有相当大的装机量[1].Aura CT运行稳定、故障率低,现介绍几例Aura高压系统的故障及排除过程,供参考.

  2. Traction force microscopy in rapidly moving cells reveals separate roles for ROCK and MLCK in the mechanics of retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Timothy R; Ghassem-Zadeh, Sean A; Lee, Juliet

    2014-08-15

    Retraction is a major rate-limiting step in cell motility, particularly in slow moving cell types that form large stable adhesions. Myosin II dependent contractile forces are thought to facilitate detachment by physically pulling up the rear edge. However, retraction can occur in the absence of myosin II activity in cell types that form small labile adhesions. To investigate the role of contractile force generation in retraction, we performed traction force microscopy during the movement of fish epithelial keratocytes. By correlating changes in local traction stress at the rear with the area retracted, we identified four distinct modes of retraction. "Recoil" retractions are preceded by a rise in local traction stress, while rear edge is temporarily stuck, followed by a sharp drop in traction stress upon detachment. This retraction type was most common in cells generating high average traction stress. In "pull" type retractions local traction stress and area retracted increase concomitantly. This was the predominant type of retraction in keratocytes and was observed mostly in cells generating low average traction stress. "Continuous" type retractions occur without any detectable change in traction stress, and are seen in cells generating low average traction stress. In contrast, to many other cell types, "release" type retractions occur in keratocytes following a decrease in local traction stress. Our identification of distinct modes of retraction suggests that contractile forces may play different roles in detachment that are related to rear adhesion strength. To determine how the regulation of contractility via MLCK or Rho kinase contributes to the mechanics of detachment, inhibitors were used to block or augment these pathways. Modulation of MLCK activity led to the most rapid change in local traction stress suggesting its importance in regulating attachment strength. Surprisingly, Rho kinase was not required for detachment, but was essential for localizing

  3. The AURA Observatory in Chile - part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This talk discusses the Extended Case Study for AURA-O as a “Window to the Universe”http://www2.astronomicalheritage.net/index.php/show-entity=59&idsubentity=5That study was prepared in the context of supporting the desire to preserve humanity’s scientific/cultural heritage of outstanding, high-mountain, ground-based, observatory sites developed over the period 1870-2000. AURA-O includes the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), established in 1962 as the first of the major international observatories to be installed in Chile. The future of AURA-O now includes the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).This Extended Case Study has provided the context for the development of possible initiatives to protect a variety of sites in Chile for their historical and scientific value to humanity. The dark skies and ideal weather patterns of northern Chile, along with its location in the southern hemisphere, have made this area of the world a major centre for astronomical facilities.While this talk will touch on the importance of dark skies as part of the Windows to the Universe concept, it is anticipated that others will be discussing (in FM2 and/or FM21) the current status and future plans (of the Chilean Government and the observatories) for protecting the dark skies of northern Chile.

  4. Potential neurogenic and vascular roles of nitric oxide in migraine headache and aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, D E

    1999-02-01

    It has long been known that nitrate and nitrite medications consistently cause significant headache as a side effect. Classical research has shown that cerebral vasodilation accompanies the use of these medications. More modern studies suggest that these vasodilators exert their action on blood vessels via nitric oxide and its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate. This paper reviews research studies and theoretical articles which address the concept that nitric oxide plays a major role in the vasodilation associated with the headache phase of migraine with aura. A brief discussion of nitric oxide biochemistry and pharmacology follows. In addition, there is a review of evidence examining the possible contributions of nitric oxide to the neurogenic and vascular events associated with spreading cortical depression, an animal model of migraine aura. The paradoxical hypotheses that nitric oxide may contribute to both the propagation of spreading cortical depression and its limitation are presented. Finally, a rationale for the experimental use of nitric oxide agonists and antagonists in the abortion of migraine aura is introduced. PMID:15613204

  5. Retraction of "Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    At the request of the authors, the following article has been retracted by the Editor and publishers of Psychological Science:Fisher, C. I., Hahn, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2015). Women's preference for attractive makeup tracks changes in their salivary testosterone. Psychological Science, 26, 1958-1964. doi:10.1177/0956797615609900.

  6. RETRACTED: Investigation into the kinetic behavior of molten aluminum pressureless infiltration into SiC preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sharifi

    2016-10-01

    According to the policy of our Journal, this paper has been retracted because of sheer plagiarism. This paper has been published at the same time in the International Journal of Materials Research (IJMR: http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/146.111422.

  7. Retraction of an intrathecal baclofen infusion catheter following suprapubic cystotomy: a case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, F.M.J.; Somford, D.M.; Kuppevelt, D.H. van; Burg, M.J. van den; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal baclofen, administered via a Baclofen pump, is used for patients with spasticity. We report here a case of intrathecal catheter retraction following surgery. CASE REPORT: A male patient with adrenoleukodystrophy and a baclofen pump implant was admitted to the urology depart

  8. Serbo-Croatian accent retraction : its course and character in the dialect of Dubrovnik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligorio, Orsat

    2016-01-01

    Serbo-Croatian Accent Retraction: Its Course and Character in the Dialect of Dubrovnik investigates the evolution of the place of stress in the history of Serbo-Croatian accentuation. The dialect of Dubrovnik, which belongs to the Neoštokavian dialect group, is characterised, like the Serbo-Croatia

  9. 77 FR 24513 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  10. 77 FR 31039 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice...

  11. 77 FR 75189 - Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 77 FR 31039-40 (Aug. 12, 2011). The notice of investigation named more than forty respondents. The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having a Retractable USB Connector; Termination of an...

  12. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  13. Effect of annealing ambient on anisotropic retraction of film edges during solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gye Hyun; Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Thompson, Carl V.

    2016-08-01

    During solid-state dewetting of thin single crystal films, film edges retract at a rate that is strongly dependent on their crystallographic orientations. Edges with kinetically stable in-plane orientations remain straight as they retract, while those with other in-plane orientations develop in-plane facets as they retract. Kinetically stable edges have retraction rates that are lower than edges with other orientations and thus determine the shape of the natural holes that form during solid-state dewetting. In this paper, measurements of the retraction rates of kinetically stable edges for single crystal (110) and (100) Ni films on MgO are presented. Relative retraction rates of kinetically stable edges with different crystallographic orientations are observed to change under different annealing conditions, and this accordingly changes the initial shapes of growing holes. The surfaces of (110) and (100) films were also characterized using low energy electron diffraction, and different surface reconstructions were observed under different ambient conditions. The observed surface structures were found to correlate with the observed changes in the relative retraction rates of the kinetically stable edges.

  14. Clinical study of gingival retraction time on the effect of gingival retraction%排龈时间对排龈效果影响的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津京; 刘玉华

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较三种排龈时间下的排龈效果,为临床上排龈时间的选择提供参考.方法 选取10名志愿者的59颗前磨牙或尖牙,于颊侧龈沟分别进行三种时间的排龈(5、10、15分钟),两次排龈间隔至少2周.制取排龈后的印模并灌制石膏模型.根据模型上牙龈不同位置牙龈与牙面的分离情况,对排龈效果由好到差进行0~3分的评分,其中0分及1分记为满意,比较不同排龈时间下排龈效果得分及满意率间的差异.结果 三种排龈时间的排龈效果得分存在统计学差异(P<0.05),随排龈时间的延长排龈效果满意率逐渐增大,排龈10分钟即可达到较好的排龈效果满意率.结论 在本实验条件下,印模制取前使用单线机械法排龈至少需要10分钟.%Objective To compare gingival retraction effects under three different types of retraction time, so as to provide references for dentists to choose gingival retraction time in clinical works. Methods Selecting 59 premolars or canines from 10 volunteers, for which gingival retraction cords were applied on the buccal sulcus under three different types of retraction time (5, 10 and 15 minutes) , respectively. The least interval between two retraction procedures was 2 weeks. Impressions and plaster models were made after gingival retraction. Based on the separation between gingival crest and tooth surface on different gingival areas of the models, gingival retraction effects from good to bad were graded from 0 to 3 score, in which 0 and 1 scores were considered to be acceptable. The scores and accepting rates of gingival retraction effects among different retraction time were compared and analyzed. Results There are statistical differences of the scores on gingival retraction effects under three types of retraction time ( P <0.05 ). The accepting rates of gingival retraction effects increased as gingival retraction time prolonged. A good accepting rate of gingival retraction effect could be

  15. 浅析本雅明的“灵韵”理论思想%Benjamin's"Aura"Theory Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雯燕

    2014-01-01

    院在前人的基础上,本雅明通过进行创造性的运用和发展,进而形成“灵韵”。观赏者透过神韵,通过联想和互动,能够被艺术强烈地震撼。但是,随着现代机械复制技术的不断发展,灵韵逐步被摧毁。本文通过阐述灵韵的含义,介绍灵韵的基本特性,同时对灵韵的结局---被摧毁进行分析。进而希望对人们的感觉系统进行改变和重塑。%On the basis of our predecessors, through Benjamin's creative use and development, the "aura" is formed. Through charm and association and interaction, the viewers can be strongly shock by art. However, with the continuous development of modern mechanical reproduction techniques, aura is gradually destroyed. This paper describes the meaning of aura, introduces the basic features of aura, at the same time analyzes the ending of aura-are destroyed, with a view to change and remodel people's feel system.

  16. Retraction: Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    RETRACTION: The following article from Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Genistein protects genioglossus myocyte against hypoxia-induced injury through PI3K-Akt and ERK MAPK pathways by Wanghui Ding and Yuehua Liu, posted online on May 19, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Gary S. Stein and Wiley-Liss, Inc. The retraction has been made as authorization to publish was not granted by one of the funding bodies.

  17. The Chinese Translation of Benjamin's "Aura"%关于本雅明的"Aura"一词中译的思索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉能

    2007-01-01

    在中国当代西方美学的翻译、介绍和研究之中,关于"Aura"的中译已经非常混乱,可以说,这种混乱已经影响到了对于本雅明的美学思想、文艺思想的理解和解释,应该予以澄清.根据本雅明自己的阐述和词语的意义本身来看,"Aura"一词以中译为"光晕"最适宜,或中译为"灵光"也可以,这样的中译可以准确地体现出"可技术复制时代"以前的艺术作品的"此时此地性"(唯一性)和"神秘性"(宗教价值性),符合西方文化和美学的宗教传统性和本雅明的审美弥赛亚主义(艺术救赎主义).如果在中译词语之中出现了"韵"、"味"、"气"、"意"之类的因素,就可能误导读者向中国美学的"韵"、"味"、"气"、"意"的特殊含义方面理解,造成中西文化错位的误读;如果中译为"气息"、"气氛"、"氛围"之类,就根本无法传达出本雅明所要表达的语义.

  18. Anatomical alterations of the visual motion processing network in migraine with and without aura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Granziera

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from migraine with aura (MWA and migraine without aura (MWoA show abnormalities in visual motion perception during and between attacks. Whether this represents the consequences of structural changes in motion-processing networks in migraineurs is unknown. Moreover, the diagnosis of migraine relies on patient's history, and finding differences in the brain of migraineurs might help to contribute to basic research aimed at better understanding the pathophysiology of migraine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To investigate a common potential anatomical basis for these disturbances, we used high-resolution cortical thickness measurement and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to examine the motion-processing network in 24 migraine patients (12 with MWA and 12 MWoA and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. We found increased cortical thickness of motion-processing visual areas MT+ and V3A in migraineurs compared to HCs. Cortical thickness increases were accompanied by abnormalities of the subjacent white matter. In addition, DTI revealed that migraineurs have alterations in superior colliculus and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which are also involved in visual processing. CONCLUSIONS: A structural abnormality in the network of motion-processing areas could account for, or be the result of, the cortical hyperexcitability observed in migraineurs. The finding in patients with both MWA and MWoA of thickness abnormalities in area V3A, previously described as a source in spreading changes involved in visual aura, raises the question as to whether a "silent" cortical spreading depression develops as well in MWoA. In addition, these experimental data may provide clinicians and researchers with a noninvasively acquirable migraine biomarker.

  19. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, M.; Lambert, A.; Manney, G.L.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N.J.; L. Froidevaux; C. O. Ao; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Cofield, R.E.; W. H. Daffer; Drouin, B.J.; E. J. Fetzer; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite observations of temperature and geopotential height (GPH) from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed. The precision, resolution, and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS version 2.2 processing algorithms are quantified, and recommendations for data screening are made. Temperature precision is 1 K or better from 316 hPa to 3.16 hPa, degrading to ∼3 K at 0.001 hPa. The vertical resolution is 3 km at 31.6 hPa, degrading to 6 km at 316 hPa ...

  20. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder BrO observations in the stratosphere

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kovalenko, L.; L. Livesey, N.; J. Salawitch, R.; Camy-Peyret, C.; P. Chipperfield, M.; E. Cofield, R.; Dorf, M.; J. Drouin, B.; L. Froidevaux; Fuller, R. A.; Goutail, Florence; F. Jarnot, R.; Jucks, K.; W. Knosp, B.; Lambert, A.

    2007-01-01

    Validation of stratospheric BrO vertical profiles obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite is discussed. MLS BrO measurements are compared with expectations of its latitudinal and seasonal dependence, as well as with more localized balloon-borne measurements of BrO. We describe the expected precision and systematic errors of the version 2.2 retrieval and show that scientific studies using MLS BrO vertical profiles require extensive averaging to increase the signal-to...

  1. Plano de comunicação integrada de marketing da empresa Aura Light Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Inês Alves dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing Actualmente as empresas apercebem-se que devem mudar a sua posição no mercado e a sua forma de promover os produtos e serviços, sendo a Comunicação Integrada de Marketing de extremo valor para o trabalho dos marketeers, num ambiente de comunicação caracterizado por rápidas mudanças (Belch e Belch, 2003). Este projecto tem como objectivo a elaboração de um plano de Comunicação Integrada de Marketing para a empresa Aura Light Portugal, cujos objectivos pa...

  2. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions. PMID:26855328

  3. RETRACTED: The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BSC.2010.5472979. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  4. Direct Microtubule-Binding by Myosin-10 Orients Centrosomes toward Retraction Fibers and Subcortical Actin Clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mijung; Bagonis, Maria; Danuser, Gaudenz; Pellman, David

    2015-08-10

    Positioning of centrosomes is vital for cell division and development. In metazoan cells, spindle positioning is controlled by a dynamic pool of subcortical actin that organizes in response to the position of retraction fibers. These actin "clouds" are proposed to generate pulling forces on centrosomes and mediate spindle orientation. However, the motors that pull astral microtubules toward these actin structures are not known. Here, we report that the unconventional myosin, Myo10, couples actin-dependent forces from retraction fibers and subcortical actin clouds to centrosomes. Myo10-mediated centrosome positioning requires its direct microtubule binding. Computational image analysis of large microtubule populations reveals a direct effect of Myo10 on microtubule dynamics and microtubule-cortex interactions. Myo10's role in centrosome positioning is distinct from, but overlaps with, that of dynein. Thus, Myo10 plays a key role in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to position centrosomes and mitotic spindles. PMID:26235048

  5. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions.

  6. RETRACTED: Complexity of Generating Multi-collisions for MD4 and MD5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Liu, Yang; Pan, Lei

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared on http://www.thi.uni-hannover.de/fileadmin/forschung/arbeiten/knopf-sa.pdf. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  7. RETRACTED: On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Alexis; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2015-04-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Adv. High Energy Physics, P. Nicolini, A. Orlandi, E. Spallucci, The Final Stage of Gravitationally Collapsed Thick Matter Layers, Vol 2013 (2013), Article ID 812084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/812084. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  8. 不同排龈药物的排龈效果观察%The retractive effects of different gingival retraction agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯云枝; 曾晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the retractive effects of different gingival retraction agents. Methods Thirty subjects with healthy gingival conditions were recruited to the trial, and the buccal gingival sulcns of the hibateral first max-illary premolars of each subject (n=60) were treated randomly with one of the six agents-Group A was tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride, Group B was oxymetazoline hydrochloride, Group C was epinephrine hydrochlorid, Group D was AlCl3, Group E was Fe2 (S04)3, and Group F was normal saline as control. Both pre-treated and post-treated accurate impressions of buccal gingival sulcus of the experimental teeth were made, so were the anhydrite casts. The casts of experimental teeth were sectioned into 2 mm slices bucco-lingually at the buccal eminence. Then the width of the sulcus was measured as the distance from the tooth to the crest of the gingival under a low-power microscope to compare the effect of these giagival retraction agents. Results The width of gingival sulcus became larger after the treatment in all groups(P<0.05). Either Group A or Group B had greater gingival retraction effects than Group C and Group F (P<0.05). Except Group F, both Group D and Group E had no significant differences from the other groups (P>0.05). There was no statistically signification between Group D and Group E (P>0.05), neither was there any statistically significance between Group A and Group B (P>0.05). Conclusion Tetrahydrozoline manifested excellent effect of gingival retraction.%目的 观察不同排龈药物的排龈效果.方法选择30例志愿者的双侧上颌第一前磨牙(共60颗)作为研究牙齿,随机分成A~F共6组,分别使用含不同排龈药物的排龈线进行颊侧排龈处理.A组为盐酸四氢唑啉,B组为盐酸羟甲唑啉组,C组为盐酸肾上腺素,D组为氯化铝,E组为硫酸铁,F组为生理盐水.于排龈前后分别精确取模,获得排龈牙颊侧龈沟的清晰印模,在硬石膏模型上沿牙冠长轴

  9. "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature": Retraction of Thatcher and Patel (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Reports the retraction of "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature" by Sherry M. B. Thatcher and Pankaj C. Patel (, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1119-1139). At the request of the editor and in consultation with the American Psychological Association, the article is being retracted. This action is a result of a review by the editor and two additional experts that determined that there are significant errors in Tables 1, 2, and 3 which may affect the overall conclusions of the article. Co-author Pankaj C. Patel led the analysis, and both authors acknowledge that inaccuracies were made. The retraction of this article does not preclude resubmission of a new article that addresses the issues noted in the retraction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these

  10. Results of Surgery in Patients with type 1 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Pehlivanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the results of surgery techniques used in Duane’s retraction syndrome (DRS type 1. Material and Method: 194 DRS cases followed in the department of strabismus were retrospectively investigated. We assessed 58 cases operated for esotropic DRS type 1 in terms of pre- and post-operative deviations in primary position, abnormal head posture (AHP, abduction deficiency, globe retraction, and up-down shoot. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical technique applied. The mean follow-up period was 22.4±4.6 (1-13 years months. Results: The cases in group 1 had undergone uni- or bilateral medial rectus (MR recession, and the postoperative 1stmonth improvement rates for distance deviation, near deviation and AHP were 68.6%, 73.9% and 50%, respectively. These rates were 69.3%, 64.7% and 57.1%, respectively in group 2 which consisted of eyes that had undergone vertical rectus muscle transposition (VRT surgery. In group 3, in which we had performed Y-split (with or without LR/MR recession surgery, the improvement rates for distance and near deviation were 63.6% and 63.9%, and 50% was determined for AHP. The improvement in globe retraction was 60% in group 1 and 66.6% in group 3. Discussion: Medial rectus muscle recession was more effective for correction of deviation and AHP in cases of DRS type 1. VRT was found to be more effective surgical option in abduction deficiency. Y-split surgery has an important place in eliminating globe retraction and up/down shoot. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 156-63

  11. A comparative study of frictional resistance during simulated canine retraction on typodont model

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gulshan K; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P.; SINGH Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Frictional resistance is an important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement during sliding mechanics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different bracket-archwire-ligation combinations on “resistance to sliding” during simulated canine retraction on typodont model. Materials and Methods: the frictional resistance was tested between three modern orthodontic brackets-stainless steel, ceramic, and ceramic with metal slot (0.022-inch), and seven different archw...

  12. RETRACT OF CONSENT, UNDER THE REGULATION OF THE ROMANIAN CONSUMPTION LAW

    OpenAIRE

    JUANITA GOICOVICI

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the four main zones of incidence, in the Romanian legislation, of the consumer’s right to retract the prior consent, namely the contracts concluded outside commercial spaces, contracts agreed at distance, including electronic bargains, credits offered to consumers and time-sharing contracts. First, we briefly discuss the various possibilities of consent withdrawal, as described by national law and examine the discretionary character of withdrawal rights. Next, attentio...

  13. Two-dimensional wave patterns of spreading depolarization: retracting, re-entrant, and stationary waves

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlem, Markus A.; Graf, Rudolf; Strong, Anthony J.; Dreier, Jens P.; Dahlem, Yuliya A.; Sieber, Michaela; Hanke, Wolfgang; Podoll, Klaus; Schoell, Eckehard

    2009-01-01

    We present spatio-temporal characteristics of spreading depolarizations (SD) in two experimental systems: retracting SD wave segments observed with intrinsic optical signals in chicken retina, and spontaneously occurring re-entrant SD waves that repeatedly spread across gyrencephalic feline cortex observed by laser speckle flowmetry. A mathematical framework of reaction-diffusion systems with augmented transmission capabilities is developed to explain the emergence and transitions between the...

  14. Actin turnover is required to prevent axon retraction driven by endogenous actomyosin contractility

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Gianluca; Yee, Hal F.; Letourneau, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    Growth cone motility and guidance depend on the dynamic reorganization of filamentous actin (F-actin). In the growth cone, F-actin undergoes turnover, which is the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. However, the function of F-actin turnover is not clear. We used jasplakinolide (jasp), a cell-permeable macrocyclic peptide that inhibits F-actin turnover, to study the role of F-actin turnover in axon extension. Treatment with jasp caused axon retraction, demonstrating that axon ...

  15. "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature": Retraction of Thatcher and Patel (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Reports the retraction of "Demographic faultlines: A meta-analysis of the literature" by Sherry M. B. Thatcher and Pankaj C. Patel (, 2011[Nov], Vol 96[6], 1119-1139). At the request of the editor and in consultation with the American Psychological Association, the article is being retracted. This action is a result of a review by the editor and two additional experts that determined that there are significant errors in Tables 1, 2, and 3 which may affect the overall conclusions of the article. Co-author Pankaj C. Patel led the analysis, and both authors acknowledge that inaccuracies were made. The retraction of this article does not preclude resubmission of a new article that addresses the issues noted in the retraction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) We propose and test a theoretical model focusing on antecedents and consequences of demographic faultlines. We also posit contingencies that affect overall team dynamics in the context of demographic faultlines, such as the study setting and performance measurement. Using meta-analysis structural equation modeling with a final data set consisting of 311 data points (i.e., [predictor-criterion relationships]), from 39 studies that were obtained from 36 papers with a total sample size of 24,388 individuals in 4,366 teams, we found that sex and racial diversity increased demographic faultline strength more than did diversity on the attributes of functional background, educational background, age, and tenure. Demographic faultline strength was found to increase task and relationship conflict as well as decrease team cohesion. Furthermore, although demographic faultline strength decreased both team satisfaction and team performance, there was a stronger decrease in team performance than in team satisfaction. The strength of these relationships increased when the study was conducted in the lab rather than in the field. We describe the theoretical and practical implications of these

  16. RETRACTION (G' / G)-expansion method equivalent to the extended tanh-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wakil, S. A.; Abdou, M. A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Hendi, A.; Abdelwahed, H. G.

    2010-10-01

    This paper has been formally retracted on ethical grounds due to the similarity in content, presentation and style to another article published by Liu Chun-Ping in the journal Communications in Theoretical Physics (Chun-Ping 2009 Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 985). It is unfortunate that this was not detected before going to press. Our thanks go to the original author for bringing this fact to our attention. Corrections were made to this article on 22 October 2010.

  17. Increased cerebrovascular pCO2 reactivity in migraine with aura--a transcranial Doppler study during hyperventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Olesen, J

    1995-01-01

    cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler. In each subject a pCO2 reactivity index (RI) was calculated as (delta Vmean/baseline Vmean)/delta pCO2. Interictally, patients with migraine with aura showed higher RI (p ANOVA and multiple range test) than controls, whereas migraineurs without......-nitroglycerin-provoked healthy controls (p > 0.05, ANOVA and multiple range test). The exaggerated response in migraine with aura might predispose for the characteristic changes in rCBF seen during attacks....

