Sample records for aujeszky disease

  1. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Aujeszky's disease virus, baby hamster kidney cells, cell culture, disposable bioreactor, virus titre. Abstract. A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) production. Growth ...

  2. Acceptability of Aujeszky's disease vaccines. (United States)

    Kimman, T G


    Vaccines against Aujeszky's disease are not only used to prevent the clinical consequences of a field infection, but also to support eradication of the virus. The current Aujeszky's disease vaccines (ADV) protect against severe clinical signs of disease and they reduce but usually do not prevent virus multiplication and excretion or the establishment of latency after infection. Vaccines also limit virus multiplication after reactivation. The efficacy of vaccination is reduced by passively acquired maternal antibodies. The mechanisms that afford immunity to the virus are only poorly understood. No simple parameters for immunity are therefore available. The European Pharmacopoeia formulates requirements for inactivated and live ADV vaccines for parenteral use. The vaccines must be safe; they must not induce local or systemic reactions; they must not be transmitted to unvaccinated pigs; they must not be transmitted by semen and across the placenta; the attenuation must be irreversible (live vaccines); the inactivation must be complete (inactivated vaccines); they must prevent mortality and limit growth retardation after challenge infection; the vaccine must not contain contaminating micro-organisms and viruses. No requirements have been formulated with regard to reduction of excretion of challenge virus after experimental infection, efficacy in pigs with maternal antibodies, reproducibility of efficacy studies, reduction of virus transmission under field conditions, the presence of a serological marker, safety for other species, and safety and efficacy of intranasally administered vaccines. Future developments should be directed to the development and evaluation of ADV vaccines that are able to limit transmission of the virus.

  3. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    financial losses, the vaccination of pigs with attenuated live or inactivated vaccines is widely performed. A laboratory- attenuated ADV replicates well in BHK 21 cells (Puentes. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor. I SLIVAC. 1, V GAURINA SRČEK. 1, K RADOŠEVIĆ. 1, I KMETIČ. 2 and Z KNIEWALD.

  4. Evidence of Aujeszky's disease in wild boar in Serbia. (United States)

    Milicevic, V; Radojicic, S; Valcic, M; Ivovic, V; Radosavljevic, V


    Aujeszky's disease is a viral disease of suids caused by Suid Herpesvirus 1. The disease has worldwide distribution with significant economic impact. In Serbia, there is neither an Aujeszky's disease eradication nor national vaccination programme of domestic pigs. Since clinical symptoms of Aujeszky's disease are not specific, it is important to establish a link between clinical signs and presence of ADV active infection in wild boars. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of active infection within wild boar showing signs of ADV and also to examine relationship between isolates from domestic pigs and wild boar. Having in mind that virus has not been previously isolated from wild boars in Serbia, we report the first isolation of Suid Herpesvirus 1 from this species in Serbia. Tissue and serum samples from 40 wild boars from eastern Serbia were examined for evidence of Aujeszky's disease (AD). Suid Herpesvirus 1 (SHV1), the cause of AD was isolated on PK15 cell line from three tissue samples, inducing cytopathic effect (CPE) with syncytia forming, and viral genome was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in eight samples. Genetic analysis of us4, us9 and ul49.5 partial sequences showed high homology between ADV isolates from wild boars and between isolates from wild boars and domestic animals. Neutralizing antibodies were not detected by virus neutralisation test (VNT) in sera from four out of eight PCR positive wild boars suggesting recent infection in those animals. This is the first demonstration of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in the wild boar population in Serbia although seroconversion has been detected previously.

  5. Computer simulation to support policy-making in Aujeszky's disease control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.A.A.M.


    Aujeszky's disease is a contagious viral disease that affects the central nervous system of pigs. Several eradication programs or measures are available, each of them providing different results. Determining the preferred strategy is to a large extent a matter of economic

  6. Aujeszky's disease in red fox (Vulpes vulpes): phylogenetic analysis unravels an unexpected epidemiologic link. (United States)

    Caruso, Claudio; Dondo, Alessandro; Cerutti, Francesco; Masoero, Loretta; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Zoppi, Simona; D'Errico, Valeria; Grattarola, Carla; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Peletto, Simone


    We describe Aujeszky's disease in a female of red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Although wild boar (Sus scrofa) would be the expected source of infection, phylogenetic analysis suggested a domestic rather than a wild source of virus, underscoring the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms to prevent contact with wild animals.

  7. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): Aujeszky's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon; Bøtner, Anette; Butterworth, Andrew


    Aujeszky's disease has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of Aujeszky's disease to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of Aujeszky's disease according...... to disease prevention and control rules as in Annex IV and Article 8 on the list of animal species related to Aujeszky's disease. The assessment has been performed following a methodology composed of information collection and compilation, expert judgement on each criterion at individual and, if no consensus...... to in points (d) and (e) of Article 9(1). The animal species to be listed for Aujeszky's disease according to Article 8(3) criteria are mainly the species of the family of Suidae as susceptible species, although almost all mammals can be infected, and Sus scrofa as reservoir species....

  8. Antigenic behaviour of several Aujeszky's disease viral strains


    Echeverría, María Gabriela; Nosetto, Edgardo Omar


    Desde que la Enfermedad de Aujeszky fue diagnosticada por primera vez en Argentina en 1978, fueron sucediéndose numerosos brotes en diferentes lugares del país. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar diferentes cepas del virus de la Pseudorrabia porcina. Para ello utilizamos 5 cepas argentinas (3 aisladas en nuestro laboratorio) y 4 de referencia internacional. Las mismas fueron caracterizadas mediante pruebas físi- co-químicas; sus proteínas comparadas por electroforesis en SDS-PAGE; su an...

  9. Eradication of Aujeszky's disease from a large-scale pig farm. (United States)

    Komáromi, M; Szabó, I


    Eradication of Aujeszky's disease from a large-scale pig farm by the 'test-and-cull' eradication procedure based on the use of gene-deleted vaccines and serological monitoring using gE ELISA is described. Aujeszky's disease free status was successfully achieved on a farrow-to-finish type farm characterised by three difficulties interfering with the success of eradication: (i) weaned (30-day-old) piglets remained in the farrowing house until 65 days of age; (ii) the farm did not use nursery rearing; (iii) fatteners were kept together with the breeding gilts. Thus, the immunisation programme had to be adjusted to the management technology used on the farm, and by regular serological monitoring it had to be periodically modified to make it suitable for attaining the goals. This meant that breeding animal candidates of a wide age range and kept in the same air space had to be provided with a continuously high-level immunity by regular vaccination sufficient even for rectifying potential human errors. The immunisation programme was designed by taking into consideration the disappearance of maternal immunity, and a strict vaccination programme was applied during the rearing of breeding gilts kept together with the fattening pigs. Frequent immunisation applied during the rearing of the own breeding animal replacements proved to be of decisive importance for the eradication of Aujeszky's disease from the entire herd. In addition to the accurate implementation of the vaccination programme, regular serological monitoring also made a major contribution to the success of eradication.

  10. [The control of Aujeszky's disease using surface vaccination. 2. Serologic studies of the occurrence of latent infection by Aujeszky's disease virus in fattening swine]. (United States)

    Grosse Beilage, E; Friedel, K; Hirchert, R; Wagner, C; Bollwahn, W


    The aim of the study was to prove in a region in the North-West of Germany that there is the possibility to decrease the prevalence of latent Aujeszky's Disease infections by means of a systematic vaccination. For this, the most important precondition of the success in a high population immunity that is maintained also in the finishing pig until slaughter. Since it is known that maternal antibodies interfere with the active immunization in the prefattening period, procedures were to be found that guarantee a high immunity in spite of the colostral antibodies. The results of the study show that the existing recommendation for vaccinating fattening pigs are sufficient for the prevalence of latent infections. They also confirm the necessity to carry out a check- and slaughter policy at the end of the eradication program.

  11. Characterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolates from South and Southeast Brazil by RFLP analysis

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    Piatti Rosa Maria


    Full Text Available The genomic DNA of thirty strains of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV isolated in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil from 1982 to 1996 were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis with BamHI. Twenty seven strains were isolated from pigs, 1 from cattle, 1 from cat and 1 from dog. Using a systematization previously described, the 30 ADV strains could be classified as genomic types I (n = 2 and II (n = 28. Genomic type III was not observed. In this first study of genomic type characterization of brazilian ADV strains, we could demonstrate the occurence in Brazil of the genomic types I and II, with a large predominance of genomic type II.

  12. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel


    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...... as a live vaccine in Poland, and the Hungarian isolates were related to the Bartha K-61 vaccine strain widely used in Hungary. Pigs experimentally infected with derivatives of BUK-TK-900 or BUK-TK-900 itself were found to develop gI-antibodies, while pigs infected with derivatives of Bartha K-61 showed a g...

  13. The role of viral and host microRNAs in the Aujeszky's disease virus during the infection process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Timoneda

    Full Text Available Porcine production is a primary market in the world economy. Controlling swine diseases in the farm is essential in order to achieve the sector necessities. Aujeszky's disease is a viral condition affecting pigs and is endemic in many countries of the world, causing important economic losses in the swine industry. microRNAs (miRNAs are non-coding RNAs which modulates gene expression in animals, plants and viruses. With the aim of understanding miRNA roles during the Aujeszky's disease virus [ADV] (also known as suid herpesvirus type 1 [SuHV-1] infection, the expression profiles of host and viral miRNAs were determined through deep sequencing in SuHV-1 infected porcine cell line (PK-15 and in an animal experimental SuHV-1 infection with virulent (NIA-3 and attenuated (Begonia strains. In the in vivo approach miR-206, miR-133a, miR-133b and miR-378 presented differential expression between virus strains infection. In the in vitro approach, most miRNAs were down-regulated in infected groups. miR-92a and miR-92b-3p were up-regulated in Begonia infected samples. Functional analysis of all this over expressed miRNAs during the infection revealed their association in pathways related to viral infection processes and immune response. Furthermore, 8 viral miRNAs were detected by stem loop RT-qPCR in both in vitro and in vivo approaches, presenting a gene regulatory network affecting 59 viral genes. Most described viral miRNAs were related to Large Latency Transcript (LLT and to viral transcription activators EP0 and IE180, and also to regulatory genes regarding their important roles in the host-pathogen interaction during viral infection.

  14. Intradermal application of Aujeszky's disease virus strain Begonia with tocopherol-based adjuvant and a novel design injection device. (United States)

    Visser, N; Egger, W; Lütticken, D


    Initially the use of intradermal application of Aujeszky's disease vaccines was shown to be very effective. However, for thus far unknown reasons the gI-deleted vaccines were much less efficacious by using this route of vaccination as compared to gI-positive vaccines. By the use of a tocopherol-based adjuvant and an improved design of the intradermal injection device it now appeared feasible to obtain the same efficacy both in specific pathogen free pigs and in pigs with material antibodies as found before when intramuscular administration was performed. With respect to safety we found a complete lack of skin lesions, no adverse systemic reactions (e.g. body temperatures) and no effect on growth rates. Last but not least, the easiness of intradermal injections is of great advantage in large-scale vaccination programs.

  15. A long-term serological survey on Aujeszky's disease virus infections in wild boar in East Germany. (United States)

    Pannwitz, G; Freuling, C; Denzin, N; Schaarschmidt, U; Nieper, H; Hlinak, A; Burkhardt, S; Klopries, M; Dedek, J; Hoffmann, L; Kramer, M; Selhorst, T; Conraths, F J; Mettenleiter, T; Müller, T


    Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102,387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62,766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.

  16. Development of DNA probe for detection of Aujeszky's disease virus Desenvolvimento de uma sonda de DNA para a detecção do vírus da doença de Aujeszky

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    A.L. Cândido


    Full Text Available A DNA hybridization dot-blot assay using a radioactive and a non-radioactive probe has been developed for the detection of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV. The Bam H I 7 fragment of ADV genomic DNA was labeled by nick translation using 32P-dCTP and the 196bp polymerase chain reaction (PCR gG glycoprotein gene amplified fragment was also labeled by nick translation but using biotin d-7-dATP. This technique provides a fast and effective means of detecting acute cases of ADV infection but it was unable to detect ADV nucleic acid sequences in trigeminal nerve ganglia of latent infected pigs and mice.Uma sonda radioativa e uma outra biotinilada foram produzidas para detecção do vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA. O fragmento de Bam H I 7 do DNA genômico do VDA foi marcado por "nick translation" empregando P32dCTP e um fragmento de 196pb, resultante de uma amplificação pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase marcado com biotina 7-dATP. Essas sondas, de uma maneira rápida e específica, prestaram-se para a detecção da infecção aguda pelo VDA. Entretanto, não se mostraram sensíveis o suficiente para detectar seqüências genômicas de VDA no gânglio trigêmio de suínos e camundongos com infecção latente.

  17. [Incorporation of glycoproteins of the Aujeszky's disease virus ( Suid herpesvirus 1) into artificial liposome membranes and their interaction with cells]. (United States)

    Vrublevskaia, V V; Vinokurov, M G; Kholodkov, O A; Kornev, A N; Morenkov, O S


    The purpose of the case study was to investigate the interplay between liposomes, containing the in-built glycoproteins of the Aujeszky disease virus (ADV, Suid herpesvirus 1) with plasmatic membranes of sensitive cells. The conditions of reconstructing the ADV glycoproteins into artificial-liposome membranes were optimized. The above liposomes (virosomes), 40 x 200 nm, were impermeable to univalent ions, which confirmed the virosome membranes were intact. The gE and gB glycoproteins (90-98% of them) were located, inside the liposome membrane with the outwards orientation of their ecto-domain fragments. Virosomes were binding with cells in the dose-dependent mode. The purified ADV virions, the ADV gB glycoproteins and heparin inhibited such binding process of virosomes with cells, which denoted the specificity of their interaction with cells. An effective internalization of cell-binding virosomes was observed at 37 degrees C. The conclusion is that the ADV glycoproteins, constructed into the liposome membranes, simulate adequately enough the viral receptor structures and that the thus obtained virosomes could be used to investigate the interplay between alpha-herpes viruses and cells.

  18. A sensitive and specific lateral flow assay for rapid detection of antibodies against glycoprotein B of Aujeszky's disease virus. (United States)

    Vrublevskaya, Veronika V; Afanasyev, Vladimir N; Grinevich, Andrey A; Skarga, Yuri Y; Gladyshev, Pavel P; Ibragimova, Sagila A; Krylsky, Dmitry V; Dezhurov, Sergey V; Morenkov, Oleg S


    A direct double antibody lateral flow assay (DDA-gB-LFA) for the detection of antibodies against the glycoprotein B (gB) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine sera was developed. A native ADV gB was used for the preparation of a conjugate with colloidal gold particles and the immobilization on the strip membrane. The gB purified from ADV virions by immunoaffinity chromatography retained its native epitope structure after adsorption on the nitrocellulose membrane and the surface of colloidal gold particles. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the DDA-gB-LFA were evaluated using 236 field swine sera. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the DDA-gB-LFA compared to a commercially available gB-based ELISA were 98.0% and 98.6%, respectively, when determined with the use of the reader-detection mode, and 98.0% and 93.5%, respectively, when determined using visual detection. The DDA-gB-LFA provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific determination of ADV gB-directed antibodies in sera and can be used for the detection of ADV-exposed swine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Serological detection of Brucella suis, influenza virus and Aujeszky's disease virus in backyard and small swine holders in Argentina]. (United States)

    Dibarbora, Marina; Cappuccio, Javier A; Aznar, María N; Bessone, Fernando A; Piscitelli, Hernán; Pereda, Ariel J; Pérez, Daniel R

    Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina. Antibodies against H1 pandemic were detected in 80% of the farms while 11%, 11.7% and 6.0% of the producers were positive to influenza H3 cluster 2, AV and Bs, respectively. None of the producers was aware of the risk factors concerning the transmission of diseases from pigs to humans. A percentage of 47% of them buy pigs for breeding from other farmers and markets. With regard to biosecurity measures, only 16% of the farms had perimeter fences. The results of this study demonstrate that productive characterization and disease surveys are important to improve productivity and to reduce the risk of disease transmission among animals and humans. The study of sanitary status and risk factors is necessary for better control and eradication of diseases in backyard or small producers. More representative studies at country level should be carried out to detect the pathogensthat circulate and, with this knowledge, to implement prevention and control measures. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatio-temporal analysis of the progression of Aujeszky's disease virus infection in wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. (United States)

    Denzin, Nicolai; Borgwardt, Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Müller, Thomas


    Aujeszky's disease (AD, pseudorabies) is a notifiable disease caused by Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), also named pseudorabies virus (PrV). The study aimed at determining the occurrence and spatio-temporal trend of specific antibodies to AD virus (ADV) among wild boar of Saxony-Anhalt, a landlocked federal state situated in the western part of eastern Germany. To this end, a total of 7,209 blood samples were collected and tested from 2000 to 2011. An average seroprevalence of 6.8% was found for the entire observation period, whilst seroprevalence increased significantly between time periods January 2000-March 2009 (n = 3,605; prevalence = 4.5%) and March 2009-December 2011 (n = 3,604; prevalence = 9.1%). Spatial analysis revealed an extremely heterogenous distribution of seropositive samples with cluster formation [relative risk (RR) up to 41, P = 0.001] in the east. A comparison of spatial clusters between the aforementioned time intervals showed an expansion of the disease in the north to north-westerly direction. A test for spatial shift involving the entire territory of Saxony-Anhalt detected a spread of ADV infection in the latter direction (P = 0.079) at the average speed of 3.3 km/year. Detailed study of the distribution and spread of the disease among wild boar, including assessment of the speed of spatial spread, has not been done in the region before. Saxony-Anhalt has been officially recognised as being free of AD in domestic pigs since 1996. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalences in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt and other federal states in the east of Germany, no spill-over to domestic pigs have been reported. The currently implemented monitoring will be continued in conjunction with surveillance of classical swine fever (CSF) to further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population of Saxony-Anhalt.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky's Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. (United States)

    Martínez-Gamba, R; Pradal-Roa, P; Castrejón, F P; Herradora, M; Galván, E; Mercado, C


    This study was carried out to determine the survival time of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky's Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. The four micro-organisms were inoculated into microsilos based on the solid fraction of pig faeces, sorghum and molasses. They were left for 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days, after which the state of each microsilo was evaluated, and isolation of the inoculated agents was attempted. The four inoculated agents were isolated only on day 0 of ensilage. The viral agents were identified through the cytopathic effect and fluorescence. It is concluded that ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces appear to reduce the risk of the transmission of the agents inoculated in this study and help to reduce the environmental impact by using the solid in animal feed.

  2. Seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Aujeszky's disease, and porcine parvovirus in replacement gilts in Thailand. (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod


    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in replacement gilts from selected five swine herds in Thailand. The study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective data analysis on the seroprevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and ADV glycoprotein I (gI) in gilts, sows, boars, nursery, and fattening pigs in five herds (n = 7,030). Second, a cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV (n = 200) in replacement gilts. Last, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV in gilts culled due to reproductive failure (n = 166). Across the herds, the seroprevalence of PRRSV and ADV was 79.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The cross-sectional study revealed that 87.5%, 4.0%, and 99.0% of the replacement gilts were infected with PRRSV, ADV, and PPV, respectively. In the gilts culled due to reproductive failure, the seroprevalence of PRRSV, ADV, and PPV was 73.5%, 28.3%, and 86.0%, respectively. Of these culled gilts, 75.5% had been infected with at least two viruses and 18.9% had been infected with all three viruses. It could be concluded that most of the replacement gilts were exposed to PRRSV (84%), PPV (97%), and ADV (4%) before entering the breeding house. PPV was an enzootic disease among the selected herds. The prevalence of ADV was higher in gilts culled due to reproductive disturbance than in the healthy gilts.

  3. Application of solid-phase radioimmunoassay in determining antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus in blood serum of vaccinated pigs

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    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))


    In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test.

  4. Pseudorabies virus infection (Aujeszky's disease) in an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) in Spain: a case report. (United States)

    Masot, A Javier; Gil, María; Risco, David; Jiménez, Olga M; Núñez, José I; Redondo, Eloy


    The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994. No seropositive lynxes have ever been found, nor has PRV been detected in dead Iberian lynxes to date. We describe the first reported case of pseudorabies in an Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Pseudorabies was diagnosed in a young wild Iberian lynx from Extremadura (SW Spain) by histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. Gross lesions included alopecia of the ventral neck, bloody gastro-intestinal contents and congestion of the brain. Histopathological analysis showed a moderate nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with diffuse areas of demyelination, necrotizing gastritis and enteritis of the small intestine. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) antigen was found in neuronal and non-neuronal cells of the brain, tonsils, and gastric glandular epithelial cells by immunohistochemical analysis. The presence of the virus in the brain was confirmed by nested PCR. The sequence analysis of the 146 bp fragment (from the viral glycoprotein B gene) showed that the amplified sequence matched (with 100% identity) the PRV genome. Furthermore, specific DNA from glycoprotein D and E encoding-genes was detected by conventional and real-time PCR, respectively, confirming the latter that this infection was produced by a wild-type PRV strain. This study supports the suspicion that PRV could infect the Iberian lynx. The detection of PRV in a dead Iberian lynx suggests that the virus may have a

  5. Scenario tree model for animal disease freedom framed in the OIE context using the example of a generic swine model for Aujeszky's disease in commercial swine in Canada. (United States)

    Christensen, Jette; Vallières, André


    "Freedom from animal disease" is an ambiguous concept that may have a different meaning in trade and science. For trade alone, there are different levels of freedom from OIE listed diseases. A country can: be recognized by OIE to be "officially free"; self-declare freedom, with no official recognition by the OIE; or report animal disease as absent (no occurrence) in six-monthly reports. In science, we apply scenario tree models to calculate the probability of a population being free from disease at a given prevalence to provide evidence of freedom from animal disease. Here, we link science with application by describing how a scenario tree model may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease. We combine the idea of a standardized presentation of scenario tree models for disease freedom and having a similar model for two different animal diseases to suggest that a simple generic model may help veterinary authorities to build and evaluate scenario tree models for disease freedom. Here, we aim to develop a generic scenario tree model for disease freedom that is: animal species specific, population specific, and has a simple structure. The specific objectives were: to explore the levels of freedom described in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code; to describe how scenario tree models may contribute to a country's claim of freedom from animal disease; and to present a generic swine scenario tree model for disease freedom in Canada's domestic (commercial) swine applied to Aujeszky's disease (AD). In particular, to explore how historical survey data, and data mining may affect the probability of freedom and to explore different sampling strategies. Finally, to frame the generic scenario tree model in the context of Canada's claim of freedom from AD. We found that scenario tree models are useful to support a country's claim of freedom either as "recognized officially free" or as part of a self-declaration but the models should not stand alone in a

  6. Assessment of confidence in freedom from Aujeszky's disease and classical swine fever in Danish pigs based on serological sampling—Effect of reducing the number of samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Dahl, J.; Alban, L.


