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Sample records for augments n-glycolyl sialic

  1. Exogenous incorporation of neugc-rich mucin augments n-glycolyl sialic acid content and promotes malignant phenotype in mouse tumor cell lines

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    Alonso Daniel F

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates embedded in the plasma membrane are one of the main actors involved in the communication of cells with the microenvironment. Neuraminic sialic acids are glycocalyx sugars that play important roles in the modulation of malignant cell behaviour. N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc is synthesized by the cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH, an enzyme expressed in all mammals except humans. In mice, this sugar is synthesized in several somatic tissues. Methods We used the B16 melanoma and F3II mammary carcinoma mouse tumor cell lines. By CMAH directed RT-PCR and NeuGc detection with the specific anti-NeuGc-GM3 antibody 14F7 we evaluated enzyme and ganglioside expression in tumor cells, respectively. Expression of NeuGc-GM3 ganglioside was reached by in vitro incubation with NeuGc-rich bovine submaxillary mucin and evaluated by slot-blot and immunohistochemistry assays using the 14F7 antibody. Tumor cells treated with mucin or purified NeuGc were injected s.c. and i.v. in syngeneic mice to evaluate tumor and metastatic growth. Results In the present work we demonstrated the absence of expression of CMAH enzyme in B16 melanoma and F3II mammary carcinoma cells. In vitro incubation of these NeuGc-negative cells with NeuGc-rich mucin increased the presence of NeuGc in cell membranes for at least 48-72 h, as a component of the GM3 ganglioside. Preincubation with NeuGc-rich mucin reduced tumor latency and increased the metastatic potential of tumor cells in syngeneic animals. Similar results were obtained when cells were incubated with purified NeuGc alone. Conclusion Our results indicate that B16 and F3II mouse tumor cell lines do not express NeuGc in cell membranes but they are able to incorporate NeuGc from an exogenous source, contributing to the malignant phenotype of melanoma and mammary carcinoma cells.

  2. Effect of vaccination with N-glycolyl GM3/VSSP vaccine by subcutaneous injection in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Marta; Gracia, Elias; Reigosa, Edmundo; Hernandez, Julio; de la Torre, Ana; Saurez, Giselle; Perez, Kirenia; Viada, Carmen; Cepeda, Meylán; Carr, Adriana; Avila, Yisel; Rodríguez, Migdalia; Fernandez, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    NeuGc-containing gangliosides have been described in melanoma cells and are an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because they are minimally or not expressed in normal human tissues. Melanoma patients treated with a vaccine based on N-glycolyl gangliosides have shown benefit in progression free survival and overall survival. We conducted a multicenter Phase I/II clinical trial in patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma treated with the N-gycolyl GM3/very-small-size proteoliposomes vaccine by the subcutaneous route. Selecting the optimal biological dose of the vaccine was the principal objective based on immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety results. Six dose levels were studied and the treatment schedule consisted of five doses administered every 2 weeks and then monthly until 15 doses had been given. Dose levels evaluated were 150, 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 μg with five patients included in each dose level except the 900 μg dose (n = 10). Immunogenicity was determined by antibody titers generated in patients after vaccination. Antitumor effect was measured by response criteria of evaluation in solid tumors and safety was evaluated by common toxicity criteria of adverse events. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic at all doses levels. The most frequent adverse events related to vaccination were mild to moderate injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Vaccination induced specific anti-NeuGcGM3 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody responses in all patients. Disease control (objective response or stable disease) was obtained in 38.46% of patients. Global median overall survival was 20.20 months. Two patients achieved overall survival duration of about 4 and 5 years, respectively. The 900 μg dose resulted in overall survival duration of 19.40 months and was selected as the biological optimal dose.