  18. Hearing voices: does it give your patient a headache? A case of auditory hallucinations as acoustic aura in migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van der Feltz-Cornelis CM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis1–3, Henk Biemans1, Jan Timmer11Clinical Centre for Body, Mind and Health, GGz Breburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands; 2Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands; 3Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, The NetherlandsObjective: Auditory hallucinations are generally considered to be a psychotic symptom. However, they do occur without other psychotic symptoms in a substantive number of cases in the general population and can cause a lot of individual distress because of the supposed association with schizophrenia. We describe a case of nonpsychotic auditory hallucinations occurring in the context of migraine.Method: Case report and literature review.Results: A 40-year-old man presented with imperative auditory hallucinations that caused depressive and anxiety symptoms. He reported migraine with visual aura as well which started at the same time as the auditory hallucinations. The auditory hallucinations occurred in the context of nocturnal migraine attacks, preceding them as aura. No psychotic disorder was present. After treatment of the migraine with propranolol 40 mg twice daily, explanation of the etiology of the hallucinations, and mirtazapine 45 mg daily, the migraine subsided and no further hallucinations occurred. The patient recovered.Discussion: Visual auras have been described in migraine and occur quite often. Auditory hallucinations as aura in migraine have been described in children without psychosis, but this is the first case describing auditory hallucinations without psychosis as aura in migraine in an adult. For description of this kind of hallucination, DSM-IV lacks an appropriate category.Conclusion: Psychiatrists should consider migraine with acoustic aura as a possible etiological factor in patients without further psychotic symptoms presenting with auditory hallucinations, and they should ask for headache symptoms when they take the history. Prognosis may be

  19. One-dimensional steady continuum model of retraction of pseudopod in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Skalak, R; Schmid-Schönbein, G W

    1989-02-01

    A one-dimensional steady state continuum mechanics model of retraction of pseudopod in leukocytes is developed. The retracting pseudopod is assumed to move bodily toward the main cell body, the bulk motion of which can be represented by cytoplasmic flow within a typical stream tube through the leukocyte. The stream tube is approximated by a frictionless tube with prescribed geometry. The passive rheological properties of cytoplasm in the main cell body and in the pseudopod are modeled, respectively, by Maxwell fluid and Hookean solid. The two regions are assumed to be separated by a sharp interface at which actin gel solates and thereby changes its rheological properties as it flows from the pseudopod to the main cell body. The driving mechanism responsible for the active retraction motion is hypothesized to be a spontaneous deformation of the actin gel, analogous but not necessarily equal to the well known actin-myosin interaction. This results in an active contractile stress being developed in the pseudopod as well as in the cell cortex. The transverse traction pulls against the inclined wall of the stream tube and is transduced into an axial stress gradient, which in turn drives the flow. The tension on the tube wall is picked up by the prestressed cortical shell. Governing equations and boundary conditions are derived. A solution is obtained. Sample data are computed. Comparison of the theory with experiments shows that the model is compatible to the observations. PMID:2747236

  20. Intraluminal magnetisation of bowel by ferromagnetic particles for retraction and manipulation by magnetic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; André, P; McLean, D; Brown, S I; Florence, G J; Cuschieri, A

    2014-11-01

    Feasibility studies are needed to demonstrate that safe and effective manipulation of bowel during Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) can be obtained by use of magnetic force. This paper characterises two classes of magnetic particles: stainless steel microparticles (SS-μPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-nPs) in terms of their magnetisation, chemical composition, crystallinity, morphology and size distribution. Both magnetic particles were dispersed in a high viscosity biological liquid for intraluminal injection of bowel. Ex vivo porcine bowel segments were then retracted by permanent magnetic probes of 5.0 and 10mm diameter. Strong retraction forces reaching 6N maximum were obtained by magnetic fluid based on dispersion of SS-μPs. In contrast, the IO-nP-based magnetic liquid generated less attraction force, due to both lower magnetic and solution properties of the IO-nPs. The comparison of the two particles allowed the identification of the rules to engineer the next generation of particles. The results with SS-μPs provide proof on concept that intraluminal injection of magnetic fluid can generate sufficient force for efficient bowel retraction. Thereafter we shall carry out in vivo animal studies for efficacy and safety of both types of ferrofluids. PMID:25169469

  1. Intraluminal magnetisation of bowel by ferromagnetic particles for retraction and manipulation by magnetic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; André, P; McLean, D; Brown, S I; Florence, G J; Cuschieri, A

    2014-11-01

    Feasibility studies are needed to demonstrate that safe and effective manipulation of bowel during Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) can be obtained by use of magnetic force. This paper characterises two classes of magnetic particles: stainless steel microparticles (SS-μPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-nPs) in terms of their magnetisation, chemical composition, crystallinity, morphology and size distribution. Both magnetic particles were dispersed in a high viscosity biological liquid for intraluminal injection of bowel. Ex vivo porcine bowel segments were then retracted by permanent magnetic probes of 5.0 and 10mm diameter. Strong retraction forces reaching 6N maximum were obtained by magnetic fluid based on dispersion of SS-μPs. In contrast, the IO-nP-based magnetic liquid generated less attraction force, due to both lower magnetic and solution properties of the IO-nPs. The comparison of the two particles allowed the identification of the rules to engineer the next generation of particles. The results with SS-μPs provide proof on concept that intraluminal injection of magnetic fluid can generate sufficient force for efficient bowel retraction. Thereafter we shall carry out in vivo animal studies for efficacy and safety of both types of ferrofluids.

  2. Primary intracranial angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma presenting with anaemia and migraine-like headaches and aura as early clinical features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Scheie, David;

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old female with migraine with aura complained of fatigue and was diagnosed with anemia. Three years later, changes in her headache pattern prompted hospital referral. Brain MRI showed a bi-lobed extra-axial intracerebral tumor encroaching both parieto-occipital regions. The resection sp...

  3. On Bjamin's Aura from the Perspective of Visual Culture%本雅明的“灵韵”:在视觉文化的观照下

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文健

    2013-01-01

    Benjamin's aura is full of ambiguity. He is not the first person to use Aura, but it is much developed through his efforts. This paper tries to organize the main idea of aura and interpret its esthetics implication, then focuses on the aesthetic association between aura and its visual dialectics, which highlights the theory of visual culture in Benjamin's aura.%  本雅明的“灵韵”(Aura)思想富于暧昧性与含混性。“灵韵”虽不是本雅明的首创,但却是在他那里发展丰富起来的,在视觉文化的关照下,其“灵韵”(Aura),呈现出两种特征。其一,“灵韵”在时间上的视觉关联性特征;其二,“灵韵”在空间上的视觉距离性特征。伴随着“读图时代”的到来,机械复制更加突出,世界正变得越来越图像化,然而“灵韵”还是变相地存在着。

  4. aura (mid1ip1l) regulates the cytoskeleton at the zebrafish egg-to-embryo transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eno, Celeste; Solanki, Bharti; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Embryos from females homozygous for a recessive maternal-effect mutation in the gene aura exhibit defects including reduced cortical integrity, defective cortical granule (CG) release upon egg activation, failure to complete cytokinesis, and abnormal cell wound healing. We show that the cytokinesis defects are associated with aberrant cytoskeletal reorganization during furrow maturation, including abnormal F-actin enrichment and microtubule reorganization. Cortical F-actin prior to furrow formation fails to exhibit a normal transition into F-actin-rich arcs, and drug inhibition is consistent with aura function promoting F-actin polymerization and/or stabilization. In mutants, components of exocytic and endocytic vesicles, such as Vamp2, Clathrin and Dynamin, are sequestered in unreleased CGs, indicating a need for CG recycling in the normal redistribution of these factors. However, the exocytic targeting factor Rab11 is recruited to the furrow plane normally at the tip of bundling microtubules, suggesting an alternative anchoring mechanism independent of membrane recycling. A positional cloning approach indicates that the mutation in aura is associated with a truncation of Mid1 interacting protein 1 like (Mid1ip1l), previously identified as an interactor of the X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome gene product Mid1. A Cas9/CRISPR-induced mutant allele in mid1ip1l fails to complement the originally isolated aura maternal-effect mutation, confirming gene assignment. Mid1ip1l protein localizes to cortical F-actin aggregates, consistent with a direct role in cytoskeletal regulation. Our studies indicate that maternally provided aura (mid1ip1l) acts during the reorganization of the cytoskeleton at the egg-to-embryo transition and highlight the importance of cytoskeletal dynamics and membrane recycling during this developmental period. PMID:26965374

  5. Two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy with modified suture retraction of the fundus: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming G Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Although transumbilical single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC has been demonstrated to be superior cosmetic, it is only limited to simple cases at present. In complex cases, the standard four- or three-port LC is still the treatment of choice. Aim: To summarize the clinical effect of a modified technique in two-port LC. Settings and Design: A consecutive series of patients with benign gallbladder diseases admitted to the provincial teaching hospital who underwent LC in the past 4 years were included. A modified two-port LC was the first choice except for those requiring laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE. Materials and Methods: The operation was done with suture retraction of the fundus by a needle-like retractor. The patients′ data, including the operative time, time consumed by gallbladder retraction, operative bleeding, conversion rate, rate of adding trocars, and postoperative complications were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Data were expressed as percentage and mean with standard deviation. Results: Total 107 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis (N = 61, acute calculous cholecystitis (N = 43, and cholecystic polyps (N = 3 received two-port LC. The procedure was successful in 99 out of 107 cases (success rate, 92.5%, and a third trocar was added in the remaining 8 cases (7.5% due to severe pathological changes. The operative time was 47.2 (±13.21 min. There was no conversion to open surgery. Conclusion: Two-port LC using a needle-like retractor for suture retraction of the gallbladder fundus is a practical approach when considering the safety, convenience, and indications as well as relatively minimal invasion.

  6. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. METHODS: A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine.

  7. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  8. Time-Dependent Response of Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites Under Tension and Retraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2013-01-01

    Observations are reported in relaxation tests under tension and retraction on polypropylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in the stress......–strain relations are found by fitting the observations. Ability of the constitutive equations to describe characteristic features of the timedependent behavior of nanocomposites under cyclic deformation is confirmed by numerical simulation. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 00:000–000, 2012. ª2012 Society of Plastics Engineers...

  9. Rotating and retractable lighting device for a swimming pool containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lighting device is retractable under the action of appliances working in the swimming pool or thanks to various impacts. Each arm is assembled pivoting around a vertical axis. Return means as spring allow to bring back in a balanced angular position the arm carrying a headlight in a determined angular position after the arm and the headlight having been spread from this position in an intentional or fortuitous way. Application to lighting devices for nuclear reactor swimming pools. (Author). 4 figs., 3 refs

  10. Retraction: Risks of avian influenza (H5) in duck farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The following article from Zoonoses and Public Health, 'Risks of Avian Influenza (H5) in Duck Farms in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Region, Myanmar' by H. H. Win, C. C. Su Mon, K. M. Aung, K. N. Oo, K. Sunn, T. Htun, T. Tiensin, M. Maclean, W. Kalpravidh and A. Amonsin published online on 09 August 2013 on Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/) has been retracted by the journal Editor-in-Chief, Mary Torrence, the Authors, and Blackwell Verlag GmbH, as the article has already been published in the Myanmar Veterinary Journal [Myanmar Veterinary Journal 2013, Vol. 15, No. 1, 43–50].

  11. OPTIMAL ALGORITHM FOR NO TOOlRETRACTIONS CONTOUR-PARALLEL OFFSET TOOL-PATH LINKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yongtao; JIANG Lili

    2007-01-01

    A contour-parallel offset (CPO) tool-path linking algorithm is derived without toolretractions and with the largest practicability. The concept of "tool-path loop tree" (TPL-tree)providing the information on the parent/child relationships among the tool-path loops (TPLs) is presented. The direction, tool-path loop, leaf/branch, layer number, and the corresponding points of the TPL-tree are introduced. By defining TPL as a vector, and by traveling throughout the tree, a CPO tool-path without tool-retractions can be derived.

  12. Satellite Monitoring Over the Canadian Oil Sands: Highlights from Aura OMI and TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark W.; McLinden, Chris; Fioletov, Vitali; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.; Krotkov, Nick A.; Boersma, Folkert; Li, Can; Luo, Ming; Bhartia, P. K.; Joiner, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides a unique perspective for air quality monitoring in and around the Canadian Oil Sands as a result of its spatial and temporal coverage. Presented are Aura satellite observations of key pollutants including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH), and formic acid (HCOOH) over the Canadian Oil Sands. Some of the highlights include: (i) the evolution of NO2 and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), including comparisons with other nearby sources, (ii) two years of ammonia, carbon monoxide, methanol, and formic acid observations from 240 km North-South Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) transects through the oils sands, and (iii) preliminary insights into emissions derived from these observations.

  13. NO2 Total and Tropospheric Vertical Column Densities from OMI on EOS Aura: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J.F.; Bucsela, E.J.; Celarier, E.A.; Veefkind, J.P.; Kim, S.W.; Frost, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which is on the EOS AURA satellite, retrieves vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2, along with those of several other trace gases. The relatively high spatial resolution and daily global coverage of the instrument make it particularly well-suited to monitoring tropospheric pollution at scales on the order of 20 km. The OMI NO2 algorithm distinguishes polluted regions from background stratospheric NO2 using a separation algorithm that relies on the smoothly varying stratospheric NO2 and estimations of both stratospheric and tropospheric air mass factors (AMFs). Version 1 of OMI NO2 data has been released for public use. An overview of OMI NO2 data, some recent results and a description of the improvements for version 2 of the algorithm will be presented.

  14. Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) instruments designed for measuring stratospheric ozone profiles have proven to be robust tools for observing polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). These measurements are available for more than 30 years, and have been used to demonstrate the existence of long-term variations in PMC occurrence frequency and brightness. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS Aura satellite provides new and improved capabilities for PMC characterization. OMI uses smaller pixels than previous BUV instruments, which increases its ability to identify PMCs and discern more spatial structure, and its wide cross-track viewing swath provides full polar coverage up to 90 latitude every day in both hemispheres. This cross-track coverage allows the evolution of PMC regions to be followed over several consecutive orbits. Localized PMC variations determined from OMI measurements are consistent with coincident SBUV/2 measurements. Nine seasons of PMC observations from OMI are now available, and clearly demonstrate the advantages of these measurements for PMC analysis.

  15. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boulanger

    Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  16. Velocity of Canine Retraction in Angle Class I Treated with First Premolar Extraction: Effect of Facial Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yu; Toyodome, Yoriko; Ishii, Takenobu; Sakamoto, Teruo; Motegi, Etsuko; Sueishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new methods have been applied to increase velocity of tooth movement. A standard mean of tooth movement velocity remains to be established, however. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the effect of factors affecting this velocity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of facial pattern on the mean velocity of canine retraction in selected cases of orthodontic treatment carried out at this hospital. A total of 112 patients with Angle Class I crowding treated with extraction of the bilateral maxillary and mandibular first premolars and a conventional edgewise bracket were selected at random. The canine retraction period was defined as that between the end of leveling and the beginning of anterior retraction, and was obtained from medical records. Calipers were used to measure how far the canine cusps moved between pre- and post-surgically on superimposed cephalometric tracings. The velocity of canine retraction was significantly slower in the maxilla of male patients with a brachyofacial pattern (p<0.01). Canine retraction is the longest stage of orthodontic treatment. Here, movement was slowest in the maxilla of male patients with a brachyofacial pattern. This indicates that treatment may take longer than average in male patients with a brachyofacial pattern, and that this should be explained prior to commencing such work. PMID:26370574

  17. ICTAL AND INTERICTAL EEG ABNORMALITIES IN 100 MIGRAINEURS WITH AND WITHOUT AURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pourmahmoodian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There are several conflicting reports about the EEG of the migraineurs. In this study we report the ictal and interictal EEGs of 100 migraineurs, in comparison with control group. The range age for patient and control groups were 9-48 (mean: 26 ± 1.8 and 10-46 (mean: 23 ± 2.1 years respectively. 32% of the patients were less than 14 years old and the remaining 68% were more than 14 years. In the patient group, 68% of cases had migraine without aura and 32% suffered from migraine with aura. Hemiplegic and basilar migraines were observed in one and two of our patients respectively. Gender and age had no effect on the type of migraine. Family history for first degree relatives was found in 64% of patients, without being influenced by gender or type of migraine. Male to female ratio was 1/1.6 (38/62. Abnormal EEG was found to be much more frequent in migraineurs than the control group (47% vs. 7%. Children had an overall somewhat more abnormal EEGs, compared with adult group (53% vs. 44% or 17/32 vs. 30/68, though slow discharges were detected more in adult group. The most common abnormality was slow high voltage waves, which was observed in 33/47 (70% of abnormal recordings. The less common findings, in decreasing order of frequency were: focal (slow, sharps or mixed discharges in 14/47 (29%, epileptiform (alone or associated with slow waves in 4/47 (8.5%, diffuse beta and frontal intermittent delta, activity each being in 1/47 (2.1% of abnormal recordings.

  18. Validation of the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Geopotential Height Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. J.; Lambert, A.; Manney, G. L.; Read, W. G.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Ao, C. O.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C. D.; Cofield, R. E.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, J. H.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Krueger, K.; Li, J.-L. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Pawson, S.; Russell, J. M., III; Santee, M. L.; Snyder, W. V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the retrievals algorithm used to determine temperature and height from radiance measurements by the Microwave Limb Sounder on EOS Aura. MLS is a "limbscanning" instrument, meaning that it views the atmosphere along paths that do not intersect the surface - it actually looks forwards from the Aura satellite. This means that the temperature retrievals are for a "profile" of the atmosphere somewhat ahead of the satellite. Because of the need to view a finite sample of the atmosphere, the sample spans a box about 1.5km deep and several tens of kilometers in width; the optical characteristics of the atmosphere mean that the sample is representative of a tube about 200-300km long in the direction of view. The retrievals use temperature analyses from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system as a priori states. The temperature retrievals are somewhat deperrdezt on these a priori states, especially in the lower stratosphere. An important part of the validation of any new dataset involves comparison with other, independent datasets. A large part of this study is concerned with such comparisons, using a number of independent space-based measurements obtained using different techniques, and with meteorological analyses. The MLS temperature data are shown to have biases that vary with height, but also depend on the validation dataset. MLS data are apparently biased slightly cold relative to correlative data in the upper troposphere and slightly warm in the middle stratosphere. A warm MLS bias in the upper stratosphere may be due to a cold bias in GEOS-5 temperatures.

  19. Retraction statement: 'Species distributions shift downward across western North America' by M.A. Harsch and J. Hille Ris Lambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The above article, published online on 18 August 2014 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, Dr Melanie Harsch and Associate Professor Janneke Hille Ris Lambers, journal Editor-in-Chief, Professor Stephen Long, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed for the following reasons: a coding error affected the results and therefore invalidated the broadscale conclusions presented in the article. The article presented broad-scale patterns of species distribution shifts in response to recent climate change. Unfortunately, it has since been found that one approach used to account for sampling bias, the null model approach, was affected by the coding error. Following the identification of the coding error, we are therefore retracting the article. We thank Drs Adam Wolf and William Anderegg for bringing this issue to our attention.

  20. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  2. Effect of intrusive and retraction forces in labial and lingual orthodontics: A finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lingual orthodontics differs in biomechanics as compared to labial system and has biomechanical advantages. Although theoretical approaches have explained the differences between labial and lingual orthodontics, the finite element method (FEM may be better suited to analyze these differences. This study analyzes the effect of vertical and horizontal forces together on the tooth using FEM. Materials and Methods: An extracted right maxillary central incisor was radiographed and was used to create a solid model using ANSYS. The geometric model was converted into a finite element model with the help of ANSYS software. The model consists of 27,000 elements and 30,000 nodes. Two force vectors (vertical and horizontal were applied labially and lingually at 3 different heights- 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm from the incisal edge. Results: In the labial system, the net force vector passes through the center of resistance (CR and brings about intrusion. The net force vector in lingual orthodontics does not pass through the center of resistance and produces lingual tipping of the incisors. Conclusion: Intrusion and retraction forces bring about tipping of incisors in lingual orthodontics. The same amount of intrusion and retraction forces brings about intrusion of incisors in labial orthodontics. Therefore, direction and amount of forces should be carefully and judiciously applied after taking into consideration the resultant biomechanical differences.

  3. Fully three-dimensional reconstruction for a PET camera with retractable septa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a fully 3-D reconstruction algorithm developed to reconstruct data from a sixteen-ring PET camera (a Siemens/CTI 953B) with automatically retractable septa. The tomograph is able to acquire coincidences between any pair of detector rings and septa retraction increases the total system count rate by a factor of 7.8 (including scatter) and 4.7 (scatter subtracted) for a uniform, 20 cm diameter cylinder. The reconstruction algorithm is based on 3-D filtered backprojection, expressed in a form suitable for the multi-angle sinogram data. Sinograms which are not measured due to the truncated cylindrical geometry of the tomograph, but which are required for a spatially-invariant response function, are obtained by forward projection. After filtering, the complete set of sinograms is backprojected into a 3-D volume of 128 x 128 x 31 voxels using a voxel-driven procedure. The algorithm has been validated with simulation, and tested with both phantom and clinical data from the 953B

  4. Does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Scott; O'Neill, Bridie; Bilal, Haris; Waterworth, Paul

    2013-07-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'does retraction of the sternum during median sternotomy result in brachial plexus injuries or peripheral neuropathies?' Altogether 58 papers were found using the reported search, of which 12 represented the best evidence to answer the question. The authors, date, journal and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. Caudal placement of the retractor or relieving the pressure superiorly by removing the upper blades of a retractor (P = 0.02) and use of a caudally placed symmetrical retractor has been shown to reduce neuropathy. Positioning of the patient with 'hands up' positioning showed significant reduction in the incidence of brachial plexus injuries. Furthermore, how wide the retractor is opened and use of an asymmetrical retractor for internal mammary artery (IMA) harvesting are also important factors in quantifying risk of postoperative neuropathy. Wider sternal retraction and longer bypass time did increase the risk of developing postoperative neuropathy. Three asymmetrical retractors were looked at that demonstrates the Delacroix-Chevalier to be the safest (P retractor and using a caudally placed retractor.

  5. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura OMI Version 003 Level 2 Cloud Data Product OMCLDRR is made available (in April 2012) to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data...

  6. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura level-2 near UV Aerosol data product 'OMAERUV', recently re-processed using an enhanced algorithm, is now released (April 2012) to the public. The data...

  7. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  8. OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched aboard the EOS-Aura satellite on July 15, 2004 (1:38 pm equator crossing time, ascending mode). OMI with its 2600...

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects [Retraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vinson JA; Burnham BR; Nagendran MV

    2014-01-01

    Vinson JA, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2012;5:21–27. The sponsors of the study cannot assure the validity of the data so we, Joe Vinson and Bryan Burnham, are retracting the paper. This retraction relates to this paper. 

  10. Gene expression microarray analysis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus in a rat model of migraine with aura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruozhuo Liu; Shengyuan Yu; Fengpeng Li; Enchao Qiu

    2012-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression can trigger migraine with aura and activate the trigeminal vascular system. To examine gene expression profiles in the spinal trigeminal nucleus in rats following cortical spreading depression-induced migraine with aura, a rat model was established by injection of 1 M potassium chloride, which induced cortical spreading depression. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, compared with the control group, the cortical spreading depression group showed seven upregulated genes-myosin heavy chain 1/2, myosin light chain 1, myosin light chain (phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle), actin alpha 1, homeobox B8, carbonic anhydrase 3 and an unknown gene. Two genes were downregulated-RGD1563441 and an unknown gene. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in motility, cell migration, CO2 /nitric oxide homeostasis and signal transduction.

  11. Five blind men and the elephant: what can the NASA Aura ozone measurements tell us about stratosphere-troposphere exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine whether the individual ozone (O3 measurements from the four Aura instruments can quantify the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE flux of O3, an important term of the tropospheric O3 budget. The level 2 (L2 Aura swath data and the nearly coincident ozone sondes for the years 2005–2006 are compared with the 4-D, high-resolution (1° × 1° × 40-layer × 0.5 h model simulation of atmospheric ozone for the same period from the University of California, Irvine chemistry transport model (CTM. The CTM becomes a transfer standard for comparing individual profiles from these five, not-quite-coincident measurements of atmospheric ozone. Even with obvious model discrepancies identified here, the CTM can readily quantify instrument-instrument biases in the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitude lower stratosphere. In terms of STE processes, all four Aura datasets have some skill in identifying stratosphere-troposphere folds, and we find several cases where both model and measurements see evidence of high-O3 stratospheric air entering the troposphere. In many cases identified in the model, however, the individual Aura profile retrievals in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere show too much noise, as expected from their low sensitivity and coarse vertical resolution at and below the tropopause. These model-measurement comparisons of individual profiles do provide some level of confidence in the model-derived STE O3 flux, but it will be difficult to integrate this flux from the satellite data alone.

  12. La transformación de la cultura de masas. Aura y comunión fática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Magallón Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la transformación del concepto de aura a partir de la integración de las nuevas tecnologías y el ser humano. Si Walter Benjamin asoció la pérdida del aura a la era de la reproductividad técnica, la nueva cultura popular ha encontrado en la comunicación fática el modo de recuperarla. En este sentido, ésta ya no se establece sólo en función del objeto a contemplar sino también en virtud del sujeto que la contempla. Para explicar esta evolución, es necesario tener en cuenta la amputación por parte de los medios electrónicos de ciertas formas sentir, pensar y recordar que llegan incluso a modificar nuestra identidad social e individual, pero también nuestra memoria colectiva. De este modo, la transmisión de las experiencias de manera oral ha dejado paso a una forma de comunicabilidad establecida por la integración de aura y comunicación fática, donde lo importante no es ver el acontecimiento mediático sino poder sentirlo en directo. Nuestra identidad mediática parece desvincularse del ser para formar parte de un estar. En este caso, de un estar juntos.

  13. Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta/proposed ICD-11 diagnostic criteria for migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dana; Christensen, Anne F; Olesen, Jes

    2015-01-01

    ), 1.2.3 hemiplegic migraine, 1.2.2 migraine with brainstem aura, and the alternative criteria A1.2 MA and A1.2.1 MTA. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were systematically and prospectively collected from patients with 1.2.1 MTA, 1.2.4 familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), 1.2.5 sporadic hemiplegic...... migraine (SHM) and 1.2.6 basilar-type migraine according to ICHD-2 in a cross-sectional study design. A database of 2464 patients with 1.1 migraine without aura and 1.2 migraine with non-hemiplegic aura and a database of 252 hemiplegic migraine patients (1.2.4 FHM or 1.2.5 SHM) was collected. We used SPSS...... 20 for Windows 8.0 for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: All ICHD-2 patients fulfilled ICHD-3 beta criteria for 1.2 MA. The ICHD-3 beta criteria for 1.2.1 MTA were more sensitive than ICHD-2 and ICHD-3 beta alternative criteria; they resulted in fewer probable MA diagnoses. Too many patients...

  14. “Chase Sound Boys Out of Earth”: The Aura of Dubplate Specials in Finnish Reggae Sound System Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ramstedt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to expand our understanding of how dubplate specials are produced, circulated, and culturally valued in the international reggae sound system culture of the dub diaspora by analysing the production and performance of “Chase the Devil” (2005, a dubplate special commissioned by the Finnish MPV sound system from Jamaican reggae singer Max Romeo. A dubplate special is a unique recording where, typically, a reggae artist re-records the vocals to one of his or her popular songs with new lyrics that praise the sound system that commissioned the recording. Scholars have previously theorized dubplates using Walter Benjamin’s concept of aura, thereby drawing attention to the exclusivity and uniqueness of these traditionally analog recordings. However, since the advent of digital technologies in both recording and sound system performance, what Benjamin calls the “cult value” of producing and performing dubplates has become increasingly complex and multi-layered, as digital dubplates now remediate prior aesthetic forms of the analog. By turning to ethnographic accounts from the sound system’s DJ selectors, I investigate how digital dubplates are still culturally valued for their aura, even as the very concept of aura falls into question when applied to the recording and performance of digital dubplates.