    Confirming freedom from disease is important for export of animals and animal products. In Denmark, an intensive surveillance program is in place for Aujeszky's disease (AD) and classical swine fever (CSF), including 34,974 blood samples tested for AD and 37,414 samples tested for CSF (2008 figures...... the posterior probability of freedom (PostPFree) from AD and CSF by use of a scenario tree model. Conventional herds and sows or boars were defined as risk factors (compared to SPF1 herds and finisher pigs), with a relative risk of 2 and 5, respectively. The probability of introduction was modeled...... (reflecting a total reduction of 28 or 43%) the PostPFree from AD was reduced from 0.989 after 1 year testing to 0.980 or 0.971, respectively. Similarly, the confidence of freedom from CSF was reduced from 0.989 to 0.982 or 0.969, when the number of serological samples from abattoirs and export sows and boars...

  7. [The effect of 3 times per year random vaccination of sows against Aujeszky's disease on maternal immunity in a breeding farm]. (United States)

    Vellenga, L; van Beers-Schreurs, H M; Ooms, P; Schorn, H


    Research was undertaken to study the effect of a 'three times a year vaccination schedule in sows' against Aujeszky's disease (AD) on the maternal immunity of their offspring at a large pig farm. Only gI-negative sows and piglets were induced in the study. The maternal immunity was measured in the 8-week-old offspring of 6 gilts and 13 sows, vaccinated in early pregnancy and in 8-week-old piglets born from 12 gilts and 21 sows vaccinated 3 weeks prior to farrowing. At an age of 8 weeks only 5 percent of the piglets, born from sows vaccinated during early pregnancy showed antibody titres against AD of > 1:40 in their serum. In piglets born from sows vaccinated 3 weeks prior to farrowing more than 50 (54.4) percent of the piglets showed antibody titres > 1:40 in their serum. It was concluded that using a 'three times a year vaccination schedule' in a gI negative herd may lead to groups of seronegative piglets on breeding and multiplier farms. The implications are discussed.

  8. Serological and molecular investigation of the prevalence of Aujeszky's disease in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the subregions of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. (United States)

    Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O


    The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a competitive double antibody lateral flow assay for the detection of antibodies specific to glycoprotein B of Aujeszky's disease virus in swine sera. (United States)

    Vrublevskaya, V V; Afanasyev, V N; Grinevich, A A; Skarga, Yu Y; Gladyshev, P P; Ibragimova, S A; Krylsky, D V; Morenkov, O S


    Three lateral flow assays (LFAs) for the detection of antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) in swine sera: a competitive double antibody sandwich LFA without a preincubation step (CDAS-gB-LFA), a CDAS-gB-LFA with a preincubation step (pCDAS-gB-LFA), and a competitive direct gB-LFA have been developed and were compared with each other and with a gB-ELISA. The assays are based on monoclonal antibodies to immunodominant epitopes of ADV gB. The pCDAS-gB-LFA proved to be the most specific and sensitive assay to detect antibodies directed to ADV gB. The specificity and sensitivity of the pCDAS-gB-LFA with the use of an LFA reader for test line intensity measurements were 97.6 and 94.9%, respectively. The lower diagnostic sensitivity of the pCDAS-gB-LFA compared to a gB-ELISA reflects its reduced analytical sensitivity, which was shown in titration experiments with positive sera. The pCDAS-gB-LFA, using the reader-based and visual detection modes, showed good agreement in respect to specificity; however, the LFA reader detection provided a higher diagnostic and analytical sensitivity compared to visual detection. The developed pCDAS-gB-LFA is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the detection of antibodies to ADV gB and can be used for screening ADV-infected swine in unvaccinated herds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Caracterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated from South Brazil in the last twenty years by restriction enzyme analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus de Aujeszky isoladas na região Sul do Brasil nos últimos vinte anos através de análise de restrição enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Schaefer


    Full Text Available Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV belongs to Herpesviridae family and is an important etiological agent which infects pigs causing economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide and international trade restrictions to products of swine origin. An eradication program for ADV was established in Santa Catarina State since 2001. The last outbreak was reported in July 2004 and since then none has been reported. The disease has been controlled with the use of a genetic modified vaccine and elimination of seropositives. Aiming the characterization of ADV isolated in the South of Brazil in the last twenty years (1983-2003, a retrospective study based on the genomic analysis of the isolates through a digestion of viral genomic DNA with restriction enzyme Bam HI was done. Thirty-seven ADV samples isolated from swine from the States of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. These isolates were compared to the reference strains NIA-4, Bartha and Begonia. The most predominant genomic arrangement was type II found in 33 samples isolated in Santa Catarina State and in one isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State. Genomic arrangement type I, characteristic of vaccine strains was identified in 2 isolates from Parana State and in 1 isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State.O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA pertencente à família Herpesviridae é um importante agente etiológico que infecta suínos causando perdas na produção de suínos no mundo inteiro e restrições para o comércio internacional de suínos ou de seus subprodutos. No estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foi instituído em 2001 um programa de erradicação da doença de Aujeszky (DA. O último surto da DA foi reportado em julho de 2004 e desde então não foram notificados mais casos. A doença tem sido controlada com o uso de uma vacina geneticamente modificada e eliminação de animais soropositivos para o VDA. Visando caracterizar amostras do VDA isoladas nos últimos vinte

  11. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva


    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  12. Restriction Fragment Pattern (RFP) analysis of genomes from Danish isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.; Lei, J. C.


    Purified DNA from 42 isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected during 1985 from clinical outbreaks of Aujezsky's disease on Danish farms was compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis. The BamHI generated RFPs were found to be distinguishable, thus confirming RFP analysis...

  13. Disseminação do vírus da doença de Aujeszky, envolvendo o comércio de reprodutores suínos de reposição Spread of virus of Aujeszky's disease by the trade of replacement swine breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mores


    Full Text Available Relata-se a disseminação da infeção pelo vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA a partir da comercialização de reprodutores suínos oriundos de duas granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificada (GRSC que tiveram surto da DA. Após a confirmação do diagnóstico de DA, os suínos comercializados 37 a 45 dias anteriores aos surtos foram recolhidos, submetidos ao exame sorológico para o VDA e enviados ao abate. Nos rebanhos-destino foram realizados exames sorológicos para o VDA 17 a 37 dias após o recolhimento, naqueles que estavam lojados nas baias vizinhas àquelas onde haviam sido alojados os suínos comprados; seis meses mais tarde, foi realizada outra sorologia por amostragem dos reprodutores. No total, 52 rebanhos compraram suínos das duas granjas, e, destes, 37 (69,8% receberam, pelo menos, um animal com sorologia positiva para o VDA. Somente sete (18,9% deles apresentaram sorologia positiva para o VDA, e em 30 (81,1%, não houve indícios de disseminação da infecção. A contaminação pelo VDA de granjas GRSC representa enorme potencial para a disseminação da infecção, por meio do comércio de suínos de reposição. A rastreabilidade dos animais comercializados em um período anterior ao diagnóstico, com imediata remoção dos lotes de suínos dos rebanhos-destino, evitou a disseminação da infecção.It was reported the spreading of the infection caused by the virus of Aujesky's disease (VAD by the commercialization of breeders originated from two pigs farms GRSC (Farms of Certified Swine Breeders - FCSB which had an outbreak of Aujeszky's disease. After the positive diagnosis of Aujesky's disease, the pigs traded from 37 to 45 day before the outbreaks were removed from the herd, bled for serological exams for the VAD and sent to slaughterhouses. The herds which received these pigs were serologically tested for the VAD, 17 to 37 days after the removal of the animals. Serological tests were also performed in pigs lodged at

  14. The genomic diversity and stability of field strains of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.


    The genomic diversity among isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected in the same herd and among clones from the same isolate was studied by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis using BamHI. Tentatively defining a field strain as a transmissible entity, it was concluded that strains...

  15. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand. (United States)

    Davidson, R M


    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose.

  16. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan. (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Koop, G; Dukpa, K; Tenzin, T; Loeffen, W L A


    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Furthermore, risk factors for the seropositive status were investigated. Antibodies to SIV, subtype H1N1 (likely pandemic H1N1 2009) were detected in 49% of the pigs in the government farms, and 8% of the village backyard pigs. For PCV2, these percentages were 73% and 37% respectively. For CSFV, the percentages were closer together, with 62% and 52% respectively. It should be taken into consideration that vaccination of piglets is routine in the government herds, and that piglets distributed to backyard farms are also vaccinated. No direct evidence of CSFV infections was found, either by clinical signs or virus isolation. Antibodies to PRRSV and Aujeszky's disease, on the other hand, were not found at all. Risk factors found are mainly related to practices of swill feeding and other biosecurity measures. For CSFV, these were swill feeding (OR=2.25, 95% CI: 1.01-4.99) and contact with neighbour's pigs (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.13-0.75). For PCV2 this was lending of boars for local breeding purposes (OR=3.30, 95% CI: 1.43-7.59). The results of this study showed that PCV2 and SIV infections are important in pigs in Bhutan and thus appropriate control strategies need to be designed and applied which could involve strict regulation on the import of live pigs and vaccination against these diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich


    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi


    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  19. A review of exotic animal disease in Great Britain and in Scotland specifically between 1938 and 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onneile O Peiso

    Full Text Available Incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. Knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures.Based on reports of British governmental veterinary services, we review occurrence of the former OIE List A diseases, and of Aujeszky's disease, anthrax and bovine tuberculosis (bTB in farm-animals in Great Britain (GB between 1938 and 2007. We estimate incidence of each disease on GB agricultural holdings and fraction of susceptible farm-animals culled to control the disease each year. We then consider the frequency and incidence of the diseases in Scotland alone. The limitations of available data on historical disease occurrence and denominator populations are detailed in Text S2.The numbers of livestock and poultry farmed in GB grew over the years 1938-2007; the number of agricultural holdings decreased. An amalgamation of production on larger holdings took place from the 1940s to the 1980s. The maximum annual incidence of a reviewed disease in GB 1938-2007 was reported for bTB, 1.69% of holdings in 1961. This was followed by Newcastle disease, 1.50% of holdings in 1971, and classical swine fever, 1.09% of holdings in 1940. The largest fractional cull of susceptible livestock in a single year in each of the four decades 1950s-1980s was due to a viral disease primarily affecting swine. During the periods 1938-1949 and 2000-2007 this was due to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease. In the absence of incursions of the former OIE List A diseases in the 1990s, this was due to bTB. Over the 70 years, the diseases were reported with lower frequency and lower annual incidence in Scotland, as compared to when these statistics are considered for GB as a whole.

  20. disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To undertake an economic evaluation of the administration and monitoring costs of the two different forms of heparin in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (DCAD). Study design. Equivalent efficacy was found for low- molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and for unfraction- ated heparin (UFH) in the ...

  1. A Review of Exotic Animal Disease in Great Britain and in Scotland Specifically between 1938 and 2007 (United States)

    Peiso, Onneile O.; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.


    Background Incursions of contagious diseases of livestock into disease-free zones are inevitable as long as the diseases persist elsewhere in the world. Knowledge of where, when and how incursions have occurred helps assess the risks, and regionalize preventative and reactive measures. Methodology Based on reports of British governmental veterinary services, we review occurrence of the former OIE List A diseases, and of Aujeszky's disease, anthrax and bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in farm-animals in Great Britain (GB) between 1938 and 2007. We estimate incidence of each disease on GB agricultural holdings and fraction of susceptible farm-animals culled to control the disease each year. We then consider the frequency and incidence of the diseases in Scotland alone. The limitations of available data on historical disease occurrence and denominator populations are detailed in Text S2. Conclusions The numbers of livestock and poultry farmed in GB grew over the years 1938–2007; the number of agricultural holdings decreased. An amalgamation of production on larger holdings took place from the 1940s to the 1980s. The maximum annual incidence of a reviewed disease in GB 1938–2007 was reported for bTB, 1.69% of holdings in 1961. This was followed by Newcastle disease, 1.50% of holdings in 1971, and classical swine fever, 1.09% of holdings in 1940. The largest fractional cull of susceptible livestock in a single year in each of the four decades 1950s–1980s was due to a viral disease primarily affecting swine. During the periods 1938–1949 and 2000–2007 this was due to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease. In the absence of incursions of the former OIE List A diseases in the 1990s, this was due to bTB. Over the 70 years, the diseases were reported with lower frequency and lower annual incidence in Scotland, as compared to when these statistics are considered for GB as a whole. PMID:21818292

  2. Eradication of some infectious pig diseases by perinatal tiamulin treatment and early weaning. (United States)

    Mészáros, J; Stipkovits, L; Antal, T; Szabó, I; Veszely, P


    From 10 days before the expected date of farrowing onwards, 97 sows infected by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Treponema hyodysenteriae were given tiamulin daily at a dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight via the feed. Three days before farrowing the sows were washed with a disinfectant and transferred to an isolated farrowing house. The sucking piglets remained with their dams for five days, during which time the sows continued to receive the tiamulin-containing feed. The sucking piglets also received tiamulin daily at a dosage of 30 mg/kg bodyweight. At six days old the weaker piglets of the litter were returned to the original herd, together with their dams. A total of 574 piglets of about 1.5 kg bodyweight each were transferred to an isolated and previously disinfected pig farm and reared there. A total of 13.8 per cent of these pigs died by 50 days old. On the isolated farm, 10.9 per cent of the 829 second generation piglets born to the 101 first generation sows, died up to the age of 50 days. On the isolated farm about 2000 pigs were subjected to repeated clinical, pathological and laboratory examinations for M hyopneumoniae, T hyodysenteriae, Aujeszky's disease virus and Leptospira species during the three year period of study. No evidence of infection with any of these agents was found in the 2000 pigs of the isolation herd, although the original sow herd had been latently infected by these pathogens. No maternally derived antibodies against these pathogens were detectable in sera of three-day-old sucking piglets of the second and third generations.

  3. Endocrine Diseases (United States)

    ... to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid) Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid) Graves' ...

  4. Heart Disease (United States)

    ... type of heart disease you have. Symptoms of heart disease in your blood vessels (atherosclerotic disease) Cardiovascular disease ... can sometimes be found early with regular evaluations. Heart disease symptoms caused by abnormal heartbeats (heart arrhythmias) A ...

  5. Pneumococcal Disease (United States)

    ... Pneumococcal disease is a very serious infection that causes pneumonia, meningitis, and bloodstream infection (sepsis). About one million ... when someone gets pneumococcal disease? Pneumococcal disease can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or bloodstream infection. People with pneumococcal disease ...

  6. Autoimmune Diseases (United States)

    ... autoimmune diseases are rare, while others, such as Hashimoto's disease, affect many people. Who gets autoimmune diseases? ... often occur on both sides of the body. Hashimoto's (hah-shee-MOH-tohz) disease (underactive thyroid) A ...

  7. Behcet's Disease (United States)

    ... are here: Home / Types of Vasculitis / Behcet’s Disease Behcet’s Disease First Description Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” ... for Behcet’s Disease is Behcet’s syndrome . Who gets Behcet’s Disease (the “typical” patient)? Behcet’s disease is most common ...

  8. Valve Disease (United States)

    ... See also on this site: Diseases of the Mitral Valve Diseases of the Aortic Valve Diseases of the Tricuspid ... most invasive option for the treatment of valve disease. During surgery, ... defects of the mitral valve. Replacement is used to treat any diseased ...

  9. Kawasaki Disease (United States)

    Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood disease. It makes the walls of the blood vessels in the ... veins, and capillaries. No one knows what causes Kawasaki disease. Symptoms include High fever that lasts longer ...

  10. Whipple's Disease (United States)

    ... way to prevent Whipple disease. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition A person with Whipple disease and malabsorption may need a diet high in calories and protein vitamins nutritional supplements People with Whipple disease should discuss their nutritional ...

  11. Celiac Disease (United States)

    ... diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune thyroid or liver disease, Addison’s disease, or Sjogren’s syndrome.Have a genetic disorder such ... results will confirm that you have celiac disease. Diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiformis with a positive blood test ...

  12. Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  13. Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  14. Alzheimer Disease (United States)

    ... CPR: A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Alzheimer Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Alzheimer Disease Print A A ... slow it down. When Someone You Love Has Alzheimer Disease You might feel sad or angry — or both — ...

  15. Moyamoya Disease (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Moyamoya Disease Information Page Moyamoya Disease Information Page What research is being done? ... Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials ... Publications Definition Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused ...

  16. Crohn's Disease (United States)

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  17. Wilson Disease (United States)

    ... Liver Foundation March of Dimes National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Wilson Disease Association See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder ...

  18. Ribbing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukkada Philson


    Full Text Available Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.

  19. Reportable diseases (United States)

    ... Listeriosis Lyme disease Malaria Measles Meningitis (meningococcal disease) Mumps Novel influenza A virus infections Pertussis Plague Poliomyelitis Poliovirus infection, nonparalytic Psittacosis ...

  20. Heart Diseases (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  1. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?]. (United States)

    Betlejewski, Stansław


    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment.

  2. Kimura disease (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Fares E.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Marzouki, Hani Z.; AlGarni, Mohammed A


    Kimura disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly manifests as a lump in the cervical region. Although the underlying pathophysiology is not clear yet, the diagnosis can be established based on specific histopathological characteristics. The first case of this disease was described in China, as well as the majority of subsequent cases that were also described in the Far East countries made Kimura disease traditionally a disease of adult patients of Asian descent. This report describes the occurrence of Kimura disease in pediatric non-Asian patient with a similar clinicopathologic presentation. PMID:26905356

  3. Digestive Diseases (United States)

    ... Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease ... Polyps Constipation Crohn's Disease Cyclic Vomiting ... and Diverticulitis Dumping Syndrome Foodborne Illnesses Gallstones Gas ...

  4. Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal tunnel syndrome ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding Carpal tunnel syndrome ...

  5. Schilder's Disease (United States)

    ... is not the same as Addison-Schilder disease (adrenoleukodystrophy). Symptoms may include dementia, aphasia, seizures, personality changes, ... is not the same as Addison-Schilder disease (adrenoleukodystrophy). Symptoms may include dementia, aphasia, seizures, personality changes, ...

  6. Coeliac disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    . Coeliac disease, often called coeliac sprue, is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine which occurs in genetically predisposed people. Coeliac disease is not an allergy or intolerance to gluten. It can present at all ages,.

  7. Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  8. Addison Disease (United States)

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  9. Raynaud's Disease (United States)

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  10. Wilson Disease (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  11. Fifth Disease (United States)

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  12. Meniere's Disease (United States)

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  13. Gaucher Disease (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you have it, ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  14. Kidney Diseases (United States)

    ... urine until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... or medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  15. Parkinson disease (United States)

    ... this page: // Parkinson disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These ...

  16. Legionnaire disease (United States)

    ... disease is less severe. Risk factors include: Alcohol abuse Cigarette smoking Chronic illnesses, such as kidney failure ... Antibiotics are used to fight the infection. Treatment is started as soon as Legionnaire disease is suspected, ...

  17. Liver disease (United States)

    ... this page: // Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  18. Liver Diseases (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  19. Lyme Disease (United States)

    ... can also spread to the nervous system, causing facial paralysis ( Bell's palsy ), or meningitis. The last stage of ... symptoms, joint pain or a swollen joint, or facial paralysis. How Is Lyme Disease Treated? Lyme disease is ...

  20. Liver Disease (United States)

    ... from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage. Genetic liver diseases include: Hemochromatosis Hyperoxaluria and oxalosis Wilson's disease Cancer and other growths Examples include: Liver cancer Bile ...

  1. Whipple Disease (United States)

    ... ed. Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/ Diagnosis/Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010: 1833– ... treatment. Hope through Research The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts and ...

  2. Alexander Disease (United States)

    ... may be other genetic or perhaps even non-genetic causes of Alexander disease. Current research is aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which the mutations cause disease, developing better animal models for the disorder, and exploring potential strategies ...

  3. Alpers' Disease (United States)

    ... Alpers-like" phenotype without liver disease have POLG mutations. × Definition Alpers' disease is a progressive, neurodevelopmental, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome characterized by three co-occurring clinical ...

  4. Farber's Disease (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Farber’s disease, also known as Farber's lipogranulomatosis, describes a group of inherited metabolic disorders called lipid storage diseases, in which excess amounts of lipids ( ...

  5. Graves disease (United States)

    ... this page: // Graves disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to an ...

  6. Buerger's Disease (United States)

    ... is linked to the development of Buerger's disease. Sex Buerger's disease is far more common in males ... Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy ...