  3. Detection of N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Neuroectodermal Tumors by Immunohistochemistry: An Attractive Vaccine Target for Aggressive Pediatric Cancer

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    Alejandra M. Scursoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-glycolylated ganglioside NeuGc-GM3 has been described in solid tumors such as breast carcinoma, nonsmall cell lung cancer, and melanoma, but is usually not detected in normal human cells. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of NeuGc-GM3 in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-seven archival cases of neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT were analyzed. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were cut into 5 μm sections. The monoclonal antibody 14F7, a mouse IgG1 that specifically recognizes NeuGc-GM3, and a peroxidase-labeled polymer conjugated to secondary antibodies were used. Presence of NeuGc-GM3 was evident in 23 of 27 cases (85%, with an average of about 70% of positive tumors cells. Immunoreactivity was moderate to intense in most tumors, showing a diffuse cytoplasmic and membranous staining, although cases of ESFT demonstrated a fine granular cytoplasmic pattern. No significant differences were observed between neuroblastoma with and without NMYC oncogene amplification, suggesting that expression of NeuGc-GM3 is preserved in more aggressive cancers. Until now, the expression of N-glycolylated gangliosides in pediatric neuroectodermal tumors has not been investigated. The present study evidenced the expression of NeuGc-GM3 in a high proportion of neuroectodermal tumors, suggesting its potential utility as a specific target of immunotherapy.

  4. Molecular dynamics of sialic acid analogues complex with cholera toxin and DFT optimization of ethylene glycol-mediated zinc nanocluster conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmila, D Jeya Sundara; Jino Blessy, J

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an infectious disease caused by cholera toxin (CT) protein of bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A sequence of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuNAc or Neu5Ac) analogues modified in its C-5 position is modelled using molecular modelling techniques and docked against the CT followed by molecular dynamics simulations. Docking results suggest better binding affinity of NeuNAc analogue towards the binding site of CT. The NeuNAc analogues interact with the active site residues GLU:11, TYR:12, HIS:13, GLY:33, LYS:34, GLU:51, GLN:56, HIE:57, ILE:58, GLN:61, TRP:88, ASN:90 and LYS:91 through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Analogues N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc show the least XPGscore (docking score) of -9.90, -9.16, and -8.91, respectively, and glide energy of -45.99, -42.14 and -41.66 kcal/mol, respectively. Stable nature of CT-N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, CT-N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and CT-N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc complexes was verified through molecular dynamics simulations, each for 40 ns using the software Desmond. All the nine NeuNAc analogues show better score for drug-like properties, so could be considered as suitable candidates for drug development for cholera infection. To improve the enhanced binding mode of NeuNAc analogues towards CT, the nine NeuNAc analogues are conjugated with Zn nanoclusters through ethylene glycol (EG) as carriers. The NeuNAc analogues conjugated with EG-Zn nanoclusters show better binding energy towards CT than the unconjugated nine NeuNAc analogues. The electronic structural optimization of EG-Zn nanoclusters was carried out for optimizing their performance as better delivery vehicles for NeuNAc analogues through density functional theory calculations. These sialic acid analogues may be considered as novel leads for the design of drug against cholera and the EG-Zn nanocluster may be a suitable carrier for sialic acid analogues.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides, with or without chemotherapy in a mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer

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    Valeria I Segatori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc is a sialic acid molecule usually found in mammalian cells as terminal constituents of different membrane glycoconjugates such as gangliosides. The NeuGcGM3 ganglioside has been described as a tumor antigen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC in humans. Racotumomab is an anti-NeuGc-containing gangliosides anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (formerly known as 1E10 that has received attention as a potential active immunotherapy for advanced lung cancer in clinical trials. In this work, we have examined the antitumor activity of racotumomab in combination or not with chemotherapy, using the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma as a preclinical model of NSCLC in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with biweekly doses of racotumomab at 50-200 μg/dose formulated in aluminum hydroxide (racotumomab-alum vaccine demonstrated a significant antitumor effect against the progression of lung tumor nodules. Racotumomab-alum vaccination exerted a comparable effect on lung disease to that of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (100 mg/kg weekly. Interestingly, chemo-immunotherapy was highly effective against lung nodules and well tolerated, although no significant synergistic effect was observed as compared to each treatment alone in the present model. We also obtained evidence on the role of the exogenous incorporation of NeuGc in the metastatic potential of 3LL cells. Our preclinical data provide support for the combination of chemotherapy with the anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody racotumomab, and also reinforce the biological significance of NeuGc in lung cancer.