  15. Potential Impacts of EOS-Aura Ozone Observations in Future Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, K.; Pawson, S.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Ziemke, J. R.; Douglass, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    As a crucial component of Earth's radiative budget, ozone is included in atmospheric reanalyses. Routine satellite observations of backscattered solar radiation (SBUV and TOMS datasets) provide long-term, cross-calibrated ozone records from a series of satellites, but do not have sufficient vertical resolution to resolve the sharp ozone gradients near the tropopause. Capturing this profile structure is essential for separating the stratospheric and tropospheric ozone distributions, which is important as we search for a full assessment of long-term changes in tropospheric ozone. As an important, chemically active pollutant, tropospheric ozone is known to be changing as emissions of its precursors (e.g., oxides of nitrogen) are controlled, but global impacts of such changes are complicated by the importance of the stratosphere as a source for ozone in the troposphere, as well as the roles of the lightning-produced nitrogen monoxide sources and of sinks due to chemical reactions and surface deposition. The EOS-Aura data record provides (to date) eight years of observations of total ozone column (from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, OMI) and profiles (from the Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS). A low-resolution (2 by 2.5 degree), eight-year long assimilation experiment has been performed as a test for upcoming GMAO reanalyses, which will have higher (half-degree) spatial resolution. The analysis focuses on two aspects of the assimilated product: the degree to which this assimilation correctly separates the lower stratospheric and tropospheric air masses, and the quality of the assimilated tropospheric ozone column. There is a very good agreement between the assimilated product and independent data from ozonesondes and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder instrument. The analysis emphasizes the consistency of the assimilated ozone with temperature and dynamics, including estimates of the strength of the stratospheric ozone source for the troposphere. While these

  16. Characterization of ozone profiles derived from Aura TES and OMI radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present satellite based ozone profile estimates derived by combining radiances measured at thermal infrared (TIR wavelengths from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES and ultraviolet (UV wavelengths measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. The advantage of using these combined wavelengths and instruments for sounding ozone over either instrument alone is improved sensitivity near the surface as well as the capability to consistently resolve the lower troposphere, upper troposphere, and lower stratosphere for scenes with varying geophysical states. For example, the vertical resolution of ozone estimates from either TES or OMI varies strongly by surface albedo and temperature. Typically, TES provides 1.6 degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS and OMI provides less than 1 DOFS in the troposphere. The combination provides 2 DOFS in the troposphere with approximately 0.4 DOFS for near surface ozone (surface to 700 hPa. We evaluated these new ozone profile estimates with ozonesonde measurements and found that calculated errors for the joint TES and OMI ozone profile estimates are in reasonable agreement with actual errors as derived by the root-mean-square (RMS difference between the ozonesondes and the joint TES/OMI ozone estimates. We also used a common a priori profile in the retrievals in order to evaluate the capability of different retrieval approaches on capturing near-surface ozone variability. We found that the vertical resolution of the joint TES/OMI ozone profile estimates shows significant improvements on quantifying variations in near-surface ozone with RMS differences of 49.9% and correlation coefficient of R = 0.58 for the TES/OMI near-surface estimates as compared to 67.2% RMS difference and R = 0.33 for TES and 115.8% RMS difference and R = 0.09 for OMI. This comparison removes the impacts of using the climatological a priori in the retrievals. However, it results in artificially large sonde

  17. Hypersomnia in children affected by migraine without aura: a questionnaire-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Michele Roccella,2 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical, and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and headache is meaningful and complex. Children affected by migraines tend to show many sleep disorders, such as insufficient sleep duration and excessive daytime somnolence. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the rate of reported sleep habits and self-reported sleepiness in a large pediatric sample of individuals affected by migraine without aura (MoA.Methods: The study population consisted of 271 children aged between 6 and 13 years affected by MoA. The control group was composed of 305 typically developing children. To assess the sleep habits of all individuals (MoA and control, parents filled out the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, and to check the degree of subjective perceived daytime sleepiness, all subjects were administered the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.Results: The two study groups were matched for age (P = 0.124, sex distribution (P = 0.775, and body mass index z-score (P = 0.107. Parents of children affected by MoA reported a higher total score of sleep disorder symptoms (P < 0.001, disorders of initiating and maintaining (P < 0.001, and disorders of arousal (P < 0.001 than did parents of controls. No significant differences were found in disorders of excessive somnolence. Conversely, in the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale, migraine children had higher scores (24.67 ± 3.19 vs 11.94 ± 4.81; P < 0.001 and a reduction in referred total sleep time mean duration (469.83 ± 98.112 vs 527.94 ± 83.02; P < 0.001 than typically

  18. Evaluation of Forces on the Welding Probe of the Automated Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA invention entitled 'The Hydraulic Controlled Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding' (US Patent 5,893,507), better known as the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT), has been instrumented with a load-detecting device allowing the forces placed on the welding probe to be measured. As the welding probe is plunged into the material, the forces placed on the probe can now be characterized. Of particular interest are those forces experienced as the welding probe comes within close proximity to the back-up anvil. For a given material, it is believed that unique forces are generated relative to the distance between the welding probe and the anvil. The forces have been measured and characterized for several materials, and correlations have been made between these forces and the pin's position relative to the backside of the weld material.

  19. Evaluation of Forces on the Welding Probe of the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    NASA invention entitled, "The Hydraulic Controlled Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" (U.S. Patent 5,893,5 07), better known as the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT) has been instrumented with a load detecting devise allowing the forces placed upon the welding probe to be measured. As the welding probe is plunged into the material, the forces placed upon the probe can now be charactefized. Of particular interest are those forces experienced as the welding probe comes within close proximity to the back-up anvil. For a given material, it is believed that unique forces are generated relative to the distance between the welding probe and the anvil. The forces have been measured and characterized for several materials, and correlations have been made between these forces and the pin's position relative to the backside of the weld material.

  20. Dry arthroscopy with a retraction system for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlik, Boguslaw; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Several commercially available cartilage repair techniques use a natural or synthetic matrix to aid cartilage regeneration (e.g., autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis or matrix-induced cartilage implantation). However, the use of matrix-aided techniques during conventional knee joint arthroscopy under continuous irrigation is challenging. Insertion and fixation of the matrix can be complicated by the presence of fluid and the confined patellofemoral joint space with limited access to the lesion. To overcome these issues, we developed a novel arthroscopic approach for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions. This technical note describes the use of dry arthroscopy assisted by a minimally invasive retraction system. An autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis procedure is used to illustrate this novel approach.

  1. Finite element analysis of maxillary incisor displacement during en-masse retraction according to orthodontic mini-implant position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Won; Lim, Joong-Ki; Lee, Kee-Joon; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chun, Youn-Sic

    2016-01-01

    Objective Orthodontic mini-implants (OMI) generate various horizontal and vertical force vectors and moments according to their insertion positions. This study aimed to help select ideal biomechanics during maxillary incisor retraction by varying the length in the anterior retraction hook (ARH) and OMI position. Methods Two extraction models were constructed to analyze the three-dimentional finite element: a first premolar extraction model (Model 1, M1) and a residual 1-mm space post-extraction model (Model 2, M2). The OMI position was set at a height of 8 mm from the arch wire between the second maxillary premolar and the first molar (low OMI traction) or at a 12-mm height in the mesial second maxillary premolar (high OMI traction). Retraction force vectors of 200 g from the ARH (-1, +1, +3, and +6 mm) at low or high OMI traction were resolved into X-, Y-, and Z-axis components. Results In M1 (low and high OMI traction) and M2 (low OMI traction), the maxillary incisor tip was extruded, but the apex was intruded, and the occlusal plane was rotated clockwise. Significant intrusion and counter-clockwise rotation in the occlusal plane were observed under high OMI traction and -1 mm ARH in M2. Conclusions This study observed orthodontic tooth movement according to the OMI position and ARH height, and M2 under high OMI traction with short ARH showed retraction with maxillary incisor intrusion. PMID:27478801

  2. Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry B Huff

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS imaging of myelin in live spinal tissues in real time. Paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation. Retraction was seen to begin minutes after the onset of stimulation and continue for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased, but was found to reverse after a 2 h recovery period. The myelin retraction resulted in exposure of Kv 1.2 potassium channels visualized by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, treating the stimulated tissue with a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, led to the appearance of a shoulder peak in the compound action potential curve. Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down.

  3. Filopodial retraction force is generated by cortical actin dynamics and controlled by reversible tethering at the tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornschlögl, Thomas; Romero, Stéphane; Vestergaard, Christian L.;

    2013-01-01

    Filopodia are dynamic, finger-like plasma membrane protrusions that sense the mechanical and chemical surroundings of the cell. Here, we show in epithelial cells that the dynamics of filopodial extension and retraction are determined by the difference between the actin polymerization rate at the ...

  4. The broad base columellar strut for correction of retracted columella and under rotated tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the technique and to detect the efficacy of the broad base columellar strut in correcting retracted columella and under rotated nasal tip. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Methods: The charts and photographs of patients suffering from columellar retraction with acute columellar-labial angle were reviewed. The columellar-labial angle and the nasal tip projection were measured and calculated from the photos and the columellar show was measured using a fine caliper. Results: The study included 17 patients, 12 females and 5 males with a mean age of 30.2 years ranging from 19 to 49 years, 14 patients had primary surgery while 3 were revision cases, Preoperative columellar-labial angle ranged from 75° to 86° with a mean 82.06 ± 4.08458 SD, while postoperatively it ranged from 92° to 105° with a mean 97.12° ± 3.9825 SD. Columellar show ranged preoperatively from 0.4 to 1.7 mm with a mean 0.94 mm ± 0.38739 SD while postoperatively it ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 mm with a mean of 2.65 mm ± 0.38098 SD. Nasal tip projection preoperatively ranged from 0.45 to 0.58 and postoperatively from 0.51 to 0.59. Conclusions: The broad base columellar strut technique is simple, easy, does not cause excessive tip stiffness and reduces the need to use the plumbing graft in conjunction with the columellar strut, and should help in increasing tip rotation and columellar show reliably and may add to tip projection as required.

  5. Retração rápida de caninos Rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a retração rápida de caninos por distração do ligamento periodontal é uma técnica de movimentação dentária que permite o fechamento de espaço da extração de primeiros pré-molares em um intervalo de duas ou três semanas, proporcionando uma redução significativa no tempo do tratamento ortodôntico. OBJETIVO: apresentar modificações propostas na técnica cirúrgica original e no posicionamento dos distratores. CONCLUSÕES: a retração rápida de caninos é uma técnica que proporciona uma redução significativa no tempo de tratamento ortodôntico. A modificação na técnica cirúrgica proporcionou maior velocidade e segurança ao ato cirúrgico. O distrator posicionado por palatina, no mínimo, proporcionou a preservação da tábua óssea vestibular e evitou a vestibularização dos caninos.INTRODUCTION: Rapid canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament is a tooth movement technique that allows the closure of first premolar extraction space within a period of two to three weeks while providing significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. OBJECTIVE: To propose changes in the original surgical technique and in the placement of distractors. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid canine retraction is a technique that provides significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. Changes in the surgical technique provided greater speed and safety in surgery. As a minimum benefit, when positioned palatally, distractors helped to preserve the buccal bone plate and prevented canine proclination.

  6. Germ band retraction as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logullo Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito A. aegypti is vector of dengue and other viruses. New methods of vector control are needed and can be achieved by a better understanding of the life cycle of this insect. Embryogenesis is a part of A. aegypty life cycle that is poorly understood. In insects in general and in mosquitoes in particular energetic metabolism is well studied during oogenesis, when the oocyte exhibits fast growth, accumulating carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that will meet the regulatory and metabolic needs of the developing embryo. On the other hand, events related with energetic metabolism during A. aegypti embryogenesis are unknown. Results Glucose metabolism was investigated throughout Aedes aegypti (Diptera embryonic development. Both cellular blastoderm formation (CBf, 5 h after egg laying - HAE and germ band retraction (GBr, 24 HAE may be considered landmarks regarding glucose 6-phosphate (G6P destination. We observed high levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activity at the very beginning of embryogenesis, which nevertheless decreased up to 5 HAE. This activity is correlated with the need for nucleotide precursors generated by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, of which G6PDH is the key enzyme. We suggest the synchronism of egg metabolism with carbohydrate distribution based on the decreasing levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK activity and on the elevation observed in protein content up to 24 HAE. Concomitantly, increasing levels of hexokinase (HK and pyruvate kinase (PK activity were observed, and PEPCK reached a peak around 48 HAE. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3 activity was also monitored and shown to be inversely correlated with glycogen distribution during embryogenesis. Conclusions The results herein support the hypothesis that glucose metabolic fate changes according to developmental embryonic stages. Germ band retraction is a moment that was characterized as a landmark in glucose

  7. SU-E-T-36: An Investigation of the Margin From CTV to PTV Using Retraction Method for Cervical Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D; Chen, J; Hao, Y; Liao, C; Huang, Y; Mo, Y; Wei, Y [The People' s Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work employs the retraction method to compute and evaluate the margin from CTV to PTV based on the influence of target dosimetry of setup errors during cervical carcinoma patients treatment. Methods: Sixteen patients with cervical cancer were treated by Elekta synergy and received a total of 305 KV-CBCT images. The iso-center of the initial plans were changed according to the setup errors to simulate radiotherapy and then recalculated the dose distribution using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans. The margin from CTV to PTV will be concluded both by the method of retracting (Fixed the PTV of the original plan, and retract PTV a certain distance defined as simulative organization CTVnx. The minimum distance value from PTV to CTVnx which get specified doses, namely guarantee at least 99% CTV volume can receive the dose of 95%, is the margin CTV to PTV we found) and the former formula method. Results: (1)The setup errors of 16 patients in X, Y and Z directions were(1.13±2.94) mm,(−1.63±7.13) mm,(−0.65±2.25) mm. (2) The distance between CTVx and PTV was 5, 9 and 3mm in X, Y and Z directions According to 2.5+0.7σ. (3) Transplantation plans displayed 99% of CTVx10- CTVx7 and received 95% of prescription dose, but CTVx6- CTVx3 departed from standard of clinic.In order to protect normal tissues, we selected 7mm as the minimum value of the margin from CTV to PTV. Conclusion: We have test an retraction method for the margin from CTV to PTV evaluation. The retraction method is more reliable than the formula method for calculating the margin from the CTV to the PTV, because it represented practice of treatment, and increasing a new method in this field.

  8. Stratospheric and mesospheric HO2 observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces stratospheric and mesospheric hydroperoxyl radical (HO2 estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS using an offline retrieval (i.e. run separately from the standard MLS algorithm. This new dataset provides two daily zonal averages, one during daytime and one during nighttime, with a varying vertical resolution from about 4 km at 10 hPa to around 14 km at 0.0032 hPa. A description of the methodology and an error analysis are presented. Comparisons against the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM, the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES and the Far Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS-2 measurements, as well as, photochemical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the retrieval and indicate that the retrieval is sensitive enough to detect mesospheric HO2 layers during both day and night. This new dataset is the first long-term HO2 stratospheric and mesospheric satellite record and it provides needed constraints to help resolve the O3 deficit problem and the "HOx dilemma".

  9. Determination of uranium and polonium in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was optimizing conditions for the specific activities determination of some uranium-series radionuclides present in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry. Determinations of specific activities were conducted varying the type of digestion: acid attack on hot plate, controlled microwave digestion and acid attack after calcination of the sample. The latter procedure was applied only to the case of uranium isotopes determination. The variation in the isotope extraction method consisted of applying the techniques of liquid-liquid extracting using Tributyl phosphate or chromatographic UTEVA resin. Results depending on the type of treatment given to the samples were compared based on obtained chemical yields. The results reveal a higher bioaccumulation of polonium in the liver sample, with activities of 0.809, 2.495 and 2.439 Bq kg-1 fresh wt compared with the fillet. The best chemical yields of polonium were close to 60% for samples that were digested by microwave. In the case of uranium the best chemical yields, close to 80% for fillet, were obtained with a previous calcination of the sample and using the UTEVA resin. (Author)

  10. Three Way Comparison between Two OMI/Aura and One POLDER/PARASOL Cloud Pressure Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneep, M.; deHaan, J. F.; Stammes, P.; Vanbaunce, C.; Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Levelt, P. F.

    2007-01-01

    The cloud pressures determined by three different algorithms, operating on reflectances measured by two space-borne instruments in the "A" train, are compared with each other. The retrieval algorithms are based on absorption in the oxygen A-band near 760 nm, absorption by a collision induced absorption in oxygen near 477nm, and the filling in of Fraunhofer lines by rotational Raman scattering. The first algorithm operates on data collected by the POLDER instrument on board PARASOL, while the latter two operate on data from the OMI instrument on board Aura. The satellites sample the same air mass within about 15 minutes. Using one month of data, the cloud pressures from the three algorithms are found to show a similar behavior, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.85 between the data sets for thick clouds. The average differences in the cloud pressure are also small, between 2 and 45 hPa, for the whole data set. For optically thin to medium thick clouds, the cloud pressure the distribution found by POLDER is very similar to that found by OMI using the O2 - O2 absorption. Somewhat larger differences are found for very thick clouds, and we hypothesise that the strong absorption in the oxygen A-band causes the POLDER instrument to retrieve lower pressures for those scenes.

  11. Estimate of carbonyl sulfide tropical oceanic surface fluxes using Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Le; Worden, John R.; Campbell, J. Elliott; Kulawik, Susan S.; Li, King-Fai; Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Moore, Fred L.; Berry, Joe A.; Baker, Ian; Denning, A. Scott; Bian, Huisheng; Bowman, Kevin W.; Liu, Junjie; Yung, Yuk L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) land/ocean fluxes contributes to the understanding of both the sulfur and carbon cycles. The primary sources and sinks of OCS are very likely in a steady state because there is no significant observed trend or interannual variability in atmospheric OCS measurements. However, the magnitude and spatial distribution of the dominant ocean source are highly uncertain due to the lack of observations. In particular, estimates of the oceanic fluxes range from approximately 280 Gg S yr-1 to greater than 800 Gg S yr-1, with the larger flux needed to balance a similarly sized terrestrial sink that is inferred from NOAA continental sites. Here we estimate summer tropical oceanic fluxes of OCS in 2006 using a linear flux inversion algorithm and new OCS data acquired by the Aura Tropospheric Emissions Spectrometer (TES). Modeled OCS concentrations based on these updated fluxes are consistent with HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations during 4th airborne campaign and improve significantly over the a priori model concentrations. The TES tropical ocean estimate of 70 ± 16 Gg S in June, when extrapolated over the whole year (about 840 ± 192 Gg S yr-1 ), supports the hypothesis proposed by Berry et al. (2013) that the ocean flux is in the higher range of approximately 800 Gg S yr-1.

  12. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.; Neu, Jessica L.; Kulawik, Susan S.; Edwards, David P.; Eldering, Annmarie; Worden, Helen M.; Worden, John R.

    2016-08-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb) low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US), and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  13. A Global Climatology of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Ozone Derived from Aura OMI and MLS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J.R.; Chandra, S.; Labow, G.; Bhartia, P. K.; Froidevaux, L.; Witte, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone is derived by combining six years of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ozone measurements for the period October 2004 through December 2010. The OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone climatology exhibits large temporal and spatial variability which includes ozone accumulation zones in the tropical south Atlantic year-round and in the subtropical Mediterranean! Asia region in summer months. High levels of tropospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere also persist in mid-latitudes over the eastern North American and Asian continents extending eastward over the Pacific Ocean. For stratospheric ozone climatology from MLS, largest ozone abundance lies in the northern hemisphere in the latitude range 70degN-80degN in February-April and in the southern hemisphere around 40degS-50degS during months August-October. The largest stratospheric ozone abundances in the northern hemisphere lie over North America and eastern Asia extending eastward across the Pacific Ocean and in the southern hemisphere south of Australia extending eastward across the dateline. With the advent of many newly developing 3D chemistry and transport models it is advantageous to have such a dataset for evaluating the performance of the models in relation to dynamical and photochemical processes controlling the ozone distributions in the troposphere and stratosphere.

  14. "Aura","陌生化"概念对现代设计的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗燕

    2007-01-01

    现代设计包括实用性和艺术性,其中艺术性体现着一个民族传统文化的积累.然而,现代形态的大众消费文化正在对传统文化内核进行着消解和改造,同时我们的现代设计又缺乏自我.要解决这些问题,Aura和陌生化可以给我们一些启示,即用现代的思维与理解展示我们传统的文化,通过对传统文化的陌生化处理,在传统与现代的悖论张力中显现出现代设计的张力美,从而创造新的Aura,这样既可以使传统文化得以延续和发展,同时也是建立属于我们自己的现代设计文明的一个契机.

  15. Assimilation of Aura Ozone Data and Comparisons with In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Wargan, Krzysztof; Pawson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Ozone data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) onboard EOS Aura satellite were assimilated into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version 4 (GEOS-4) ozone assimilation system. Comparison of assimilated ozone with ozone sonde and MOZAIC data indicate an agreement within 10% in the lower stratosphere, where dynamical processes dominate. Assimilation of OMI and MLS data improves tropospheric column estimates in the Atlantic region, but leads to an overestimation in the tropical Pacific in comparison with SHADOZ sondes. Transport and data biases are considered in order to understand these discrepancies. Comparisons of assimilated tropospheric ozone columns with ozone sonde data reveal root-mean-square (RMS) differences of 2.9 to 7.2 DU, which are typically smaller than the model-sonde RMS differences. Four different definitions of the tropopause using temperature lapse rate, potential vorticity (PV) and isentropic surfaces or ozone isosurfaces are compared with respect to their global impact on the estimated tropospheric ozone column. The largest sensitivity in the tropospheric ozone column is found near the subtropical jet, where the ozone or PV determined tropopause typically lies below the lapse rate tropopause.

  16. Next Generation Aura-OMI SO2 Retrieval Algorithm: Introduction and Implementation Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce our next generation algorithm to retrieve SO2 using radiance measurements from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We employ a principal component analysis technique to analyze OMI radiance spectral in 310.5-340 nm acquired over regions with no significant SO2. The resulting principal components (PCs) capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering, and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts, enabling us to account for these various interferences in SO2 retrievals. By fitting these PCs along with SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to OMI-measured radiance spectra, we directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. As compared with the previous generation operational OMSO2 PBL (Planetary Boundary Layer) SO2 product, our new algorithm greatly reduces unphysical biases and decreases the noise by a factor of two, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing long-term, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research. We have operationally implemented this new algorithm on OMI SIPS for producing the new generation standard OMI SO2 products.

  17. Solar Occultation Satellite Data and Derived Meteorological Products: Sampling Issues and Comparisons with Aura MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria; Daffer, William H.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Bernath, Peter F.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Walker, Kaley A.; Knosp, Brian W.; Boone, Chris; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Santee, Michelle L.; Harvey, V. Lynn; Pawson, Steven; Jackson, David R.; Deaver, Lance; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Lambert, Alyn; Schwartz, Michael J.; Froidevaux, Lucien; McLeod, Sean; Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max J.; Trepte, Charles R.; Livesey, Nathaniel; Harwood, Robert S.; Waters, Joe W.

    2007-01-01

    Derived Meteorological Products (DMPs, including potential temperature (theta), potential vorticity, equivalent latitude (EqL), horizontal winds and tropopause locations) have been produced for the locations and times of measurements by several solar occultation (SO) instruments and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). DMPs are calculated from several meteorological analyses for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II and III, Halogen Occultation Experiment, and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II and III SO instruments and MLS. Time-series comparisons of MLS version 1.5 and SO data using DMPs show good qualitative agreement in time evolution of O3, N2O, H20, CO, HNO3, HCl and temperature; quantitative agreement is good in most cases. EqL-coordinate comparisons of MLS version 2.2 and SO data show good quantitative agreement throughout the stratosphere for most of these species, with significant biases for a few species in localized regions. Comparisons in EqL coordinates of MLS and SO data, and of SO data with geographically coincident MLS data provide insight into where and how sampling effects are important in interpretation of the sparse SO data, thus assisting in fully utilizing the SO data in scientific studies and comparisons with other sparse datasets. The DMPs are valuable for scientific studies and to facilitate validation of non-coincident measurements.

  18. Determination of uranium and polonium in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna P, M.; Renteria, M.; Montero C, M. E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Diaz, I., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, San Fernando No. 4, 41004 Sevilla (Spain)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was optimizing conditions for the specific activities determination of some uranium-series radionuclides present in Spa rus aura ta by alpha spectrometry. Determinations of specific activities were conducted varying the type of digestion: acid attack on hot plate, controlled microwave digestion and acid attack after calcination of the sample. The latter procedure was applied only to the case of uranium isotopes determination. The variation in the isotope extraction method consisted of applying the techniques of liquid-liquid extracting using Tributyl phosphate or chromatographic UTEVA resin. Results depending on the type of treatment given to the samples were compared based on obtained chemical yields. The results reveal a higher bioaccumulation of polonium in the liver sample, with activities of 0.809, 2.495 and 2.439 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt compared with the fillet. The best chemical yields of polonium were close to 60% for samples that were digested by microwave. In the case of uranium the best chemical yields, close to 80% for fillet, were obtained with a previous calcination of the sample and using the UTEVA resin. (Author)

  19. Analyses of retraction declaration in domestic academic journals%国内学术期刊刊登撤稿声明的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁媛媛

    2011-01-01

    Retraction declaration is an important means of fighting against counterfeit articles used by the academic journals. This article analyzes 45 retraction declarations and 55 retracted articles searched in the domestic databases, and finds out that 64 percent of the retracted articles caused by the academic misconduct; however, most of the retracted articles still could be found completely in the database. The article briefly discusses the features of the retracted research papers, and shows some issues to the academic journal editors when releasing the retraction declarations.%刊登撤稿声明是学术期刊配合学术打假的重要手段。分析从国内数据库中检索到的45篇撤稿声明和被撤的55篇论文,发现因各种学术不端引起的撤稿占64%,大多数被撤论文仍能在数据库中找到全文。初步探讨了被撤论文的特点和发布撤稿声明时应注意的问题。

  20. Correlating tropospheric column ozone with tropopause folds: the Aura-OMI satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The geographic and temporal variations in tropospheric and stratospheric ozone columns from individual swath measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on the NASA Aura spacecraft are reasonably well simulated by the University of California, Irvine (UCI chemistry transport model (CTM using 1°×1°×40-layer meteorological fields for year 2005. From the CTM we find that high-frequency spatial variations in tropospheric column ozone (TCO, including around the jet streams, are not generally correlated with variations in stratospheric ozone column, but instead are collocated with folding events involving stratospheric-origin, high-ozone layers below the tropopause. The CTM fold events are verified in many cases with available ozone sondes. Using the OMI Level 2 profiles, and defining tropopause height from our CTM using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF fields, we find that most of the variations in TCO near CTM folding events are also not correlated with those in stratospheric ozone column. The absolute tropospheric columns from OMI and CTM agree swath-by-swath, pixel-by-pixel within ±5 Dobson Units (DU for most cases. Notable exceptions are in the tropics where neither the high ozone from biomass burning nor the low ozone in the convergence zones over the Pacific is found in the OMI observations, likely because of OMI's insensitivity to the lower troposphere. A separate bias is identified with the OMI profiles near the southern sub-tropical jet. The CTM has a high bias in stratospheric column outside the tropics, due to problems previously identified with the stratospheric circulation in the 40-layer meteorological fields. Overall, we identify ozone folds with short-lived features in TCO that have scales of a few hundred kilometers as observed by OMI.