  7. Meniere's Disease (United States)

    ... of Meniere's disease isn't understood. One popular theory that hasn't been proved is that Meniere's ... Medical Education and Research; 2015. Foster CA. Optimal management of Meniere's disease. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. ...

  8. Fungal Diseases (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... September 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  9. Chagas Disease (United States)

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United ... There are no vaccines or medicines to prevent Chagas disease. If you travel to areas where it occurs, ...

  10. Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A A A What's in this article? ... uh-jist), a doctor who specializes in treating kidney diseases. The doctor will ask you about any concerns ...

  11. Legionnaires' Disease (United States)

    ... get sick if you Are older than 50 Smoke Have a chronic lung disease Have a weak immune system Legionnaires' disease is serious and can be life-threatening. However, most people recover with antibiotic treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  12. Lyme Disease (United States)

    ... common are at higher risk of getting tick-borne diseases. How is Lyme disease diagnosed? It can be ... If clothes are dirty, wash them in hot water and dry on high heat for 60 minutes. Lyme disease treatment What do I do if I find ...

  13. Infectious Diseases

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    GeneratinG knowledGe. IDRC-supported researchers have successfully applied ecohealth approaches to produce knowledge on the root causes of infectious diseases worldwide. Fighting chagas disease in guatemala. Chagas disease is a serious infection transmitted from animals to humans by a reduvidae bug. In.

  14. Lyme Disease. (United States)

    Taylor, George C.


    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  15. Lyme Disease


    Ozdemir, Davut; İnce, Nevin


    Lyme disease (LD) is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Humans are infected by a tick bite to the skin. This disease is a non-contagious infectious disease. It has been known since the 19th century. LD has a worldwide distribution. It is endemic in Europe, North and South America. There are case reports since 1990 in Turkey. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the disease. Lyme disease is classified into three stages: early localized dise...

  16. [Tangier disease]. (United States)

    Saku, K; Jimi, S; Ohta, T; Arakawa, K


    Tangier disease, a familial HDL-deficiency syndrome, was first reported by Fredrickson et al. in 1961. Since then, a great deal research on the mechanism of HDL-deficiency in this disease has been done from the prospective of lipoprotein compositions, in vivo HDL kinetics, cell and receptor interactions and genomic DNA analysis. These studies have found a relatively increased fractional catabolic rate of apo HDL with essentially no change in the synthesis of apo HDL. As yet, no structural defect has been found in the apo A-I gene. However, there have been reports of irregular lipid metabolism and of disorders in the Golgi apparatus and lysosome processing. Interestingly, the frequency of coronary heart disease is low in patients with Tangier disease. In this report, we describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of Tangier disease and suggest some possible mechanisms for preventing coronary heart disease.

  17. Morgellons Disease


    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han


    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination sho...

  18. Infectious disease (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.


    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  19. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko


    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  20. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  1. Wilson disease (United States)

    ... nervous system and peripheral nervous system Copper urine test References Cox DW, Roberts EA. Wilson disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal ...

  2. Dent's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devuyst, Olivier; Thakker, Rajesh V


    Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis...

  3. [Periodontal disease]. (United States)

    Michikawa, Makoto


    It has been shown that the inflammatory pathways are activated in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces risk to develop AD. It is understood that molecules involved in this inflammation promote pathological processes leading to AD, whereas other molecules work to protect neuron/brain function from toxicity found in AD pathogenesis. Periodontal disease is one of the diseases causing inflammation and recent lines of evidence show the link between these two diseases. In this paper, relationship between periodontitis and AD will be reviewed and the possible mechanisms, by which periodontitis may affect the onset and progression of AD, will be discussed.

  4. Pompe Disease (United States)

    ... reliably identified via genetic mutation analysis. View Full Definition Treatment Individuals with Pompe disease are best treated by a team of specialists (such as cardiologist, neurologist, and respiratory ...

  5. Sandhoff Disease (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sandhoff disease is a rare, inherited lipid storage disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in ...

  6. Behcet's Disease (United States)

    ... Seizures Information Page Fibromuscular Dysplasia Information Page Foot Drop Information Page Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome ...

  7. Binswanger's Disease (United States)

    ... Seizures Information Page Fibromuscular Dysplasia Information Page Foot Drop Information Page Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome ...

  8. Leigh's Disease (United States)

    ... Seizures Information Page Fibromuscular Dysplasia Information Page Foot Drop Information Page Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome ...

  9. Is "Parkinson's disease" one disease?


    Calne, D B


    Consideration is given to how and why categories of ill health are divided into diseases. Aetiology is a fundamental criterion for the delineation of individual diseases. The same clinical and pathological picture may have many different causes; for example meningococcal meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis are distinct diseases that may display the same symptoms and signs. On the other hand, a single aetiology may lead to quite separate clinical and pathological phenomena; for example, neu...

  10. Liver Disease (United States)

    ... A through E and beyond. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed March 25, 2014. July 15, 2014 Original article: ...

  11. Menetrier's Disease (United States)

    ... with Ménétrier’s disease who also had Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. H. pylori is a bacterium that is a cause of ... the small intestine. In these cases, treatment for H. pylori reversed and improved the symptoms of Ménétrier’s disease. ...

  12. Pick disease (United States)

    ... rare form of dementia that is similar to Alzheimer disease , except that it tends to affect only certain areas of the brain. Causes People ... Volunteer services People with Pick disease and their family may need to seek legal advice early in the course of the disorder. ... (Prognosis) The disorder ...

  13. Sycamore diseases (United States)

    F. I. McCracken


    The canker stain disease, one of several fungi that cause cankers of sycamore, can cause serious loss of sycamores in natural stands, plantations, and urban areas. As many as 35 percent of the trees in some stands may be diseased. Affected trees develop thin crowns, twig dieback, small leaves and epicormic branches. The narrow, elongate, bark covered, flat, spiraling...

  14. Angara disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 12, 2011 ... The farmers were advised to use quality vaccines against Angara disease as the vaccines can provide. 100% protection against the disease if they are given at the proper age. REFERENCES. Afzal M, Ahmed I (1990). Efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against. Hydropericardium syndrome in broilers, Vet.

  15. Crohn's Disease (United States)

    ... Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the Bowel Pancreatitis Definition & Facts ... Upper GI Endoscopy Related Conditions & Diseases Ulcerative Colitis Microscopic Colitis Your Digestive System & How it Works The digestive ...

  16. Infectious Diseases (United States)

    ... such as undercooked hamburger or unpasteurized fruit juice. Risk factors While anyone can catch infectious diseases, you may be more likely to get ... have been linked to a long-term increased risk of cancer: Human ... In addition, some infectious diseases may become silent, only to appear again ...

  17. Coeliac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, Norelle R; Husby, Steffen; Sanders, David S


    , these guidelines are not universally accepted. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of a biopsy-avoiding pathway for the diagnosis of coeliac disease, especially in this current era of the call for more biopsies, even from the duodenal bulb, in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. In addition, a contrast...

  18. [Caroli's disease]. (United States)

    Duvnjak, Marko; Supanc, Vladimir; Virović, Lucija; Tomasić, Vedran; Dojcinović, Bojan


    Caroli's disease is a rare condition characterized by congenital polycystic dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. The most frequent clinical presentation of a simple type (Caroli's disease) is recurrent cholangitis, gallstone with pain, obstructive jaundice and episodes of pancreatitis in childhood and early adulthood. A more frequent type combined with congenital hepatic fibrosis is usually manifested with bleeding from esophageal varices consequential to portal hypertension. Treatment options, both conservative and surgical, are relatively limited and depend on the clinical presentation, localization of cysts in the liver, and stage of the disease. A 20-year-old man with Caroli's disease manifested with cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis with recurrent pancreatitis at the age of 16 is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid was initiated and after two years of follow-up the disease is stable.

  19. Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Breteler, Monique M B; de Strooper, Bart; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Salloway, Stephen; Van der Flier, Wiesje Maria


    Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid and tau, but researchers are gradually moving away from the simple assumption of linear causality as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis. Age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors probably interact with the core mechanisms of the disease. Amyloid β42, and tau proteins are established core cerebrospinal biomarkers; novel candidate biomarkers include amyloid β oligomers and synaptic markers. MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET are established imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid PET is gaining traction in the clinical arena, but validity and cost-effectiveness remain to be established. Tau PET might offer new insights and be of great help in differential diagnosis and selection of patients for trials. In the search for understanding the disease mechanism and keys to treatment, research is moving increasingly into the earliest phase of disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease is defined as biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's pathological changes in cognitively healthy individuals. Patients with subjective cognitive decline have been identified as a useful population in whom to look for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Moderately positive results for interventions targeting several lifestyle factors in non-demented elderly patients and moderately positive interim results for lowering amyloid in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease suggest that, ultimately, there will be a future in which specific anti-Alzheimer's therapy will be combined with lifestyle interventions targeting general brain health to jointly combat the disease. In this Seminar, we discuss the main developments in Alzheimer's research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Coeliac disease. (United States)

    Leeds, John S; Hopper, Andrew D; Sanders, David S


    Coeliac disease is a common but often under diagnosed condition with important complications. It is due to immune-mediated gluten intolerance and may present in a number of ways. It has become more frequently diagnosed due to the recognition of the atypical presentations. In recent years, more sensitive and specific serological markers have been developed but the gold standard of diagnosis remains duodenal biopsy. Compliance with a strict, lifelong gluten-free diet is the cornerstone of management, improving symptoms and reducing complications of the disease. For this review, we focused on papers published on coeliac disease in recent years. Particular emphasis was given to clinical papers examining new methods for the diagnosis of coeliac disease or newer therapies for managing complications. The main source was PubMed and the major gastroenterology journals. Coeliac disease is more common than once thought with a prevalence of around 1%. Diagnosis should always be confirmed with a duodenal biopsy. Management of coeliac disease with a gluten-free diet remains the cornerstone of treatment. Some complications of coeliac disease, especially neurological, are not widely accepted despite growing support from the literature. Management of enteropathy-associated lymphoma has been difficult, and the optimal therapy is not known. Current understanding is such that coeliac disease is the most widely understood autoimmune condition. 'Atypical' presentations are becoming the most common presenting features of coeliac disease. Alternatives to the gluten-free diet are about to go into clinical studies. Similarly, better serological screening tests may obviate the need for duodenal biopsy. This review will try to summarize the current understanding of coeliac disease with regard to diagnosis, management, complications and future perspectives.

  1. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Karjoo


    Full Text Available Celiac disease also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy is characterized by intestinal mucosal damage and malabsorption from dietary intake of wheat, rye or barley. Symptoms may appear with introduction of cereal in the first 3 years of life. A second peak in symptoms occurs in adults during the third or forth decade and even as late as eight decade of life. The prevalence of this disease is approximately 1 in 250 adults. The disease is more prevalent in Ireland as high as 1 in 120 adults. The disorder occurs in Arab, Hispanics, Israeli Jews, Iranian and European but is rare in Chinese and African American. To have celiac disease the patient should have the celiac disease genetic markers as HLA DQ 2 and HLA DQ 8. Patient with celiac disease may have 95 per cent for DQ 2 and the rest is by DQ 8. Someone may have the genetic marker and never develops the disease. In general 50 percent with markers may develop celiac disease. To develop the disease the gene needs to become activated. This may happen with a viral or bacterial infection, a surgery, delivery, accident, or psychological stress. After activation of gene cause the tight junction to opens with the release of Zonulin This results in passage of gluten through the tight junction and formation of multiple antibodies and autoimmune disease. This also allows entrance of other proteins and development of multiple food allergies. As a result is shortening, flattening of intestinal villi resulting in food, vitamins and minerals malabsorption.

  2. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.


    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  3. Morgellons Disease. (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han


    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum.

  4. Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus


    Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.

  5. Celiac Disease (United States)

    ... Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ...

  6. Infectious Diseases (United States)

    ... yeasts. Athlete's foot is a common fungal infection. Parasites - animals or plants that survive by living on or in other living things. Malaria is an infection caused by a parasite. Infectious diseases can cause many different symptoms. Some ...

  7. Raynaud's Disease (United States)

    ... who have a rare disease that leads to hardening and scarring of the skin (scleroderma) have Raynaud's. ... conditioner to a warmer temperature. Use insulated drinking glasses. By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  8. Leishmaniasis Disease (United States)

    ... Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  9. Diverticular Disease (United States)

    ... The most common conditions of diverticular disease are:Diverticulosis. This is the base condition where the pouches ... more common as you age. Most people with diverticulosis don’t know they have it.Diverticulitis. This ...

  10. Endocrine Diseases (United States)

    ... hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels. In the United ...

  11. Addison's Disease (United States)

    ... who have Addison’s disease find that taking this medicine improves their mood and sex drive.If you are experiencing an Addisonian crisis, you need immediate medical care. The treatment typically ...

  12. Autoinflammatory Diseases (United States)

    ... Arthritis Lupus Polymyalgia Rheumatica Reactive Arthritis Psoriatic Arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Sjögren’s ... diseases refer to problems with the immune system, which usually fights off viruses, bacteria, and infection. It results when your immune cells ...

  13. Glomerular Diseases (United States)

    ... Transplant Financial Help for Treatment of Kidney Failure Lupus Nephritis Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults Pain Medicine & Kidney Damage ... has also been implicated as a triggering factor. Lupus nephritis is the name given to the kidney disease ...

  14. Stargardt Disease (United States)

    ... sharp central vision — for tasks like reading, watching television, and looking at faces. Decreased central vision is ... and ways to prevent it. A decrease in color perception also occurs in Stargardt disease. This is ...

  15. Celiac Disease (United States)

    ... wheat. However, wheat-free doesn't mean gluten-free . Lawmakers are working to make labels easier for people with celiac disease by requiring companies to identify other components, such as hidden ingredients ...

  16. Huntington's Disease (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Huntington's Disease Information ...

  17. Krabbe Disease (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Krabbe Disease Information ...

  18. Canavan Disease (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Canavan Disease Information ...

  19. Gaucher Disease (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Gaucher Disease Information ...

  20. Thyroid Diseases (United States)

    ... gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodules - lumps in the thyroid gland Thyroiditis - swelling of the thyroid To diagnose thyroid diseases, doctors use a medical history, physical exam, and thyroid tests. They sometimes also ...

  1. Retinal Diseases (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  2. Fungal Diseases (United States)

    ... also can infect the brain, bones, and heart (endocarditis). Superficial infections can occur in children with healthy ... B. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American ...

  3. Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Ballester Ferré, María Pilar; Boscá-Watts, Marta Maia; Mínguez Pérez, Miguel


    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology associated with an impaired immune response, with periods of activity and remission. It is characterised by patchy and transmural lesions which can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain and diarrhoea, which can seriously affect patients' quality of life. The increasing incidence and prevalence of the disease in our area has had a large impact on clinical practice, with the rapid development of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. To reduce the risk of complications, primary care physicians and gastroenterologists should be familiar with the management of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Hashimoto's Disease (United States)

    ... can lead to problems during pregnancy, such as: Preeclampsia Anemia Miscarriage Placental abruption Postpartum bleeding It also ... AIDS Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Supporting Nursing Moms at Work Popular Topics Autoimmune diseases Breastfeeding ...

  5. Hirschsprung Disease (United States)

    ... but they do know it can run in families and affects boys more often than girls. In fact, Hirschsprung disease is about five times more common in males than females. Children with Down syndrome and genetic heart conditions also ...

  6. Chagas disease (United States)

    ... major health problems in South America. Due to immigration, the disease also affects people in the United ... nodes Irregular heartbeat Rapid heartbeat Tests include: Blood culture to look for signs of infection Chest x- ...

  7. Krabbe Disease (United States)

    ... A gene provides a kind of blueprint for producing proteins. If there is an error in this ... Make a donation. Patient Care & Health Info Healthy Lifestyle Symptoms A-Z Diseases & Conditions A-Z Tests & ...

  8. Fabry Disease (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Fabry disease is caused by the lack of or faulty enzyme needed to metabolize lipids, fat-like substances that include oils, waxes, and ...

  9. Batten Disease (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment ... In some cases, the early signs are subtle, taking the form of personality and behavior changes, slow learning, clumsiness, or stumbling. Symptoms of Batten disease are ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    ... a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When dopamine levels ... Diagnosis & treatment July 07, 2015 Print Share on: Facebook Twitter References Longo DL, et al. Parkinson's disease ...

  11. Huntington disease (United States)

    ... that may be associated with this disease: Anxiety, stress, and tension Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Symptoms in children: Rigidity Slow movements Tremor Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform ...

  12. Sever's Disease (United States)

    ... place on hard surfaces, such as track, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. Sever's disease also can result from ... plate flat or high arch , which affects the angle of the heel within the foot, causing tightness ...

  13. Crohn disease (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Rioux, John D.; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Huett, Alan; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Wileman, Tom; Mizushima, Noboru; Carding, Simon; Akira, Shizuo; Parkes, Miles; Xavier, Ramnik J.


    Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.1 Prevalence in western populations is 100–150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk. PMID:20729636

  14. [Wilson's disease


    Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Ichaï, Philippe; Chapuis, Philippe; Misrahi, Micheline; Woimant, France

    2006-01-01; Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper excess. This illness results from mutations of the ATP7B gene chromosome 13. The discovery of the gene allowed a better understanding of cytosolic copper trafficking its relationship with ceruloplasmin synthesis. Symptomatic patients may present with hepatic, neurologic or psychiatric forms. Clinical and phenotypic evidences provide only presumptive arguments for this disease which can be rou...

  15. Menkes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth B


    Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar 'kinky' hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority...... of surplus copper from cells. Severely affected MD patients die usually before the third year of life. A cure for the disease does not exist, but very early copper-histidine treatment may correct some of the neurological symptoms....

  16. Borna disease.


    Hatalski, C G; Lewis, A J; Lipkin, W. I.


    Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna...

  17. Pilonidal Disease


    Khanna, Amit; Rombeau, John L.


    Pilonidal disease presents many therapeutic challenges to surgeons throughout the world. Its varied clinical presentations necessitate a wide range of treatments, thus underscoring the need to tailor the treatment to the patient and the severity of disease. Recent studies confirm the efficacy of smaller, more conservative operations for appropriate indications. When flap closures are performed, every attempt should be directed to placing sutures off (lateral) to the midline gluteal cleft. Met...

  18. Ollier disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüppner Harald


    Full Text Available Abstract Enchondromas are common intraosseous, usually benign cartilaginous tumors, that develop in close proximity to growth plate cartilage. When multiple enchondromas are present, the condition is called enchondromatosis also known as Ollier disease (WHO terminology. The estimated prevalence of Ollier disease is 1/100,000. Clinical manifestations often appear in the first decade of life. Ollier disease is characterized by an asymmetric distribution of cartilage lesions and these can be extremely variable (in terms of size, number, location, evolution of enchondromas, age of onset and of diagnosis, requirement for surgery. Clinical problems caused by enchondromas include skeletal deformities, limb-length discrepancy, and the potential risk for malignant change to chondrosarcoma. The condition in which multiple enchondromatosis is associated with soft tissue hemangiomas is known as Maffucci syndrome. Until now both Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome have only occurred in isolated patients and not familial. It remains uncertain whether the disorder is caused by a single gene defect or by combinations of (germ-line and/or somatic mutations. The diagnosis is based on clinical and conventional radiological evaluations. Histological analysis has a limited role and is mainly used if malignancy is suspected. There is no medical treatment for enchondromatosis. Surgery is indicated in case of complications (pathological fractures, growth defect, malignant transformation. The prognosis for Ollier disease is difficult to assess. As is generally the case, forms with an early onset appear more severe. Enchondromas in Ollier disease present a risk of malignant transformation of enchondromas into chondrosarcomas.

  19. [Chagas disease]. (United States)

    Develoux, M; Lescure, F-X; Le Loup, G; Pialoux, G


    Chagas disease (human American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonose caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Vectors are Triatoma spp. insects. T. cruzi can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and transplacentally. Infection is generally acquired during infancy. The acute infection is rarely symptomatic and is followed by a chronic phase. Chronic infected people are asymptomatic (indeterminate stage) and may remain at this stage for the rest of their lives. About a third of infected people will develop a chronic Chagas disease which affects the heart and the digestive tract. Morbidity and mortality of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) are high. Specific treatment of asymptomatic infected individual could reduce the risk of progression to CCC. With control initiatives case incidence declined in most endemic countries. American trypanosomiasis has become an emerging imported disease in North America and Europe because of the migration of population originating from endemic zones. They are only two available drugs for specific treatment of Chagas disease: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Both have frequent side effects and variable efficacy according the phase of the disease. There is an urgent need for new treatments and better serological tests. Policies must be developed to avoid the risk of transmission trough blood transfusion and transplantation in developed countries.

  20. HIV and Rheumatic Disease (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  1. Disease Outbreak News (United States)

    ... Diseases Biorisk reduction Disease outbreak news Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Latest DONs Rift Valley fever – Gambia ... Disease outbreaks by country RSS feeds Disease outbreak news Related links Ebola virus disease - website Avian influenza ...

  2. Celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Jensen, Michael Dam; Reimer, Maria Christina


    This national clinical guideline approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology describes the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease (CD) in adults. CD is a chronic immunemediated enteropathy of the small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing proteins......, which are found in wheat, rye, and barley. The disease prevalence is 0.5-1.0%, but CD remains under-diagnosed. The diagnosis relies on the demonstration of lymphocyte infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, and villous atrophy in duodenal biopsies. Serology, malabsorption, biochemical markers...... the small intestinal mucosa and absorption. Adherence to a GFD usually requires dietary advice from a clinical dietician. The monitoring of antibody levels and malabsorption markers is crucial during follow-up and allows for early treatment of disease complications. Important complications include...