  6. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

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    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  7. Plasma sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases.

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    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Kumar, S S; Reddy, H; Semenya, K A; Hardy, R E

    1987-01-01

    The several types of neoplastic transformations are accompanied by alterations in the composition of cell glycoproteins, which are major structural components of cell surfaces. One such observed alteration is in the level of sialic acid on the cell surface. In the present investigation, plasma sialic acid levels were measured in normal volunteers and neoplastic patients using thiobarbituric acid spectrophotometric methods. The mean plasma sialic acid level from 124 normal volunteers was 3.0 mumol/ml. The mean for 20 non-malignant patients was 3.2 mumol/ml. Such observed mean values of sialic acid were 3.7 mumol/ml in 64 breast cancer patients, 5.1 mumol/ml in 22 lung cancer patients, 4.1 mumol/ml in 20 colon patients, and 5.0 mumol/ml in 26 patients having ovarian, cervix, pancreas, prostate, thyroid, uterine, squamous cell, esophageal and endometrial cancers. Serial determinations of plasma sialic acid in 15 patients correlated well with the progression and regression of disease. These results indicate that plasma sialic acid levels are elevated over control levels in the different types of cancer patients studied. Assay of plasma sialic acid is not sensitive enough to be used for screening, but could be used as a prognostic determinant in a variety of neoplastic conditions.

  8. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

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    Hogan-Ryan, A.; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M.; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone an...

  9. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Ryan, A; Fennelly, J J; Jones, M; Cantwell, B; Duffy, M J

    1980-04-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage.

  10. Identification of a novel sialic acid transporter in Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Post, Deborah M B; Mungur, Rachna; Gibson, Bradford W; Munson, Robert S

    2005-10-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, produces a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which terminates in N-acetyllactosamine. This glycoform can be further extended by the addition of a single sialic acid residue to the terminal galactose moiety. H. ducreyi does not synthesize sialic acid, which must be acquired from the host during infection or from the culture medium when the bacteria are grown in vitro. However, H. ducreyi does not have genes that are highly homologous to the genes encoding known bacterial sialic acid transporters. In this study, we identified the sialic acid transporter by screening strains in a library of random transposon mutants for those mutants that were unable to add sialic acid to N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS. Mutants that reacted with the monoclonal antibody 3F11, which recognizes the terminal lactosamine structure, and lacked reactivity with the lectin Maackia amurensis agglutinin, which recognizes alpha2,3-linked sialic acid, were further characterized to demonstrate that they produced a N-acetyllactosamine-containing LOS by silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analyses. The genes interrupted in these mutants were mapped to a four-gene cluster with similarity to genes encoding bacterial ABC transporters. Uptake assays using radiolabeled sialic acid confirmed that the mutants were unable to transport sialic acid. This study is the first report of bacteria using an ABC transporter for sialic acid uptake.

  11. Augmented Reality for Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Pankratz, Frieder

    2016-01-01

    A recurring challenge when setting up any augmented reality system is the correct calibration and registration of the involved devices. Augmented Reality for Augmented Reality (AR4AR) generates augmented reality guides by using the already existing knowledge about the AR system which stems from the setup of the AR system itself. As these guides involve plenty of 3D information, it is again best presented through means of Augmented Reality, thus the name AR4AR. Eine wiederkehrende Herausfor...

  12. Sweet escape: Sialic acids in tumor immune evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, C.; Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Adema, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acids represent a family of sugar molecules derived from neuraminic acid that frequently terminate glycan chains and contribute to many biological processes. Already five decades ago, aberrantly high expression of sialic acids has been proposed to protect cancer cells from recognition and era

  13. Characterisation of CMP-sialic acid transporter substrate recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggioni, A.; Itzstein, M. von; Guzman, I.B. Rodriguez; Ashikov, A.M.; Stephens, A.S.; Haselhorst, T.; Tiralongo, J.