  1. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant C677T influences susceptibility to migraine with aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundholm James

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C677T variant in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene is associated with increased levels of circulating homocysteine and is a mild risk factor for vascular disease. Migraine, with and without aura (MA and MO, is a prevalent and complex neurovascular disorder that may also be affected by genetically influenced hyperhomocysteinaemia. To determine whether the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene is associated with migraine susceptibility we utilised unrelated and family-based case-control study designs. Methods A total of 652 Caucasian migraine cases were investigated in this study. The MTHFR C677T variant was genotyped in 270 unrelated migraine cases and 270 controls as well as 382 affected subjects from 92 multiplex pedigrees. Results In the unrelated case-control sample we observed an over-representation of the 677T allele in migraine patients compared to controls, specifically for the MA subtype (40% vs. 33% (χ2 = 5.70, P = 0.017. The Armitage test for trend indicated a significant dosage effect of the risk allele (T for MA (χ2 = 5.72, P = 0.017. This linear trend was also present in the independent family-based sample (χ2 = 4.25, Padjusted = 0.039. Overall, our results indicate that the T/T genotype confers a modest, yet significant, increase in risk for the MA subtype (odds ratio: 2.0 – 2.5. No increased risk for the MO subtype was observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions In Caucasians, the C677T variant in the MTHFR gene influences susceptibility to MA, but not MO. Investigation into the enzyme activity of MTHFR and the role of homocysteine in the pathophysiology of migraine is warranted.

  2. Global Free-tropospheric NO2 Abundances Derived Using a Cloud Slicing Technique from AURA OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Joiner, J.; Choi, Y.; Duncan, B.N.; Vasilkov, A.; Krotkov, N.; Bucsela, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    We derive free-tropospheric NO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) by applying a cloud-slicing technique to data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite. In the cloud-slicing approach, the slope of the above-cloud NO2 column versus the cloud scene pressure is proportional to the NO2 VMR. In this work, we use a sample of nearby OMI pixel data from a single orbit for the linear fit. The OMI data include cloud scene pressures from the rotational-Raman algorithm and above-cloud NO2 vertical column density (VCD) (defined as the NO2 column from the cloud scene pressure to the top of the atmosphere) from a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm. We compare OMI-derived NO2 VMRs with in situ aircraft profiles measured during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in 2006. The agreement is generally within the estimated uncertainties when appropriate data screening is applied. We then derive a global seasonal climatology of free-tropospheric NO2 VMR in cloudy conditions. Enhanced NO2 in the free troposphere commonly appears near polluted urban locations where NO2 produced in the boundary layer may be transported vertically out of the boundary layer and then horizontally away from the source. Signatures of lightning NO2 are also shown throughout low and middle latitude regions in summer months. A profile analysis of our cloud-slicing data indicates signatures of lightning-generated NO2 in the upper troposphere. Comparison of the climatology with simulations from the global modeling initiative (GMI) for cloudy conditions (cloud optical depth less than10) shows similarities in the spatial patterns of continental pollution outflow. However, there are also some differences in the seasonal variation of free-tropospheric NO2 VMRs near highly populated regions and in areas affected by lightning-generated NOx.

  3. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  4. Total Column NO2 from the OMI Instrument on EOS Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, E. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Gleason, J. F.; Bucsela, E. J.; Celarier, E.; de Haan, J. F.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    OMI-EOS is a Dutch-Finnish nadir pointing spaceborne imaging spectrometer that will fly on NASA's Aura Mission, which is part of the Earth Observation System (EOS). OMI measures the reflected solar radiation in the ultraviolet and visible spectrum between 270 and 500 nm, using two channels with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI data products include ozone columns and profiles, aerosols, clouds, surface UV irradiance, and the trace gases NO_2, SO_2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. Total column NO_2 will be measured using data from the visible channel, range, 365 - 500 nm; resolution, 0.63 nm; sampling, 0.21 nm/pixel. The NO_2 algorithm will compute vertical column densities (VCD) from spectrally fitted NO_2 slant column densities (SCD). The method to determine NO_2 slant column densities is Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), which uses a linear decomposition of a measured Earth reflectance spectrum into its component spectra, including NO_2, O_3, O_2-O_2, H_2O, Ring and a third order polynomial. Calculation of the air mass factor in regions of enhanced tropospheric NO_2 will be accomplished by designating two components of the column density: an unpolluted component, which includes stratospheric and free tropospheric NO_2, and a polluted component, containing boundary layer NO_2. The two parts will be separated through spatial filtering of the geographic NO_2 field. Polluted NO_2 is assumed to show the greatest small-scale variation and will be isolated and corrected for air mass factor and temperature.

  5. Changes in SO2 and NO2 Pollution over the Past Decade Observed by Aura OMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Marchenko, S. V.; Swartz, W.; Bucsela, E. J.; Fioletov, V.; McLinden, C. A.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Duncan, B. N.; Dickerson, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the EOS Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure two critical atmospheric trace gases, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are among USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage, and reduced visibility). A new generation of the OMI standard SO2 and NO2 products (based on critically improved DOAS spectral fitting for NO2 and innovative Principal Component Analysis method for SO2) provides a valuable dataset for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed long-term changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US, average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels have decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in NO2 and SO2 pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed a ~ 60% increase in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporary reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of new large coal power plants have been built in recent years. We expect that further improvements in the OMI NO2 and SO2 products will allow more robust quantification of long-term trends in local to global air quality.

  6. Ventilator „Chirana Aura V“ In Two Models Of Neonatal Acute Lung Injury - A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomclkova L.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In severe respiratory insufficiency, neonatal and pediatric patients should be ventilated artificially by a ventilator. Aim of this experimental study was to evaluate whether the newly developed ventilator Chirana Aura V may effectively ventilate the lungs of animals with two different models of acute lung injury: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS induced by repetitive saline lavage and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS induced by intratracheal instillation of neonatal meconium. The experiments were performed on 10 adult rabbits (New Zealand white. In ARDS group (n=5, the lungs were repetitively lavaged with saline (30 ml/kg until partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 in arterial blood was under 26.7 kPa at inspiratory fraction of oxygen FiO2=1.0. In MAS group (n=5, animals were instilled 4 ml/kg of suspension of human meconium (25 mg/ml. When the model of acute lung injury was developed, animals were ventilated for additional 2 hours with pressure control ventilation (PCV regime by ventilator Chirana Aura V. Ventilatory parameters, blood gases, acid-base balance, end-tidal CO2, O2 saturation of hemoglobin, oxygenation indexes, ventilation efficiency index, dynamic lung compliance, and right-to-left pulmonary shunts were measured and calculated in regular time intervals. In both experimental groups, used ventilatory settings provided acceptable gas exchange within the period of observation. Thus, the results indicate that ventilator Chirana Aura V might be suitable for ventilation of animal models of acute lung injury. However, further pre-clinical investigation is needed before its use may be recommended in neonatal and/or pediatric patients with acute lung injury.

  7. Atmospheric inertia-gravity waves retrieved from level-2 data of the satellite microwave limb sounder Aura/MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Lainer, Martin; Moreira, Lorena; Hagen, Jonas; Fernandez Vidal, Susana; Schranz, Franziska

    2016-09-01

    The temperature profiles of the satellite experiment Aura/MLS are horizontally spaced by 1.5° or 165 km along the satellite orbit. These level-2 data contain valuable information about horizontal fluctuations in temperature, which are mainly induced by inertia-gravity waves. Wave periods of 2-12 h, horizontal wavelengths of 200-1500 km, and vertical wavelengths of 6-30 km efficiently contribute to the standard deviation of the horizontal temperature fluctuations. The study retrieves and discusses the global distributions of inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere during July 2015 and January 2016. We find many patterns that were previously present in data of TIMED/SABER, Aura/HIRDLS, and ECMWF analysis. However, it seems that Aura/MLS achieves a higher vertical resolution in the gravity wave maps since the maps are derived from the analysis of horizontal fluctuations along the orbit of the sounding volume. The zonal mean of the inertia-gravity wave distribution shows vertical modulations with scales of 10-20 km. Enhanced wave amplitudes occur in regions of increased zonal wind or in the vicinity of strong wind gradients. Further, we find a banana-like shape of enhanced inertia-gravity waves above the Andes in the winter mesosphere. We find areas of enhanced inertia-gravity wave activity above tropical deep convection zones at 100 hPa (z ˜ 13 km). Finally, we study the temporal evolution of inertia-gravity wave activity at 100 hPa in the African longitude sector from December 2015 to February 2016.

  8. Analysis of tropopause-level thin cirrus from Calipso cloud measurements and Aura MLS water vapor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Cardona, A.

    2008-05-01

    Thin cirrus and thick cloud distributions in the tropical tropopause region are analyzed using Calipso data. Observations obtained between December 2006 and November 2007 show that thin cirrus between 30N and 30S occur in regions of intense convection. Measurements of water vapor from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) were used to determine the relationship between cloud occurrence, relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), and OLR. We show that both RHI and proximity to convection determine the occurrence frequency of tropopause-level thin cirrus.

  9. La imaginación enfermiza: La ciudad muerta y el gótico en Aura de Carlos Fuentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Náter

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo se acerca a la novela Aura, de Carlos Fuentes, para explorar la reescritura del gótico y, sobre todo, la relación de la ciudad muerta o del pueblo abandonado, desde la perspectiva del espacio apocalíptico, entendido como la paralela desintegración de los espacios, de los cuerpos y de las mentes. El deterioro de la casa, en contraste con el adelanto tecnológico, se vincula con el cuerpo decrépito de la anciana Consuelo. La oscuridad del interior del edificio es correlato del oscurantismo y de la brujería, que producirá la alienación de Felipe Montero. Sobre la base de lo grotesco como lo expone Wolfgang Kayser, y de lo siniestro como lo propone Sigmund Freud, se pretende resaltar la importancia de Aura en la tradición novelística hispanoamericana que intenta presentar una narrativa disidente en relación con la novela del progreso y del adelanto tecnológico. En esa tendencia se incluyen, además, novelas como El lugar sin límites de José Donoso, Pedro Páramo de Juan Rulfo y Casas muertas de Miguel Otero SilvaThis essay represents an approach to the novel of Carlos Fuentes' Aura, a novel which explores the re-writing of the gothic, and above all, the relation of the dead city to the abandoned town, in the perspective of the apocalyptic space understood as the parallel disintegration of the space, of the bodies and the minds. The deterioration of the house, in contrast to the technological progress, is linked to the decrepit body of the old woman, Consuelo. The dark within the building correlates to the obscurantism and witchery that will lead to the alienation of Felipe Montero. On the basis of the grotesque as expounded by Wolfgang Kaiser, and the sinister, as propounded by Freud, the idea is to emphasize the significance of Aura in the Hispanic American tradition, which proposes a dissident narrative against the novel of progress and technological advance. This tendency also includes novels like J. Donoso' El lugar sin

  10. 美本土首款混合动力轿车——土星Aura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪青云

    2007-01-01

    @@ 比普锐斯便宜100美元 作为世界最大的汽车厂家,通用自然无法容忍丰田在混合动力车领域的一家独大,据悉,通用正计划推出一款美国市场最便宜的混合动力车--土星Aura,挑战丰田在混合动力车市场的地位.

  11. RETRACTED: P-type Zno thin films fabricated by Al-N co-doping method at different substrate temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guodong; Ye, Zhizhen; Qian, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Huang, Jingyun; Zhao, Binghui

    2005-01-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The editors and publisher would like to confirm the retraction of this paper at the request of the author Guodong Yuan. Reason: The SIMS profile published in this paper had already been included in articles published in Mater. Lett., 58 (2004) 3741-3744, and Thin Solid Films, 484 (2005) 420-425 describing a sample prepared under different conditions. The author did not notify either the Journal of Crystal Growth Editors or the coauthors of this fact. The author apologizes sincerely to the readers, referees, and Editors for violating the guidelines of ethical publication.Also the author apologizes to the coauthors for mishandling of the manuscript.

  12. RETRACTED: Performance Study of Pulse Reshaping in a Normally Dispersive Erbium doped Fiber Amplifier with Multi-cladded Index Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Navonil; Ghosh, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Sampad; Basu, Mousumi

    2013-06-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief.A referee's report on which the editorial decision was made was found to be falsified. The referee's report was submitted under the name of an established scientist who was not aware of the paper or the report, via a fictitious EES account. Because of the submission of a fake, but well-written and positive referee's report, the Editor was misled into accepting the paper based upon the positive advice of what he assumed was a well-known expert in the field. This represents a clear violation of the fundamentals of the peer-review process, our publishing policies, and publishing ethics standards. The authors of this paper have been offered the option to re-submit their paper for legitimate peer review..

  13. Retraction: Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion under mild hypothermia during primary repair for aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The following article from Artificial Organs, "Selective Cerebro-Myocardial Perfusion Under Mild Hypothermia During Primary Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect" by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, published online on 2 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Paul S. Malchesky, the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to simultaneous publication of a substantially similar article, "Continuous Cerebral and Myocardial Perfusion During One-Stage Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect", by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, in Pediatric Cardiology 7 November 2012 [Epub ahead of print].

  14. Retraction statement: Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The above article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Investigating factors associated with nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care: a study in Shandong and Hong Kong' by Chan, M. F., Lou, F.-l., Cao, F.-l., Li, P., Liu, L. and Wu, L. H. published online on 6 July 2009 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 2344-2354, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation carried out by the National University of Singapore due to major overlap with a previously published article: Chan MF, Lou F-l, Arthur DG, Cao F-l, Wu LH, Li P, Sagara-Rosemeyer M, Chung LYF & Lui L (2008) Investigating factors associate to nurses' attitudes towards perinatal bereavement care. Journal of Clinical Nursing 17: 509-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02007.x.

  15. Retracted: Knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The above article, published online on 13 October 2014 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbin.10388/abstract), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered after publication that one of the cell lines described in the article had been unintentionally misidentified. The experiments described in the article as being conducted on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma cell line KB were in fact conducted on a Human Oral Epidermal-like Cancer cell line. The authors and publisher apologise for any inconvenience. References He Y, Chen F, Cai Y and Chen S (2015) Knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Biology International 39: 264-271. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10388.

  16. Retraction notice to “Complexity of Generating Multi-collisions for MD4 and MD5”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Liu, Yang; Pan, Lei

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared on http://www.thi.uni-hannover.de/fileadmin/forschung/arbeiten/knopf-sa.pdf. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  17. RETRACTED: Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The article contains the same image in two panels (Fig. 8A and B) which was previously published in "Facile, eco-friendly and template free photosynthesis of cauliflower like ZnO nanoparticles using leaf extract of Tamarindus indica (L.) and its biological evolution of antibacterial and antifungal activities" by K. Elumalai et al. in Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 136 (2015) 1052-1057, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.09.129 despite being attributed to different nanoparticles. Furthermore, Figures 9C, D and E are the same, despite being indicated as analysis of different microorganisms. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this scientific misbehavior and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  18. State Administrative Legal Review on the Bill of Retraction Law of Corrupted Assets in Eradication Effort of Corruption in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puji Simatupang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since eradicating corruption having been continously encouraged by late governments – and until now – , there would not be less important as to retracting the corrupted assets. There are many aspects to be considered in doing such action, such as manifesting the legal aspects of administrative law, and so other applied national regulations. By these regulations, such as Law No. 7 of 2006 on Ratification of United Nations Convention against Corruption, 2003 (Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa Anti-Korupsi, 2003, Law Number 25 of 2003 On Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2002 on Money Laundering, Act 30 of 2002 on Corruption Eradication Commission, Law Number 20 Year 2001 regarding Amendment to Law Number 31 Year 1999 on the Eradication of Corruption, and Government Regulation Number 65 of 1999 on Implementation Procedures for Examination of State Property, retraction the corrupted assets should be define in order to get known about eradicating corruption.

  19. TREATMENT OF PRIMARY PALPEBRAL RETRACTION WITH ACUPOINT—INJECTION AND CHINESE MEDICINAL HERBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新民; LiPeifang

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper,the therapeutic effect of combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was observed in 59cases of primary palpebral retraction patients.These 59patients were divided into treatment group(n=38,treated with acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs)and control group(n=21,treated with Chinese medicinal herbs alone).After3 courses of treatment.of the 38cases in treatment group,25(65.8%)were cured,8(21.1%)had marked improement and5(13.2%)had improement;of the 21cases in control group,8(38.1%)were cured,9(42.9%)had marked improement,2(9.5%)had improement6 and2(9.5%)were ineffective.Statistical analysis showed a si9gnificant difference between the two groups in the therapeu-tic effect.The cure rate of experimental group was apparently higher than athat of the control group,i.e.the therapeutic effect of the combined therapy of acupoint-injection and Chinese medicinal herbs was superior to that of Chinese medicinal herbs alone.

  20. Outcomes in patients with esotropic duane retraction syndrome and a partially accommodative component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kekunnaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of Duane retraction syndrome (DRS is challenging and may become more difficult if an associated accommodative component due to high hyperopia is present. The purpose of this study is to review clinical features and outcomes in patients with partially accommodative esotropia and DRS. Setting and Design: Retrospective, non-comparative case series. Materials and Methods: Six cases of DRS with high hyperopia were reviewed. Results: Of the patients studied, the mean age of presentation was 1.3 years (range: 0.5-2.5 years. The mean amount of hyperopia was + 5D (range: 3.50-8.50 in both eyes. The mean follow up period was 7 years (range: 4 months-12 years. Five cases were unilateral while one was bilateral. Four cases underwent vertical rectus muscle transposition (VRT and one had medial rectus recession prior to presentation; all were given optical correction. Two (50% of the four patients who underwent vertical rectus transposition cases developed consecutive exotropia, one of whom did not have spectacles prescribed pre-operatively. All other cases (four had minimal residual esotropia and face turn at the last follow-up with spectacle correction. Conclusion: Patients with Duane syndrome can have an accommodative component to their esotropia, which is crucial to detect and correct prior to surgery to decrease the risk of long-term over-correction. Occasionally, torticollis in Duane syndrome can be satisfactorily corrected with spectacles alone.

  1. Ergodic Retraction Theorem and Weak Convergence Theorem for Reversible Semigroups of Non-Lipschitzian Mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chuan ZENG

    2006-01-01

    Let G be a semitopological semigroup. Let C be a closed convex subset of a uniformly convex Banach space E with a Frechet differentiable norm, and T = {Tt : t ∈ G} be a continuous representation of G as nearly asymptotically nonexpansive type mappings of C into itself such that the common fixed point set F(T) of T in C is nonempty. It is shown that if G is right reversible, then for each almost-orbit u(.) of T, ∩s∈G co{u(t): t ≥ s} ∩ F(T) consists of at most one point. Furthermore,∩s∈G co{Ttx: t ≥ s}∩ F(T) is nonempty for each x ∈ C if and only if there exists a nonlinear ergodic retraction P of C onto F(T) such that PTs = TsP = P for all s ∈ G and Px ∈ co{Tsx: s ∈ G} for each x ∈ C. This result is applied to study the problem of weak convergence of the net {u(t): t ∈ G}to a common fixed point of T.

  2. RETRACTED: An overview of mathematical modeling of electrochemical supercapacitors/ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2015-01-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, with agreement of the authors: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. Substantial parts of this review paper are similar to the texts of existing papers in the literature. The co-authors state that the corresponding author submitted the manuscript without their approval. The following works are affected: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 26 (2011) 3472-3480, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2011.2161096 The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4 (2013) 1260-1267, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz4002967 The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4 (2013), 3367-3376, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz4014163 Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16 (2014), 6519-6538, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3cp55186e The Authors unreservedly apologise for this violation of the publishing policies, and offer sincere apologies to the parties affected. The journal apologises to its readers and the authors that the overlap was not detected during the submission and review process.

  3. Retraction of colonies and structures of Aspergillus Spp. as a possible high dose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B., E-mail: valeriabborges@hotmail.com [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos (EQ/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DDQBN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Secao de Defesa Nuclear; Moraes, Aurea M.L., E-mail: ltbbf@ioc.fiocruz.br [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Micologia

    2013-07-01

    Changes in the length of macro-and microscopic structures of irradiated Aspergillus spp. colonies were investigated in this work in search for correlations with radiation dose. Effects related to growth and morphology produced by exposure to radiation doses ranging from 0.0 up to 8.0 kGy on strains of A. flavus (CMT 00079), A. parasiticus (CMT 00064) and A ochraceus (CMT 00145) were analyzed. Fungal colonies were inoculated on fresh peanut seeds and incubated for 5 days at 25°C. On the sixth day the samples were irradiated and moved to Petri dishes containing PDA culture medium where they remained incubated for 7 days at 25°C Post irradiation growth was periodically monitored by visual inspections and measurements of mycelial diameters. In addition, microscopic analyses were performed to determine the length of the major structures of the colonies. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the diameter of colonies as well as in the length of microscopic structures of the fungus. The amount of retraction has been found to be strongly correlated to radiation dose. Such findings hint at the possibility of using in situ Aspergillus spp. colonies as high-dose living dosimeters in the event of massive radiation exposures. (author)

  4. Seismic performance of prestressed concrete stand structure supporting retractable steel roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyi CHEN; Dazhao ZHANG; Weichen XUE; Wensheng LU

    2009-01-01

    The seismic behavior of a structural system composed of pre-stressed concrete stand supporting a retractable steel roof was studied, which is typically based on the prototype of engineering project of Shanghai Qizhong Tennis Center. By elasto-plastic finite element analysis and shaking table test, the following were investigated: the effects of roof configurations in opening and closing, the effect of pre-stress on the structural seismic response, and the failure mechanism of the spatial stand frame systems featured with circularly arranged columns and inverse-cone type stands. It was found thatthe roof status has great effect on the natural period,vibration modes, and seismic response of the whole structure, the stand response to horizontal seismic excitation is stronger in roof opening configuration than in closing state, and the response mode is dominantly translational rather than rotational, though the stand is characterized by its fundamentally torsional vibration mode. The study indicated that the pre-stressed inversecone stands can keep the system from global side-sway collapse under gravity loads, even in the case that most columns loose moment capacity.

  5. Competition from newborn granule cells does not drive axonal retraction of silenced old granule cells in the adult hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M Lopez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developing nervous system synaptic refinement, typified by the neuromuscular junction where supernumerary connections are eliminated by axon retraction leaving the postsynaptic target innervated by a single dominant input, critically regulates neuronal circuit formation. Whether such competition based pruning continues in established circuits of mature animals remains unknown. This question is particularly relevant in the context of adult neurogenesis where newborn cells must integrate into preexisting circuits, and thus, potentially compete with functionally mature synapses to gain access to their postsynaptic targets. The hippocampus plays an important role in memory formation/retrieval and the dentate gyrus subfield (DG exhibits continued neurogenesis into adulthood. Therefore, this region contains both mature granule cells (old GCs and immature recently born GCs that are generated throughout adult life (young GCs, providing a neurogenic niche model to examine the role of competition in synaptic refinement. Recent work from an independent group in developing animals indicated that embryonically/early postnatal generated GCs placed at a competitive disadvantage by selective expression of tetanus toxin (TeTX to prevent synaptic release rapidly retracted their axons, and that this retraction was driven by competition from newborn GCs lacking TeTX. In contrast, following 3-6 months of selective TeTX expression in old GCs of adult mice we did not observe any evidence of axon retraction. Indeed ultrastructural analyses indicated that the terminals of silenced GCs even maintained synaptic contact with their postsynaptic targets. Furthermore, we did not detect any significant differences in the electrophysiological properties between old GCs in control and TeTX conditions. Thus, our data demonstrate a remarkable stability in the face of a relatively prolonged period of altered synaptic competition between two populations of neurons within the

  6. Lysophosphatidylinositol causes neurite retraction via GPR55, G13 and RhoA in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaro Obara

    Full Text Available GPR55 was recently identified as a putative receptor for certain cannabinoids, and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI. Recently, the role of cannabinoids as GPR55 agonists has been disputed by a number of reports, in part, because studies investigating GPR55 often utilized overexpression systems, such as the GPR55-overexpressing HEK293 cells, which make it difficult to deduce the physiological role of endogenous GPR55. In the present study, we found that PC12 cells, a neural model cell line, express endogenous GPR55, and by using these cells, we were able to examine the role of endogenous GPR55. Although GPR55 mRNA and protein were expressed in PC12 cells, neither CB(1 nor CB(2 mRNA was expressed in these cells. GPR55 was predominantly localized on the plasma membrane in undifferentiated PC12 cells. However, GPR55 was also localized in the growth cones or the ruffled border in differentiated PC12 cells, suggesting a potential role for GPR55 in the regulation of neurite elongation. LPI increased intracellular Ca(2+ concentration and RhoA activity, and induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids did not, thereby suggesting that cannabinoids are not GPR55 agonists. LPI also caused neurite retraction in a time-dependent manner accompanied by the loss of neurofilament light chain and redistribution of actin in PC12 cells differentiated by NGF. This LPI-induced neurite retraction was found to be G(q-independent and G(13-dependent. Furthermore, inactivation of RhoA function via C3 toxin and GPR55 siRNA knockdown prevented LPI-induced neurite retraction. These results suggest that LPI, and not cannabinoids, causes neurite retraction in differentiated PC12 cells via a GPR55, G(13 and RhoA signaling pathway.

  7. Tetraspanin CD82 inhibits protrusion and retraction in cell movement by attenuating the plasma membrane-dependent actin organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei M Liu

    Full Text Available To determine how tetraspanin KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor, inhibits cell migration, we assessed which cellular events critical for motility are altered by KAI1/CD82 and how KAI1/CD82 regulates these events. We found that KAI1/CD82-expressing cells typically exhibited elongated cellular tails and diminished lamellipodia. Live imaging demonstrated that the polarized protrusion and retraction of the plasma membrane became deficient upon KAI1/CD82 expression. The deficiency in developing these motility-related cellular events was caused by poor formations of actin cortical network and stress fiber and by aberrant dynamics in actin organization. Rac1 activity was reduced by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the diminution of lamellipodia and actin cortical network; while the growth factor-stimulated RhoA activity was blocked by KAI1/CD82, consistent with the loss of stress fiber and attenuation in cellular retraction. Upon KAI1/CD82 expression, Rac effector cofilin was not enriched at the cell periphery to facilitate lamellipodia formation while Rho kinase exhibited a significantly lower activity leading to less retraction. Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate, which initiates actin polymerization from the plasma membrane, became less detectable at the cell periphery in KAI1/CD82-expressing cells. Moreover, KAI1/CD82-induced phenotypes likely resulted from the suppression of multiple signaling pathways such as integrin and growth factor signaling. In summary, at the cellular level KAI1/CD82 inhibited polarized protrusion and retraction events by disrupting actin reorganization; at the molecular level, KAI1/CD82 deregulated Rac1, RhoA, and their effectors cofilin and Rho kinase by perturbing the plasma membrane lipids.