  3. [Dupuytren disease]. (United States)

    Wagner, Pablo; Román, Javier A; Vergara, Jorge


    Dupuytren disease (DD) is a connective tissue disorder that consists in fibromatosis of the palmar and digital fascia (in form of nodules or flanges) that leads to the development of flexion contractures of the palm and fingers. The little and ring finger are particularly affected. The disease can limit hand function, reducing the quality of life. The disease can have a traumatic origin and is also associated with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, dyslipidemia, epilepsy and AIDS, among others. However, none of these conditions can fully explain the genesis of DD. A hereditary component is described in 40% of patients and is attributed to an autosomal dominant gene of variable penetrance, probably related to collagen synthesis. However there are also spontaneous and recessive inheritance cases. The diagnosis is clinical and based on physical examination. Treatment ranges from observation or use of injectable collagenase to the surgical option in cases with significant functional limitations.

  4. Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Moody, G H; Drummond, J R; Newton, J P


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating and progressive disease that can affect dental practice in a number of ways. Not only will increasing numbers of AD patients be treated by dentists in the future but the dentist and members of his family may also be unfortunate enough to become affected. In the United Kingdom, nearly 10% of the population over 65 years of age, and more than 20% of those over 80 years develop progressive deterioration of memory, resulting in a breakdown of intellectual capacity and personality. More than half of those are suffering from AD. The purpose of this review is to describe the aetiology and behavioural aspects of this distressing disease and to highlight some problems that the dentist may encounter when treating those patients.

  5. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z


    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  6. Dupuytren's disease. (United States)

    Worrell, Michael


    Dupuytren's disease is a benign contractile disorder of the hand. The condition commonly affects older men of Celtic descent. Although fibroproliferation and collagen alteration play a role in its etiology, defining a cause remains elusive. Nonoperative intervention for advanced disease has shown only short-term benefit. Therefore, open fasciectomy has become the mainstay of treatment. Associated morbidity and recurrence have prompted investigation into less invasive techniques, including needle aponeurotomy and enzymatic fasciotomy. Data from phase III studies using injectable collagenase are changing treatment algorithms. Postoperative rehabilitation includes nighttime splinting and immediate active range of motion exercises to facilitate return to function. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Dent's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakker Rajesh V


    Full Text Available Abstract Dent's disease is a renal tubular disorder characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction, including low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure. These features are generally found in males only, and may be present in early childhood, whereas female carriers may show a milder phenotype. Prevalence is unknown; the disorder has been reported in around 250 families to date. Complications such as rickets or osteomalacia may occur. The disease is caused by mutations in either the CLCN5 (Dent disease 1 or OCRL1 (Dent disease 2 genes that are located on chromosome Xp11.22 and Xq25, respectively. CLCN5 encodes the electrogenic Cl-/H+ exchanger ClC-5, which belongs to the CLC family of Cl- channels/transporters. OCRL1 encodes a phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 5-phosphatase and mutations are also associated with Lowe Syndrome. The phenotype of Dent's disease is explained by the predominant expression of ClC-5 in the proximal tubule segments of the kidney. No genotype-phenotype correlation has been described thus far, and there is considerable intra-familial variability in disease severity. A few patients with Dent's disease do not harbour mutations in CLCN5 and OCRL1, pointing to the involvement of other genes. Diagnosis is based on the presence of all three of the following criteria: low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and at least one of the following: nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, hematuria, hypophosphatemia or renal insufficiency. Molecular genetic testing confirms the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis includes other causes of generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubules (renal Fanconi syndrome, hereditary, acquired, or caused by exogenous substances. Antenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic testing is not advised. The care of patients with Dent's disease is supportive, focusing on the treatment of hypercalciuria and

  8. Pilonidal disease. (United States)

    Khanna, Amit; Rombeau, John L


    Pilonidal disease presents many therapeutic challenges to surgeons throughout the world. Its varied clinical presentations necessitate a wide range of treatments, thus underscoring the need to tailor the treatment to the patient and the severity of disease. Recent studies confirm the efficacy of smaller, more conservative operations for appropriate indications. When flap closures are performed, every attempt should be directed to placing sutures off (lateral) to the midline gluteal cleft. Meticulous attention to the details of immediate and long-term postoperative care is paramount.

  9. Ostrich diseases. (United States)

    Verwoerd, D J


    Scientific knowledge of ostrich diseases is incomplete and very fragmented, with specific details on technical aspects of diagnostic and/or screening tests completely absent in most cases. Salmonella Typhimurium is common in multispecies collections and causes mortality in chicks younger than three months on commercial farms, but is rarely found in chicks older than six months, or slaughter birds of twelve to fourteen months in southern Africa. Campylobacter jejuni and Chlamydia psittaci are occasionally reported, mainly in young ostriches, but both remain a diagnostic challenge. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is transmitted to domestic animals including ostriches, principally by ticks of the genus Hyalomma. In the ostrich, the disease causes no clinical symptoms during a viraemia of approximately four days. Spongiform encephalopathy has not been reliably reported in ostriches, while anthrax has occurred rarely in modern times but was reportedly an important cause of death approximately 100 years ago in South Africa. Salmonella Gallinarum and S. Pullorum are unknown in ostriches. Pasteurella multocida occurs but is easily contained with antibiotics. Mycoplasma spp. are regularly found in an upper respiratory disease syndrome complicated by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Ostriches of all ages are susceptible to challenge by velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV), but standard inactivated La Sota poultry vaccines can stimulate protective immunity lasting over six months. The viraemic period in vaccinated slaughter ostriches is between nine and eleven days and there are no indications of a carrier state or presence of the virus in the meat or any other tissues after this period, with peak immunoglobulin G response reached on day fourteen post infection. Haemagglutination inhibition tests are significantly less sensitive and less specific than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cloacal and choanal swabs used for direct virological screening in clinically

  10. Hansen's disease: a vanishing disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinésio Talhari


    Full Text Available The introduction, implementation, successes and failures of multidrug therapy (MDT in all Hansen's disease endemic countries are discussed in this paper. The high efficacy of leprosy treatment with MDT and the global reduction of prevalence led the World Health Organization, in 1991, to establish the goal of elimination of Hansen's disease (less than 1 patient per 10,000 inhabitants to be accomplished by the year 2000. Brazil, Nepal and East Timor are among the few countries that didn't reach the elimination goal by the year 2000 or even 2005. The implications of these aspects are highlighted in this paper. Current data from endemic and previously endemic countries that carry a regular leprosy control programme show that the important fall in prevalence was not followed by the reduction of the incidence. This means that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae is still an issue. It is reasonable to conclude that we are still far from the most important goal of Hansen's disease control: the interruption of transmission and reduction of incidence. It is necessary to emphasize to health managers the need of keeping Hansen's disease control activities to better develop control programmes in the future. The recent international proposal to interrupt the transmission of leprosy by the year 2020 seems to unrealistic and it is discussed in this paper. The possibility of epidemiological impact related to the human immunodeficiency virus/Hansen's disease coinfection is also considered.

  11. Huntington's disease: a perplexing neurological disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huntington's disease has served as a model for the study of other more common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Symptomatic treatment of Huntington's disease involves use of Dopamine antagonists, presynaptic dopamine depleters, Antidepressants, Tranquillizers ...

  12. Bone Diseases (United States)

    ... need to get enough calcium, vitamin D, and exercise. You should also avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds of bone problems include Low bone density and osteoporosis, which make your bones weak and ...

  13. Wilson Disease (United States)

    ... people taking zinc usually do not experience side effects, some people may experience stomach upset. A health care provider ... 738–4929 Email: Internet: ... diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health ...

  14. Behcet's Disease (United States)

    ... síndrome de Behçet? (Esenciales: hojas informativas de fácil lectura) View/Download/Order Publications Behçet’s Disease, Easy-to- ... Media Moderation Policy FOIA Privacy Statement Accessibility Disclaimer Digital Strategy Open Source Data Public Data Listing NIH... ...

  15. Fifth Disease (United States)

    ... recently infected. The blood test may be particularly helpful for pregnant women who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 and are suspected to have fifth disease. Top of Page Prevention & Treatment Prevention There is no vaccine or medicine that can prevent parvovirus B19 infection. ...

  16. [Trophoblastic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate-Booij, M.J. ten; Lok, C.A.; Verheijen, R.H.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Trommel, N.E. van


    Hydatidiform mole is the most frequently-occurring gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Patients with GTD have elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) produced by the trophoblast. After evacuation of the mole, weekly serum HCG determinations can be used to assess whether the trophoblast is

  17. Prionic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araujo


    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative illnesses due to the accumulation of small infectious pathogens containing protein but apparently lacking nucleic acid, which have long incubation periods and progress inexorably once clinical symptoms appear. Prions are uniquely resistant to a number of normal decontaminating procedures. The prionopathies [Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD and its variants, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome and fatal familial insomnia (FFI] result from accumulation of abnormal isoforms of the prion protein in the brains of normal animals on both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The accumulation of this protein or fragments of it in neurons leads to apoptosis and cell death. There is a strong link between mutations in the gene encoding the normal prion protein in humans (PRNP - located on the short arm of chromosome 20 – and forms of prion disease with a familial predisposition (familial CJD, GSS, FFI. Clinically a prionopathy should be suspected in any case of a fast progressing dementia with ataxia, myoclonus, or in individuals with pathological insomnia associated with dysautonomia. Magnetic resonance imaging, identification of the 14-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid, tonsil biopsy and genetic studies have been used for in vivo diagnosis circumventing the need of brain biopsy. Histopathology, however, remains the only conclusive method to reach a confident diagnosis. Unfortunately, despite numerous treatment efforts, prionopathies remain short-lasting and fatal diseases.

  18. Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, Lena Elisabeth; Law, Ian; Jønch, Aia


    In this open-label pilot study, the authors evaluated the effect of memantine on the distribution of brain glucose metabolism in four Huntington's disease (HD) patients as determined by serial 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose [F(18)]FDG-PET scans over a period of 3-4 months (90-129 days, with one patient...

  19. Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. ...

  20. Blount Disease (United States)

    ... a while. You'll also probably need physical therapy . The good news is that most teens make a complete recovery. The Outlook Most teens who have surgery to correct Blount disease can return to all their normal activities, even competitive sports. One lesson many people take away from dealing ...

  1. Graves' Disease (United States)

    ... to pump enough blood to the body (congestive heart failure). Thyroid storm. A rare, but life-threatening complication of Graves' disease is thyroid storm, also known as accelerated hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxic crisis. It's more likely when severe hyperthyroidism is untreated ...

  2. Cushing disease (United States)

    ... Symptoms Symptoms of Cushing disease include: Upper body obesity (above the waist) and thin arms and legs ... blood glucose and A1C to test for diabetes Lipid and cholesterol ... Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, ...

  3. Crohn's Disease (United States)

    ... nutrition are sometimes given to Crohn’s disease patients to give the inflamed intestine a respite from solid food. top of page This page was reviewed on May 24, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking ...

  4. Rh Disease (United States)

    ... immunoglobulin called Rho(D) immune globulin (brand name RhoGAM®). RhoGAM can prevent your body from producing Rh antibodies ... and future pregnancies won’t get Rh disease. RhoGAM doesn’t work if your body has already ...

  5. Cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    +2348153319600. ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular disease is a global epidemic; the prevalence is currently stable in the developed world but .... that culminate in malnutrition are believed to predominate. However, urbanization of .... risk factors promotes migration of inflammatory cells from the circulation and the ...

  6. Periodontal diseases. (United States)

    Kinane, Denis F; Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Papapanou, Panos N


    Periodontal diseases comprise a wide range of inflammatory conditions that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (the gingiva, bone and periodontal ligament), which could lead to tooth loss and contribute to systemic inflammation. Chronic periodontitis predominantly affects adults, but aggressive periodontitis may occasionally occur in children. Periodontal disease initiation and propagation is through a dysbiosis of the commensal oral microbiota (dental plaque), which then interacts with the immune defences of the host, leading to inflammation and disease. This pathophysiological situation persists through bouts of activity and quiescence, until the affected tooth is extracted or the microbial biofilm is therapeutically removed and the inflammation subsides. The severity of the periodontal disease depends on environmental and host risk factors, both modifiable (for example, smoking) and non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility). Prevention is achieved with daily self-performed oral hygiene and professional removal of the microbial biofilm on a quarterly or bi-annual basis. New treatment modalities that are actively explored include antimicrobial therapy, host modulation therapy, laser therapy and tissue engineering for tissue repair and regeneration.

  7. Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P


    Full Text Available Abstract Fabry disease (FD is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain, cutaneous (angiokeratoma, renal (proteinuria, kidney failure, cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with

  8. Morgellons disease? (United States)

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John


    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients.

  9. [Crohn's disease]. (United States)

    Márquez, V R; Sanz, M; Calderaro-di Ruggiero, F; Daza Ramírez, A; Casale Ochoa, E; Márquez Atars, I


    A 48 years old male patient was admitted in the Risquez Hospital of Caracas, Venezuela presenting intestinal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and two stenotic lesions in the small intestine were found. One of them in the proximal jejunum and the other in distal ileum. Both were resected and terminal jejunum-jejunum anastomosis and terminal jejunum-ileum anastomosis were performed. Pathological diagnosis was Crohn's Disease. Post operative evolution was satisfactory and four years after the patient is well.

  10. Heavy Chain Diseases (United States)

    ... heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy chain ... disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy chain ...

  11. Diabetic Eye Disease (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  12. Chronic Beryllium Disease (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Beryllium Disease Chronic Beryllium Disease Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... MD, MSPH, FCCP (February 01, 2016) What is chronic beryllium disease (CBD)? Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a disease ...

  13. What Is Vascular Disease? (United States)

    ... Policy What Is Vascular Disease? What Is Vascular Disease? Vascular disease is any abnormal condition of the blood ... Privacy Policy × Your ticket for the: What Is Vascular Disease? Title What Is Vascular Disease? USD Close Print

  14. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  15. [MENETRIER DISEASE]. (United States)

    Maev, I V; Andreev, D N; Samsonov, A A


    Menetrier disease (MD) is a very rare stomach pathology of unknown etiology characterized by manifest hypertrophy of gastric mucosa. The main causes of MD are believed to be Helicobacter pylori and cytomegalovirus infections. The most frequent symptom is epigastric pain. Also common are peripheral oedema due to hypoalbuminemia and increased permeability of gastric mucosa. The main diagnostic signs of MD include diffusive enhancement of mucosal folds, foveolar hyperplasia and glandular atrophy with a decrease in the number of main and parietal cells, hypoalbuminemia and peripheral oedema. MD being a very rare condition, the optimal methodfor its treatment is unknown.

  16. Cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Gavagan, Thomas


    The primary care physician is in a position to advise patients on the efficacy of alternative and complementary therapies as they relate to cardiovascular diseases. Anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation has not been shown to be efficacious in decreasing cardiovascular events. N-3 fatty acids appear to be beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events but their use in primary prevention is not clear. Adoption of vegetable-based diets, including whole grains, can be recommended to decrease cardiovascular events, lower cholesterol and help lower blood pressure. For patients with hypercholesterolemia, cholestin, a red-yeast rice supplement, has been shown to be effective. Garlic supplements may have some mild cholesterol-lowering effect, but this effect is not significant enough to recommend clinically. Herbal therapies with hawthorn and ubiquinone (Q10) are of possible benefit in congestive heart failure. An integrated program of rigorous diet, exercise and stress reduction in motivated patients with cardiovascular disease may have value as an alternative to cardiovascular medications and surgical interventions.

  17. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases


    Patrícia Weidlich; Renata Cimões; Claudio Mendes Pannuti; Rui Vicente Oppermann


    Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one r...

  18. Alzheimer Disease (United States)

    Apostolova, Liana G.


    ABSTRACT Purpose of Review: This article discusses the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent Findings: In recent years, significant advances have been made in the fields of genetics, neuroimaging, clinical diagnosis, and staging of AD. One of the most important recent advances in AD is our ability to visualize amyloid pathology in the living human brain. The newly revised criteria for diagnosis of AD dementia embrace the use for biomarkers as supportive evidence for the underlying pathology. Guidelines for the responsible use of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) have been developed, and the clinical and economic implications of amyloid PET imaging are actively being explored. Summary: Our improved understanding of the clinical onset, progression, neuroimaging, pathologic features, genetics, and other risk factors for AD impacts the approaches to clinical diagnosis and future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27042902

  19. Hirayama disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul T Tayade


    Full Text Available A 17-year-old male, who gave up his favorite sport cricket and started playing football, presented with one-year history of slowly progressive atrophic weakness of forearms and hands. Neurological examination showed weak and wasted arms, forearms and hand but no evidence of pyramidal tract, spinothalmic tract and posterior column lesions. Plain cervical spine radiographs showed no abnormal findings. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed asymmetric cord atrophy; images obtained with neck flexed showed the anterior shifting of the posterior wall of the lower cervical dural sac resulting in cord compression. These findings suggest Hirayama disease, a kind of cervical myelopathy related to the flexion movements of the neck.

  20. Vibroacoustic disease. (United States)

    Branco, N A A Castelo; Alves-Pereira, M


    Vibroacoustic disease (VAD) is a whole-body, systemic pathology, characterized by the abnormal proliferation of extra-cellular matrices, and caused by excessive exposure to low frequency noise (LFN). VAD has been observed in LFN-exposed professionals, such as, aircraft technicians, commercial and military pilots and cabin crewmembers, ship machinists, restaurant workers, and disk-jockeys. VAD has also been observed in several populations exposed to environmental LFN. This report summarizes what is known to date on VAD, LFN-induced pathology, and related issues. In 1987, the first autopsy of a deceased VAD patient was performed. The extent of LFN induced damage was overwhelming, and the information obtained is, still today, guiding many of the associated and ongoing research projects. In 1992, LFN-exposed animal models began to be studied in order to gain a deeper knowledge of how tissues respond to this acoustic stressor. In both human and animal models, LFN exposure causes thickening of cardiovascular structures. Indeed, pericardial thickening with no inflammatory process, and in the absence of diastolic dysfunction, is the hallmark of VAD. Depressions, increased irritability and aggressiveness, a tendency for isolation, and decreased cognitive skills are all part of the clinical picture of VAD. LFN is a demonstrated genotoxic agent, inducing an increased frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in both human and animal models. The occurrence of malignancies among LFN-exposed humans, and of metaplastic and displastic appearances in LFN-exposed animals, clearly corroborates the mutagenic outcome of LFN exposure. The inadequacy of currently established legislation regarding noise assessments is a powerful hindrance to scientific advancement. VAD can never be fully recognized as an occupational and environmental pathology unless the agent of disease--LFN--is acknowledged and properly evaluated. The worldwide suffering of LFN-exposed individuals is staggering and it is

  1. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ) (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to Health Professional ... Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle disease virus ( ...

  2. Kidney Disease Basics (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys ... work, be active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is often “progressive”, which ...

  3. Living with Kawasaki Disease (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  4. Progression of Liver Disease (United States)

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ... The Progression of Liver Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease: Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant ...

  5. Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease › Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease It is estimated that up to 30% of ... continuing to ingest gluten. Causes of Poorly Responsive Celiac Disease Continuing Gluten Ingestion The most common reason for ...

  6. Testing for Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... hypertension artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Chronic Kidney Disease Tests & Diagnosis How can I tell if I have kidney disease? Early kidney disease usually doesn’t have any ...

  7. Fatty Liver Disease (United States)

    ... two main types: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) Alcoholic fatty liver disease, also called alcoholic steatohepatitis What is nonalcoholic ... lead to cirrhosis or liver cancer. What is alcoholic fatty liver disease? Alcoholic fatty liver disease is due to ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Dementia (United States)

    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...

  9. Thyroid Disease and Teens (United States)

    ... Situations Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Print A ... other parts of your body. continue What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland ...

  10. Thyroid Disease (for Parents) (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Thyroid Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Thyroid Disease Print A ... many other parts of the body. What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease is when the thyroid gland ...

  11. About Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease (CKD) ... Learn about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage ...

  12. Men and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Men and Heart Disease Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: Interactive Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke Heart Disease Facts in Men Heart disease is the leading ...

  13. [Castleman disease]. (United States)

    Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A


    A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy.

  14. [Fukuhara disease]. (United States)

    Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi


    MERRF is an acronym of myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers and was first reported as a new nosological entity belonging to mitochondrial encephalomyopathies in San Remo symposium on "Mitochondrial Pathology" in 1982. MERRF was named Fukuhara disease by Rowland (1983). The first reported patient had been diagnosed as having Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with Friedreich's ataxia. However, nowadays, the previously reported cases as having Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with Friedreich's ataxia are regarded as having been suffered from MERRF. The history in establishing the nosological entity of MERRF was described. Patients with MERRF develop myoclonus, epileptic seizures, cerebellar ataxia, dementia, sensorineural hearing disturbance, optic atrophy, muscular wasting, and foot deformities at the advanced stage. Pathological findings show degeneration of the dentate nuclei, globus pallidus, and red nuclei, substantia nigra, inferior olivary nuclei, cerebellar cortex, and spinal cord. The posterior columns, the spinocerebellar tracts, and Clark's columns are degenerating in the spinal cord. The pyramidal tracts never show a severe degeneration as in Friedreich's ataxia. The skeletal muscles show mitochondrial abnormalities histologically and electron microscopically. Clinical features of MERRF are not necessarily uniform in the early stage and muscle biopsy findings are also very mild in some patients with MERRF, necessitating genetic analysis for diagnosis. Most of patients show a point mutation (A --> G) of nt 8344 in mitochondrial DNA.