    2013-01-01

    CMP-sialic acid transporter: We report an in-depth, multidisciplinary, structural study that has identified the amino acid residues intimately involved in CMP-sialic acid transporter (CST) substrate specificity. Our data provide a significant contribution towards a better understanding the structure

  14. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

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    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  15. Independence of sialic acid levels in normal and malignant growth.

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    Khadapkar, S V; Sheth, N A; Bhide, S V

    1975-06-01

    Sialic acid content in breast or tumor tissue and serum of mouse strains that are either susceptible or resistant to breast cancer was measured at various age periods. Sialic acid content was also studied in normal lung tissue and in lung adenoma and hepatoma. Sialic acid levels during nonmalignant growth of a tissue were measured in breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation, and in regenerating liver, as well as in newborn and postnatal liver. The sialic acid content, when expressed per mg of protein, increased in mammary tumor, lung adenoma, and hepatoma. It also increased in nonmalignant growth of breast tissue during pregnancy and lactation and of regenerating liver and postnatal liver. Increase in sialic acid per mg DNA was observed only in lung tumors, regenerating liver, and postnatal liver. It appears that the changes in sialic acid level are independent of the normal or malignant growth of a tissue and that these changes might be the function of the parameter used to express the sialic acid values, i.e., either the DNA content or protein content of a given tissue.

  16. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides containing sialic acids

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    Chian-Hui Lai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A sialic acid glycosyl phosphate building block was designed and synthesized. This building block was used to prepare α-sialylated oligosaccharides by automated solid-phase synthesis selectively.

  17. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  18. Expanding the diversity of unnatural cell surface sialic acids

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    Luchansky, Sarah J.; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2003-10-30

    Novel chemical reactivity can be introduced onto cell surfaces through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. This technique exploits the substrate promiscuity of cellular biosynthetic enzymes to deliver unnatural monosaccharides bearing bioorthogonal functional groups into cellular glycans. For example, derivatives of N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) are converted by the cellular biosynthetic machinery into the corresponding sialic acids and subsequently delivered to the cell surface in the form of sialoglycoconjugates. Analogs of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) are also metabolized and incorporated into cell surface glycans, likely through the sialic acid and GalNAc salvage pathways, respectively. Furthermore, GlcNAc analogs can be incorporated into nucleocytoplasmic proteins in place of {beta}-O-GlcNAc residues. These pathways have been exploited to integrate unique electrophiles such as ketones and azides into the target glycoconjugate class. These functional groups can be further elaborated in a chemoselective fashion by condensation with hydrazides and by Staudinger ligation, respectively, thereby introducing detectable probes onto the cell. In conclusion, sialic acid derivatives are efficient vehicles for delivery of bulky functional groups to cell surfaces and masking of their hydroxyl groups improves their cellular uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the successful introduction of photoactivatable aryl azides into cell surface glycans opens up new avenues for studying sialic acid-binding proteins and elucidating the role of sialic acid in essential processes such as signaling and cell adhesion.

  19. Serum sialic acid--an important cancer marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Tewarson S; Mittal V; Singh M; Gupta G

    1993-01-01

    Total serum sialic acid (TSA), Lipid associated sialic acid (LASA), Total protein (TP) and TSA/TP factor (as cancer markers) have been estimated in 78 patients of cancer stomach, breast, colorectal region and gall bladder, before and after treatment and of varying degrees of metastasis and compared to 30 healthy controls. A significant rise in TSA and TSA/TP factor and a decrease in serum total protein levels was found in all cases of cancer. This increase was directly proportional to the deg...

  20. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in term...

  1. Titanium dioxide enrichment of sialic acid-containing glycopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Lendal, Sara E; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2011-01-01

    the glycosylation site of N-linked sialylated glycoproteins. The method relies on the specificity of titanium dioxide affinity chromatography to isolate sialic acid-containing glycopeptides. After enzymatic release of the glycans, the enriched sialylated glycopeptides are analyzed by mass spectrometry...