  8. MD 755: Instability threshold and tune shift study with reduced retraction between primary and secondary collimators in IR7

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Mereghetti, Alessio; Bruce, Roderik; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Nisbet, David; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to quantify in terms of stabilising octupole current threshold the impedance change when reducing the retraction between the primary and secondary collimators in IR7. This will be performed by first measuring the octupole current threshold required for stability with the tighter secondary collimator settings at 6.5 (w.r.t. to the nominal settings at 8 ), and then measuring the tune shift that occurs when the collimators are moved to the new settings.

  9. Control of cross-infection risks in the dental operatory: prevention of water retraction by bur cooling spray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J J; Broderius, C

    1988-05-01

    A new dental unit control system was found to overcome the possibility of mechanically retracting bacteria from the mouth into the water line used to provide a spray of water to cool high-speed burs during treatments. This was demonstrated by results obtained after clinical use and after use in simulated, worst case test conditions using a red tempera indicator solution and indicator bacteria.

  10. Retraction: Aydin, B. Statistical Convergent Topological Sequence Entropy Maps of the Circle. Entropy 2004, 6, 257–261

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H. Knuth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The editors were made aware that a paper published in Entropy in 2004 [1] may have plagiarized an earlier paper by Roman Hric published in 2000 [2]. After checking with specialized plagiarism software, we found that this claim is indeed correct and almost the entire paper is a verbatim copy of the earlier one. After confirmation of this fact, the editors of Entropy have decided to retract the paper immediately. [...

  11. Effect of the Neck Retraction Taping (NRT) on Forward Head Posture and the Upper Trapezius Muscle during Computer Work

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck retraction taping on forward head posture and the upper trapezius muscle of computer workers during computer work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured forward head angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work before and after NRT. [Results] The FHP angle significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. The UT muscle acti...

  12. Ten-year results of cartilage palisades versus fascia in eardrum reconstruction after surgery for sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Andersen, Janne; Uzun, Cem;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To compare cartilage palisades with fascia grafting in reconstruction of the eardrum after surgery for sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma in children, with respect to long-term postoperative eardrum retraction and perforation, cholesteatoma recurrence, and hearing acuity....... METHODS: A total of 64 children underwent surgery for either sinus or tensa retraction cholesteatoma during the period 1995 to 2000 (mean age 9 years, range 5-15). The eardrum was reconstructed using cartilage palisades in 32 children (32 ears) and fascia or perichondrium in 32 children (33 ears...... threshold, and pure tone air-bone gap). RESULTS: All but two patients in both groups attended the 10-year follow-up examination (94% attendance). The mean overall follow-up period was 119 months (115 months in the palisade and 125 months in the fascia group). Total number of retractions during follow...

  13. Mechanical Property Analysis in the Retracted Pin-Tool (RPT) Region of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) Aluminum Lithium 2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding", was developed at The Marshall Space Flight Center to address process deficiencies unique to the FSW process. The auto-adjustable pin tool, also called the retractable pin-tool (R.PT) automatically withdraws the welding probe of the pin-tool into the pin-tool's shoulder. The primary function of the auto-adjustable pin-tool is to allow for keyhole closeout, necessary for circumferential welding and localized weld repair, and, automated pin-length adjustment for the welding of tapered material thickness. An overview of the RPT hardware is presented. The paper follows with studies conducted using the RPT. The RPT was used to simulate two capabilities; welding tapered material thickness and closing out the keyhole in a circumferential weld. The retracted pin-tool regions in aluminum- lithium 2195 friction stir weldments were studied through mechanical property testing and metallurgical sectioning. Correlation's can be =de between retractable pin-tool programmed parameters, process parameters, microstructure, and resulting weld quality.

  14. Revision Rotator Cuff Reconstruction for Large Tears With Retraction: A Novel Technique Using Autogenous Tendon and Autologous Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoff, Hillel D

    2015-07-01

    Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair. Ultrasound was used for postoperative radiographic assessment of cuff integrity. Validated Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scoring systems were used. Surgical technique included mini-open incision, adequate débridement and mobilization of remaining cuff, reconstitution of cuff defect with autogenous biceps tendon incubated in concentrated autologous bone marrow, and sewing under zero tissue tension. Constant, ASES, and UCLA scores improved significantly (standard error at .001). Ultrasound revealed 0% incidence of full-thickness rotator cuff retearing. In patients with large recurrent retracted rotator cuff tears the technique presented in the current study consistently yields satisfactory clinical results and promotes rotator cuff tissue healing without full-thickness retearing.

  15. Retraction notice to "Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses" [APJTB Volume 2 Issue 11(2012) 916-922

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaviarasan; T; Siva; Sankar; R; Yogamoorthi; A

    2015-01-01

    <正>This article has been retracted:please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal(http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy).This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and the First Author.Both the first author and the journal’s editor confirmed that Dr.A Yogamoorthi is not responsible for the plagiarism since his/her name was added without consent.

  16. Retraction: Sophocleous, M. (2012). On understanding and predicting groundwater response time. Ground Water, 50: 528–540. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2011.00876.x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The above article, published online on October 24, 2011 on Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the author's sponsoring institution, the journal Editor in Chief, Franklin W. Schwartz, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation by the Kansas Geological Survey (a research and service division of the University of Kansas), which identified unattributed areas of overlap with a number of other publications.

  17. Composition of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone: Climatology and variability from 10 years of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Michelle; Manney, Gloria; Livesey, Nathaniel; Neu, Jessica; Schwartz, Michael; Read, William

    2016-04-01

    Satellite measurements are invaluable for investigating the composition of the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS) in the region of the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone, which has been sparsely sampled by other means. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), launched as part of NASA's Aura mission in July 2004, makes simultaneous co-located measurements of trace gases and cloud ice water content (IWC, a proxy for deep convection) in the UTLS on a daily basis. Here we exploit the dense spatial and temporal coverage, long-term data record, and extensive measurement suite of Aura MLS to characterize the climatological composition of the ASM anticyclone and quantify its considerable spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability. We relate the observed trace gas behavior to various meteorological quantities, such as the size and strength of the ASM anticyclone, the extent and intensity of deep convection, and variations in the tropopause and the upper tropospheric jets in that region. Multiple species of both tropospheric and stratospheric origin are examined to help assess whether the observed variability arises from variations in transport processes or changes in the strength or location of surface emissions.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 gene polymorphisms affect circulating MMP-2 levels in patients with migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Lacchini, Riccardo; Belo, Vanessa A; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabíola; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) during migraine attacks. In the present study, we hypothesized that two functional polymorphisms (C(-1306)T and C(-735)T) in MMP-2 gene and MMP-2 haplotypes are associated with migraine and modify MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-2 levels in migraine. Genotypes for MMP-2 polymorphisms were determined by real time-PCR using Taqman allele discrimination assays. Haplotypes were inferred using the PHASE program. Plasma MMP-2 and TIMP-2 concentrations were measured by gelatin zymography and ELISA, respectively, in 148 healthy women without history of migraine and in 204 women with migraine (153 without aura; MWA, and 51 with aura; MA). Patients with MA had higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios than patients with MWA and controls (P0.05), we found that the CC genotype for C(-735)T polymorphism and the CC haplotype were associated with higher plasma MMP-2 concentrations in MA group (P<0.05). Our findings may help to understand the role of MMP-2 and its genetic variants in the pathophysiology of migraine and to identify a particular group of migraine patients with increased MMP-2 levels that would benefit from the use of MMP inhibitors.

  19. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Krotkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2, since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for the different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2014, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 % reduction in 2012–2014, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2014. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved to be very valuable in documenting rapid changes in

  20. Aura OMI Observations of Regional SO2 and NO2 Pollution Changes from 2005 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A.; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 percent, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 percent reduction in 2012-2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 percent, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air

  1. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Boersma, K. Folkert; Veefkind, J. Pepijn; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2/ and sulfur dioxide (SO2/, since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50% reduction in 2012- 2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air quality over different

  2. Next-Generation Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Yang, Kai; Bucsela, Eric; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Swartz, William; Carn, Simon; Bhartia, Pawan; Gleason, James; Pickering, Ken; Dickerson, Russ

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of both SO2 and NO2 gases are recognized as an essential component of atmospheric composition missions. We describe current capabilities and limitations of the operational Aura/OMI NO2 and SO2 data that have been used by a large number of researchers. Analyses of the data and validation studies have brought to light a number of areas in which these products can be expanded and improved. Major improvements for new NASA standard (SP) NO2 product include more accurate tropospheric and stratospheric column amounts, along with much improved error estimates and diagnostics. Our approach uses a monthly NO2 climatology based on the NASA Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry-transport model and takes advantage of OMI data from cloudy scenes to find clean areas where the contribution from the trap NO2 column is relatively small. We then use a new filtering, interpolation and smoothing techniques for separating the stratospheric and tropospheric components of NO2, minimizing the influence of a priori information. The new algorithm greatly improves the structure of stratospheric features relative to the original SP. For the next-generation OMI SO2 product we plan to implement operationally the offline iterative spectral fitting (ISF) algorithm and re-process the OMI Level-2 SO2 dataset using a priori SO2 and aerosol profiles, clouds, and surface reflectivity appropriate for observation conditions. This will improve the ability to detect and quantify weak tropospheric SO2 loadings. The new algorithm is validated using aircraft in-situ data during field campaigns in China (2005 and 2008) and in Maryland (Frostburg, 2010 and DISCOVER-AQ in July 2011). The height of the SO2 plumes will also be estimated for high SO2 loading cases (e.g., volcanic eruptions). The same SO2 algorithm will be applied to the data from OMPS sensor to be launched on NPP satellite later this year. The next-generation NO2 and SO2 products will provide critical information (e

  3. Aura OMI observations of regional SO2 and NO2 pollution changes from 2005 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McLinden, Chris A.; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok N.; Celarier, Edward A.; Marchenko, Sergey V.; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric J.; Joiner, Joanna; Duncan, Bryan N.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Pepijn Veefkind, J.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; He, Hao; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.

    2016-04-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite has been providing global observations of the ozone layer and key atmospheric pollutant gases, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), since October 2004. The data products from the same instrument provide consistent spatial and temporal coverage and permit the study of anthropogenic and natural emissions on local-to-global scales. In this paper, we examine changes in SO2 and NO2 over some of the world's most polluted industrialized regions during the first decade of OMI observations. In terms of regional pollution changes, we see both upward and downward trends, sometimes in opposite directions for NO2 and SO2, for different study areas. The trends are, for the most part, associated with economic and/or technological changes in energy use, as well as regional regulatory policies. Over the eastern US, both NO2 and SO2 levels decreased dramatically from 2005 to 2015, by more than 40 and 80 %, respectively, as a result of both technological improvements and stricter regulations of emissions. OMI confirmed large reductions in SO2 over eastern Europe's largest coal-fired power plants after installation of flue gas desulfurization devices. The North China Plain has the world's most severe SO2 pollution, but a decreasing trend has been observed since 2011, with about a 50 % reduction in 2012-2015, due to an economic slowdown and government efforts to restrain emissions from the power and industrial sectors. In contrast, India's SO2 and NO2 levels from coal power plants and smelters are growing at a fast pace, increasing by more than 100 and 50 %, respectively, from 2005 to 2015. Several SO2 hot spots observed over the Persian Gulf are probably related to oil and gas operations and indicate a possible underestimation of emissions from these sources in bottom-up emission inventories. Overall, OMI observations have proved valuable in documenting rapid changes in air quality over different

  4. Aura OMI Observations of Global SO2 and NO2 Pollution from 2005 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Lamsal, Lok; Celarier, Edward; Marchenko, Sergey; Swartz, William H.; Bucsela, Eric; Fioletov, Vitali; McLinden, Chris; Joiner, Joanna; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Duncan, Bryan; Dickerson, Russ

    2014-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a NASA partnership with the Netherlands and Finland, flies on the NASA Aura satellite and uses reflected sunlight to measure the two critical atmospheric trace gases: nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) characterizing daily air quality. Both gases and the secondary pollutants they produce (particulate matter, PM2.5, and tropospheric ozone) are USEPA designated criteria pollutants, posing serious threats to human health and the environment (e.g., acid rain, plant damage and reduced visibility). Our group at NASA GSFC has developed and maintained OMI standard SO2 and NO2 data products. We have recently released an updated version of the standard NO2 L2 and L3 products (SP v2.1) and continue improving the algorithm. We are currently in the process of releasing next generation pollution SO2 product, based on an innovative Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm, which greatly reduces the noise and biases. These new standard products provide valuable datasets for studying anthropogenic pollution on local to global scales. Here we highlight some of the OMI observed changes in air quality over several regions. Over the US average NO2 and SO2 pollution levels had decreased dramatically as a result of both technological improvements (e.g., catalytic converters on cars) and stricter regulations of emissions. We see continued decline in pollution over Europe. Over China OMI observed an increase of about 60 percent in NO2 pollution between 2005 and 2013, despite a temporal reversal of the growing trend due to both 2008 Olympic Games and the economic recession in 2009. Chinese SO2 pollution seems to have stabilized since peaking in 2007, probably due to government efforts to curb SO2 emissions from the power sector. We have also observed large increases in both SO2 and NO2 pollution particularly in Eastern India where a number of large new coal power plants had been built in recent years. We expect that further

  5. What have we learned about global SO2 pollution with Aura/OMI data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, N.; Yang, K.; Bhartia, P. K.; Carn, S.; Krueger, A.; Dickerson, R.; Li, C.

    2008-05-01

    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is a short-lived gas produced by volcanoes, power plants, refineries, metal smelting and general burning of fossil fuels. It is one of five EPA criteria pollutants. Emitted SO2 is soon converted to sulfate aerosol, with climate effects that include direct radiative forcing and aerosol-induced changes in cloud microphysics and the hydrological cycle. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on NASA Aura satellite in July 2004 offers unprecedented spatial resolution, coupled with contiguous daily global coverage, for space- based UV measurements of volcanic and anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the PBL present challenges, because these typically weak signals need to be separated from the noise in the radiances. Plumes from strong surface sources of SO2 (such as smelters and coal burning power plants) and from strong regional pollution can currently be detected in the operational pixel data. Operational data were evaluated with in-situ aircraft SO2 profiles measured in the lower troposphere over China during the East-AIRE campaign in April 2005. This comparison demonstrates that OMI can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollutions on a daily basis, suggesting potential of using OMI SO2 data for the regional pollution monitoring. Chinese SO2 pollution lofting above the PBL and long-range transport over Pacific Ocean was first confirmed using OMI data. Quantification of anthropogenic SO2 emissions requires off-line corrections of the average photon path, characterized by the operational air-mass factor (AMF). The AMF corrections in turn require a-priori information about the altitude of the SO2 plume center of mass, the total ozone, and surface albedo. In addition, aerosols and subpixel clouds affect the AMF in different ways depending on their amounts and vertical distribution. Therefore, ancillary cloud, snow and aerosol information available from near simultaneous A-train sensors is valuable

  6. Walter Benjamin in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Aura in Education--A Rereading of "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…

  7. Exploration on Stroke Aurae Syndrome from the Thought of Psychosomatic Differentiation and Treatment%中风先兆证从心身论治思路探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the new clinical thoughts of diagnosis and treatment of stroke aurae syndrome. Methods: Based on the characteristics of pathogenesis of stroke aurae syndrome, by emphasizing the impact of psychological stress and other emotional factors on the disease and combining with the psychological status of patients and personality traits, diagnosis and treatment patterns for psychosomatic diseases in TCM internal medicine were used for the differentiation and treatment of stroke aurae syndrome. Results and Conclusion : The differentiation and treatment of stroke aurae syndrome by emphasizing both the the physical and psychological aspects has provided new thoughts for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome in order to improve the clinical efficacy and reduce the incidence of stroke.%目的:探讨中风先兆证临床诊疗新思路.方法:基于中风先兆证病机特点,重视心理压力等情志因素对疾病的影响,结合患者心理状况与性格特征,试以中医内科心身疾病诊疗模式论治中风先兆证.结果与结论:心身并重论治中风先兆证,为中风先兆证临床诊疗提供新思路,以求提高临床疗效,降低中风发病率.

  8. 回缩性睾丸的临床研究%Long term follow-up results of testicular retraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭祥; 李爽; 王军; 郭晖; 雷伟; 李刚; 马慧; 杨春雷; 程银涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过评价回缩性睾丸患睾临床转归时间为临床治疗回缩性睾丸提供参考。方法回顾性分析了本院40例2004年3月至2009年9月被诊断为回缩睾丸的患儿,所有的患儿在随访时评价睾丸收缩性、位置、睾丸体积,并根据随访结果分为回缩组、正常组、固定组。结果40个患儿,21例单侧回缩睾丸(52.5%),19双侧回缩睾丸(47.5%)。他们的平均年龄为(3±2.7)岁,评价随访时间为(4.1±1.6)年。59例回缩睾丸,27例(45.7%)成功降入阴囊,23例(39.0%)保持回缩,9例患者(15.3%)为睾丸未降或睾丸体积变小行睾丸固定术。40例患者中平均随访(4.4±1.7)年。正常组平均随访时间为(4.1±1.3)年,回缩组平均随访时间为(5.2±1.7)年,固定组平均随访时间为(3.7±1.6)年。正常组平均诊断年龄为(4.3±3.2)年,回缩组平均诊断年龄为(2.3±1.6)年,固定组平均诊断年龄(1.3±0.8)年。固定组与正常组相比较,固定组平均诊断年龄小于正常组的平均诊断年龄(P <0.05)。结论回缩性睾丸有需行外科睾丸固定术的干预的风险,且年龄越小被诊断为回缩性睾丸的患者有需行外科睾丸固定术干预的风险越高。%Objective To make a reference for clinical surgery operation intervention of retractile testis through long-term follow-up of testisvolume and position. Methods A retrospective analysis of 40 cases in our hospital diagnosed with testicular retraction was carried out in the study. According to the follow-up results of testicular shrinkage, position and testicular volume, the patients were divided into the retraction group, the normal group, the fixed group. Results Of 40 patients, 21 cases had unilateral testicular retraction (52.5%), 19 (47.5%) had bilateral testicular retraction. Their average age was (3±2.7)years, evaluation and follow-up was (4.1±1.6)years. Among 59 cases

  9. Comparison of the clinical effects of electrosurgical retraction and cord gingival retraction%电刀排龈法和压线排龈法的临床应用效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓聪; 常新

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨电刀排龈在前牙区、前磨牙区和磨牙区的应用效果.方法 收集需冠桥修复患者47例,共90颗基牙,其中前牙、前磨牙、磨牙各30颗.根据牙位分为前牙组、前磨牙组、磨牙组,每组又分为2个亚组,分别随机选取15颗采用电刀排龈法排龈,另外15颗采用压线排龈法排龈,比较2种排龈方法的操作时间和效果.结果 前牙组、前磨牙组、磨牙组应用电刀排龈法的排龈时间分别为(2.07 ±0.10) min、(2.05±0.09)min、(2.14±0.13)min,平均排龈时间为(2.08±0.11)min;应用压线排龈法的排龈时间分别为(8.79 ±0.25) min、(8.51±0.23) min、(8.62±0.20) min,平均排龈时间为(8.64±0.25) min;2种方法的平均排龈时间差异有统计学意义(t=91.5,P<0.05).前牙组、前磨牙组、磨牙组电刀排龈法排龈效果满意率分别为100%、100%、93%,平均满意率为97%;压线排龈法排龈效果满意率分别为80%、93%、100%,平均满意率为91%;2种排龈方法的平均满意率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.90,P>0.05).结论 电刀排龈可以取得安全、满意的排龈效果,在所有牙位区的排龈操作时间均较压线排龈法明显缩短,在前牙区使用优越性较明显.%Objective To compare the effect of electrosurgical retraction in the anterior teeth, the bicuspid teeth and the posterior teeth areas, with cord gingival retraction method. Methods Forty-seven patients and a total of 90 teeth werecollected, with 30 anterior teeth, 30 bicuspid teeth and 30 posterior teeth. They were divided into anterior group; bicuspid group and posterior group. Each group were divided into two subgroups, with 15 teeth in each subgroup, for electrosurgical retractionand gingival retraclion respectively. The time and ihe effect gingival retraction were observed. Results The time of electrosurgical retraction in anterior group, bicuspid group, posterior group was (2.07 ±0. 10) inin, (2.05 ±0.09) min, (2. 14±0. 13

  10. Análise da camada de fibras nervosas da retina em portadores de enxaqueca com aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Felipe Andrade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar as possíveis alterações na camada de fibras nervosas da retina (CFNR em pacientes com enxaqueca com aura, detectada por meio da polarimetria de varredura a laser. Métodos: Vinte pacientes com enxaqueca com aura e vinte indivíduos normais foram estudados. Os critérios de inclusão para os dois grupos compreenderam: idade de pelo menos 18 anos; ausência de história de doenças oculares, exceto erro refracional ou estrabismo; e ausência de história familiar de hipertensão ocular ou glaucoma. Foram excluídos pacientes com erro refracional maior que 5 DE e/ou 2 DC; acuidade visual corrigida menor que 20/40; pressão intra-ocular maior que 21 mmHg; discos ópticos anômalos ou com escavação maior que 0,5 ou assimetria de escavação maior que 0,2; ou com presença de doenças retinianas concomitantes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame de campo visual (Humphrey 30-2 e análise da CFNR com a polarimetria a laser (GDx - Nerve Fiber Analyzer. Um olho de cada paciente foi randomizado para análise estatística. Resultados: Nenhum dos pacientes do grupo controle apresentou defeitos de campo visual. Nove olhos (45% dos pacientes com enxaqueca tiveram anormalidades de campo visual além de 95% do intervalo de confiança do normal, como indicado pelos índices MD, CPSD ou GHT. Os valores de retardo no setor superior da CFNR dos pacientes com enxaqueca foram significativamente menor que no grupo controle (p=0,005. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de retardo dos dois grupos nas medidas globais e nos setores inferior, nasal e temporal. Conclusão: As medidas de retardo obtidas com a polarimetria a laser foram significativamente menores na porção superior da CFNR dos pacientes com enxaqueca com aura, sugerindo possível dano isquêmico às fibras nervosas, relacionadas à enxaqueca.

  11. Retraction notice to “Contrast-enhanced Dual-energy Digital Mammography in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Mohamed Awad

    2014-06-01

    This paper has been retracted upon the request of the EIC and the approval of the editorial board when they received a letter from Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus complaining that the authors of this paper used two clinical images (without citations from two previous publications; Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography: initial clinical results of a multireader, multicase study, Published in Breast Cancer Research 2012, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/bcr3210 and Contrast-enhanced digital mammography, Published in European Journal of Radiology 69 (2009 34–42, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.07.035.

  12. Retracted Article: Doppler shifts on the spin period of the intermediate polar FO Aqr with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, S.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.

    2016-10-01

    The Editor and Publisher of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society journal have retracted the following article: S. Scaringi, C. Knigge, and T. J. Maccarone. “Doppler shifts on the spin period of the intermediate polar FO Aqr with K2”. After investigation, the authors have concluded that this paper includes some errors in the data analysis, and thus the interpretation of the results. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience this causes to readers of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

  13. Performance Simulation of Retraction/Extension Mechanism of a Certain Aircraft%某型飞机起落架收放机构性能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉国明; 董萌; 付珍娟

    2012-01-01

    To test the performance of the retraction/extension mechanism of a landing gear of a certain aircraft, the mathematic model of the retraction/extension mechanism is presented, and its performance simulation is based on the 3D model of the landing gear and the ID model of the deploying-and-retracting cylinder and the fall-accelerating cylinder. The result shows that this retraction/extension mechanism with theoretical values can fulfill its deploying-and-retracting task during a limited time and that the collision among components of the landing gear is inexistent. Besides, with the help of the co-simulation model, the influence of the structural parameters of the deploying-and-retracting cylinder and fall-accelerating cylinder on the retraction/extension performance is studied, and it is suggested that the cross-section areas of the piston chamber of the deploying-and-retracting cylinder and the piston-rod chamber of the fall-accelerating cylinder are prior selection during the retraction/extension mechanism optimization progress can be as reference of the optimization design.%为了验证某型飞机起落架收放机构采用理论计算值的收放性能,建立了该型飞机起落架收放机构的数学模型,采用起落架三维模型和收放作动筒、下落加速器的一维模型进行联合仿真.结果表明:采用理论计算值能够实现起落架在有限时间里的收放任务,各部件在收放运动中无干涉.此外,利用该联合仿真模型研究了收放作动筒、下落加速器结构参数对起落架收放性能的影响,指出收放作动筒活塞截面积和下落加速器活塞杆腔截面积可作为优化设计的优先选取参数,为该型飞机起落架收放机构性能的进一步优化提供参考.

  14. Retraction: Pogačnik M, Žnidarčič D, Strgar J. A school garden in biotechnical education. Arch biol sci. 2014; 66(2:785-92, DOI: 10.2298/ABS1402785P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a notice of retraction of the article: A school garden in biotechnical education, published in the Archives of Biological Sciences in 2014, Vol. 66, Issue 2. Due to a printing error, caused by the journal, the same paper has already been published in the Archives of Biological Sciences, Vol. 66, Issue 1, 2014 (DOI: 10.2298/ABS1401393P. Therefore, the latter article is being retracted. The corresponding author has been informed of this error and retraction. We apologize to the authors and to the readers for this error. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/ABS1402785P

  15. Clot retraction is mediated by factor XIII-dependent fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin axis in platelet sphingomyelin-rich membrane rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kohji; Kaneda, Mizuho; Miki, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuko; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Kawashima, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Arai, Morio; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Kojima, Soichi; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Okazaki, Toshiro; Souri, Masayoshi; Ichinose, Akitada; Yamamoto, Naomasa

    2013-11-01

    Membrane rafts are spatially and functionally heterogenous in the cell membrane. We observed that lysenin-positive sphingomyelin (SM)-rich rafts are identified histochemically in the central region of adhered platelets where fibrin and myosin are colocalized on activation by thrombin. The clot retraction of SM-depleted platelets from SM synthase knockout mouse was delayed significantly, suggesting that platelet SM-rich rafts are involved in clot retraction. We found that fibrin converted by thrombin translocated immediately in platelet detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts but that from Glanzmann's thrombasthenic platelets failed. The fibrinogen γ-chain C-terminal (residues 144-411) fusion protein translocated to platelet DRM rafts on thrombin activation, but its mutant that was replaced by A398A399 at factor XIII crosslinking sites (Q398Q399) was inhibited. Furthermore, fibrin translocation to DRM rafts was impaired in factor XIII A subunit-deficient mouse platelets, which show impaired clot retraction. In the cytoplasm, myosin translocated concomitantly with fibrin translocation into the DRM raft of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Furthermore, the disruption of SM-rich rafts by methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired myosin activation and clot retraction. Thus, we propose that clot retraction takes place in SM-rich rafts where a fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin complex is formed as a primary axis to promote platelet contraction. PMID:24002447

  16. Evidence from CALIPSO and Aura MLS for Summertime Mid-Latitude Lower Stratospheric Moistening by Convective Ice Lofting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Dessler, A. E.