  15. Castleman disease and associated autoimmune disease. (United States)

    Muskardin, Theresa W; Peterson, Bruce A; Molitor, Jerry A


    Castleman disease can occur in association with autoimmune connective tissue disease and confound the clinical picture, resulting in delayed diagnosis and suboptimal treatment. This review focuses on the intersection of Castleman disease and autoimmunity with an emphasis on shared pathology and mutually beneficial treatments. Targeting CD-20, interleukin-6, and the nuclear factor-κB pathway has shown promise in achieving long-term remission in patients with Castleman disease and associated autoimmune features. Advances in understanding of pathogenic cell types and cytokines in Castleman disease have allowed the development of targeted therapies successful in the treatment of both Castleman disease and associated autoimmune disease.

  16. Associated Autoimmune Diseases (United States)

    ... commonly associated with celiac disease - Grave’s disease and Hashimoto’s disease. Grave’s Disease: An overactive thyroid. Symptoms may ... feeling too warm, restlessness, insomnia, diarrhea, irritability, palpitations. Hashimoto’s Disease: An underactive thyroid. Symptoms may include weight ...

  17. Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease. (United States)

    McBroom, Lynn W.


    Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

  18. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 16, 2007 ... disease (CKD). It is unclear how much of the association between kidney and vascular disease results from. • vascular disease causing kidney failure. • kidney failure causing vascular ... patients with CKD, with acute myocardial infarction accounting for 20% of ... failure and death. Valvular calcification may.

  19. Lysosomal storage disease 2 - Pompe's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Reuser, Arnold J. J.


    Pompe's disease, glycogen-storage disease type II, and acid maltase deficiency are alternative names for the same metabolic disorder. It is a pan-ethnic autosomal recessive trait characterised by acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency leading to lysosomal glycogen storage. Pompe's disease is also

  20. Understanding cardiovascular disease (United States)

    ... page: // Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most ...

  1. Learn About Neuromuscular Disease (United States)

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search Close Learn About Neuromuscular Disease Muscular dystrophy, ALS and related ... power of a multiple-disease approach, MDA leverages learnings from one disease to accelerate progress in others ...

  2. Heart Disease and Stroke (United States)

    ... email updates Enter email Submit Heart Disease and Stroke Heart disease and stroke are important health issues ... Stroke risk factors View more Heart Disease and Stroke resources Related information Heart-healthy eating Stress and ...

  3. Pediatric Celiac Disease (United States)

    ... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, and ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming gluten ...

  4. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Pregnancy and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email A new baby is ... disease and pregnancy. Can a woman with "mild" kidney disease have a baby? That depends. There is good ...

  5. Chronic Kidney Diseases (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print A ... pressure at a healthy level. continue Kinds of Kidney Diseases Like any complicated machine, not all kidneys work ...

  6. Parkinson disease - discharge (United States)

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (United States)

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) > Kidney Disease > Chronic Kidney ... treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ...

  8. Lyme Disease Data (United States)

    ... Lyme disease FAQ Health care providers Educational materials Data and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... sixth most common Nationally Notifiable disease . Lyme Disease Data File To facilitate the public health and research ...

  9. Autoimmune liver disease panel (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  10. Liver Disease and IBD (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  11. Eye Disease Simulations (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  12. Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alzheimer's Disease Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... How many Americans over age 65 may have Alzheimer's disease? as many as 5 million as many ...

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) (United States)

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Fact Sheet Untreated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of ...

  14. Celiac Disease Tests (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... Seems to Be on the Rise, Mainly in Elderly: Study Blood markers for the disease rose from ...

  15. Heart Diseases and Disorders (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  16. Heart Disease (For Kids) (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the cardiovascular ...

  17. Lyme disease (image) (United States)

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ...

  19. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases (United States)


    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  20. Disease: H00131 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available splenomegaly, and cardiac valve disease. Inherited metabolic disease; Lysosomal storage disease (MPS6) ARSB;... TITLE ... Current strategies in the management of lysosomal storage diseases. ...

  1. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases. (United States)

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan


    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rheumatic diseases and pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, there is spontaneous improvement in disease symptoms. However, rheumatic diseases and their treatment can have a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes. Poor pregnancy outcomes are largely associated with high disease activity. Pregnant women with rheumatic diseases ...

  3. The integrated disease network. (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Buchan, Natalie; Larminie, Chris; Pržulj, Nataša


    The growing body of transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data generated from disease states provides a great opportunity to improve our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving diseases and shared between diseases. The use of both clinical and molecular phenotypes will lead to better disease understanding and classification. In this study, we set out to gain novel insights into diseases and their relationships by utilising knowledge gained from system-level molecular data. We integrated different types of biological data including genome-wide association studies data, disease-chemical associations, biological pathways and Gene Ontology annotations into an Integrated Disease Network (IDN), a heterogeneous network where nodes are bio-entities and edges between nodes represent their associations. We also introduced a novel disease similarity measure to infer disease-disease associations from the IDN. Our predicted associations were systemically evaluated against the Medical Subject Heading classification and a statistical measure of disease co-occurrence in PubMed. The strong correlation between our predictions and co-occurrence associations indicated the ability of our approach to recover known disease associations. Furthermore, we presented a case study of Crohn's disease. We demonstrated that our approach not only identified well-established connections between Crohn's disease and other diseases, but also revealed new, interesting connections consistent with emerging literature. Our approach also enabled ready access to the knowledge supporting these new connections, making this a powerful approach for exploring connections between diseases.

  4. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases]. (United States)

    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A


    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Treating neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Director: Mectizan Donation Program, Georgia, USA.


    Full Text Available The name neglected tropical diseases (NTDs covers a range of diseases that cause disability, early death, and slowed physical and mental development. The first two in entries Table 1 are diseases that cause blindness. These diseases of neglected and impoverished peoples maintain a cycle of poverty and delayed development of the populations affected. The diseases themselves have been neglected in the push to control malaria, TB and AIDS.

  6. The Relationship Between Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease (United States)


    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent and destructive chronic disease. Numerous studies support an association between periodontal disease and other...systemic diseases ( diabetes , cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, adverse pregnancy outcome, etc.). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a...destruction seen in periodontal disease. The association between the two diseases has never been investigated. A reasonable mechanism in which periodontal

  7. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Bate, C.; van Gool, W. A.; Hoozemans, J. J. M.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Veerhuis, R.; Williams, A.


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion disease are characterized neuropathologically by extracellular deposits of Abeta and PrP amyloid fibrils, respectively. In both disorders, these cerebral amyloid deposits are co-localized with a broad variety of inflammation-related proteins (complement factors,

  8. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease (United States)

    ... other risk factors. Overweight and obese adults with risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, ... lead to clinically meaningful reductions in some risk factors, larger weight ... of developing cardiovascular disease. Even when glucose levels are under control, ...

  9. Lyme disease associated with Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Meer-Scherrer, Laurence; Chang Loa, Chien; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Fallon, Brian A; Tilton, Richard C


    This case report discusses a patient with co-occurring neuroborreliosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although no claim is made for causality nor is there objective evidence that spirochetes are involved in AD, co-infection may exacerbate the symptoms of either neuroborreliosis or AD. Much is to be learned about the role of spirochetes in degenerative central nervous system disease.

  10. Mycobacterial disease in patients with rheumatic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Boeree, M.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Soolingen, D van


    This Review focuses on the emergence of mycobacterial disease in patients undergoing treatment for rheumatic disease with four new drug classes--tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, human interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonists, anti-CD20 antibodies and CD4(+) T-cell costimulation

  11. Inflammatory bowel diseases, celiac disease, and bone. (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Luisa


    The article summarizes the current knowledge on the pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment of bone problems in the major inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) and celiac disease. It presents the physiological relationship between intestine and bone as well as the alterations determined by disease-disrupted intestinal integrity. Two hypotheses about the pathogenetic mechanisms of bone metabolism derangements and bone loss are discussed: the classical one, that indicates calcium malabsorption as the main culprit, and the new one, that emphasizes the role of inflammation. The article summarizes the available epidemiological data about osteopenia/osteoporosis and fragility fractures in these chronic intestinal diseases and presents the state-of-the-art treatment options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Jokinen, E


    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Home / Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic Heart Disease What Is The term "diabetic heart ... Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD may include coronary heart disease ( ...

  14. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH (United States)

    ... NASH). Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. No medicines have been approved to treat NAFLD ... Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  15. Vanishing White Matter Disease (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  16. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  18. What Is Parkinson's Disease? (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Foundation News (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  1. Mobility (Parkinson's Disease) (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  2. Diagnosis (Parkinson's Disease) (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  3. What Is Kawasaki Disease? (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Cardiovascular Conditions What is Kawasaki Disease? Kawasaki disease is a children’s illness. It’s also known as Kawasaki syndrome or mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. About 75 percent of people ...

  4. Heart disease and women (United States)

    ... 22367731 . Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. ...

  5. Coronary heart disease (United States)

    ... 21325087 . Ridker PM, Libby P, Buring JE. Risk markers and the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  7. Disseminated hydatid disease. (United States)

    Canda, Aras Emre


    Echinococcus infestation is endemic in certain parts of the world. Extrahepatic dissemination of the disease is rare. Successful management of these patients and possible routes for abdominopelvic dissemination of the disease are discussed.

  8. Celiac disease - sprue (United States)

    ... Gluten intolerance; Gluten-sensitive enteropathy; Gluten-free diet celiac disease ... The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown. The lining of the intestines have small areas called villi which project outward into the opening of the ...

  9. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations (United States)

    ... this page: // Celiac disease - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families. ...

  10. Lewy Body Disease (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 1 CareMAP: Cambios para ...

  12. Diabetic Heart Disease (United States)

    ... about other tests and procedures, go to the diagnosis sections of the Health Topics Coronary Heart Disease , Heart Failure , and Cardiomyopathy articles. Treatment Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is treated ...

  13. Cat Scratch Disease (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (United States)

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  15. Carotid Artery Disease (United States)

    ... head with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow or blocked, usually because ... other substances found in the blood. Carotid artery disease is serious because it can block the blood ...

  16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (United States)

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged and ... people don't have any symptoms until their kidney disease is very advanced. Blood and urine tests are ...

  19. Interstitial Lung Disease (United States)

    ... may include: Silica dust Asbestos fibers Grain dust Bird and animal droppings Radiation treatments Indoor hot tubs ... be at increased risk of interstitial lung disease. Smoking. Some forms of interstitial lung disease are more ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Glossary (United States)

    ... Bachmann-Strauss Prize Alpha-Synuclein Imaging Prize HOME › PARKINSON'S DISEASE GLOSSARY A | B | C | D | E | F | ... used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Parkinson's disease. These drugs increase brain levels of a ...

  1. Alcoholic Liver Disease (United States)

    ... liver disease is more likely to develop if people Drink large amounts of alcohol Have been drinking a long time (usually, for more than 8 years) Are women Have a genetic makeup that makes them susceptible to alcoholic liver disease ...

  2. Gestational trophoblastic disease (United States)

    ... this page: // Gestational trophoblastic disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of conditions in which ...

  3. Diet - chronic kidney disease (United States)

    ... page: // Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease (CKD). These changes may include limiting fluids, eating ...

  4. Motor Neuron Diseases (United States)

    ... conducting clinical trials to study drugs to stimulate muscle growth in Kennedy’s disease and to suppress endogenous retroviruses ... conducting clinical trials to study drugs to stimulate muscle growth in Kennedy’s disease and to suppress endogenous retroviruses ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Affect the Urinary System? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? How Does the DBS Device Work? How ... OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - ... - Therapeutic Approaches for PD: Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Out of ...

  6. Alcoholic liver disease (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  7. Diet - liver disease (United States)

    ... page: // Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet ...

  8. The Human Disease Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kwang-Il Goh; Michael E. Cusick; David Valle; Barton Childs; Marc Vidal; Albert-László Barabási


    A network of disorders and disease genes linked by known disordergene associations offers a platform to explore in a single graphtheoretic framework all known phenotype and disease gene associations...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ... Briefings: What's in the Parkinson's Pipeline? Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: ...

  10. Inflammation and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 13,2017 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that inflammation causes ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Nurse Webinars: Interdisciplinary Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: ... Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care Partners Help is just a click away. The ...

  12. Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    ... 3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? ... and move closer to a cure. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer's. But ...

  13. American Behcet's Disease Association (United States)

    ... org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI 48308 Contact Us | Website Policy | American Behcet's Disease Association Copyright 2014

  14. Blood and Lymph Diseases (United States)

    ... as well as to serious conditions such as cancer. Diseases Anemia, sickle cell Burkitt lymphoma Gaucher ... View Cite this Page National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). Genes and Disease [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): ...

  15. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) (United States)

    ... this page: // Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hashimoto Images Endocrine glands Thyroid enlargement - scintiscan Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) Thyroid gland References Amino N, Lazarus JH, ...

  16. Anemia of chronic disease (United States)

    ... Anemia of chronic disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many types of anemia. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is anemia that is found in people ...

  17. Children and Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... this infection if their mother was infected during pregnancy. Several parasitic diseases occur occasionally in the United States and ... clothing. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) diseases ("helminth" means ... intestinal obstruction, anemia, and retarded growth and cognitive development. ...

  18. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Diabetes Inspidus Glomerular Diseases Goodpasture Syndrome Henoch-Schönlein Purpura IgA Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic ... will treat infections with antibiotics—medications that kill bacteria. If large cysts are causing pain, a health ...

  19. Collagen vascular disease (United States)

    ... page: // Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many specific conditions ...

  20. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  1. Tay-Sachs Disease (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Tay-Sachs disease is a inherited metabolic disease caused by the harmful buildup of lipids (fatty materials such as oils and acids) in ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice ... and Tomorrow Expert Briefings: A Closer Look at Anxiety and Depression in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Driving ...

  3. Hypertensive heart disease (United States)

    ... page: // Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  4. Heart disease and intimacy (United States)

    ... this page: // Heart disease and intimacy To use the sharing features on ... Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ...

  6. Hands in Systemic Disease (United States)

    ... because of disease ( gout in this case). Pyogenic Granuloma (Figure 10) This is a fleshy, moist, easily ... Figures Figure 1 - Arthritic Swelling Figure 10 - Pyogenic Granuloma Figure 11 - Terry's Nails Figure 2 - Buerger's Disease ...

  7. Cardiovascular diseases in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Lisheng


    .... World Health Organization statistics on the death rate for total cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke in men and women aged 35-74 years revealed discrepancies between rural...

  8. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  9. Immunotherapy of Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfrans, C.; Camoglio, L.; van Deventer, S. J.


    Although the initiating events of Crohn's disease are unknown, models of experimental colitis have provided new insights in the immunologically mediated pathways of mucosal inflammation. In Crohn's disease activated mucosal T lymphocytes produce proinflammatory cytokines within the mucosal

  10. Osteoporosis and Gastrointestinal Disease


    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart


    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteopor...

  11. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E


    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  12. Comorbidity of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar


    Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared....... The present article presents an overview of the evidence linking periodontitis with selected systemic diseases and calls for increased cooperation between dentists and medical doctors to provide optimal screening, treatment, and prevention of both periodontitis and its comorbidities....

  13. Kawasaki Disease (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Kawasaki Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Kawasaki Disease Print A A A What's in this ... Complications Diagnosis Treatment en español La enfermedad de Kawasaki Kawasaki disease is an illness that involves the ...

  14. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease (United States)

    ... but also to the worsening of the disease. Obstructive peripheral arterial disease most commonly develops in the arteries of the legs, including the two branches of the aorta (iliac arteries), main arteries of the thighs (femoral arteries), of ... arterial disease may also develop in the part ...

  15. sickle cell disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Background: Biochemical abnormalities have been associated with sickle cell disease. Studies on phosphorus and magnesium in sickle cell disease have been conflicting. The re is paucity of information on the role of these ions in the pathogenesis and management of sickle cell disease. This study was set out to ...

  16. Tick-Borne Diseases (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH TICK-BORNE DISEASES Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne ... viruses, or parasites. Some of the most common tick-borne diseases in the United States include: Lyme disease, babesiosis, ...

  17. Heart Disease in Women (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  18. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (United States)

    ... Examples of connective tissue diseases include lupus , scleroderma , rheumatoid arthritis , Sjögren's syndrome , myositis and vasculitis . There are many people who have features of connective tissue disease, however, they do not fulfill the diagnostic criteria established for any one disease. In such ...

  19. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard


    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  20. What Is Crohn's Disease? (United States)

    ... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your body ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill B. ...

  1. Pompe disease: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello JF


    Full Text Available Juan Francisco Cabello,1 Deborah Marsden21Genetics and Metabolic Disease Laboratory, Nutrition and Food Technology Institute (INTA, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 2Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Pompe disease (acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency, OMIM 232300 is a rare lysosomal storage disorder due to autosomal recessive mutations in the GAA gene. It has also been called acid maltase deficiency and glycogen storage disease type II. There is a broad clinical presentation: the most severe form that presents in the first few months of life with cardiomyopathy and generalized muscle weakness that rapidly progresses to death from cardio-respiratory failure in the first year of life (infant-onset Pompe disease. A more slowly progressive disease, with little or no cardiac involvement, presents with proximal myopathy and/or pulmonary insufficiency, from the second year of life to late adulthood (late-onset Pompe disease. The recent development and introduction of enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous infusion of recombinant human acid alpha-glucosidase have made a major improvement in the morbidity and mortality of this disease. New therapies are also in development. With the availability of treatment, diagnostic methods have also improved, allowing for earlier recognition and potential early therapeutic intervention. The advent of newborn screening for Pompe disease may identify patients who can be treated before significant irreversible disease has occurred. Keywords: Pompe disease, glycogen storage disease, lysosomal storage disease, enzyme replacement therapy, gene therapy, chaperone therapy, genotype/phenotype, newborn screening

  2. Lyme disease blood test (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  3. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi L


    Full Text Available Laura Ghezzi, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Fondazione Cà Granda, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, disease-modifying drugs, diagnosis, treatment

  4. Pathogenesis-Targeted, Disease-Modifying Therapies in Parkinson Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AlDakheel, Amaal; Kalia, Lorraine V; Lang, Anthony E


    Parkinson disease is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Multiple attempts have been made to establish therapies for Parkinson disease which provide neuroprotection or disease modification...

  5. Addison′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Brata Sarkar


    Full Text Available Addison′s disease is a rare endocrinal disorder, with several oral and systemic manifestations. A variety of pathological processes may cause Addison′s disease. Classically, hyperpigmentation is associated with the disease, and intraoral pigmentation is perceived as the initial sign and develops earlier than the dermatological pigmentation. The symptoms of the disease usually progress slowly and an event of illness or accident can make the condition worse and may lead to a life-threatening crisis. In this case, several oral as well as systemic manifestation of the Addison′s disease was encountered.

  6. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine


    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...

  7. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille


    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  8. Viral Skin Diseases. (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F


    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hereditary Renal Diseases. (United States)

    Mehta, Lakshmi; Jim, Belinda


    Hereditary kidney disease comprises approximately 10% of adults and nearly all children who require renal replacement therapy. Technologic advances have improved our ability to perform genetic diagnosis and enhanced our understanding of renal and syndromic diseases. In this article, we review the genetics of renal diseases, including common monogenic diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Fabry disease, as well as complex disorders such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. We provide the nephrologist with a general strategy to approach hereditary disorders, which includes a discussion of commonly used genetic tests, a guide to genetic counseling, and reproductive options such as prenatal diagnosis or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for at-risk couples. Finally, we review pregnancy outcomes in certain renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteoporosis and gastrointestinal disease. (United States)

    Katz, Seymour; Weinerman, Stuart


    Gastrointestinal disease is often overlooked or simply forgotten as a cause of osteoporosis. Yet, the consequences of osteoporotic fractures can be devastating. Although the bulk of the published experience regarding osteoporosis is derived from the postmenopausal population, this review will focus on gastrointestinal disorders implicated in osteoporosis, with an emphasis on inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. The unique aspects of gastrointestinal diseases associated with osteoporosis include early onset of disease (and, therefore, prolonged exposure to risk factors for developing osteoporosis, particularly with inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease), malabsorption, and maldigestion of nutrients necessary for bone health and maintenance (eg, calcium, vitamin D), as well as the impact of glucocorticoids. These factors, when added to smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, hypogonadism, and a family history of osteoporosis, accumulate into an imposing package of predictors for osteoporotic fracture. This paper will review the identification and treatment strategies for patients with gastrointestinal disorders and osteoporosis.

  11. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker


    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some...... to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis...... of the methods used in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of late-onset Pompe disease. Muscle biopsy is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool in the evaluation of muscle disease. However, experience has shown that relying solely on visualizing a periodic acid-Schiff-positive vacuolar myopathy...