  2. Membrane sialic acid influences basophil histamine release by interfering with calcium dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Skov, P S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the cell membrane content of sialic acid on basophil histamine release was examined in vitro in allergic patients and normal controls. Enzymatical removal of sialic acid enhanced histamine release induced by allergen and anti-IgE, whereas an increase in membrane sialic acid content....... This difference, together with the previous finding that alterations in membrane sialic acid content is reflected in the cell sensitivity to extracellular calcium, suggest an interaction between membrane sialic acid and the calcium channels involved in basophil histamine release....

  3. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arusoaie, Andrei; Cristei, Alexandru Ionuţ; Chircu, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming more than a part of our everyday life, helping us to identify quickly the elements of the environment or to better entertain us. The purpose of this paper is to present an application framework that we are developing, in order to help others implement their own...... applications. In the first section the focus is set on the Augmented Reality basic concepts and the necessity of developing such a framework. The prototype that we present in the second part of this paper comes to demonstrate how our framework can be used to achieve our targeted application for Augmented...... Reality. It also contains some future works to highlight the capabilities of the AR API. © 2010 IEEE....

  4. Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria

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    Almagro-Moreno Salvador

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA, epimerase (NanE, and kinase (NanK, necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster, are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body

  5. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions

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    Vallejo-Ruiz Verónica

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered sialylation has been observed during oncogenic transformation. Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumor progression and metastases. In the cervical cancer high levels of sialic acid have been reported in the patients serum, and an increased of total sialic acid concentration has been reported for the cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue. Methods Lectin histochemistry was used to examine the expression and distribution of sialic acid in different grades of cervical neoplasia. We applied Maackia amurensis lectin, which interacts with α2,3-linked sialic acid and Sambucus nigra lectin specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. Results The histochemical analysis showed that α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid increased in intensity and distribution in concordance with the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL. These results are in concordance with a previous study that reports increased RNAm levels of three sialyltransferases. Conclusions These results show that the change in sialylation occurs before cancer development and may play an important role in cellular transformation. These findings provide the basis for more detailed studies of the possible role of cell surface glycoconjugates bearing sialic acid in the cellular cervix transformation.

  6. Multiple changes in sialic acid biology during human evolution.

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    Varki, Ajit

    2009-04-01

    Humans are genetically very similar to "great apes", (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans), our closest evolutionary relatives. We have discovered multiple genetic and biochemical differences between humans and these other hominids, in relation to sialic acids and in Siglecs (Sia-recognizing Ig superfamily lectins). An inactivating mutation in the CMAH gene eliminated human expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) a major sialic acid in "great apes". Additional human-specific changes have been found, affecting at least 10 of the dietary sources, particularly red meat and milk products. As humans also have varying and sometime high levels of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, there are implications for biotechnology products, and for some human diseases associated with chronic inflammation.

  7. Role of sialic acid and alkaline DNase in breast cancer.

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    Raval, G N; Parekh, L J; Patel, M M; Patel, P S; Rawal, R M; Balar, D B; Patel, D D

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of sialic acid and alkaline DNase (ADA) were analysed in 495 blood samples collected from 170 breast cancer patients before and during/after anticancer treatment. Fifty-six healthy females were included in the study to define the cutoff values. The markers were analysed by highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods. Statistical evaluation of the data was done using Student's 't' test, paired 't' test and ROC curve analysis. The total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA) and ADA in sera of untreated breast cancer patients were significantly higher than in controls. ROC curve analysis revealed TSA and LSA to be useful markers for diagnosis of breast cancer. Serum levels of TSA and LSA were significantly decreased in complete responders as compared to their pretreatment values. The pretreatment ADA values showed much individual variation. However, responders showed higher levels of ADA than untreated patients. In nonresponders the values of the biomarkers were comparable with pretreatment levels. The study suggested that TSA and LSA can be helpful in the diagnosis of breast cancer. All three markers can be used for assessment of response to anticancer treatment in breast cancer patients.