    2008-05-01

    Cloud top height measurements from Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and H2O and O3 measurements from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are used to investigate the influence of mid-latitude convection on the summertime lower stratosphere between 30°N and 60°N. We find that most of the convection over this latitude range occurs over the Asian monsoon and over North America. Over both continents, the effects of convection extend to 420-440 K (~17-19 km). We see evidence of moistening of the lower stratosphere by evaporating ice crystals. The impact of convection on the lower stratospheric water vapor budget is greater over North America. The reason is that ice clouds over North America are found in higher latitudes, where the relative humidity is low, so that ice can efficiently evaporate. Over the Asian monsoon, near saturation conditions limit ice evaporation.

  17. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  18. Development of a neural network model for cloud fraction detection using NASA-Aura OMI VIS radiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, G.; Kolmonen, P.; Karhunen, J.; Tamminen, J.; de Leeuw, G.

    2013-02-01

    The discrimination of cloudy pixels is required in almost any estimate of a parameter retrieved from a satellite image in the ultraviolet (UV), visual (VIS) or infra-red (IR) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Also, the distincion of clouds within satellite imagery and the distribution of their micro-physical properties is essential to the understanding of radiative transfer through the atmosphere. This paper reports the development of neural network algorithms for cloud detection for the NASA-Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We present and discuss the results obtained by training mathematical neural networks with simultaneous application to OMI and Aqua-MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. The neural network delivers cloud fraction estimates in a fast and automated way. The developed neural network approach performs generally well in the training. Highly reflective surfaces, such as ice, snow, sun glint and desert, or atmospheric dust mislead the neural network to a wrong predicted cloud fraction.

  19. An Intercomparison of Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals Derived from Two Aura Instruments and Measurements in Western North America in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, D. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Hui, W. C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Two recently developed methods for quantifying tropospheric ozone abundances based on Aura data, the Trajectory-enhanced Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TTOR) and an assimilation of Aura data into Goddard Earth Observing System Version 4 (ASM), are compared to ozone measurements from ozonesonde data collected in April-May 2006 during the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study 2006 (IONS-06) campaign. Both techniques use Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. Statistics on column ozone amounts for both products are presented. In general, the assimilation compares better to sonde integrated ozone to 200 hPa (28.6% difference for TTOR versus 2.7% difference for ASM), and both products are biased low. To better characterize the performance of ASM, ozone profiles based on the assimilation are compared to those from ozonesondes. We noted slight negative biases in the lower troposphere, and slight positive biases in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/ LS), where we observed the greatest variability. Case studies were used to further understand ASM performance. We examine one case from 17 April 2006 at Bratt's Lake, Saskatchewan, where geopotential height gradients appear to be related to an underestimation in the ASM in the UT/LS region. A second case, from 21 April 2006 at Trinidad Head, California, is a situation where the overprediction of ozone in the UT/LS region does not appear to be due to current dynamic conditions but seems to be related to uncertainty in the flow pattern and large differences in MLS observations upstream.

  20. The Contributions of Chemistry and Transport to Low Arctic Ozone in March 2011 Derived from Aura MLS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, S. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Stratospheric and total columns of Arctic O3 (63-90 N) in late March 2011 averaged 320 and 349 DU, respectively. These values are 74 DU lower than averages for the previous 6 years. We use Aura MLS O3 observations to quantify the roles of chemistry and transport and find there are two major reasons for low O3 in March 2011: heterogeneous chemical loss and a late final warming that delayed the resupply of O3 until April. Daily vortex-averaged partial columns in the lowermost stratosphere (p greater than 133 hPa) and middle stratosphere (p less than 29 hPa) are unaffected by local heterogeneous chemistry and show a near total lack of transport into the vortex between late January and late March, contributing to the observed low column. The lower stratospheric (LS) column (133-29 hPa) is affected by both heterogeneous chemistry and transport. Low interannual variability of Aura MLS 0 3 columns and temperature inside the Arctic vortex (2004-2011) shows that the transport contribution to vortex O3 in fall and early winter is nearly the same each year. The descent of MLS N2O vortex profiles in 2011 provides an estimate of O3 transported into the LS column during late winter. By quantifying the role of transport we determine that PSC-driven chemical loss causes 80 (plus or minus 10) DU of vortex-averaged O3 loss by late March 2011. Without heterogeneous chemical loss, March 2011 vortex O3 would have been 40 DU lower than normal due to the late final warming and resupply of O3 which did not occur until April.

  1. This article has been retracted and is available online only: Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, John; Scholes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    RETRACTION: The following article from Nursing in Critical Care, 'Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study' by Sina Valiee, Reza Negarandeh and Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, published online on 9 May 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal Editors. The retraction has been agreed due to errors in the manuscript handling process which meant that an early version of the article was published that did not include all the amendments made as part of the peer review process. John Albarran and Julie Scholes Editors Nursing in Critical Care REFERENCE Valiee, S., Negarandeh, R. and Dehghan Nayeri, N. (2012), Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study. Nursing in Critical Care. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-5153.2012.00505.x.

  2. 镶拼工艺回缩率在针织服装上的应用%Application of Stitching Process Retraction Rate in Knitted Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2012-01-01

    The process retraction rate of knitted fabric was tested through different stitching process using several kinds of fabrics. The test results indicated that stitching process retraction rate was related with stitching pattern, warp & weft of fabric and fabric type, and also proposed that stitching process retraction rate should be considered in design and production of knitted garments.%采用不同缝型、经纬向缝合,测定了不同针织面料的工艺回缩率。试验结果表明针织服装异料拼接工艺回缩率与缝型、面料经纬向和面料原材料密切相关,针织服装实际设计与生产中应考虑镶拼工艺回缩率因素对成衣的影响。

  3. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  4. Retraction of "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Editors of Tissue Engineering are officially retracting the published article entitled "Clinically established hemostatic scaffold (tissue fleece) as biomatrix in tissue- and organ-engineering research," by Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Mueller-Stahl K, Boublik J, Ruhparwar A, Mertsching H, Balsam L, Robbins R, Haverich A. Tissue Eng 2003 Jun;9(3):517–523. This article is being retracted due to the discovery of multiple publications of identical data in the following three journals: Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Boublik J, Theodorou P, Martin U, Ruhparwar A, Fischer S, Eschenhagen T, Kubis HP, Kraft T, Leyh R, Haverich A. In vitro engineering of heart muscle: artificial myocardial tissue. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002 Jul;124(1):63–69. Kofidis T, Akhyari P, Wachsmann B, Boublik J, Mueller-Stahl K, Leyh R, Fischer S, Haverich A. A novel bioartificial myocardial tissue and its prospective use in cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002 Aug;22(2):238–243. Kofidis T, Balsam L, de Bruin J, Robbins RC. Distinct cell-to-fiber junctions are critical for the establishment of cardiotypical phenotype in a 3D bioartificial environment. Med Eng Phys 2004 Mar;26(2):157–163. Tissue Engineering is committed to the highest standards of scientific content and integrity, and does not tolerate such improprieties.

  5. RETRACTED: Investigation of structural, optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Tian, Xinlong; Wu, Shoukun; Yu, Xia; Li, Zhuliang; Deng, Jianfeng; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. Figures 3 and 4 of this paper have also been presented as belonging to other materials in other publications. This observation is evidence of fraud and therefore it is not certain that the described research and conclusions of this paper belong to the presented images. Figures 3 and 4 of this paper can also be found in: Effect of annealing on the structures and properties of Al and F co-doped ZnO nanostructures, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2014, 17, 162-167, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mssp.2013.09.023 Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2014,583, 32-38, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.06.192 Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2013,576, 31-37, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.04.132

  6. Chronic glucocorticoids increase hippocampal vulnerability to neurotoxicity under conditions that produce CA3 dendritic retraction but fail to impair spatial recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Cheryl D; McLaughlin, Katie J; Harman, James S; Foltz, Cainan; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Lightner, Elizabeth; Wright, Ryan L

    2007-08-01

    We previously found that chronic stress conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction and spatial memory deficits make the hippocampus vulnerable to the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to chronic corticosterone (CORT) under conditions that produce CA3 dendritic retraction would enhance CA3 susceptibility to IBO. Male Sprague Dawley rats were chronically treated for 21 d with CORT in drinking water (400 microg/ml), and half were given daily injections of phenytoin (40 mg/kg), an antiepileptic drug that prevents CA3 dendritic retraction. Three days after treatments stopped, IBO was infused into the CA3 region. Conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction (CORT and vehicle) exacerbated IBO-induced CA3 damage compared with conditions in which CA3 dendritic retraction was not observed (vehicle and vehicle, vehicle and phenytoin, CORT and phenytoin). Additionally, spatial recognition memory was assessed using the Y-maze, revealing that conditions producing CA3 dendritic retraction failed to impair spatial recognition memory. Furthermore, CORT levels in response to a potentially mild stressor (injection and Y-maze exposure) stayed at basal levels and failed to differ among key groups (vehicle and vehicle, CORT and vehicle, CORT and phenytoin), supporting the interpretations that CORT levels were unlikely to have been elevated during IBO infusion and that the neuroprotective actions of phenytoin were not through CORT alterations. These data are the first to show that conditions with prolonged glucocorticoid elevations leading to structural changes in hippocampal dendritic arbors can make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic challenges. These findings have significance for many disorders with elevated glucocorticoids that include depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Cushing's disease.

  7. Contribución al conocimiento de la Epizootiología y Biología del Cathartes aura Lin (Contribution to the knowledge of the Epizootiology and Biology of the Cathartes aura Lin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isacc J. Rotella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de esclarecer el papel epizoodémico del Catharthes aura Lin. (aura y el fundamento de su resistencia frente a los microorganismos y toxinas que ingiere, se realizó una investigación en 53 ejemplares, que comprendió la infección artificial de 12 animales con B. abortus, M. bovis, S. aureus y S. typhimurium y, en animales no inoculados, bacteriología, parasitología, serología (brucelosis y leptospirosis, electroforesis del suero, hematología y medición del pH de órganos del tracto digestivo. En las auras infectadas por vía oral solamente se recuperó el microorganismo en una en que se aisló M. bovis de un exudado bucal; por vía intramuscular, un animal infectado con S. aureus presentó lesiones en el punto de inoculación y otro con S. typhimurium, alteraciones macroscópicas compatibles con salmonelosis. La bacteriología general fue negativa en el 72,5% de los animales siendo el germen mas frecuentemente aislado E. coli b hemolítica (12,5%. Las pruebas serológicas fueron negativas. En los proventrículos se encontraron parásitos parecidos a los tetrámeros de las aves (7,5% y en los intestinos ooquistes de Coccidia sp. (19,4%. No se detectaron hemoparásitos en sangre ni ectoparásitos en las plumas. Según la electroforesis del suero, las fracciones alfa 1 y beta no se delimitaron nítidamente y corrieron muy unidas a la albúmina la primera y a la gamma la segunda. El pH del aparato digestivo resultó más ácido a medida que el muestreo se alejó del pico, presentando el mayor grado de acidez el estómago muscular rudimentario (2,9. El aura posee un formidable poder destructivo de los microorganismos que ingiere por lo que no representa un gran peligro epizoodémico, por el contrario, contribuye a eliminar desperdicios que pueden ser focos de enfermedades. Al parecer su resistencia es independiente de la constitución globulínica del suero y la acidez del estómago muscular rudimentario constituye su

  8. Retraction statement: Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The following article from Journal of Clinical Nursing, 'Manuka honey vs. hydrogel - a prospective, open label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial to compare desloughing efficacy and healing outcomes in venous ulcers' by Georgina Gethin and Seamus Cowman published online on 25 August 2008 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) and in Volume 18, pp. 466-474, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor-in-Chief, the authors and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to errors in the data analysis which affect the article's findings.

  9. Retraction: Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation. J. Diao, Y. D. Ma, and M. S. Hasson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The following article from Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics, "Open and closed conformations reveal induced fit movements in butyrate kinase 2 activation," by Jiasheng Diao, Yunglin D. Ma, and Miriam S. Hasson, published online on 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (onlinelibrary.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, and Wiley Periodicals. The retraction has been agreed because it was established by internal investigation performed by Purdue University that the authors of this article are not the owners of the data and have no right to publication.

  10. Retracted: Impact of polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1, ESR2) genes on risk of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The above article from Andrology, 'Impact of polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1, ESR2) genes on risk of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction' by M. R. Safarinejad, A. Taghva, N. Shafiei and S. Safarinejad published online on 20 May 2013 in Wiley Online Library has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editors-in-Chief, Douglas Carrell and Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been decided due to failure by the lead author to verify the data contained in the study, and to provide evidence of the role of co-authors and their institutional affiliations.

  11. The infience of male cone's retraction on prestress%关于锚塞回缩对预应力影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬跃; 赵军

    2001-01-01

    The paper mainly introluces the stretching method for tendon, reasons for retraction of male cone, the influence of male cone retraction on prestress value, and measures adopt in dealing with extra loss of prestress.%介绍预应力筋张拉方法、锚塞回缩产生的原因、锚塞回缩对预应力值的影响程度以及其对预应力值过大损失的处理方法和措施。

  12. Effects of double gingival retraction and gingival retraction on the quantity and components of gingival crevicular fluid%双线排龈法和单线排龈法对基牙龈沟液含量和成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳燕; 匡斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较双线排龈和单线排龈对基牙龈沟液含量和成分的影响.方法:对47位患者的94个牙行冠桥修复,采用同一患者的不同牙位对照,分别采取双线排龈法和单线排龈法,取印模,完成修复体.于修复后7、21d和3、6个月提取受试牙位龈沟液,称重并检测其中天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP)含量.结果:修复后7d,单线排龈组龈沟液量、GCF-AST和GCF-ALP含量高于双线排龈组(P<0.05);修复后21 d、3个月,两组各项牙周指标之间无显著性差异(P>0.05);修复后6个月,单线排龈组龈沟液含量高于双线排龈组(P<0.05),GCF-AST和GCF-ALP含量有所升高但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:双线排龈法对牙周组织的影响较单线排龈法小,更有利于牙周组织的健康.%AIM: To study the effects of double gingival retraction and gingival retraction before impression on the quantity and components of gingival crevicular fluid {GCF). METHODS: 94 teeth in 47 patients were treated by fixed prosthetics. Double gingival retraction was applied on one side and gingival retraction was applied on the other side in each patient. The quantity of GCF and the content of aspartate aminotransferase( AST) and alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) in GCF were assessed at 7 and 21 d, 3 and 6 months after application of the prosthetics. RESULTS: 7 d after treatment the quantity of GCE and the content of AST and ALT in the gingival retraction group were higher than those in double gingival retraction groupe ( P 0.05). 6 months after treatment the GCF in gingival retraction groupe was more than that in double gingival retraction groupe, while AST and ALT content was not statistically different between the two groups (P>0. 05). CONCLUSION; Double gingival retraction has less effect on periodontal tissues than gingival retraction.

  13. Features of the seasonal variation of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal and 6-h components of ozone heating evaluated from Aura/MLS observations

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, J.; Smith, A K; Jiang, G.; Yuan, W.; Gao, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the thermal forcing of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal, and 6-h components of the migrating tide induced by ozone heating in stratosphere and lower mesosphere. The heating as a function of local time is determined from the global ozone observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite. The harmonic components of the heating rates of the semidiurnal, terdiurnal and the 6-h periodicities are calculated using the Strobel/Zhu parameterized model and then decomposed into...

  14. Psychological and social stressors and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with migraine without aura from headache centers in Italy: a comparison with tension-type headache patients

    OpenAIRE

    Puca, Francomichele; ,

    2000-01-01

    A multicenter study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of psychosocial stressors and psychiatric comorbidity in patients suffering from migraine without aura (MWO) according to the International Headache Society criteria. Two hundred four adult MWO outpatients underwent a structured psychiatric interview (CIDI-c) to determine the presence of anxiety, and mood and somatoform disorders according to DSM-III-R criteria. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial stress eve...

  15. Determinants of visual acuity outcomes in eyes with neovascular AMD treated with anti-VEGF agents: an instrumental variable analysis of the AURA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, F G; Tadayoni, R; Beatty, S; Berger, A R; Cereda, M G; Hykin, P; Staurenghi, G; Wittrup-Jensen, K; Nilsson, J; Kim, K; Sivaprasad, S

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo identify the strongest variable(s) linked with the number of ranibizumab injections and outcomes in AURA, and to identify ways to improve outcomes using this association.MethodsAURA was a large observational study that monitored visual acuity over a 2-year period in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who received ranibizumab injections. Baseline characteristics, resource use, and outcomes were analyzed using an instrumental variable approach and regression analysis.ResultsData were analyzed from 2227 patients enrolled in AURA. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and ophthalmoscopy were the most common diagnostic tests used, and this combination was the strongest instrumental variable. Use of OCT and ophthalmoscopy affected the number of injections given and resulted in an increase in visual acuity gains from baseline of 17.6 letters in year 1 and 2.5 letters in year 2. Regression models using the instrumental variable (OCT and ophthalmoscopy combined) showed that ≥5.1 (95% CI: 3.3-11.4) ranibizumab injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from baseline to year 1 and ≥8.3 (95% CI: 5.3-18.8) injections were needed to maintain visual acuity from year 1 to year 2. To gain ≥15 letters, ≥7.9 (95% CI: 5.1-17.5) ranibizumab injections would be needed in year 1 and ≥16.1 (95% CI: 10.3-36.4) injections would be needed over 2 years.ConclusionsThese findings highlight the role that regular monitoring plays in guiding neovascular AMD therapy and they showed that the number of ranibizumab injections needed to maintain visual acuity is higher than that administered in AURA. PMID:27197868

  16. RETRACTED: Modification of magadiite surface by organofunctionalization for application in removing As(V) from aqueous media: Kinetic and thermodynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L.; Pinto, Alane A.; Viana, Rúbia R.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of Applied Surface Science as fraudulent results have been found in this article and other publications in Elsevier journals by the same authors, namely, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 337 (2009) 122-130, doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.013; Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1145-1149, doi: 10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.029; J. Environ. Radioact., 101 (2010) 122-133, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.005; Process Saf. Environ. Prot., 88 (2010) 53-61, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.002; J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 70 (2009) 1413-1421, doi: 10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012; Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009) 702-709, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.045; Inorg. Chem. Commun., 11 (2008) 20-23, doi: 10.1016/j.inoche.2007.09.029; Inorg. Chem. Commun, 12 (2009) 1107-1111, doi: 10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.033; J. Hazard. Mat., 172 (2009) 507-514, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.016; J. Hazard. Mat., 171 (2009) 514-523, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.032; J. Colloid Interface Sci., 338 (2009) 30-39, doi: 10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.004. Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an important building-block in the development of science. Elsevier has defined policies and ethical guidelines that have to be obeyed by authors and editors and Elsevier takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. The Editors of the Elsevier journals involved found that the allegations of fraud are conclusive and they have decided that these papers should be retracted from the journals.

  17. RETRACTED: Sodium alginate films modified by raw and functionalized attapulgite for use of thorium(IV) adsorption: A thermodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Denis L.; Viana, Rúbia R.; da Costa, Luiz P.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors of the Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids as fraudulent results have been found in this article and other publications in Elsevier journals by the same authors, namely: J. Colloid Interface Sci., 337 (2009) 122-130, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.05.013. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1145-1149, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.029. J. Environ. Radioact., 101 (2010) 122-133, doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.09.005. Process Safety Environ. Prot., 88 (2010) 53-61, doi:10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.002. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 70 (2009) 1413-1421, doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2009.08.012. Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009) 702-709, doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.045. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 11 (2008) 20-23, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2007.09.029. Inorg. Chem. Commun., 12 (2009) 1107-1111, doi:10.1016/j.inoche.2009.08.033. J. Hazard. Mat., 172 (2009) 507-514, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.016. J. Hazard. Mat., 171 (2009) 514-523, doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.032. J. Colloid Interface Sci., 338 (2009) 30-39, doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.004. Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an important building-block in the development of science. Elsevier has defined policies and ethical guidelines and takes its duties of guardianship over the scholarly record extremely seriously. The Editors of the Elsevier journals involved found that the allegations of fraud are conclusive and they have decided that these papers should be retracted from the journals.

  18. Aura Field in Layout Design of Print Publications%论印刷出版物版式中的气场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪缨; 朱莉

    2011-01-01

    Itdiscussed the sources and functions of the aura field of layout in print publications, and two elements of its composition, analyzed the effects of information design, communication and receiving mode diversity for the aura field. On this basis, it drew the conclusion that appropriate stimulus, visual tracking of hot information, reasonable arrangements for positive and negative space were the most important condition of the aura field' s rational management.%论述了印刷出版物版式中气场的来源及作用,讨论了气场形成的两大要素,分析了信息的设计、传播和接收模式多元化对气场的影响。在此基础上,指出适当的感觉刺激、热点信息的视觉追踪以及正负空间的合理进退是经营气场的主要手段。

  19. Assessment and Applications of NASA Ozone Data Products Derived from Aura OMI-MLS Satellite Measurements in Context of the GMI Chemical Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Witte, J. C.; Douglass, A. R.; Strahan, S. E.; Wargan, K.; Liu, X.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yang, K.; Kaplan, T. B.; Pawson, S.; Duncan, B. N.; Newman, P. A.; Bhartia, K.; Heney, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), both onboard the Aura spacecraft, have been used to produce daily global maps of column and profile ozone since August 2004. Here we compare and evaluate three strategies to obtain daily maps of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone from OMI and MLS measurements: trajectory mapping, direct profile retrieval, and data assimilation. Evaluation is based upon an assessment that includes validation using ozonesondes and comparisons with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemical transport model (CTM). We investigate applications of the three ozone data products from near-decadal and inter-annual timescales to day-to-day case studies. Zonally averaged inter-annual changes in tropospheric ozone from all of the products in any latitude range are of the order 1-2 Dobson Units while changes (increases) over the 8-year Aura record investigated http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd-category/49 vary approximately 2-4 Dobson Units. It is demonstrated that all of the ozone products can measure and monitor exceptional tropospheric ozone events including major forest fire and pollution transport events. Stratospheric ozone during the Aura record has several anomalous inter-annual events including stratospheric warming split events in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics that are well captured using the data assimilation ozone profile product. Data assimilation with continuous daily global coverage and vertical ozone profile information is the best of the three strategies at generating a global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone product for science applications.

  20. Anterior maxillary intrusion and retraction with corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment and burstone three piece intrusive arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandra; Karthikeyan, M K; Saravanan, R; Kannan, K S; Arun Raj, M R

    2013-12-01

    An adult patient with proclination and spacing was performed orthodontic treatment combined with corticotomy and the burstone three piece intrusive arch who desired a shortened treatment period. The patient had Angle's Class I malocclusion with flaring of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Pre adjusted edgewise appliance (MBT prescription) was fixed to the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Then corticotomy was performed on the cortical bone of the buccal sides in the maxillary anterior regions. Intrusion and retraction initiated immediately after the corticotomy. The intrusive arch was adjusted once in every 2 weeks. The total treatment time for intrusion was 5 months. Cephalometric superimpositions showed no anchorage loss, and panoramic radiographs showed neither significant reduction in the crestal bone height nor marked apical root resorption. A corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment shortened treatment period without any anchorage loss or adverse effects. PMID:24551742

  1. 收放系统恒张力研究%Research on Constant Tension Control of Retractable System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢华林; 周超; 姜飞龙; 赵瑞; 李亚南; 袁威

    2012-01-01

    以收放系统作为研究对象,讨论缆绳收放系统的储缆绞车和绞盘之间的同步问题.采用SEW变频器实现对交流电机速度与力矩的控制,分析采用变频器实现恒张力的工作原理.针对平台上升过程中电动机发电的问题,提出负功率的平衡方法.%The retractable system was taken as the research object. Synchronization between the cable storage winch and winch was discussed. SEW inverter was used to control the speed and torch of AC motor. The principle of constant tension control with inverter was analyzed. As to the power problem during the platform rising, balanced approach based on negative power was proposed.

  2. Longitudinal stent elongation during retraction of entrapped jailed guidewire in a side branch with balloon catheter support: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Norimasa; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Takahashi, Akihiko, E-mail: a-takahashi@wine.ocn.ne.jp

    2015-01-15

    A 72-year-old man underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention for a subtotal occlusion in the mid-portion of the left anterior descending artery involving a large diagonal branch. After successful stenting with a 3.0/24 mm bare metal stent, during which, the diagonal branch was protected with a coronary guidewire, conventional retrieval of the jailed guide wire was impossible. Subsequently, several attempts at a strong retraction of the wire with the support of a balloon catheter enabled retrieval of the trapped wire. Optical coherence tomography performed after post-dilatation, revealed that the stent was elongated to the left main coronary artery, and the structure of the strut had become coarse in the proximal portion. The stent was believed to have become entangled with the balloon catheter when the guidewire was being pulled. This case suggests that retrieving the jailed guidewire with a balloon catheter carries a potential risk of entrapment in the deformed stent.

  3. Sternal "retraction": a novel application of a mandibular distractor in treating ectopia cordis with complete cleft sternum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Michael S; Vicari, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Complete thoracic ectopia cordis is associated with a uniformly dismal prognosis. The primary challenges of this disorder are (1) returning the heart to the thoracic cavity, (2) stabilizing the chest wall, and (3) repairing the sternal defect. Previously published techniques for achieving these goals have demonstrated very limited success and/or significant morbidity.We present a novel application of a mandibular distraction device as part of staged repair of this historically challenging problem. This method uses immediate stabilization and gradual "retraction" of the sternal remnants, thereby allowing physiologic compensation and avoiding the cardiorespiratory embarrassment associated with returning the heart to the thoracic cavity. Moreover, this technique allows stabilization of the associated sternal cleft and chest wall without the commonly associated morbidity of the currently available techniques.