  12. Celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease. (United States)

    Ch'ng, Chin Lye; Jones, M Keston; Kingham, Jeremy G C


    Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patients. The pattern of presentation of CD has altered over the past three decades. Many cases are now detected in adulthood during investigation of problems as diverse as anemia, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, unexplained neurological syndromes, infertility and chronic hypertransaminasemia of uncertain cause. Among autoimmune disorders, increased prevalence of CD has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence of CD was noted to be 1% to 19% in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 2% to 5% in autoimmune thyroid disorders and 3% to 7% in primary biliary cirrhosis in prospective studies. Conversely, there is also an increased prevalence of immune based disorders among patients with CD. The pathogenesis of co-existent autoimmune thyroid disease and CD is not known, but these conditions share similar HLA haplotypes and are associated with the gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Screening high risk patients for CD, such as those with autoimmune diseases, is a reasonable strategy given the increased prevalence. Treatment of CD with a gluten-free diet should reduce the recognized complications of this disease and provide benefits in both general health and perhaps life expectancy. It also improves glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and enhances the absorption of medications for associated hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. It

  13. Disease: H00069 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00069 Glycogen storage diseases (GSD), including: von Gierke disease (GSD type Ia); Pompe (GSD type II); Cori disease, Forbe disease (GSD type III); Andersen disease (GSD type IV); McArdle (GSD type V); Hers disease (GSD type VI); Tarui disease (GSD type VII); Phosphorylase kinase ...e deficiency (GSD type 0) Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an autosomal recessive (all types except IXa and...gen, and type 0 for glycogen synthesis. Pompe disease (type II) is a lysosomal storage disease. Inherited metabolic disea

  14. [The Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A metabolic disease?]. (United States)

    Rieu, I; Boirie, Y; Morio, B; Derost, P; Ulla, M; Marques, A; Debilly, B; Bannier, S; Durif, F


    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by motor impairments (tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability) associated or not with non-motor complications (cognitive disorders, dysautonomia). Most of patients loose weight during evolution of their disease. Dysregulations of hypothalamus, which is considered as the regulatory center of satiety and energy metabolism, could play a major role in this phenomenon. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (NST) is an effective method to treat patients with advanced Parkinson's disease providing marked improvement of motor impairments. This chirurgical procedure also induces a rapid and strong body weight gain and sometimes obesity. This post-operative weight gain, which exceeds largely weight lost recorded in non-operated patient, could be responsible of metabolic disorders (such as diabetes) and cardiovascular diseases. This review describes body weight variations generated by Parkinson' disease and deep brain stimulation of the NST, and focuses on metabolic disorders capable to explain them. Finally, this review emphasizes on the importance of an adequate nutritional follow up care for parkinsonian patient. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination (United States)

    ... Adult Vaccination Records Vaccine-Preventable Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination ... are hospitalized, and some even die. People with heart disease and those who have suffered stroke are at ...

  16. Pediatric celiac disease. (United States)

    Zawahir, Shamila; Safta, Anca; Fasano, Alessio


    Celiac disease is an extremely common, although underdiagnosed, disorder. Knowledge about the varied clinical manifestations and the proper approach to screening and diagnosing celiac disease will lead to appropriate early intervention in affected children New age-dependent algorithms are emerging to properly screen for celiac disease. There is new evidence on the patchy nature of celiac disease supporting the practice of multiple duodenal biopsies including the bulb of the duodenum. Therapeutic dietary compliance, particularly in asymptomatic children, can be poor, and therefore, the involvement of a dietician trained in celiac disease is instrumental in keeping patients up to date with dietary guidelines and to improve their compliance to the diet. Expanding knowledge about the pathogenesis of celiac disease has led to the development of investigational therapeutic alternatives to the gluten-free diet. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating methods of celiac disease prevention in at-risk infants. This review aims at outlining the different manifestations of celiac disease in children as well as a step-wise approach to screen and diagnose the disease. A better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of celiac disease is paving the way to innovative diagnostic tools, preventive strategies, and therapeutic interventions alternative to a gluten-free diet.

  17. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C


    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  18. Multiple cystic lung disease. (United States)

    Ferreira Francisco, Flavia Angélica; Soares Souza, Arthur; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson


    Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt-Hogg-Dubé); other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  19. Neonatal renal cystic diseases. (United States)

    Khare, Anshika; Krishnappa, Vinod; Kumar, Deepak; Raina, Rupesh


    Neonatal renal cystic diseases have a great impact on the morbidity and mortality of the affected neonates and infants. A good insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options of various neonatal renal cystic diseases aid in early diagnosis and intervention, thereby preventing complications. PubMed search was done for articles on "neonatal renal cystic diseases" and relevant publications including reviews were considered for our article. Both hereditary and nonhereditary causes of cystic kidney diseases can result in severe morbidity and mortality. The main diagnostic modality is ultrasound imaging and most of the neonatal renal cystic diseases are detected during prenatal ultrasound screening. Commonly encountered neonatal renal cystic diseases are autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and multicystic dysplastic kidney. A thorough knowledge of various renal cystic diseases can be of extreme prognostic value. Physicians should be aware of the impact of early diagnosis and intervention on the lives of those affected. Further research about treatment of these diseases is ongoing and can result in breakthrough therapies for these patients.

  20. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin V. Gomes


    Full Text Available The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit.

  1. [Cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory diseases]. (United States)

    Cuende, José I; Pérez de Diego, Ignacio J; Godoy, Diego


    More than a century of research has shown that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process more than an infiltrative or thrombogenic process. It has been demonstrated epidemiologically and by imaging techniques, that systemic inflammatory diseases (in particular, but not exclusively, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) increase the atherosclerotic process, and has a demonstrated pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, treatments to control inflammatory diseases can modify the course of the atherosclerotic process. Although there are no specific scales for assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with these diseases, cardiovascular risk is high. A number of specific risk scales are being developed, that take into account specific factors such as the degree of inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail:; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J


    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  3. Smoking and periodontal disease. (United States)

    Zee, K-Y


    Periodontal disease is considered to be an opportunistic infection as a result of interactions between the causative agents (dental plaque) and the host responses which may be modulated by genetic, environmental and acquired risk factors. Besides being a well-confirmed risk factor in a number of systemic diseases, tobacco smoking has also been associated with periodontal disease. Over the past 10-15 years, more and more scientific data on the impact of smoking on various aspects of periodontal disease and the underlying mechanisms has been published. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the available data in order to give practitioners a better understanding of the relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Subsequently, they can use some of the information in treatment decisions and give advice to patients who are smokers suffering from periodontal disease.

  4. Aging as disease. (United States)

    De Winter, Gunnar


    In this paper, I will argue that ageing can be construed as disease. First, the concept of disease is discussed, where the distinction is made between two lines of thought, an objectivist and a subjectivist one. After determining the disease conception to be used throughout the argument, it is proposed that senescence could be seen as disease. Three common counterarguments are discussed, none of which appears strong enough to effectively counter the advocated view. In the third section, two potential implications of the view advocated here will be briefly touched upon. These are the quest for a cure or treatment for ageing and the general attitude towards the elderly. It is concluded that, utilizing an objective disease concept, ageing could be seen as a disease. None of the considered counterarguments packs enough of a punch to discard this. The implications are complex and intertwined, but need not be negative.

  5. [Interstitial lung diseases]. (United States)

    Junker, K; Brasch, F


    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of about 200 entities. In the classification of these diseases, diffuse parenchymal lung diseases with known cause, granulomatous diseases, and other specific interstitial lung diseases are separated from the important group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are classified according to the 2002 ATS/ERS consensus classification. Concerning the histological pattern, this classification differentiates between "usual interstitial pneumonia" (UIP), "nonspecific interstitial pneumonia" (NSIP), "organising pneumonia" (COP), "diffuse alveolar damage" (DAD), "respiratory bronchiolitis" (RB), "desquamative interstitial pneumonia" (DIP), "lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia" (LIP) and "unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias". A key message of this classification is that the pathologist will give the diagnosis of a histological pattern, whereas the final clinicopathologic diagnosis can be made only by the clinical pulmonologist after careful correlation with the clinical and radiologic features, which is essential in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases.

  6. Castleman disease (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Melikyan


    Full Text Available Castleman disease (angiofollicular hyperplasia of lymph nodes – a rare benign lymphoproliferative disease with prolonged asymptomatic course, associated with a wide variety of autoimmune and oncological diseases and the risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The rare occurrence of this disease and a variety of clinical course did not allow for a complete and consistent research on the etiology and pathogenesis and the standard therapies development. In recent years, the number of patients with Castleman disease in the Russian Federation has increased, which requires its recognition among non-neoplastic and neoplastic lymphadenopathy. The article provides an overview about clinical and histological variants of Castleman’s disease, its pathogenesis concepts, classification and treatment.

  7. Chronic kidney disease: diet


    Clase, Catherine M.; Smyth, Andrew


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually first recognised by an elevated serum creatinine or low estimated GFR. Continued progression of kidney disease will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelonephritis, renovascu...

  8. Periodontal disease and atherosclerosis


    Toregeani, Jeferson Freitas; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Toregeani, Krischina Aparecida Mendes; Nassar, Patrícia Oehlmeyer


    Atherosclerotic disease (AD) is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. It expresses inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and can provoke arterial wall thickening, which can be evaluated using Doppler ultrasound. Risk factors associated with AD include diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. More recently, periodontal disease (PD) has been identified as a factor related to AD. Periodontal disease has a hig...

  9. Autoimmune liver diseases


    Invernizzi, Pietro; Mackay, Ian R


    The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and their overlap forms, are still problematic in diagnosis and causation. The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics, and concepts of etiopathogenesis, for each of the above diseases, together with childhood autoimmune liver disease, overlaps, interpretations of diagnostic serology, and liver t...

  10. Exotic viral diseases. (United States)

    Dowdle, W R


    Marburg virus disease, Lassa fever, monkeypox, and Ebola virus diseases of humans have all been recognized since 1967. These are examples of some of the exotic virus diseases which through importation may present a potential public health problem in the United States. Some of these viruses are also highly hazardous to laboratory and medical personnel. This paper is a review of the general characteristics, the epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis of the exotic viruses which have been described during the last 25 years.

  11. Exotic viral diseases.


    Dowdle, W. R.


    Marburg virus disease, Lassa fever, monkeypox, and Ebola virus diseases of humans have all been recognized since 1967. These are examples of some of the exotic virus diseases which through importation may present a potential public health problem in the United States. Some of these viruses are also highly hazardous to laboratory and medical personnel. This paper is a review of the general characteristics, the epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis of the exotic viruses which have been describ...

  12. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases


    Jang, Hyeran; Serra, Carlo


    Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experiment...

  13. Alzheimer’s disease


    Bothwell, Mark; Giniger, Edward


    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most devastating brain disorders of elderly humans. It is an undertreated and under-recognized disease that is becoming a major public health problem. The last decade has witnessed a steadily increasing effort directed at discovering the etiology of the disease and developing pharmacological treatment. Recent developments include improved clinical diagnostic guidelines and improved treatment of both cognitive disturbance and behavioral problems. Symptomatic t...

  14. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases


    Shelton, Andrew A.


    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  15. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  16. National Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Program (United States)

    ... leprosy) remains a misunderstood human infectious disease. The stigma long associated with the disease still exists in ... the hallmark of Hansen's disease (leprosy), and the disability it causes. Without nerve involvement , Hansen's disease (leprosy) ...

  17. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  18. How Is Kawasaki Disease Treated? (United States)

    ... Research Home / Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki Disease What Is Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a rare ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout ...

  19. At Risk for Kidney Disease? (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  1. Disease: H01077 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts or patients with underlying disease. Infectious disease Bordetella hinzii Amoxic... the genus Bordetella that is isolated from poultry with respiratory disease. B. hinzii may cause disease in immunocompromised patien

  2. Diagnosis of Peptic Ulcer Disease (United States)

    ... Lab tests To see if you have a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, your doctor will order ... Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de ...

  3. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Also known as Coronary Artery Disease Leer en ... type of fat. Other Risks Related to Coronary Heart Disease Other conditions and factors also may contribute to ...

  4. Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease Updated:May 17,2017 Most illegal drugs can ... Alcohol and Heart Disease Caffeine and Heart Disease Tobacco and Heart Disease ...

  5. Living with Coronary Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Also known as Coronary Artery Disease Leer en ... type of fat. Other Risks Related to Coronary Heart Disease Other conditions and factors also may contribute to ...

  6. How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Women Leer en español How Does Heart ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque (plak) ...

  7. History of Kawasaki disease. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro


    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  8. Meditation and neurodegenerative diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newberg, Andrew B; Serruya, Mijail; Wintering, Nancy; Moss, Aleezé Sattar; Reibel, Diane; Monti, Daniel A


    .... Meditation techniques present an interesting potential adjuvant treatment for patients with neurodegenerative diseases and have the advantage of being inexpensive, and easy to teach and perform...

  9. Lyme disease and conservation (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.


    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Therapeutic Approaches for PD: Depression, Anxiety & ...

  11. Seronegative autoimmune diseases. (United States)

    Alessandri, Cristiano; Conti, Fabrizio; Conigliaro, Paola; Mancini, Riccardo; Massaro, Laura; Valesini, Guido


    A close relationship exists between autoimmunity and autoantibodies; despite this, some patients are persistently negative for disease-specific autoantibodies. These conditions have been defined as seronegative autoimmune diseases. Although the prevalence of seronegative autoimmune diseases is low, they may represent a practical problem because they are often difficult cases. There are also situations in which autoantibodies are positive in healthy subjects. In particular, three different conditions can be described: latent autoimmunity, preclinical autoimmunity, and postclinical autoimmunity. Here, we analyze briefly the meaning of autoantibody negativity in the seronegative autoimmune diseases, focusing in particular on the specificities associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Presentation of celiac disease. (United States)

    Reilly, Norelle Rizkalla; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter H R


    The mode of presentation of patients with celiac disease has changed dramatically over the recent decades, with diarrheal or classic presentations becoming less common. This trend is most markedly seen in children, whose main presentations include recurrent abdominal pain, growth issues, and screening groups at risk. Among adults, presentations include diarrhea, anemia, osteoporosis, and recognition at endoscopy performed for gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as screening. The groups most commonly screened include family members of patients with celiac disease, Down syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Management of Lyme disease. (United States)

    Corapi, Kristin M; Gupta, Samardeep; Liang, Matthew H


    It has been 30 years since Lyme disease was first described in a cohort of patients from Connecticut. An understanding of disease transmission, clinical manifestations and prevention strategies has been established. With the number of new cases increasing each year, it is important that clinicians are aware of the available treatment options. Most patients respond well to a course of treatment with a recommended antibiotic; however, for those patients who develop post-Lyme disease syndrome, the management is unclear. This review provides an overview of Lyme disease and the recommended treatment options available to physicians.

  14. Disease drivers of aging (United States)

    Hodes, Richard J.; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N.; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Erlandson, Kristine M.; Schafer, Marissa J.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E.; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A.; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W.


    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship—the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. PMID:27943360

  15. Disease drivers of aging. (United States)

    Hodes, Richard J; Sierra, Felipe; Austad, Steven N; Epel, Elissa; Neigh, Gretchen N; Erlandson, Kristine M; Schafer, Marissa J; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Wiley, Christopher; Campisi, Judith; Sehl, Mary E; Scalia, Rosario; Eguchi, Satoru; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Halter, Jeffrey B; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ahles, Tim A; Barzilai, Nir; Hurria, Arti; Hunt, Peter W


    It has long been known that aging, at both the cellular and organismal levels, contributes to the development and progression of the pathology of many chronic diseases. However, much less research has examined the inverse relationship-the contribution of chronic diseases and their treatments to the progression of aging-related phenotypes. Here, we discuss the impact of three chronic diseases (cancer, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes) and their treatments on aging, putative mechanisms by which these effects are mediated, and the open questions and future research directions required to understand the relationships between these diseases and aging. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert ...

  17. Atheroembolic renal disease (United States)

    ... risk factors for atherosclerosis, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. Alternative Names Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - ...

  18. Moyamoya disease: Diagnostic imaging (United States)

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kułakowska, Alina; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Korneluk-Sadzyńska, Alicja; Brzozowska, Joanna; Drozdowski, Wiesław


    Summary Moyamoya disease is a progressive vasculopathy leading to stenosis of the main intracranial arteries. The incidence of moyamoya disease is high in Asian countries; in Europe and North America, the prevalence of the disease is considerably lower. Clinically, the disease may be of ischaemic, haemorrhagic and epileptic type. Cognitive dysfunction and behavioral disturbance are atypical symptoms of moyamoya disease. Characteristic angiographic features of the disease include stenosis or occlusion of the arteries of the circle of Willis, as well as the development of collateral vasculature. Currently, magnetic resonance angiography and CT angiography with multi-row systems are the main imaging methods of diagnostics of the entire range of vascular changes in moyamoya disease. The most common surgical treatment combines the direct arterial anastomosis between the superficial temporal artery and middle cerebral, and the indirect synangiosis involving placement of vascularised tissue in the brain cortex, in order to promote neoangiogenesis. Due to progressive changes, correct and early diagnosis is of basic significance in selecting patients for surgery, which is the only effective treatment of the disease. An appropriate qualification to surgery should be based on a comprehensive angiographic and imaging evaluation of brain structures. Despite the rare occurrence of moyamoya disease in European population, it should be considered as one of causes of ischaemic or haemorrhagic strokes, especially in young patients. PMID:22802820

  19. Skin disease in dermatomyositis. (United States)

    Zaba, Lisa C; Fiorentino, David F


    This review will provide the clinician with an update on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapy for skin disease in dermatomyositis. Recent insights into the role for interferon in skin disease as well as the development and validation of quantitative tools to measure skin disease activity allow the possibility that, for the first time, dermatomyositis skin disease can serve as a valid outcome for clinical trials of targeted therapies. Also, the increasing appreciation of the heterogeneity of skin disease in dermatomyositis has already provided evidence that clinical subtypes of disease can provide important prognostic and diagnostic information to the clinician. It is becoming apparent that the skin inflammation alone has implications for systemic and malignancy risk in dermatomyositis patients, and that there may be several pathogenic similarities between muscle and skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. Recent data on therapy for calcinosis cutis highlights that more prospective studies are needed to evaluate how best to manage all manifestations of skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. A more careful description and classification of skin disease in dermatomyositis may allow the clinician to predict more accurately which patients will be at higher risk for cancer, lung disease, or muscle inflammation. In addition, given the similarities in perturbed gene expression between skin and muscle tissue, it is likely that analysis of a more readily evaluable target organ such as skin might shed light on mechanisms of disease propagation throughout the body.

  20. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heneka, Michael T; Carson, Monica J; Khoury, Joseph El


    Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis is not restricted to the neuronal compartment, but includes strong interactions with immunological mechanisms in the brain. Misfolded and aggregated proteins bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and astroglia......, and trigger an innate immune response characterised by release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to disease progression and severity. Genome-wide analysis suggests that several genes that increase the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease encode factors that regulate glial clearance of misfolded...... therapeutic or preventive strategies for Alzheimer's disease....

  1. Chemokines in Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Segerer


    Full Text Available The chemokines, members of a large family of chemotactic cytokines, act as directional cues for sorting inflammatory cell subsets to sites of inflammation or lymphoid microenvironments. In addition to their effects on migration, chemokines can also activate effector function in leukocytes and are involved in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is not surprising that chemokines play important roles in a wide range of human diseases, including genetic immunodeficiencies, infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignant tumors. In this report, we have reviewed recent developments (since mid 2003 in chemokines in renal diseases. In animal models, chemokines are produced at the site of injury, leading to inflammatory cell recruitment. The therapeutic impact of the blockade of CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, or the corresponding ligands has been further studied in various renal disease models. Recent studies on the role of the chemokine receptors in human diseases have demonstrated the expression of CXCR1, CXCR3, CCR2, and CCR5 on different subsets of inflammatory cells. The number of CCR5- and CXCR3-positive interstitial infiltrating cells (mainly T cells correlates with renal function and proteinuria in glomerular diseases. Polymorphisms of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of impact on renal disease courses and allograft survival. Chemokine receptor blockade has approached clinical applications in nonrenal diseases and awaits the application in patients with kidney diseases.

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Information Page (United States)

    ... Seizures Information Page Fibromuscular Dysplasia Information Page Foot Drop Information Page Friedreich's Ataxia Information Page Gaucher Disease Information Page Generalized Gangliosidoses Information Page Gerstmann's Syndrome ...

  3. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases (United States)

    ... African trypanosomiasis) Alveolar Echinococcosis (Echinococcosis, Hydatid Disease) Amebiasis ( Entamoeba histolytica Infection) American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm) ...

  4. The neurological disease ontology. (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Cox, Alexander P; Chaudhry, Naveed; Ng, Marcus; Sule, Donat; Duncan, William; Ray, Patrick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Smith, Barry; Ruttenberg, Alan; Szigeti, Kinga; Diehl, Alexander D


    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'disease course', and 'disorder'. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data

  5. Ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg Hansen, Louise; Mikkelsen, Søren


    Purpose. Correct prehospital diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) may accelerate and improve the treatment. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of prehospital diagnoses of ischemic heart diseases assigned by physicians. Methods. The Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) in Odense, Denmark...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Sexual Functioning? How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect the Urinary System? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? How Does the DBS Device ...

  7. foodborne diseases in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 2, 2001 ... foodborne disease outbreaks in Kenya and efforts employed in combating the diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using annual reports at the Ministry's Headquarters and medical and laboratory records available at various district hospitals. Records and reports ...

  8. A rare tonsillar disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safavi Naiyni SA


    Full Text Available A 16 year old woman with Tangier disease in palatine tonsils is reported. She has recurrent sore throat. In physical examination the palatine tonsils are hypertrophied and has very yellowish points. The facial skin is yellowish but the skin of another areas of body is normal. After tonsillectomy the pathologist report Tangier disease in palatine tonsils

  9. [DISEASES AND ITS TYPES]. (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel Domínguez


    With this conference, I intend to define what is the disease and its types explaining the criteria for classification according to different points of view, as the etiologic, teleological, social impact, spatial and temporal distribution, production mechanisms, risk factors, which affects organs, etc. As there are diseases that do not exist dedicate a final chapter of this dissertation to develop them.