  8. Structural Aberrations of Cellular Sialic Acids and TheirFunctions in Cancer Metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sialic acids (neuraminic acids) are a special series of 9-carbon ring negatively charged carbohydrates, which has been found to be selectively changed in malignant cells from structures (both synthesis and structure modifications) to functions (up and down regulation in cells). Sialic acids, in single forms or conjugates, have been systematically studied both in lab and in clinics by GC, GCMS, NMR, HPTLC, HPLC and other modern analytical means. Sialic acids and related conjugates are predicted to be used in cancer diagnosis, cancer prognostic forecasting, designing of cancer chemotherapy regimens, uncovering carcinogenetic processes and neoplasm metastasis. Tumor cell regulative systems and pathways are correlated with sialic acids, which can be applied to prognostic evaluation of cancer patients, and antimetastatic chemotherapy by sialic acid derivatives and analogues. Searching for new biological characteristics of sialic acids in cells have also been extensively studied these days. In this paper, main stream discoveries and advancements are provided , also discussions of possible mechanisms and hypotheses are invoked.

  9. Preferential Lectin Binding of Cancer Cells upon Sialic Acid Treatment under Nutrient Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; ElSayed, Abdelaleim I.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Dwek, Miriam V.; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B.

    2013-01-01

    The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells) as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both ...

  10. Comparative analysis of the sialic acid binding activity of four different IBV strains

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major pathogen in commercial poultry flocks. Recently we demonstrated, that sialic acid serves as a receptor determinant for IBV on the tracheal epithelium. Here we compared the IBV strains Beaudette, 4/91, Italy02, and QX for their sialic acid binding properties. We demonstrate that sialic acid binding is important for the infection of primary chicken kidney cells and the tracheal epithelium by all four strains. There were only...

  11. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SIALIC ACID IN INDIAN MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    D.Karunanithi; V.M.Biju; A.Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sialic acids are acidic sugars with a 9-carbon backbone, expressed as terminal residue on mammalian glycoconjugates. Sialic acid was found in two forms as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in meat and milk products. Neu5Ac is important for the brain and neuro development while Neu5Gc is suspected as human carcinogen. There is no data reported on sialic acid content in Indian milk and milk based products. Objective: To determine sialic acid (Ne...

  12. Augmentative phalloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, Dimitrije E

    2006-01-01

    Until 20 years ago, penis size (either nonerected or erected) was not mentioned, discussed, or defined even in serious books of human anatomy. The need of some men to enlarge and elongate their penile size is equivalent to the need of some women to ask for breast augmentation. The same method of transferring autologous fat into other parts of the body can be used in male patients for augmentative phalloplasty. The circumference of the penis increases 2 to 3 cm, and before of a heavier penis, the length increases 1 to 2 cm. If more lengthening is desired, subtotal dissection of the ligament fundiforme penis below the symphysis could be done, pull the corpus cavernosus out, and fix the tunica albuginea at the periost. At the root of the phallus, the skin can be elongated by V-Y-plasty, and the scrotal skin can be released by 1 or 2 Z-plasties. Combining both autologous fat transfer and ligament release allows for penis elongation of 3 to 5 cm. The authors have performed augentative phalloplasty on 88 patients since 1996. They have transplanted 40 to 68 ml of pure fat. Of the 88 patients, 57 underwent autologous fat transfer only, and 31 received additional ligament release. Penis length increased 1.5 to 4.8 cm (average, 2.42 cm), and circumference increased 1.4 to 4.0 cm (average, 2.65 cm). The initial penis lengths were 6.5 to 10.0 cm (average, 8.72 cm), and the circumference were 8.0 to 10.1 cm (average, 9.18 cm) not erected. This article details a simple operative procedure to enlarge the penis and simple postoperative bandages. Patients are advised to obstain from sexual activity for 5 weeks after the surgery. Two patients who disregarded this advice had an unsatisfactory result. In one patient too, much of the grafted fat had to be removed from the preputium. No other serious complications were observed.