  4. Retraction of publication in medical journals: current situation and principle%医学期刊撤稿:现象与理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秀原; 陈立敏

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of retraction of publication seems to be increasing in medical journals.The aim of this study is to find out the main reasons leading to retraction by investigating the domestic and abroad retractions.Based on the investigation of the principles and practice guidelines,a retraction protocol suitable for China is proposed and the roles that journals and their editors play is suggested.%通过对国内外医学期刊撤稿现象的调查,探讨撤稿的主要原因,并通过对国内外相关的理论及实践操作规范的考察,对我国医学期刊撤稿的操作流程提出建议.还探讨撤稿过程中期刊和编辑的作用,为今后相关的理论研究及实际操作提供参考.

  5. 开合屋盖体育场机械系统应用研究%Application and Research on Mechanical System of Retractable Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 俞锡齐; 陈国栋

    2012-01-01

    开合屋盖是建筑、结构、机械、控制技术的集成.典型开合屋盖机械系统包括卷扬机牵引式、承载台车自驱式、绕枢轴转动式和齿轮齿条驱动式系统.结合具体工程实例,对开合屋盖承载系统、驱动系统、检测控制系统和安全系统进行了详细介绍,并提出开合屋盖机械系统的设计依据.%The retractable roof structure is an integrated system which contains architecture, structure, construction equipments and control technology. In typical retractable roof structures, the mechanical system has four types of driving system, including winch traction, bearing trolley self-driving, rotating around trunnion as well as gear and rack driving system. Combined with actual project, the bearing system, driving system, detecting system and security system of retractable roof structure are introduced in detail. Meanwhile, design basis of the retractable roof mechanical system is pointed out.

  6. Retraction notice to: Artificial intelligence in pharmaceutical product formulation: Neural computing [Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q. 15(4 (2009 227-236

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted at the request of the authors. The retraction has been made because the authors admitted that they took the text and rawings from the review article written by R. Rowe and E. Colbourn, Future Medicinal Chemistry 1(4 (2009 713-726, without their permission and even did not include this article in the list of references. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication are that authors confirm that their work is entirely originally written, someone else’s data and/or text are appropriately cited or quoted and permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources. Therefore, the retracted article represents a severe improperly usage of the scientific publishing system. Apologies are offered to readers of the Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q. that this abuse was not detected during the submission process.

    Link to the retracted article 10.2298/CICEQ0904227I

  7. [Criteria for the objective assessment of the dynamic state of the retraction pockets in the children presenting with excudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karneeva, O V; Zelikovich, E I; Poliakov, D P

    2012-01-01

    This publication continues the preceding paper entitled "Early diagnostics of the retraction pockets in the tympanic membrane of the children". The objective of the present work was to develop the criteria for the objective estimation of the dynamic state of the retraction pockets (RP) in the children at different stages of excudative otitis media. The secondary objective was to develop an approach to the early diagnostics of cholesteatoma of the middle ear. A group of 138 children at the age varying from 1 to 17 years was placed under dynamic observation for the purpose of drawing up the individual "photo-roentgenological passport of the retraction pockets". Special attention was given to RP-semiotics of different forms of the syndrome and its severity in accordance with the classification universally accepted by foreign researchers. The results of the dynamic observations were used to develop the indications for the early preserving surgical treatment. It was given to 16 children six of which presented with cholesteatoma. The original illustrative materials for all variants of the retraction pockets are presented.

  8. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Sábio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic, a polyether (Impregum, a condensation silicone (Xantopren and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength

  9. Effect of conventional and experimental gingival retraction solutions on the tensile strength and inhibition of polymerization of four types of impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sábio, Sérgio; Franciscone, Paulo Afonso; Mondelli, José

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil)] when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the impression materials were mixed and packed into a steel plate with perforations that had residues of the gingival retraction solutions. After polymerization, the specimens were tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine. For the polymerization inhibition test, specimens were obtained after taking impressions from a matrix with perforations that contained 1 drop of the gingival retraction solutions. Two independent examiners decided on whether or not impression material remnants remained unpolymerized, indicating interference of the chemical solutions. Based on the analysis of the results of both tests, the following conclusions were reached: 1. The tensile strength of the polysulfide decreased after contact with Hemostop and Afrin. 2. None of the chemical solutions inhibited the polymerization of the polysulfide; 3. The polyether presented lower tensile strength after polymerization in contact with the three gingival retraction agents; 4. The polyether had its polymerization inhibited only by Hemostop; 5. None of the chemical solutions affected the tensile strength of the condensation silicone; 6. Only Hemostop inhibited the polymerization of the condensation silicone; 7. The polyvinylsiloxane specimens polymerized in contact with Hemostop had significantly lower tensile strength; 8. Neither of the chemical solutions (Afrin and Vislin) affected the tensile strength of the polyvinylsiloxane and the condensation silicone; 9. Results of the tensile strength and polymerization

  10. Kromatičnost in percepcija čutov: nova spoznanja o zgradbi romana Aura Carlosa Fuentesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Muñoz-Basols

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ena glavnih zahtev gotskega žanra je izguba občutka za stvarnost. To značilnost, ki v veliko primerih vodi v strah ali celo grozo, je mogoče doseči predvsem z zatekanjem k čutom. V romanu Aura Carlosa Fuentesa opisovanje preseže meje percepcije čutov, saj bralec ni zgolj voden, ampak se, kot bi bil zapeljan, pusti voditi, očaran s čutno razvejanostjo, ki veje iz zapleta. V študiji bomo pokazali, kako kromatičnost in čutna zaznavnost potencirata splošen smisel romana, hkrati pa razkrivata številne slogovne značilnosti, ki potrjujejo hermenevtično relevantnost opisanega. Izhajajoč iz podrobne študije uporabe jezika, bomo analizirali tvorjenje pripovedi s tehniko kromatične progresije, ki uspešno združuje percepcijo čutov in psihologijo glavnega junaka ter strne celo vrsto bralcu razpoložljivih gotskih občutkov.

  11. Trajectory Calculations of Hydration/Dehydration in the Lower Stratosphere from Aura/MLS Water Vapor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S.; Dessler, A. E.

    2009-12-01

    Hydration/dehydration rates at 365 K isentrope are estimated by averaging the differences of two Aura MLS H2O measurements closely linked by two-day Lagrangian trajectories. Stratospheric dehydration mainly occurs in Northern Hemispheric winter over the tropical western Pacific, where seasonally averaged rates are collocated with regions of high deep convective activity and relative humidity (RH). The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) modulates the tropical dehydration through the migration of deep convection. The dehydration rate over the western Pacific is strongest when the enhancement in deep convection migrates to about 160°E, and dehydration appears over the Indian Ocean when the convection is enhanced over 80°E. Hydration of the stratosphere mainly occurs over the summertime subtropical-extratropical continents. The Asian monsoon provides the strongest stratospheric hydration during Northern Hemispheric summer. The hydration rates associated with the Asian monsoon is modulated by the MJO, becoming larger when the tropical convection is enhanced over the Indo/Pacific region (120°-160°E), when the Asian monsoon deep convective activity is also enhanced.

  12. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Whitehead, M.A.; Gasper, G.; Meteyer, C.U.; Link, W.A.; Taggart, M.A.; Meharg, A.A.; Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose 0.1?0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  13. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  14. Nighttime mesospheric hydroxyl enhancements during SEP events and accompanying geomagnetic storms: Ionization rate modeling and Aura satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wissing, J. M.; Wang, S.; Kallenrode, M.-B.; Zank, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    We quantify the effects of combined precipitating solar protons and magnetospheric electrons on nighttime odd hydrogen density enhancements during two solar energetic particle (SEP) events accompanied by strong geomagnetic storms. We perform detailed modeling of ionization rates for 7-17 November 2004 and 20-30 August 2005 intervals with improved version 1.6 of the Atmospheric Ionization Module Osnabrück model. Particle measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites are sorted and combined in 2 h intervals to create realistic particle precipitation maps that are used as the modeling input. We show that modeled atmospheric ionization rates and estimated peak odd hydrogen (primarily hydroxyl) production from 0.001 hPa to 0.1 hPa atmospheric pressure levels during these intervals are consistent with enhancements in nighttime averaged zonal odd hydrogen densities derived from newly reprocessed and improved data set of Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board Aura satellite. We show that both precipitating SEPs and magnetospheric electrons contribute to mesospheric ionization and their relative contributions change throughout the intervals. Our event-based modeling results underline the importance of the combined ionization sources for odd hydrogen chemistry in the middle atmosphere.

  15. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-Breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Krueger, Kirstin; Santee, Michelle L.; Pawson, Steven; Lee, Jae N.; Daffer, William H.; Fuller, Ryan A.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in January 2009 was the strongest and most prolonged on record. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations are used to provide an overview of dynamics and transport during the 2009 SSW, and to compare with the intense, long-lasting SSW in January 2006. The Arctic polar vortex split during the 2009 SSW, whereas the 2006 SSW was a vortex displacement event. Winds reversed to easterly more rapidly and reverted to westerly more slowly in 2009 than in 2006. More mixing of trace gases out of the vortex during the decay of the vortex fragments, and less before the fulfillment of major SSW criteria, was seen in 2009 than in 2006; persistent well-defined fragments of vortex and anticyclone air were more prevalent in 2009. The 2009 SSW had a more profound impact on the lower stratosphere than any previously observed SSW, with no significant recovery of the vortex in that region. The stratopause breakdown and subsequent reformation at very high altitude, accompanied by enhanced descent into a rapidly strengthening upper stratospheric vortex, were similar in 2009 and 2006. Many differences between 2006 and 2009 appear to be related to the different character of the SSWs in the two years.

  16. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO Observations in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Santee, J. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Li, Q. B.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, M. J.; Snyder, W. V.; Stek, P. C.; Thurstans, R. P.; Wagner, P. A.; Avery, M.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 2 15 - 100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS "version 2.2" processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is estimated at approx.40 ppbv +5% (approx.20 ppbv +20% at 215 hPa) while the CO accuracy is estimated at approx.30 ppbv +30% for pressures of 147 hPa and less. Comparisons with expectations and other observations show good agreements for the O3 product, generally consistent with the systematic errors quoted above. In the case of COY a persistent factor of approx.2 high bias is seen at 215 hPa. However, the morphology is shown to be realistic, consistent with raw MLS radiance data, and useful for scientific study. The MLS CO data at higher altitudes are shown to be consistent with other observations.

  17. Satellite observations of ethylene (C2H4) from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer: A scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Wayana; Payne, Vivienne H.; Kualwik, Susan S.; Bowman, Kevin W.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study focusing on detection and initial quantitative estimates of ethylene (C2H4) in observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), a Fourier transform spectrometer aboard the Aura satellite that measures thermal infrared radiances with high spectral resolution (0.1 cm-1). We analyze observations taken in support of the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission and demonstrate the feasibility of future development of C2H4 into a TES standard product. In the Northern Hemisphere, C2H4 is commonly associated with boreal fire plumes, motor vehicle exhaust and petrochemical emissions. It has a short lifetime (∼14-32 h) in the troposphere due to its reaction with OH and O3. Chemical destruction of C2H4 in the atmosphere leads to the production of ozone and other species such as carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde. Results indicate a correlation between C2H4 and CO in boreal fire plumes. Quantitative C2H4 estimates are sensitive to assumptions about the plume height and width. We find that C2H4 greater than 2-3 ppbv can be detected in a single TES observation (for a fire plume at 3 km altitude and 1.5 km width). Spatial averaging will be needed for surface-peaking profiles where TES sensitivity is lower.

  18. Effectiveness and safety of Nintendo Wii Fit PlusTM training in children with migraine without aura: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Maria Ruberto,2 Francesca Gimigliano,1,2 Rosa Marotta,3 Beatrice Gallai,4 Lucia Parisi,5 Serena Marianna Lavano,3 Michele Roccella,5 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, 2Department of Odonto-Stomathologic Disciplines, Pathology – Orthopedic Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 4Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 5Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: Migraine without aura (MoA is a painful syndrome, particularly in childhood; it is often accompanied by severe impairments, including emotional dysfunction, absenteeism from school, and poor academic performance, as well as issues relating to poor cognitive function, sleep habits, and motor coordination.Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 71 patients affected by MoA (32 females, 39 males (mean age: 9.13±1.94 years; the control group consisted of 93 normally developing children (44 females, 49 males (mean age: 8.97±2.03 years recruited in the Campania school region. The entire population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visual-motor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance, the later using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC. Children underwent training using the Wii-balance board and Nintendo Wii Fit Plus™ software (Nintendo Co, Ltd, Kyoto, Japan; training lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three 30-minute sessions per week at their home.Results: The two starting populations (MoA and controls were not significantly different for age (P=0.899 and sex (P=0.611. M-ABC and VMI performances at baseline (T0 were significantly different in dexterity

  19. The minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession for mild to moderate lower eyelid retraction with reduced orbicularis strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donald B; Griffin, Garrett R; Azizzadeh, Babak; Massry, Guy G

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying a procedure to address lower eyelid retraction (LER) in the presence of an orbicularis deficit is a useful tool for aesthetic and reconstructive eyelid surgery. OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate a surgical technique consisting of a closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession to address LER in the setting of orbicularis weakness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective medical record review of patients who underwent the minimally invasive, orbicularis-sparing, lower eyelid recession from January 1, 2010, to October 1, 2012, by one of us (G.G.M.) in an ophthalmic plastic surgical practice. We included 29 patients with reduced orbicularis strength and LER resulting from eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease, surgical trauma (after blepharoplasty), involutional change, or idiopathic causes. INTERVENTIONS Surgical intervention consisting of closed canthal suspension and lower eyelid retractor recession. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Surgical results, complications, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS The 29 patients included 18 women and 11 men. The mean patient age was 52 (range, 6-72) years; mean follow-up, 11 (range, 6-21) months; and mean preoperative orbicularis strength, 2.7 (on a scale of 0-4, where 0 indicates no function and 4, normal function). The causes of orbicularis weakness included eyelid paresis related to facial nerve disease (11 patients), surgical trauma (13 patients), involutional change (4 patients), and an isolated idiopathic finding (1 patient). In 12 patients, the eyelid retraction was unilateral; in 17, bilateral. A small tarsorrhaphy was added to the surgery in 6 patients with facial nerve disease. The mean eyelid elevation after surgery was 1.80 mm, with only minor complications. Patient and surgeon satisfaction were high. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Recent publications have demonstrated the utility of closed canthal suspension and true lower eyelid retractor recession as separate

  20. Evaluation of UTLS Carbon Monoxide Simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem Chemical Transport Models using Aura MLS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40% at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70% at 100 hPa, 60% at 147 hPa and 40% at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection- CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  1. Global Assimilation of EOS-Aura Data as a Means of Mapping Ozone Distribution in the Lower Stratosphere and Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargan, Krzysztof; Olsen, M.; Douglass, A.; Witte, J.; Strahan, S.; Livesey, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ozone in the lower stratosphere and the troposphere plays an important role in forcing the climate. However, the global ozone distribution in this region is not well known because of the sparse distribution of in-situ data and the poor sensitivity of satellite based observations to the lowermost of the atmosphere. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments on EOS-Aura provide information on the total ozone column and the stratospheric ozone profile. This data has been assimilated into NASA s Global Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system (DAS). We will discuss the results of assimilating three years of OMI and MLS data into GEOS-5. This data was assimilated alongside meteorological observations from both conventional sources and satellite instruments. Previous studies have shown that combining observations from these instruments through the Trajectory Tropospheric Ozone Residual methodology (TTOR) or using data assimilation can yield useful, yet low biased, estimates of the tropospheric ozone budget. We show that the assimilated ozone fields in this updated version of GEOS-5 exhibit an excellent agreement with ozone sonde and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) data in the lower stratosphere in terms of spatial and temporal variability as well as integrated ozone abundances. Good representation of small-scale vertical features follows from combining the MLS data with the assimilated meteorological fields. We then demonstrate how this information can be used to calculate the Stratosphere - Troposphere Exchange of ozone and its contribution to the tropospheric ozone column in GEOS-5. Evaluations of tropospheric ozone distributions from the assimilation will be made by comparisons with sonde and other in-situ observations.

  2. Recent divergences in stratospheric water vapor measurements by frost point hygrometers and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dale F.; Read, William G.; Vömel, Holger; Selkirk, Henry B.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Davis, Sean M.; Hall, Emrys G.; Jordan, Allen F.; Oltmans, Samuel J.

    2016-09-01

    Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers (FPs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provide high-quality vertical profile measurements of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). A previous comparison of stratospheric water vapor measurements by FPs and MLS over three sites - Boulder, Colorado (40.0° N); Hilo, Hawaii (19.7° N); and Lauder, New Zealand (45.0° S) - from August 2004 through December 2012 not only demonstrated agreement better than 1 % between 68 and 26 hPa but also exposed statistically significant biases of 2 to 10 % at 83 and 100 hPa (Hurst et al., 2014). A simple linear regression analysis of the FP-MLS differences revealed no significant long-term drifts between the two instruments. Here we extend the drift comparison to mid-2015 and add two FP sites - Lindenberg, Germany (52.2° N), and San José, Costa Rica (10.0° N) - that employ FPs of different manufacture and calibration for their water vapor soundings. The extended comparison period reveals that stratospheric FP and MLS measurements over four of the five sites have diverged at rates of 0.03 to 0.07 ppmv year-1 (0.6 to 1.5 % year-1) from ˜ 2010 to mid-2015. These rates are similar in magnitude to the 30-year (1980-2010) average growth rate of stratospheric water vapor ( ˜ 1 % year-1) measured by FPs over Boulder (Hurst et al., 2011). By mid-2015, the FP-MLS differences at some sites were large enough to exceed the combined accuracy estimates of the FP and MLS measurements.

  3. Comparison Between IASI/Metop-A and OMI/Aura Ozone Column Amounts with EUBREWNET Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    2016-07-01

    This work addresses the comparison of {bf IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer)} on board Metop-A and {bf OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument)} on board Aura to several ground-based Brewer spectrophotometers belonging to the {bf European Brewer Network (EUBREWNET)} for the period September 2010 to December 2015. The focus of this study is to examine how well the satellite retrieval products capture the total ozone column amounts (TOC) at different latitudes and evaluate the different levels of Brewer spectrophotometer data. On this comparison Level 1, 1.5 and 2 Brewer data will be used to evaluate satellite data, where: 1) Level 1 Brewer data are the TOC calculated with the standard Brewer algorithm from the direct sun measurements; 2) Level 1.5 Brewer data are Level 1.0 observations filtered and corrected from instrumental issues: and 3) Level 2.0 Brewer data are 1.5 observations, but validated with a posteriori calibration. The IASI retrievals examined are operational IASI Level 2 products, version 5 from September 2010 to October 2014, and version 6 from October 2014 to December 2015, from {it EUMETSAT Data Centre}, while OMI retrievals are OMI-DOAS TOC products extracted from the {it NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)}. The differences and their implications for the retrieved products will be discussed and, in order to evaluate the quality and sensitivity of each product, special attention will be put on analyzing the instrumental errors from these different measurement techniques. Furthermore, those parameters that could affect the comparison of the different datasets such as the different viewing geometry, the satellite data vertical sensitivity, cloudiness conditions, spectral region used for retrievals, and so on, will be analyzed in detail.

  4. Evaluation of UTLS carbon monoxide simulations in GMI and GEOS-Chem chemical transport models using Aura MLS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Murray, Lee T.; Damon, Megan R.; Su, Hui; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the distribution and variation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) during 2004-2012 as simulated by two chemical transport models, using the latest version of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations. The simulated spatial distributions, temporal variations and vertical transport of CO in the UTLS region are compared with those observed by MLS. We also investigate the impact of surface emissions and deep convection on CO concentrations in the UTLS over different regions, using both model simulations and MLS observations. Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) and GEOS-Chem simulations of UTLS CO both show similar spatial distributions to observations. The global mean CO values simulated by both models agree with MLS observations at 215 and 147 hPa, but are significantly underestimated by more than 40 % at 100 hPa. In addition, the models underestimate the peak CO values by up to 70 % at 100 hPa, 60 % at 147 hPa and 40 % at 215 hPa, with GEOS-Chem generally simulating more CO at 100 hPa and less CO at 215 hPa than GMI. The seasonal distributions of CO simulated by both models are in better agreement with MLS in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) than in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), with disagreements between model and observations over enhanced CO regions such as southern Africa. The simulated vertical transport of CO shows better agreement with MLS in the tropics and the SH subtropics than the NH subtropics. We also examine regional variations in the relationships among surface CO emission, convection and UTLS CO concentrations. The two models exhibit emission-convection-CO relationships similar to those observed by MLS over the tropics and some regions with enhanced UTLS CO.

  5. Ozone columns obtained by ground-based remote sensing in Kiev for Aura Ozone Measuring Instrument validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Veles, A.; Syniavskyi, I.; Kroon, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ground-based observations with a Fourier transform spectrometer in the infrared region (FTIR) were performed in Kiev (Ukraine) during the time frames August-October 2005 and June-October 2006 within the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) validation project 2907 entitled "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and profiles" in the frame of the international European Space Agency/Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programmes/Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute OMI Announcement of Opportunity effort. Ozone column data for 2005 were obtained by modeling the ozone spectral band at 9.6 μm with the radiative transfer code MODTRAN3.5. Our total ozone column values were found to be lower than OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) total ozone column data by 8-10 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU = 0.001 atm cm) on average, while our observations have a relatively small standard error of about 2 DU. Improved modeling of the ozone spectral band, now based on HITRAN-2004 spectral data as calculated by us, moves our results toward better agreement with the OMI DOAS total ozone column data. The observations made during 2006 with a modernized FTIR spectrometer and higher signal-to-noise ratio were simulated by the MODTRAN4 model computations. For ozone column estimates the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder satellite water vapor and temperature profiles were combined with the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric ozone profiles and Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service-Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut climatological profiles to create a priori input files for spectral modeling. The MODTRAN4 estimates of ozone columns from the 2006 observations compare rather well with the OMI total ozone column data: standard errors are of 1.11 DU and 0.68 DU, standard deviation are of 8.77 DU and 5.37 DU for OMI DOAS and OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, respectively.

  6. A invenção da (cibercultura: virtualização, aura e práticas etnográficas pós-tradicionais no ciberespaço = The invention of (cyberculture: virtualization, aura and post-traditional etnographic pratices in the cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewgoy, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo levanta algumas questões sobre a epistemologia e a ontologia do ciberespaço, relacionando-as com a realização de etnografias pós-tradicionais em mundos virtuais. O autor sustenta que o conceito de aura, de Walter Benjamin, é ainda útil para pensar os nexos entre virtualização e velhas tecnologias como um exemplo dos problemas gerais discutidos.

  7. A invenção da (ciber)cultura: virtualização, aura e práticas etnográficas pós-tradicionais no ciberespaço = The invention of (cyber)culture: virtualization, aura and post-traditional etnographic pratices in the cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Lewgoy, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    O artigo levanta algumas questões sobre a epistemologia e a ontologia do ciberespaço, relacionando-as com a realização de etnografias pós-tradicionais em mundos virtuais. O autor sustenta que o conceito de aura, de Walter Benjamin, é ainda útil para pensar os nexos entre virtualização e velhas tecnologias como um exemplo dos problemas gerais discutidos.

  8. Retraction: 'Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial,' by Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The above article, published online on 14 March 2006 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 924-929, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief, Jose A. Obeso, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to an acknowledgement from the authors that the co-authors did not participate in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data and drafting the manuscript. Thus all co-authors are honorary. Reference Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K. (2006) Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. doi: 10.1002/mds.20825.

  9. Retracted: Impact of Type 2 diabetes prevention programmes based on risk identification and lifestyle intervention intensity strategies: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The following article, published online on 17 November 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Richard Holt and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due the fact the authors have made Wiley aware that there was an error in the way the diabetes prevention intervention effect was implemented in this version of the model. The underlying model is not affected by this error. However, the magnitude of the cost savings and health benefits are substantially lower than stated. Reference 1 Breeze R, Thomas C, Squires H, Brennan A, Greaves C, Diggle PJ, Brunner E, Tabak A, Preston L, Chilcott J. Impact of Type 2 diabetes prevention programmes based on risk identification and lifestyle intervention intensity strategies: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Diabet Med 2015; doi: 10.1111/dme.12981.

  10. Retracted: Micro-computed tomography evaluation of apical transportation and centring ability of Reciproc and WaveOne systems in severely curved root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meireles, D A; de Brito, T C C A; Marques, A A F; Garrido, A D B; Garcia, L F R; Sponchiado, E C

    2015-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Micro-computed tomography evaluation of apical transportation and centring ability of Reciproc and WaveOne systems in severely curved root canals' by D. A. de Meireles, T. C. C. A. de Brito, A. A. F. Marques, A. D. B. Garrido, L. F. R. Garcia & E. C. Sponchiado Jr, published online on 5 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the use of techniques for crucial measurements in canal shaping and a lack of clarity regarding the measuring methodology. The use of inadequate measuring methodologies makes the findings of the paper invalid.

  11. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150.