  10. Chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romagnani, Paola; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Jager, Kitty J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Massy, Ziad; Wanner, Christoph; Anders, Hans-Joachim


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress

  11. Wilson's disease: current status. (United States)

    Yarze, J C; Martin, P; Muñoz, S J; Friedman, L S


    To review current concepts about the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of Wilson's disease, with an emphasis on recent developments. Published information was identified using MEDLINE and through extensive manual searching of bibliographies in identified sources. The basic biochemical alteration responsible for deranged hepatobiliary copper homeostasis in Wilson's disease has yet to be identified. The gene for Wilson's disease has been mapped to chromosome 13, but the function of its gene product has not yet been determined. The clinical manifestations of Wilson's disease are varied and often nonspecific and include a range of hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric findings. Penicillamine remains the drug of choice for the treatment of Wilson's disease, but recent experience suggests that trientine and zinc may be safe, effective alternatives. All three drugs are probably safe for use in pregnant patients with Wilson's disease. Liver transplantation is the only effective treatment for Wilsonian fulminant hepatic failure and corrects the underlying metabolic defect. Wilson's disease is a disorder of hepatobiliary copper excretion manifested predominantly by hepatic and neurologic copper toxicosis and inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although the specific underlying biochemical defect remains to be defined, specific therapy is available and usually successful. Maintaining a high index of suspicion is critical in diagnosing this readily treatable inherited disease.

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... to Use for Freezing? CareMAP: Is a Care Facility Needed? CareMAP: Caring from Afar CareMAP: Dressing Building ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  13. Bowel Diseases and Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Dorofeiev


    Full Text Available This review of contemporary publications analyzes the prevalence of combinations of bowel and renal diseases. Special attention is paid to the problem of correlation between bowel diseases and urolithiasis. We consider the possible pathogenic mechanisms of lesions, such as genetically determined violations of intestinal absorption and secretion, changes in the intestinal microbiota, systemic inflammatory response, water and electrolyte disturbances.

  14. Oxysterols and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkhem, Ingemar; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Leoni, Valerio


    Oxysterols are important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain and may be affected in neurodegenerative diseases. The levels of the brain-derived oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH) have been reported to be markedly reduced in the circulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Lee...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... el Comportamiento, Parte 1 CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: Apathy or ... Disease? Hallucinations and Delusions CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 2 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Managing ...

  16. Lyme Disease Transmission (United States)

    ... is available on the Red Cross website . Although dogs and cats can get Lyme disease, there is no evidence that they spread the ... or lice. Ticks not known to transmit Lyme disease include Lone star ticks ( Amblyomma americanum ), the American dog tick ( Dermacentor variabilis ), the Rocky Mountain wood tick ( ...

  17. Cat-Scratch Disease (United States)

    ... and Her Guinea Pig Busy Ferrets Take Commitment Dogs and Boys Build Character Together Rescued Bears Get a Second Chance Like Magic, Everyone is Equal On the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm Salmonella ...

  18. Peyroniie′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Singh


    Full Text Available Seven cases of peyronie′s disease have been reported. In 57% cases the onset of the disease was in the 4th decade of life. All the cases had painful erection along with curvature of the penis, resulting in secondary impotence. None of the patients had calcification in the penis. Brief review of the literature is given.

  19. Bistability in autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Mosekilde, Erik; Lund, Ole


    Autoimmune diseases damage host tissue, which, in turn, may trigger a stronger immune response. Systems characterized by such positive feedback loops can display co-existing stable steady states. In a mathematical model of autoimmune disease, one steady state may correspond to the healthy state...

  20. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle (United States)

    ... ing fuel, and no energy is produced for muscle function. 4 Metabolic Diseases of Muscle • ©2011 MDA A ... This slowly progressive disorder causes cardiac disease and muscle weakness in the hips, shoulders, and upper arms and legs. The neck and ...

  1. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  2. HCV and Rheumatic Disease (United States)

    ... of treating liver disease and your doctors who treat the non-liver symptoms of HCV. Also, make sure you get long-term follow-up care. This is vital, since the liver disease can become worse, leading to liver failure or liver cancer. Support groups also provide helpful support and coping ...

  3. Communicable Diseases (NCDs)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Global strategy for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. WHO Geneva: 2000. 3. World Health Organization. From burden to “best buys”: reducing the economic impact of non- communicable diseases in low- and middle- income countries. Geneva: World Health. Organization and World Economic Forum; ...

  4. Travel and Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Travel and Heart Disease Updated:Jun 23,2017 Travel precautions help people with heart disease. Traveling to a faraway place ... you do so. Tell your doctor about your travel plans to get the best ... some people might need compression stockings or additional oxygen. Others ...

  5. Ethics in prion disease. (United States)

    Bechtel, Kendra; Geschwind, Michael D


    This paper is intended to discuss some of the scientific and ethical issues that are created by increased research efforts towards earlier diagnosis, as well as to treatment of, human prion diseases (and related dementias), including the resulting consequences for individuals, their families, and society. Most patients with prion disease currently are diagnosed when they are about 2/3 of the way through their disease course (Geschwind et al., 2010a; Paterson et al., 2012b), when the disease has progressed so far that even treatments that stop the disease process would probably have little benefit. Although there are currently no treatments available for prion diseases, we and others have realized that we must diagnose patients earlier and with greater accuracy so that future treatments have hope of success. As approximately 15% of prion diseases have a autosomal dominant genetic etiology, this further adds to the complexity of ethical issues, particularly regarding when to conduct genetic testing, release of genetic results, and when or if to implement experimental therapies. Human prion diseases are both infectious and transmissible; great care is required to balance the needs of the family and individual with both public health needs and strained hospital budgets. It is essential to proactively examine and address the ethical issues involved, as well as to define and in turn provide best standards of care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy and cardiac disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosing cardiac disease. History and examination. Many disorders can be identified by a clinical examination and a patient's history, but in the majority, if not all cases, an echocardiogram is required to confirm clinical suspicions. ARTICLE. Pregnancy and cardiac disease. C Elliott,1 MB ChB, FCOG (SA), MMed; K Sliwa ...

  7. Peptic Ulcer Disease (United States)

    ... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic Ulcer Disease Basics Overview An “ulcer” is an open sore. The word “peptic” means ... time when a gastroenterologist is referring to an “ulcer” the doctor means a peptic ulcer. The two ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and ... Síntomas Similares? How Is Parkinson's Disease Diagnosed? CareMAP: Advice for Caregivers from Caregivers CareMAP: Getting Dressed CareMAP: ...

  9. Crohn's Disease Transvaal Blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crohn's disease is rarely seen in Transvaal Blacks. Three cases are presented. The pathology and radiological features are discussed. The difficulty of diagnosing the extent of the disease in the acute stage both clinically and radiologically is emph,!lsised. The acute case should be. Department of Surgery, Baragwanath ...

  10. [Infectious diseases research]. (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel


    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  11. Dysphagia in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk-van den Berg, Willemien Antoinette


    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with an autosomal, dominant mode of inheritance. Patients with HD suffer from dysphagia which can have serious consequences, such as weight loss, dehydration, and pneumonia leading to death. Many patients with HD die of aspiration

  12. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Čiháková


    Full Text Available Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  13. Diarrheal Diseases PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 30 second public service announcement is about the risk of diarrheal diseases after a disaster.  Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/25/2017.

  14. Mitophagy and Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jesse S.; Adriaanse, Bryan A.; Greig, Nigel H.


    Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged...

  15. Predicting occupational lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarthana, E.


    This thesis aims at demonstrating the development, validation, and application of prediction models for occupational lung diseases. Prediction models are developed to estimate an individual’s probability of the presence or future likelihood of occurrence of an outcome (i.e. disease of interest or

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Where ... en Casa, Parte 1 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Caregiver Summit 2016: Caregiving: ...

  17. Treating Pompe Disease (United States)

    Bokor, Julie; Joseph, Drew; Darwiche, Houda


    One of the crosscutting concepts in science is cause and effect. A disease model can provide understanding of cause and effect, as teachers scaffold student thinking from molecular changes in the DNA to visible traits in the organism. The project described in this article uses Pompe disease, a rare recessive disorder, as a model of cause and…

  18. Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases. (United States)

    Diny, Nicola L; Rose, Noel R; Čiháková, Daniela


    Eosinophils are multifunctional granulocytes that contribute to initiation and modulation of inflammation. Their role in asthma and parasitic infections has long been recognized. Growing evidence now reveals a role for eosinophils in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of eosinophils in inflammatory bowel diseases, neuromyelitis optica, bullous pemphigoid, autoimmune myocarditis, primary biliary cirrhosis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and other autoimmune diseases. Clinical studies, eosinophil-targeted therapies, and experimental models have contributed to our understanding of the regulation and function of eosinophils in these diseases. By examining the role of eosinophils in autoimmune diseases of different organs, we can identify common pathogenic mechanisms. These include degranulation of cytotoxic granule proteins, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, release of proteases degrading extracellular matrix, immune modulation through cytokines, antigen presentation, and prothrombotic functions. The association of eosinophilic diseases with autoimmune diseases is also examined, showing a possible increase in autoimmune diseases in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, and non-allergic asthma. Finally, we summarize key future research needs.

  19. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.


    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  20. Diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin


    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity...... of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes...... controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30...

  1. Celiac disease: clinical observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Emel’yanova


    Full Text Available Presented clinical cases of patients with a diagnosis of gluten enteropathy in treatment in the department of gastroenterology Regional Clinical Hospital. The case is of interest to doctors of different specialties for the differential diagnosis of anemia and malabsorption syndrome, demonstrate both the classic version, and atypical forms of the disease course. Diagnosis of celiac disease is based on three key positions: clinical findings, histology and serological markers. The clinical picture of celiac disease is characterized by pronounced polymorphism, by going beyond the a gastroenterological pathology. For screening of gluten sensitive celiac typically used an antibody to tissue transglutaminase. Morphological research of the mucous membrane of the small intestine is the determining criterion in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The use of specific gluten-free diet leads to the positive dynamics of the disease and improve the quality of life of patients.

  2. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung


    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  3. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  4. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease. (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J


    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease.

  5. Hyperosmia in Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant K. Puri


    Full Text Available Neurological involvement in Lyme disease has been reported to include meningitis, cranial neuropathy and radiculoneuritis. While it is known that in some cases of asceptic meningitis patients may develop hyperosmia, the association between hyperosmia and Lyme disease has not previously been studied. Objective To carry out the first systematic study to ascertain whether hyperosmia is also a feature of Lyme disease. Method A questionnaire regarding abnormal sensory sensitivity in respect of the sense of smell was administered to 16 serologically positive Lyme disease patients and to 18 control subjects. Results The two groups were matched in respect of age, sex and body mass. None of the 34 subjects was suffering from migraine. Eight (50% of the Lyme patients and none (0% of the controls suffered from hyperosmia (p=0.0007. Conclusion This first systematic controlled study showed that Lyme disease is associated with hyperosmia.

  6. Neuropathology of cerebrovascular diseases. (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Vidal, Noemi


    The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding. Within ischemic brain damage, focal cerebral ischemia, hemorrhagic infarct, brain edema, penumbra, global cerebral ischemia, venous thrombosis, lacunas and lacunar state, status cribosus, granular atrophy of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal sclerosis, vascular leukoencephalopathy Binswanger type and multi-infarct encephalopathy are discussed in detail. Cognitive impairment of vascular origin deserves an individual section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Autophagy in Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. S. Choi


    Full Text Available Autophagy provides a mechanism for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins through a lysosome-dependent degradation pathway. During starvation, autophagy exerts a homeostatic function that promotes cell survival by recycling metabolic precursors. Additionally, autophagy can interact with other vital processes such as programmed cell death, inflammation, and adaptive immune mechanisms, and thereby potentially influence disease pathogenesis. Macrophages deficient in autophagic proteins display enhanced caspase-1-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production and the activation of the inflammasome. Autophagy provides a functional role in infectious diseases and sepsis by promoting intracellular bacterial clearance. Mutations in autophagy-related genes, leading to loss of autophagic function, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Furthermore, autophagy-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases that involve inflammation, including cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Strategies aimed at modulating autophagy may lead to therapeutic interventions for diseases associated with inflammation.

  8. [Childhood diseases with exanthema]. (United States)

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just A H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie


    - Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult. - Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure. - Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease. - Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum ('fifth disease') may result in complications during pregnancy. - Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola ('sixth disease') can be difficult to differentiate. - In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day. - Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed.

  9. Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases (United States)

    Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis


    Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches. PMID:22536485

  10. [Peroxisomal hereditary diseases]. (United States)

    Chandoga, J; Tomková, M; Hlavatá, A


    Nearly two tens of diseases are known to be caused by impairment of several metabolic functions of peroxisomes, or by deficiency in individual peroxisomal enzymes. With the exception of X-bound adrenoleukodystrophy, all diseases are based on autosomally recessive type of inheritance and a majority of them are characteristic by specific neurologic symptoms. The group of diseases in which patients develop a generalised loss of peroxisomal functions includes: Zellweger's cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum's disease, hyperpipecolic acidaemia. Other diseases, such as rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Zellweger-like syndrome are accompanied by a deficiency in several enzymatic activities. X-bound adrenoleukodystrophy, pseudo-Zellweger's syndrome, hyperoxaluria 1, adult form of Refsum's disease and acatalasaemia are peroxisomal diseases with a deficiency of a single enzyme. In clinically most severe diseases (generalised loss of peroxisomal functions), the impairment of peroxisomal biogenesis is caused assumedly due to the defect in some of the peroxisomal membrane proteins. The biochemical findings are brought about by insufficiency in such metabolic functions as oxidation of fatty acids with very long chains, oxidation of the phytanic and pipecolic acids, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and plasmalogenes. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Zellweger's syndrome are more moderate forms which are dominantly biochemically manifestant by an impairment in the synthesis of plasmalogenes. Among the diseases characterised by a deficiency in individual peroxisomal enzymes, most frequent is the X-bound andrenoleukodystrophy which has several clinical phenotypes manifestant in childhood, as well as a clinically less severe form manifestant in adulthood-adrenomyeloneuropathy. The diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases is performed by use of a wide range of methods (morphological, biochemical, immunochemical and molecular

  11. Infertility and coeliac disease. (United States)

    Collin, P; Vilska, S; Heinonen, P K; Hällström, O; Pikkarainen, P


    Coeliac women may suffer from gynaecological and obstetric complications. It is possible that these complications are the first symptom of coeliac disease. To investigate the occurrence of subclinical coeliac disease in patients with infertility or recurrent miscarriages. Women of reproductive age who were attending the hospital because of either primary or secondary infertility, or two or more miscarriages. Women undergoing sterilisation served as control subjects. The diagnostic investigation for infertility included the endocrine status, diagnostic laparoscopy, investigation of tubal patency, postcoital test, and semen analysis of the partner. Circulating antibodies against IgA class reticulin and gliadin were used in screening for coeliac disease. In positive cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by small bowel biopsy specimens. Four (2.7%) of 150 women in the infertility group, and none of the 150 control subjects were found to have coeliac disease (p = 0.06). All four women with coeliac disease suffered from infertility of unexplained origin. Altogether 98 women had no discoverable reason for infertility. Thus, in this subgroup the frequency of coeliac disease was 4.1% (four of 98), the difference from the control group being statistically significant (p = 0.02). None of the coeliac women had extensive malabsorption, but two had iron deficiency anaemia. One women with coeliac disease has had a normal delivery. None of the 50 women with miscarriage had coeliac disease. Patients having fertility problems may have subclinical coeliac disease, which can be detected by serological screening tests. Silent coeliac disease should be considered in the case of women with unexplained infertility.

  12. Celiac disease in children. (United States)

    Garnier-Lengliné, Hélène; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Ruemmele, Frank M


    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy, triggered by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since the use of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies in the early 1990s, two main groups of clinical presentation can be identified: patients with a symptomatic form of the disease, and patients with a pauci (a)-symptomatic form detected during the work-up of another autoimmune disease or due to a family history of celiac disease. The prevalence of both forms of the disease is currently estimated between 1/100 and 1/400. Classical form of the disease is characterized by occurrence of diarrhoea, failure to thrive, and abdominal bloating in young infants in the months following gluten introduction. Serological tests show high level of anti-transglutaminase and anti-endomysium antibodies. Until recently, the diagnosis required duodenal biopsies that show villous atrophy. HLA genotype can help for diagnosis: the absence of the HLA-DQ2 or DQ8 alleles has a high negative predictive value. European guidelines recently proposed to reconsider the need for systematic endoscopy in typical symptomatic forms with high level of anti-transglutaminase and positive anti-endomysium. These recommendations are being assessed now. Currently, the gluten-free diet remains the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Children with celiac disease have to exclude from their diet all products containing wheat, barley and rye. Gluten-free diet causes clinical remission within a few weeks, but normalization of the small bowel mucosa and negativity of anti-transglutaminase antibodies are obtained in several months or even years. Gluten-free diet is useful to obtain clinical assessment, but also to prevent long-term complications of celiac disease, mainly osteoporosis, other autoimmune diseases, decreased fertility and cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Gluten intolerance (coeliac disease). (United States)

    Ferguson, A; Ziegler, K; Strobel, S


    Coeliac disease is a permanent condition of gluten intolerance associated with characteristic gluten-sensitive changes in the jejunal mucosa. In Edinburgh and the Lothians Region of Scotland, the prevalence of the disease is one in 1637 (61/100,000) with considerable variation in age, and sex-specific prevalence and incidence. Several lines of evidence indicate an immunologic basis for the gluten-sensitive enteropathy in coeliac disease. Animal models of intestinal T cell-mediated reactions in the gut have shown pathologic features similar to those of coeliac disease. These include changes in villus and crypt architecture with crypt hyperplasia, and increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and of intraepithelial lymphocyte mitosis. Experimental CMI reactions also influence differentiation of goblet cells and expression of Ia antigen on epithelial cells, but these factors have not yet been reported for the coeliac mucosa. In addition to this circumstantial evidence, based on animal work, other factors which suggest that CMI reactions rather than antibodies are relevant to coeliac disease include the findings of antigliadin antibodies in a proportion of normal individuals, patients without gastrointestinal disease (seen in hospital), and patients with jejunal Crohn's disease. In addition, there is a well documented patient with adult onset primary hypogammaglobulinaemia and coeliac disease. The underlying pathogenesis in coeliac disease can be envisaged as failure of the normal inhibition of immune responses to this particular food antigen in the gut. Manipulation of immunoregulatory mechanisms would provide a new approach to treatment or cure of this disease and of other food protein-sensitive enteropathies.

  14. Chromatin deregulation in disease. (United States)

    Mirabella, Anne C; Foster, Benjamin M; Bartke, Till


    The regulation of chromatin by epigenetic mechanisms plays a central role in gene expression and is essential for development and maintenance of cell identity and function. Aberrant chromatin regulation is observed in many diseases where it leads to defects in epigenetic gene regulation resulting in pathological gene expression programmes. These defects are caused by inherited or acquired mutations in genes encoding enzymes that deposit or remove DNA and histone modifications and that shape chromatin architecture. Chromatin deregulation often results in neurodevelopmental disorders and intellectual disabilities, frequently linked to physical and developmental abnormalities, but can also cause neurodegenerative diseases, immunodeficiency, or muscle wasting syndromes. Epigenetic diseases can either be of monogenic origin or manifest themselves as complex multifactorial diseases such as in congenital heart disease, autism spectrum disorders, or cancer in which mutations in chromatin regulators are contributing factors. The environment directly influences the epigenome and can induce changes that cause or predispose to diseases through risk factors such as stress, malnutrition or exposure to harmful chemicals. The plasticity of chromatin regulation makes targeting the enzymatic machinery an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention and an increasing number of small molecule inhibitors against a variety of epigenetic regulators are in clinical use or under development. In this review, we will give an overview of the molecular lesions that underlie epigenetic diseases, and we will discuss the impact of the environment and prospects for epigenetic therapies.

  15. Indium lung disease. (United States)

    Cummings, Kristin J; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Takeuchi, Koichiro; Chonan, Tatsuya; Xiao, Yong-Long; Harley, Russell A; Roggli, Victor L; Hebisawa, Akira; Tallaksen, Robert J; Trapnell, Bruce C; Day, Gregory A; Saito, Rena; Stanton, Marcia L; Suarthana, Eva; Kreiss, Kathleen


    Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases. To better understand the pathogenesis and natural history of indium lung disease, a detailed, systematic, multidisciplinary analysis of clinical, histopathologic, radiologic, and epidemiologic data for all reported cases and workplaces was undertaken. Ten men (median age, 35 years) who produced, used, or reclaimed indium compounds were diagnosed with interstitial lung disease 4-13 years after first exposure (n = 7) or PAP 1-2 years after first exposure (n = 3). Common pulmonary histopathologic features in these patients included intraalveolar exudate typical of alveolar proteinosis (n = 9), cholesterol clefts and granulomas (n = 10), and fibrosis (n = 9). Two patients with interstitial lung disease had pneumothoraces. Lung disease progressed following cessation of exposure in most patients and was fatal in two. Radiographic data revealed that two patients with PAP subsequently developed fibrosis and one also developed emphysematous changes. Epidemiologic investigations demonstrated the potential for exposure to respirable particles and an excess of lung abnormalities among coworkers. Occupational exposure to indium compounds was associated with PAP, cholesterol ester crystals and granulomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and pneumothoraces. The available evidence suggests exposure to indium compounds causes a novel lung disease that may begin with PAP and progress to include fibrosis and emphysema, and, in some cases, premature death. Prospective studies are needed to better define the natural history and prognosis of this emerging lung disease and identify effective prevention strategies.

  16. Human prion diseases. (United States)

    Thakur, Rajeev; Vincent, Yasmeen Marbaniang; Chaturvedi, Sujata


    Prion diseases is another name for a group of 'transmissible spongiform encephalopathies'. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the first prion disease described in humans, occurs in sporadic, familial or iatrogenic form. Other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans such as familial Creutzfeldt-]akob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease and fatal familial Insomnia have been shown to be associated with specific prion protein gene mutations. In 1996, a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was reported in the United Kingdom among young patients with unusual clinical features and unique neuropathological findings. This new form could be due to transmission to humans of the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy. While examination of brain tissue is the key to making a diagnosis, it is not always possible antemortem. Immunological tests such as ELISA or western blot assays along with tests for 1 4-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid remain the main tools of diagnosis. Conventional disinfection and sterilization practices are Ineffective for these agents. The unusual properties of prions pose a challenge for treatment, surveillance and control of these diseases.

  17. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity


    Ristovski, Ljiljana; Milankov, Olgica; Vislavski, Melanija; Savić, Radojica; Bjelica, Milena


    Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis which occurs primarily in children under the age of 5. The etiology of the disease is still unknown. Diagnostic criteria for Kawasaki disease are fever and at least four of the five additional clinical signs. Incomplete Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in case of all children with unexplained fever for more than 5 days, associated with 2 or 3 of the main clinical findings of Kawasaki disease. The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease is based on echocardiographic findings indicating the involvement of the coronary arteries. Cardiac complications, mostly coronary artery aneurysm, can occur in 20% to 25% of untreated patients and in 4% of treated patients. CASE REPORT. In this report we present a case of atypical Kawasaki disease in a 3.5-month-old infant. As soon as the diagnosis was made, the patient received high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, with the initial introduction of ibuprofen, then aspirin with a good clinical response. Due to the presence of aneurysm of coronary arteries, further therapy involved aspirin and clopidogrel over the following 3 months, and then only aspirin for 2 years. There was a gradual regression of the changes in the coronary blood vessels to the normalization of the echocardiographic findings after 2 years. Kawasaki disease is the second most common vasculitis of childhood, so it should be included in the differential diagnosis for any child with a prolonged unexplained fever. Atypical Kawasaki disease should be taken into consideration in cases when not all clinical criteria are present but coronary abnormalities are documented.

  19. [Hereditary systemic autoinflammatory diseases]. (United States)

    Aróstegui, Juan I


    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases encompass different rare clinical entities characterized by recurrent acute inflammatory episodes secondary to a dysregulated inflammatory process. Since their first clinical descriptions, the Mendelian hereditary nature of some of them became evident, with their genetic and molecular basis being recently elucidated. There are disease-causing mutations in genes encoding for different proteins involved in the innate immune response and inflammation. Herein, we will introduce the reader to an updated review of the main clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic features of the different hereditary systemic autoinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. [Smoking and periodontal disease]. (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Satoshi


    Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.

  1. Leptin and autoimmune disease. (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshimasa


    Leptin is secreted from adipocytes and acts mainly on the hypothalamus causing weight loss due to suppression of appetite and increased energy expenditure. On the other hand, the leptin receptor is also expressed in hematopoietic cells and its action on the immune system has become known, and the significance of leptin in autoimmune diseases has gradually become clear. It has been shown that leptin acts as an exacerbating factor in many autoimmune diseases and it is suggested that inhibition of leptin signal may be a novel therapeutic method for autoimmune diseases. In this article, we will outline the significance of leptin in the immune system based on the current reports.

  2. Gaucher′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Bohra


    Full Text Available Gaucher′s disease (GD is the most common amongst the various disorders classified under the lysosomal storage disorders. GD is a model for applications of molecular medicine to clinical delineation, diagnosis, and treatment. The multiorgan and varied presentation of the disease makes it a challenge to diagnose GD early. The advent of enzyme replacement therapy in the early 1990s changed the management, and survival, of patients with GD. In addition to this, development of substrate reduction, pharmacological chaperone, and gene therapies has broadened the horizon for this rare disease. However, in resource-poor countries like ours, optimal management is still a distant dream.

  3. The Vitality of Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo


    of what we might be conceptualised as the vitality of disease. Medical interventions are increasingly as much about improving (quality of) life as they are about saving and prolonging life. As a consequence, morbid living has come to be disciplined, for example, in patient schools aimed at teaching...... patients to learn how to live with their disease, through rating scales used to measure treatment effect on the ‘quality of life’ of patients in clinical trials and through disease-specific ‘Living with’ guides aimed at patients and carers....

  4. Ambulation and Parkinson disease. (United States)

    Amano, Shinichi; Roemmich, Ryan T; Skinner, Jared W; Hass, Chris J


    Parkinson disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor and nonmotor features. This article reviews the problems of postural instability and gait disturbance in persons with Parkinson disease through the discussion of (1) the neuropathology of parkinsonian motor deficits, (2) behavioral manifestations of gait and postural abnormalities observed in persons with Parkinson disease, and (3) pharmacologic, surgical, and physical therapy-based interventions to combat postural instability and gait disturbance. This article advances the treatment of postural instability and gait disturbance by condensing up-to-date knowledge and making it available to clinicians and rehabilitation professionals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R


    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  6. Paediatric Dupuytren's disease


    Pradeoth Mukundan Korambayil; Anto Francis Padikala


    Dupuytren′s disease of the hand has only been rarely reported in children and is rarer still in infants. Only a few histologically confirmed diagnoses are found in literature. We report a case in a 4-month-old infant with Dupuytren′s disease of palm and thumb who required surgery at 6 months of age. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of Dupuytren′s disease. The purpose of this report is to show the importance of differential diagnosis of nodules and fibrotic bands in children′s hands as paedia...

  7. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jian-rong


    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a degenerative central nervous system (CNS disease caused by infection of prion protein (PrP, with clinical features including short course, rapid development and 100% mortality. This article aims to discuss the pathogenesis, histopathological features, clinical manifestations, electroencephalogram (EEG findings, imaging data and treatment progress of this disease based on literature review. Cerebrospinal fluid 14-3-3 protein detection, EEG and MRI are three important methods to make an early diagnosis on patients with suspected CJD, such as elderly patients with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD and young patients with mental symptoms involving multiple systems (MS.

  8. Behcet's disease in Dagestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Shamov


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess prevalence (on appealability, symptomatology and course of Behcet's disease in republic оГ Dagestan. Material and methods. All pts admitted in a specialized department during 3 years were included (in all 21 pts - 9 female and 12 male. Assessment of clinical symptoms and course of the disease in comparison with other authors data. Results. High morbidity of Dagestan population in comparison with other regions of Russian Federation (for example with Yaroslavl was showed. Eye disease was significantly more frequent in female and thrombophlebitis - in male.

  9. Valvular heart diseases. (United States)

    Kurup, Viji; Haddadin, Ala' Sami


    Patients who have valvular heart disease coming for surgery present many challenges to the anesthesiologist. Over the past 3 decades there has been a persistent improvement in our understanding of the pathophysiology of valvular heart disease and in the surgical techniques for correcting it. With the development of efficient and safe noninvasive monitoring of cardiac function, new surgical techniques, better designs of prosthetic valves, and the development of useful guidelines for choosing the proper timing of surgical intervention, patients who have valvular disease with varying physiology can be encountered in the perioperative period. The perioperative physician has to be aware of the varying effects of hemodynamic variables on this subpopulation of patients.

  10. Musculoskeletal Findings in Behcet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bicer


    Full Text Available Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, relapsing uveitis, mucocutaneous, articular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and vascular manifestations. Rheumatologic manifestations may also occur in Behcet's disease, and arthritis and arthralgia are the most common musculoskeletal findings followed by enthesopathy, avascular necrosis, myalgia, and myositis. Although the main pathology of Behcet's disease has been known to be the underlying vasculitis, the etiology and exact pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear. Musculoskeletal findings of Behcet's disease, the relationship between Behcet's disease and spondyloarthropathy disease complex, and the status of bone metabolism in patients with Behcet's disease were discussed in this paper.

  11. Disease: H00541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00541 Uromodulin-associated kidney diseases, including: Medullary cystic kidney di...sease 2; Familial juvenile hyperuremic nephropathy (HNFJ); Glomerulocystic kidney disease Uromodulin-associated kidney diseases... are autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney diseases caused by mutations in the cil

  12. Disease: H01425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01425 Lysosomal storage diseases Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of...yndrome Inherited metabolic disease; Lysosomal storage disease ... (Gaucher dise...THORS ... Heese BA ... TITLE ... Current strategies in the management of lysosomal storage diseases. ... JOURNAL ... ... Berg T. ... TITLE ... Lysosomal Storage Disorders ... JOURNAL ... Lysosomes, edited by Paul Saftig: 60-73

  13. Disease: H01167 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of intravenous drug abuse. Infectious disease CYBB (Chronic granulomatous disease) [HSA:1536] [KO:K08008] CYBA (Chronic... granulomatous disease) [HSA:1535] [KO:K08009] NCF1 (Chronic granulomatous disease) [HSA:6533...KO:K01977] RecA [KO:K03553] Chronic granulomatous disease is described in H00098. PMID:20826638 (description

  14. Overview of Infectious Diseases (United States)

    ... The smallest known infectious agents viruses Very small. Viruses take over your cells to reproduce themselves bacteria Two types: free-living, normal inhabitants (normal flora); pathogens that produce disease ...

  15. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment (United States)

    ... clotting problems caused by the HM. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a type of gestational trophoblastic disease ( ... the future. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia Key Points After gestational trophoblastic neoplasia has been ...

  16. von Willebrand Disease (United States)

    ... the condition. For example, the school nurse, teacher, daycare provider, coach, or any leader of afterschool activities ... MedlinePlus) Von Willebrand Disease (MedlinePlus) Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting ...

  17. Disease quantification in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tanja Maria; Kamp, Søren; Jemec, Gregor B E


    Accurate documentation of disease severity is a prerequisite for clinical research and the practice of evidence-based medicine. The quantification of skin diseases such as psoriasis currently relies heavily on clinical scores. Although these clinical scoring methods are well established and very...... useful in quantifying disease severity, they require an extensive clinical experience and carry a risk of subjectivity. We explore the opportunity to use in vivo near-infrared (NIR) spectra as an objective and noninvasive method for local disease severity assessment in 31 psoriasis patients in whom...... selected plaques were scored clinically. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was used to analyze and predict the severity scores on the NIR spectra of psoriatic and uninvolved skin. The correlation between predicted and clinically assigned scores was R=0.94 (RMSE=0.96), suggesting that in vivo...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's Managing Parkinson's In Your ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en General, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: Apathy or Depression: Which One Is It? CareMAP: El Descanso y ... Expert Briefings: A Closer Look at Anxiety and Depression in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Driving and Parkinson's: ...

  20. Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease (United States)

    Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov


    The global prevalence of dementia has been estimated to be as high as 24 million, and is predicted to double every 20 years until at least 2040. As the population worldwide continues to age, the number of individuals at risk will also increase, particularly among the very old. Alzheimer disease is the leading cause of dementia beginning with impaired memory. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease include diffuse and neuritic extracellular amyloid plaques in brain that are frequently surrounded by dystrophic neurites and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles. The etiology of Alzheimer disease remains unclear, but it is likely to be the result of both genetic and environmental factors. In this review we discuss the prevalence and incidence rates, the established environmental risk factors, and the protective factors, and briefly review genetic variants predisposing to disease. PMID:22908189

  1. RBD and Neurodegenerative Diseases. (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyang; Huang, Jinsha; Shen, Yan; Guo, Shiyi; Wang, Luxi; Han, Chao; Liu, Ling; Ma, Kai; Xia, Yun; Li, Jie; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Nian; Wang, Tao


    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder characterized by enacting one's dreams during the REM sleep, with most of the dreams being violent or aggressive, so that patients often come to see the doctor complaining hurting themselves or bed partners during sleep. Prevalence of RBD, based on population, is 0.38-2.01 %, but much higher in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially synucleinopathies. RBD may herald the emergence of synucleinopathies by decades, such that it may be used as an effective early marker of neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmaceutical treatment of RBD includes clonazepam, melatonin, pramipexole, and some newly reported medications. In this review, we summarized the clinical and PSG features of RBD, the pathophysiology and the therapy of it, focusing on the correlation between neurodegenerative diseases and RBD, in order to emphasize the significance of RBD as an early marker of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Sleep and neurodegenerative diseases. (United States)

    Chokroverty, Sudhansu


    Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbed sleep can result in fatigue, irritability, morning headaches, impaired motor and cognitive skills, depression, and daytime somnolence. The major sleep complaints include insomnia, hypersomnia, parasomnia, excessive nocturnal motor activity, circadian sleep-wake rhythm disturbance, and respiratory dysrhythmia. The pathogenetic mechanisms of sleep disturbances may be secondary to direct structural alteration of the sleep-wake generating neurons or from several other indirect mechanisms. At the biochemical level, neurodegenerative diseases may be largely classified as tauopathies, alpha-synucleinopathies, and other diseases. Overnight polysomnography (PSG), Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, and actigraphy are some important diagnostic laboratory tests in the evaluation of sleep disturbances. Management of sleep disturbances is complex and is based primarily on the nature of the sleep disturbance. The clinical profiles, pathogenetic mechanisms, PSG findings, and management issues are discussed here with reference to some common neurodegenerative diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. von Willebrand Disease (United States)

    ... or increase the risk of bleeding. Examples include aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), clopidogrel, warfarin, or heparin. Any history of liver or kidney disease, blood or bone ...

  4. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (United States)

    ... have occurred in elk, deer, and exotic zoo animals. top What are the symptoms of the disease? CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia. Initially, individuals experience problems with muscular coordination; personality changes, including impaired memory, judgment, and thinking; and ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Nurse Webinars: Interdisciplinary Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert ... Subscribe to get the latest news on treatments, research and other updates. Email Address Sign Up Questions? ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donna’s Story Aware in Care: Real Stories Is Depression Under-Diagnosed in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? What Are the Neuroprotective Benefits of Exercise for PD Patients? Are There Any Ways to ...

  7. Chronic kidney disease (United States)

    ... pressure are the 2 most common causes and account for most cases. Many other diseases and conditions ... URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. [Nail diseases in cosmetology]. (United States)

    Maleszka, Romuald; Ratajczak-Stefańska, Violetta; Boer, Magdalena; Kiedrowicz, Magdalena


    Clinical symptoms attributed to the nail apparatus and observed in cosmetology include atrophic or hypertrophic lesions, pathologic nail coloration, abnormalities of the nail surface, and disorders of the nail plate and bed junction. These symptoms may reflect pathologic processes limited to the nail apparatus or may be the consequence of a dermal or systemic disease. Even though the etiology of nail lesions is variegated, diseases of the nails are simply classified as infectious or non-infectious. The aim of this work was to present the most common diseases of the nail apparatus encountered in cosmetology. Often, nail diseases worsen the quality of life of the patient. In addition, the variegated symptomatology demonstrates that nail lesions should be viewed in a wider perspective because they often are important signs of pathologic processes taking place in the organism of the patient.

  9. Testing for Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Albuminuria: Albumin in the Urine Managing CKD Eating Right ... better. Having albumin in the urine is called albuminuria . A healthy kidney doesn’t let albumin pass ...

  10. Periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Freitas Toregeani


    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic disease (AD is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. It expresses inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP and can provoke arterial wall thickening, which can be evaluated using Doppler ultrasound. Risk factors associated with AD include diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking. More recently, periodontal disease (PD has been identified as a factor related to AD. Periodontal disease has a high prevalence in the global population and the inflammatory process and bacterial activity at the periodontium appear to increase the risk of AD. Encouraging good oral hygiene can reduce expression of inflammatory markers of AD. A review of literature on PD, AD and inflammatory markers and the interrelationships between the two diseases was conducted using data published in articles indexed on the PUBMED, SCIELO and BIREME databases.

  11. Waterfowl disease contingency plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this contingency plan is reduce waterfowl losses from disease, primarily avian botulism, along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This...

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (United States)

    ... Taking medication Counseling and stress relief Changing your diet Foods do not cause IBS, but eating certain ... Carpal tunnel syndrome Depression HIV and AIDS Menstruation Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy Thyroid disease All A-Z health ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you can do to maintain and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care ...

  14. Coronary artery disease (image) (United States)

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  15. Scintigraphy in rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Colamussi, Paolo; Prandini, Napoleone; Cittanti, Corrado; Feggi, Luciano; Giganti, Melchiore


    The aim of this review is to summarise the clinical role of nuclear medicine in rheumatology taking into consideration the most specific diagnostic applications and other worthwhile therapeutic contributions. Traditional bone scintigraphy and recent inflammation-targeting radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled leucocytes and immunoscintigraphy, now allow us to obtain highly sensitive total-body and tomographical imaging information that can be used for the diagnosis of osteoarticular disease. The most common extra-articular manifestations of rheumatic diseases due to digestive, central nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular system involvement can be diagnosed by specific scintigraphic methods. Radiosynovectomy plays an important role in providing effective treatment for some joint diseases that are resistant to pharmacological therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of nuclear medicine show the highest efficacy in the early phase of rheumatic diseases. In more advanced stages, scintigraphical techniques play a complementary role to radiographical investigations in the assessment of prognosis and therapy efficacy.

  16. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary (United States)

    ... of the leg. Endemic: A disease that is native to a particular geographic region. Epidemiology: The study ... Back To Top T Telediagnosis: The transmission of digital images captured from a clinical specimen and sent ...

  17. Learning about Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Parkinson's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  18. Niemann-Pick Disease (United States)

    ... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Niemann-Pick Disease ...

  19. Sleep and Chronic Disease (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Sleep and Sleep Disorders Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Data Source Projects and Partners Resources For Clinicians Sleep and Chronic Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are at a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research ... Causes of Parkinson's Disease? Are There Disorders That Have Similar Symptoms? What Medications Help with Cognitive Impairment? ...

  1. Hemoglobin C disease (United States)

    ... that carries oxygen. It is a type of hemoglobinopathy. The disease is caused by a problem with ... DeBaun MR, Frei-Jones MJ, Vichinsky. Hemoglobinopathies. In: ... of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  2. [Gestational trophoblastic disease]. (United States)

    Allias, Fabienne; Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Gaillot-Durand, Lucie; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan


    Gestational trophoblastic disease encompresses a group of interrelated diseases, following a pregnancy after a variable period of time. Hydatiform mole corresponds to premalignant disorders composed of villi with excess of paternal genetic material, with a malignant potential more important for complete mole than partial mole. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia includes invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblatic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Their histological diagnosis may be problematic on curettage material and needs to be correlated to serum hCG level and radiological findings. The use of chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis of these lesions. All patients with this rare disease need to be registered in the national service for gestational trophoblastic disease (, which coordinates their management at the national level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Living with Heart Disease (United States)

    ... Education Institute) Heart Attack: Interactive Tutorial (MedlinePlus—Patient Education Institute) RELATED NEWS March 13, 2017 | Research Feature NHLBI, nursing sorority team up to fight heart disease in ...

  4. What Causes Heart Disease? (United States)

    ... Education Institute) Heart Attack: Interactive Tutorial (MedlinePlus—Patient Education Institute) RELATED NEWS March 13, 2017 | Research Feature NHLBI, nursing sorority team up to fight heart disease in ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Library Search library Topic Type Nurse Webinars: Interdisciplinary Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation and Travel with PD Expert Briefings: Sleep and Parkinson's Nursing Solutions: Recognizing the Impact of Genitourinary Symptoms in ...

  6. Lyme Disease Tests (United States)

    ... use insect repellant containing 20-30% DEET or permethrin. Check your clothing and exposed skin frequently and ... June 27). Beware of Ticks … & Lyme Disease. U.S. Food and Drug Administration [On-line information]. Available online ...

  7. Osgood-Schlatter Disease (United States)

    ... football, soccer or basketball or are involved in gymnastics and ballet. DiagnosisHow is Osgood-Schlatter disease diagnosed? ... serious illness that can be harmful to the brain and liver. It often…Teenage Pregnancy and Birth ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research Our research has ... raise funds and awareness for the 1 million Americans living with Parkinson’s disease. Learn more Ways to ...

  9. Chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    especially in ... medical professionals and nursing practitioners to identify risk factors of CKD, making early diagnoses and ... public as well as doctor and nurse practitioners is required nationally. The rewards for both SA kidney disease sufferers and ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. ... your gift takes, you can be confident that it goes toward providing crucial resources for those affected ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Parkinson's In Your Area Resources & Support Legal, Financial, & Insurance Matters For Caregivers Living with Parkinson's While ... Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Therapeutic Approaches for ...

  12. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (United States)

    ... Grants Funded Projects Patient Evaluation for Professionals Energy Metabolism Review Mitochondrial Structure, Function and Diseases Review Cell ... for Life Walkathons Schedule of EFL Walks UMDF Social Media Tweets by UMDF Our Partners Affiliate Organizations ...

  13. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    ... Ian R.A. Mackenzie, MD FRCPC. Department of Pathology, Vancouver General Hospital, British Columbia, Canada. Pagana, K. ... Disease: Updates and Considerations. Medscape from Geriatrics and Aging [On-line information]. Available online at http://www. ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website Expert Briefings: Apathy or Depression: Which One Is It? CareMAP: El Descanso y ... Expert Briefings: A Closer Look at Anxiety and Depression in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Driving and Parkinson's: ...

  15. Heart disease and depression (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  16. Asbestos and its diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, A. R; Craighead, John E


    ... Chapter 8. Malignant Diseases of the Pleura, Peritoneum, and Other Serosal Surfaces Allen R. Gibbs and John E. Craighead 190 Chapter 9. Nonthoracic Cancers Possibly Resulting from Asbestos Exposu...

  17. Diabetes and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Daniel


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each.

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who ... Psychosis: Hallucinations, Delusions and Paranoia Nurse Webinars: Interdisciplinary Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation ...

  19. Learning about Huntington's Disease (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Huntington's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... area About Shop A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Nurse Webinars: ... Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care Partners Help is just a click away. The ...