  12. Retraction notice to "On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution" [Phys. Lett. B 743 (2015) 492-502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Alexis; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2015-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Adv. High Energy Physics, P. Nicolini, A. Orlandi, E. Spallucci, The Final Stage of Gravitationally Collapsed Thick Matter Layers, Vol 2013 (2013), Article ID 812084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/812084. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  13. Notice of Retraction: Enhanced Link based Congestion Control (ELCC in Peer-to-Peer (P2P based Video on Demand (VoD System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Xavier Annie. Rayan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article has been retracted by the Editorial Board and the Publisher of Journal of Networks: “Enhanced Link based Congestion Control (ELCC in Peer-to-Peer (P2P based Video on Demand (VoD System” by Arockia Xavier Annie Rayan and Yogesh Palanichamy Journal of Networks Volume 7, Number 10, October 2012, Pages: 1515-1522 doi:10.4304/jnw.7.10.1515-1522 The retraction is based on the determination of redundant publication. The same article has been published as follows: “Enhanced Link based Congestion Control (ELCC in Peer-to-Peer (P2P based Video on Demand (VoD System” by Arockia Xavier Annie R., Vanitha Sheba M. and Yogesh P. International Journal of Computer Applications 36(1:18-26, December 2011. Published by Foundation of Computer Science, New York, USA URL: http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume36/number1/4455-6238

  14. Retraction: "Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells" by Bao et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on April 18, 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the second author that found Figures 1C and 4C to be inappropriately re-used and re-labeled. REFERENCE Bao B, Wang Z, Ali S, Kong D, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Li Y, Azmi AS, Miele L, Sarkar FH. 2011. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells. J Cell Biochem 112:2296-2306; doi: 10.1002/jcb.23150. PMID:27301890

  15. Retracted: Impact of Type 2 diabetes prevention programmes based on risk identification and lifestyle intervention intensity strategies: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The following article, published online on 17 November 2015 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Richard Holt and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due the fact the authors have made Wiley aware that there was an error in the way the diabetes prevention intervention effect was implemented in this version of the model. The underlying model is not affected by this error. However, the magnitude of the cost savings and health benefits are substantially lower than stated. Reference 1 Breeze R, Thomas C, Squires H, Brennan A, Greaves C, Diggle PJ, Brunner E, Tabak A, Preston L, Chilcott J. Impact of Type 2 diabetes prevention programmes based on risk identification and lifestyle intervention intensity strategies: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Diabet Med 2015; doi: 10.1111/dme.12981. PMID:26435275

  16. Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene deletion polymorphism determines an increase in frequency of migraine attacks in patients suffering from migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, S; Di Pasquale, P; D'Angelo, A; Seidita, G; Tuttolomondo, A; Cardinale, A; Maniscalchi, T; Follone, G; Giubilato, A; Tarantello, M; Licata, G

    2000-01-01

    Many authors have reported an association between the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-D allele and coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. The mechanism underlying the positive associations between the ACE-D alleles and diseases are not yet clear. Previous reports showed an association between migraine without aura and ACE-D allele polymorphism. The study is aimed to evaluate if the DD genotype could also be associated with the frequency and duration of migraine without aura. In 302 patients suffering from migraine without aura (at least for 1 year), with no history of cardiovascular diseases and major risk factors for ischemic events, the genotypes of the ACE gene, plasma ACE activity, and the frequency (weekly) and duration of migraine attacks were evaluated. No drugs were given before (4 weeks) and during the study. The same evaluations were performed in 201 subjects without migraine. The molecular biologist and the physician evaluating the patient data were blinded to the clinical history and ACE-DD gene determination. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Plasma ACE activity was performed by the HPLC method. The groups were similar for sex, age and smoking habit (migraines: 302 patients (200 F/102 M), mean age 37.8 +/- 8.2 years; control: 201 subjects (127 F/74 M), mean age 37.5 +/- 9.3 years). Patients with migraine without aura showed higher incidence of the ACE-DD gene (48.34%) than control subjects (37.32%), p < 0.05. The frequency of migraine (average attacks per week) was higher in patients with DD (2.11 +/- 1.9) than in patients with ID (1.54 +/- 1. 44), p < 0.05. No difference in duration of migraine attacks (hours per week) was observed. Plasma ACE activity was increased in patients with the ACE-DD gene. Our data suggest that ACE-DD gene polymorphism could have an important role in determining migraine attacks and the frequency of these attacks. Further data are needed through further studies

  17. Intercomparisons of Aura MLS, ACE, and HALOE Observations of Long-Lived Trace Species Using the Langley Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, David B.; Natarajan, Murali; Fairlie, T. D.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen S.; Bernath, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We use the LaRC Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model (LCTM) [Considine et al., 2007; Pierce et al., 2003] to intercompare ACE, Aura, and HALOE observations of long-lived trace species. The LCTM calculates the transport, mixing, and photochemical evolution of an ensemble of parcels that have been initialized from ACE-FTS measurements. Here we focus on late November, 2004 comparisons, due to the previous 3-week period of continuous HALOE observations and MLS v2.2 data on November 29, 2004.

  18. Deformation Retraction of Groups and Toeplitz Algebras%群的形变收缩及Toeplitz代数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆祥

    2006-01-01

    设G为一个离散群,(G,G+)为一个拟偏序群使得G0+=G+∩G0-1为G的非平凡子群.令[G]为G关于G0+的左倍集全体,|G+|为|G|的正部.记TG+和T[G+]为相应的Toeplitz代数.当存在一个从G到G0+上的形变收缩映照时,我们证明了TG+酉同构于T[G+]( ) Cr*(G0+)的一个C*-子代数.若进一步,G0+还为G的一个正规子群,则TG+与T[G+]( )Cr*(G0+)酉同构.%Let (G, G+) be a quasi-partial ordered group such that G0+ = G+ ∩ G+-1 is a non-trivial subgroup of G. Let [G] be the collection of left cosets and [G+] be its positive.Denote by TG+ and T[G+] the associated Toeplitz algebras. We prove that TG+ is unitarily isomorphic to a C*-subalgebra of T[G+]( ) Cr* (G0+) if there exists a deformation retraction from G onto G0+. Suppose further that G0+ is normal, then TG+ and T[G+] ( )Cr*(G0+) are unitarily equivalent.

  19. Expandable and retractable self-rolled structures based on metal/polymer thin film for flow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianzhong; White, Carl; Saadat, Mehdi; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2015-11-01

    Most aquatic animals such as fish rely heavily on their ability of detect and respond to ambient flows in order to explore and inhabit various habitats or survive predator-prey encounters. Fish utilize neuromasts in their skin surface and lateral lines in their bodies to align themselves while swimming upstream for migration, avoid obstacles, reduce locomotion cost, and detect flow variations caused by potential predators. In this study, a thin film MEMS sensor analogous to a fish neuromast has been designed for flow sensing. Residual stress arises in many thin film materials during processing. Metal and polymer thin film materials with a significant difference in elastic modular were chosen to form a multiple-layer structure. Upon releasing, the structure rolls into a tube due to mechanical property mismatch. The self-rolled tube can expand or retract, depending on the existence of external force such as flow. An embedded strain sensor detects the deformation of the tube and hence senses the ambient flow. Numerical simulations were conducted to optimize the structural design. Experiments were performed in a flow tank to quantify the performance of the sensor. This research is supported by the Office of Naval Research under the MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  20. Discrete-Time Dynamical Maximum Power Tracking Control for a Vertical Axis Water Turbine with Retractable Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the power generation control system of a new drag-type Vertical Axis Turbine with several retractable blades. The returning blades can be entirely hidden in the drum, and negative torques can then be considerably reduced as the drum shields the blades. Thus, the power efficiency increases. Regarding the control, a Linear Quadratic Tracking (LQT optimal control algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT is proposed to ensure that the wave energy conversion system can operate highly effectively under fluctuating conditions and that the tracking process accelerates over time. Two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations are performed to obtain the maximum power points of the turbine’s output. To plot the tip speed ratio curve, the least squares method is employed. The efficacy of the steady and dynamic performance of the control strategy was verified using Matlab/Simulink software. These validation results show that the proposed system can compensate for power fluctuations and is effective in terms of power regulation.

  1. A clinical and radiographic study to evaluate the rate of retraction of maxillary canine using nickel-titanium closed coil spring with two different bracket systems

    OpenAIRE

    P Adarsh Reddy; Ramachandra Prabhakar; Swati Saraswata Acharya; Karthikeyan, M.K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the efficiency of self-ligating brackets with the conventional preadjusted edgewise (PEA) brackets during maxillary canine retraction using nickel-titanium closed coil springs. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 20 healthy patients (10 males and 10 females), within age groups 16-26 years (mean, 20 years) having Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion. All patients underwent bilateral extraction of the maxillary first bicuspids and retractio...

  2. Retraction: On the origin of power-law distributions in systems with constrained phase space [Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802 ( DOI:10.5488/CMP.16.43802 has been retracted by the decision of the Editorial Board. There is a significant overlap with an article: Phys. Rev. E, 2006, vol. 74, 036120 ( DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036120. Appologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  3. Effects of sulfur-based hemostatic agents and gingival retraction cords handled with latex gloves on the polymerization of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials

    OpenAIRE

    MACHADO, Carlos Eduardo Palhares; GUEDES, Carlos Gramani

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the possible interactions between three addition silicone materials (Express®, Aquasil Ultra® and Adsil®), three hemostatic agents (ferric sulfate, StatGel FS®; aluminum sulfate, GelCord®; and aluminum chloride, Hemostop®) and gingival retraction cords previously handled with latex gloves to determine whether direct contact with medicaments or indirect contamination by latex in conditions similar to those found in clinical practice inhibit or affect the sett...

  4. Effects of sulfur-based hemostatic agents and gingival retraction cords handled with latex gloves on the polymerization of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado; Carlos Gramani Guedes

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the possible interactions between three addition silicone materials (Express®, Aquasil Ultra® and Adsil®), three hemostatic agents (ferric sulfate, StatGel FS®; aluminum sulfate, GelCord®; and aluminum chloride, Hemostop®) and gingival retraction cords previously handled with latex gloves to determine whether direct contact with medicaments or indirect contamination by latex in conditions similar to those found in clinical practice inhibit or affect the set...

  5. EFFECT OF CONVENTIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL GINGIVAL RETRACTION SOLUTIONS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH AND INHIBITION OF POLYMERIZATION OF FOUR TYPES OF IMPRESSION MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Sábio; Paulo Afonso Franciscone; José Mondelli

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, two types of tests (tensile strength test and polymerization inhibition test) were performed to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of four impression materials [a polysulfide (Permlastic), a polyether (Impregum), a condensation silicone (Xantopren) and a polyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil) ,3; when polymerized in contact with of one conventional (Hemostop) and two experimental (Vislin and Afrin) gingival retraction solutions. For the tensile strength test, the i...

  6. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper anterior alveolar bone dehiscence after incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-yuan GUO; Shi-jie ZHANG; Hong LIU; Chun-ling WANG; Fu-lan WEI; Tao LV; Na-na WANG; Dong-xu LIU

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage.Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted.Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion.A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment.The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone.Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm,respectively,and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion.Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm,respectively,and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%,respectively.The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°,respectively.Conclusions: Thus,for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion,mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion.Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss.

  7. Comparison of damage degree of gingival retraction materials with different dosage forms on the gingival tissues%不同剂型排龈材料对牙龈组织损伤程度的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春江; 刘璇; 吴文慧

    2012-01-01

    背景:排龈有利于印模准确记录预备体边缘的位置和形态,从而提高固定修复体牙龈边缘的适合性,以确保修复体的成功和长期稳定性.目的:观察应用排龈线和排龈膏后大鼠牙龈组织的损伤程度.方法:实验纳入65 只Wistar 大鼠,分别应用排龈线或排龈膏对大鼠进行排龈处理,以不进行排龈处理的大鼠作为对照.分别在排龈后30 min,1,2,4,7,12 d 采集大鼠牙龈组织进行观察.结果与结论:病理学观察发现,排龈线与排龈膏均导致牙龈组织损伤,并产生炎症反应.排龈线组牙龈炎症反应较排龈膏组重,但排龈12 d 后两组牙龈均恢复正常的组织学形态.说明两种排龈剂型都是安全可靠的,但排龈膏对牙龈组织的损伤程度要轻于排龈线,生物学效应更佳.%BACKGROUND: Gingival retraction contributes to the accurate records of the position and morphology of the tooth prepare edge, thereby enhance the suitability of the gingival margin in the fixed restoration, to ensure the success and long- term stability of the restoration. OBJECTIVE: To observe the damage degree of gingival tissues in rats treated with gingival retraction cord and gingival retraction paste gum. METHODS: A total of 65 Wistar rats were involved in this experiment. Experimental rats were treated with gingival retraction cord and gingival retraction paste gum; control rats did not receive gingival retraction treatment. Rat gingival tissues were collected at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 days after gingival retraction for observation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Pathology observation showed that both gingival retraction cord and gingival retraction paste gum can lead to gingival tissue damage and inflammatory reaction. The inflammatory reaction in the gingival retraction cord group was severe than that in the gingival retraction paste gum group; however, the histology manifestation of gingival tissues in both groups returned to normal on 12 day after

  8. Retraction: Oberemok V, Nyadar P. The Selectivity of DNA Insecticides, Arch. Biol. Sci. 2014;66(4:1479-1483, DOI: 10.2298/ABS1404479O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a notice of retraction of the article: The Selectivity of DNA Insecticides, by Oberemok V. and Nyadar P.; published in the Archives of Biological Sciences Vol. 66, Issue 4, 2014. Due to inadequate exchange of information at the time when the complete Editorial Board and Editor-in-Chief of the Archives of Biological Sciences were replaced, the authors of the above article did not receive timely information regarding the status of their paper. The authors continued their research and submitted it to another journal where it was published: Oberemok V, Skorokhod O. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 2014;113: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.05.005. Unaware of this, the Archives of Biological Sciences published the article in Vol. 66, Issue 4, 2014. The first author informed the Editorial Board about this in December 2014 and expressed his wish to have the article retracted. The Editorial Board reviewed both articles and confirmed that they partially overlap. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/ABS1404479O

  9. The 2015-2016 Arctic winter: Perspectives on extremes in polar processing and meteorological variability from the 12-year record of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, Michelle; Manney, Gloria; Lambert, Alyn; Livesey, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Zachary

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, the Arctic lower stratosphere has seen some of the most dynamically disturbed winters, with stratospheric sudden warmings that curtailed polar processing early in the season and limited chemical ozone loss, as well as several winters marked by exceptionally cold conditions and severe chemical ozone loss. The occurrence in recent winters of different combinations of extreme meteorological conditions, and their impact on polar chemical processes, has underscored the Arctic stratosphere's sensitivity to a spectrum of dynamical variability. Launched as part of NASA's Aura satellite in July 2004, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) provides an extensive suite of measurements enabling quantification of polar processing and chemical ozone loss. Here we use MLS observations in conjunction with meteorological analyses in a comprehensive analysis of the Arctic winter of 2015-2016. An unusually large volume of low temperatures in the early winter led to strong depletion in gas-phase HNO3 and H2O associated with polar stratospheric cloud formation. As a consequence of this early-winter processing and an elongated vortex with significant portions exposed to sunlight, substantial chlorine activation (enhanced abundances of ClO, depressed abundances of HCl) was evident far earlier than is typical in Arctic winter. The degree of polar processing and chemical ozone loss in this winter will be placed in the context of the previous 11 Arctic winters observed by Aura MLS.

  10. Comparison between two ground-based millimeter wave radiometers at IRF Kiruna and Aura/MLS for the winter/spring season 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffalski, Uwe; Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Gross, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Kiruna (67.8N/20.4E) operates two millimeter wave radiometers for atmospheric remote sensing of strato-mesospheric ozone, the Swedish KIruna Millimeter wave RAdiometer and, since November 2012, the German MIllimeter wave RAdiometer 2, installed by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT. In this study we compare ozone measurements by KIMRA and MIRA2 at 230 GHz and 273 GHz, respectively. Additionally data from Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) is used to compare the ground-based data set with the satellite data. The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, covering an altitude range of ~16 - 56 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. From this comparison it can be seen that KIMRA has a rather strong +/- 1ppmv bias in the altitude range of ~20-35 km, most likely due to standing wave features. However, both data sets compare quite well with the Aura/MLS data. This shows that even in the future ground-based remote sensing radiometry is a powerful tool for longterm ozone monitoring covering several solar cycles over many decades.

  11. Tropospheric column ozone: matching individual profiles from Aura OMI and TES with a chemistry-transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Tang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all satellite measurements of ozone, only two instruments have coincident, spatially overlapping measurements to allow direct comparison of tropospheric column ozone (TCO: the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on the NASA Aura spacecraft. For two years (2005–2006, we collect all observations between 60° S and 60° N from nadir (~65 000 from OMI and TES and cross-track swaths (~30 000 000 from OMI and compare with a chemistry-transport model (CTM simulating each observation with corresponding spatial and temporal coincidence. High-frequency TCO variations are indicative of stratospheric intrusions of ozone-rich air, and the individual, level 2 data provide access to these short-lived phenomena. Although we can identify some seasonal and large-scale biases in the model, the CTM as a transfer standard identifies weaknesses in the observations and further helps quantify the measurement noise of individual profiles. The relatively noise-free CTM bridges these two satellite measurements and improves their cross-validation to better precision than a simple direct comparison. Previous validation studies of TES TCO versus ozonesondes found a bias of about +4 Dobson Units (DU for large regions. The three-way comparison, with a far greater number of coincidences, indicates that monthly mean OMI-TES TCO biases fall within a few percent, and thus quantifies the OMI TCO bias at a few DU. For small regions (i.e., 5 × 5°, however, the monthly mean OMI-TES differences can exceed ±10 DU at many places (e.g., tropics due to different tropospheric sensitivities of the two instruments at these locations. In addition, the CTM-TES comparison split into day versus night observations shows no apparent bias in TES at very low levels, ±1 DU. These OMI-TES-CTM comparisons highlighted the importance of the a priori ozone profiles that went into each satellite retrieval, including a false agreement due to CTM-a priori

  12. Retraction of dental unit waterlines in Tianjin City%天津市口腔综合治疗台水路回吸调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪学悦; 费春楠; 沈芃; 刘军; 刘贺; 宋佳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey the retraction of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs)in medical institutions,and evaluate the influencing factors for retraction of DUWLs.Methods In May-November 2014,dental chair units (DCUs)in medical institutions in Tianjin City were sampled through systematic random sampling method,retrac-tion volume of DUWLs was detected by independently made detector,the relevant influencing factors were investi-gated.Results A total of 58 DCUs in 30 medical institutions in 10 districts(counties)of Tianjin were investigated, the average retraction volume of DUWLs was (103.60 ±117.85 )mm3 ,the qualified rate of retraction volume of DUWLs was 48.28 %(28/58);length of utilization of DCUs was positively correlated with DUWLs retraction (r=0.52,P 0.05 ).Conclusion The qualified rate of retraction volume of DUWLs is low,routine maintenance of DUCs needs to be intensified,especially the long-term used DUCs,contaminatin of DUWLs due to the invalidity of retraction valve should be prevented.%目的:调查医疗机构口腔综合治疗台水路(DUWLs)回吸量,探讨影响 DUWLs 回吸的因素。方法采用系统随机抽样的方法对2014年5—11月天津市口腔综合治疗台(DCU)进行抽样,应用自行研制的回吸检测器对 DUWLs 回吸量进行检测,同时调查相关影响因素。结果共调查天津市10个区(县)30所医疗机构中58台 DCU,平均 DUWLs 回吸量为(103.60±117.85)mm3,DUWLs 回吸量合格率为48.28%(28/58);DCU已使用时间与 DUWLs 回吸量呈正相关(r =0.52,P <0.001)。不同医疗机构所属区县、医疗机构级别与类别、DCU 品牌、DCU 供水方式的 DUWLs 回吸量比较,差异均无统计学意义(均 P >0.05)。结论DUWLs 回吸量检测合格率低,应加强 DCU 的日常维护与保养,尤其是使用时间长的 DCU,应防止因防回吸阀门失效导致的DUWLs出水污染。

  13. Application of braided retraction cord in dentistry%编织排龈线在牙体修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍军

    2013-01-01

      背景:排龈是标准牙体制备和精确印模制取的重要环节,对于患牙修复成功具有重要的意义。目的:评价编织排龈线在牙体修复中的应用效果。方法:对应用编织排龈线修复缺损牙体的患者进行随访观察,通过评估牙体修复的满意度以及龈缘出血、牙龈炎、牙周炎等相关并发症的发生情况评价排龈线在牙体修复中的作用,同时比较不同结构特征的排龈线在牙体修复中的效果。结果与结论:应用编织排龈线修复牙体缺损的367颗前牙和64颗后牙,降低了患牙修复后牙龈变色、龈缘出血、牙龈炎和牙周炎等牙周并发症的发生率。国产排龈线因内含明矾,具有良好的止血功能,能够获得满意的修复效果,而进口排龈线因网状编织结构同样具有较好的止血功能以及获得满意的修复效果,二者在牙体修复过程中的满意率无明显差异。%  BACKGROUND: Gingival is the important part in the preparation of standard dental body and accurate impression, which has great significance in the repairing of diseased teeth. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application effect of braided retraction cord in dentistry. METHODS: The patients who received braided retraction cord for repairing of dental defects were fol owed-up, and the effect of retraction cord on dentistry through assessing the satisfaction of dentistry and the related complications of gingival bleeding, gingivitis and periodontitis. The effect of retraction cord with different structural characteristics in dentistry was compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The braided retraction cord for the repairing of 367 anterior and 64 posterior dental defects could reduce the incidence of periodontal complications of gum discoloration, gingival bleeding, gingivitis and periodontitis. Domestic retraction cord as it contains alum has a good hemostatic function and can obtain satisfactory restoration effect. The

  14. 开合式屋盖结构的防火设计%Fireproofing design of retractable roof structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林湘祁

    2011-01-01

    针对黄龙体育中心网球中心钢结构开合式屋盖进行火灾危险性分析,首先分析开合式屋盖结构的机械/控制系统,分析其耐火薄弱部位,然后设定火灾场景A、B,基于普通热辐射理论的火焰动力学,分析钢结构屋盖的温度变化.结果表明,在火灾场景A下,结构基本处于安全状态;在火灾场景B下,需要采取措施进行耐火保护,如在机械/控制系统的电动机和电路上方布置喷淋,在主拱桁架中的构件上喷涂防火涂料等.%Fire risk analysis was made on steet structure retractable roof of tennis center, Huanglong Sports Center. Firstly, a-nalysis was made on mechanical/control system and its weakest part. Then, setting fire scenarios A and B, according to flame dynamic theory, temperature change of steel structure roof was analyzed. The results showed that in fire scenario A, roof structure is safe; while in fire scenario B, countermeasures for fire protection must be took such as installing sprinkler system above electrical motor and circuit of mechanical/electrical control system, spraying fireproof coating on the main arch truss component.

  15. Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B. Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35 exotropia for group A and −21.3 Δ (14-30 exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to −8 for group A and 8 Δ (−2 to −20 exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.

  16. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  17. OMI/Aura UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina-Maria; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Bais, Alkiviadis; Fountoulakis, Ilias; Arola, Antti; Kouremeti, Natalia; Balis, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    The main aim of this work is to evaluate the NASA EOS AURA Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV irradiance estimates through ground-based measurements performed by a NILU-UV multichannel radiometer (NILU-UV) operating in Thessaloniki, Greece, for the time period between January 2005 and December 2014. NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers can provide measurements at 5 UV wavelength bands with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm approximately and a time analysis of 1 min. An additional channel measuring the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is also incorporated to the instrument and is used for the stringent characterization of the cloud free instances. The OMI instrument estimates solar UV irradiances at four wavelengths close to those of the NILU-UV in Thessaloniki. Clear and all-sky overpass-time, as well as solar local-noon time, UV estimates are provided by the NASA Aura Data Validation Center. Spectra measured from a collocated MKIII Brewer spectrophotometer with serial number 086 (Brewer #086) were utilized for the whole period (2005-2014) in order to estimate the NILU-UV irradiances at the OMI wavelength irradiances and therefore provide a direct comparison and validation to the NILU UV measurements provided by OMI. For the nominal comparisons, using un-flagged OMI data within a 50 km radius from Thessaloniki, the linear determination coefficient, R2, ranges between 0.91 and 0.97 for the 305 nm and between 0.75 and 0.92 for 380 nm depending on the choice of overpass or local-noon time data and the cloudiness flags. The best agreement is found for the clear-sky overpass-time comparisons as well as the both PAR- and satellite algorithm-deduced clear-sky overpass and local-noon comparisons for all wavelengths. The OMI irradiances were found to overestimate the NILU-UV observations in Thessaloniki between ∼4.5% and 13.5% for the 305 nm and between ∼1.5% and ∼10.0% for the 310 nm wavelength depending on the choice of time [overpass vs local noon

  18. 三维模型分析法评价不同排龈时间下的龈沟宽度%Three-dimensional model analysis of the gingival sulcus width from different retraction time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津京; 刘玉华; 吕培军; 赵一姣

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To explore the effect of gingival retraction time on the gingival sulcus width in different gingival areas, using three-dimensional ( 3D) model analysis. Methods: Forty-six premolars from 10 volunteers were included, gingival retraction cords were applied on the buccal sulcus for three times, and the retraction time was 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively. The least interval between two retraction procedures was 2 weeks. Impressions and stone models were made before and after gingival retraction. 3D data of the models were acquired by a 3D line laser scanner. Models were superimposed and tooth coordinate was set up with special software. Sulcus widths from different retraction time and different gingival areas were measured and compared. Results: Sulcus widths between retraction of 5 and 10 minutes were significantly different at midbuccal and transitional line angle ( TLA) gingival areas. At TLA areas, sulcus widths between retraction of 10 and 15 minutes were also statistically different, but the difference was not significant when compared with that of 5 and 10 minutes. Sulcus widths at midbuccal areas were significantly greater than that at TLA areas for all three retraction time. Conclusion: Before making impressions, gingival retraction time of single-cord mechanical technique should be at least 10 minutes. For different gingival areas, the enlargement of gingival sulcus from gingival retraction and the optimal retraction time were different. 3D model analysis could be used as a new objective method to evaluate gingival retraction effect from different retraction time.%目的:利用三维数字化模型分析法,研究排龈时间对牙龈不同部位龈沟宽度的影响.方法:选取10名志愿者的46颗前磨牙,对其颊侧龈沟共进行3次排龈,时间分别为5、10、15 min,两次排龈至少间隔2周,制取排龈前、后的印模并灌制石膏模型.用三维线激光扫描仪获取模型三维数据,通过专业软件进行模型重

  19. Aesthetic aura of meaning

    OpenAIRE

    حسین آقا حسینی; مسعود آلگونه جونقانی

    2013-01-01

    Denying lexical dogmatism and announcing free presence of lexical items in poetry deluded the minds that the mere presence of any lexical item in a poem rends it aesthetic value! Consequently, an enormous number of words, regardless of their poetical value, rushed into the world of poetry. Of course, no one can deny the fact that any lexical item can freely enter the poetical context of any literary work; however, it must be clarified from the very beginning that this presence would never gua...

  20. 起落架多冗余度收放控制器设计%Design of Multi-Redundant Controller for Landing Gear Retraction and Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韬; 杨楠; 魏之暄; 钱雄文; 张存访

    2012-01-01

    起落架收放系统对大型客机的安全性至关重要,其中起落架收放控制和指示子系统的安全性以及指示的正确性,对减少故障的发生和提高维修性具有重要意义.文中设计了一种采用双-双余度结构的起落架收放控制器,将有中心裁决冗余与无中心裁决冗余相结合,并同时采用了非相似余度设计以及各种软硬件错误检测,极大地提高了系统的可靠性,实际运行证明此设计是十分可靠的.%The landing gear retraction and extension system was crucial to the safety of aircrafto The safety and correctness of landing gear retraction and extension control and indication sub-system inside were significant to reduce the incidence of failure and improve maintainability. This paper designs a landing gear retraction and extension controller which uses dual-dual redundant structure contraller that combines the central ruling redundancy and the non-central ruling redundancy. In addition,the non-similar redundant design and a variety of hardware and software errors detection were also used to improve the reliability of the system. The actual running tests proves that the design was very reliable.