  13. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  14. A novel sialic acid utilization and uptake system in the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sumita; Douglas, C W Ian; Stafford, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a key contributor to periodontitis, but little is known of its virulence mechanisms. In this study we have investigated the role of sialic acid in biofilm growth of this periodontal pathogen. Our data show that biofilm growth of T. forsythia is stimulated by sialic acid, glycolyl sialic acid, and sialyllactose, all three of which are common sugar moieties on a range of important host glycoproteins. We have also established that growth on sialyllactose is dependent on the sialidase of T. forsythia since the sialidase inhibitor oseltamivir suppresses growth on sialyllactose. The genome of T. forsythia contains a sialic acid utilization locus, which also encodes a putative inner membrane sialic acid permease (NanT), and we have shown this is functional when it is expressed in Escherichia coli. This genomic locus also contains a putatively novel TonB-dependent outer membrane sialic acid transport system (TF0033-TF0034). In complementation studies using an Escherichia coli strain devoid of its outer membrane sialic acid transporters, the cloning and expression of the TF0033-TF0034 genes enabled an E. coli nanR nanC ompR strain to utilize sialic acid as the sole carbon and energy source. We have thus identified a novel sialic acid uptake system that couples an inner membrane permease with a TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter, and we propose to rename these novel sialic acid uptake genes nanO and nanU, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that sialic acid is a key growth factor for this little-characterized oral pathogen and may be key to its physiology in vivo.

  15. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease.

  16. Clinical usefulness of alterations in sialic acid, sialyl transferase and sialoproteins in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, G N; Parekh, L J; Patel, D D; Jha, F P; Sainger, R N; Patel, P S

    2004-07-01

    Sialic acid, the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates and are reported to be altered in cancer patients. Two hundred and twenty five breast cancer (BC) patients, 100 patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and 100 healthy females (controls) were enrolled for the study. Eight hundred and twenty four follow-up samples of 225 breast carcinoma patients were also evaluated. The association of sialic acid forms, sialyltransferase and α-2-6 sialoproteins levels with presence and extent as well as prognosis of breast carcinoma was studied. Serum sialic acid forms and sialyltransferase revealed significantly elevated levels among untreated breast cancer patients as compared to the controls, patients with BBD as well as cancer patients in remission. Non-responders showed comparable levels of the markers with those found in breast cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Higher levels of sialic acid forms at diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis. A positive correlation between serum levels of different forms of sialic acids and extent of malignant disease was observed. The changes in serum proteins with terminal α-2-6 sialic acid correlated well with alterations in the levels of sialic acid forms and sialyltransferase. Malignant tissues showed elevated levels of sialic acid and sialyltransferase as compared to surrounding normal tissues.The results suggested potential utility of these markers in evaluation of clinical outcome.

  17. Predictive Value of Serum Sialic Acid in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complication (Nephropathy)

    OpenAIRE

    K, Prajna; Kumar J., Ashok; Rai, Srinidhi; Shetty, Shobith Kumar; Rai, Tirthal; Shrinidhi,; Begum, Mohamedi; MD, Shashikala

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sialic acid levels are increased in type-2 diabetes mellitus and its estimation helps in predicting the occurrence of microvascular complication such as diabetic nephropathy. The present study compared the levels of sialic acid, glycated haemoglobin, serum creatinine and urine microalbumin: in type-2 diabetics without any complications; in type-2 diabetics with nephropathy; and in age and sex matched healthy individual (controls).

  18. Substrate specificity of the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Christina L.; Goon, Scarlett; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hinderlich, Stephan; Hang, Howard C.; Chai, Diana H.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2001-07-18

    Unnatural analogs of sialic acid can be delivered to mammalian cell surfaces through the metabolic transformation of unnatural N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) derivatives. In previous studies, mannosamine analogs bearing simple N-acyl groups up to five carbon atoms in length were recognized as substrates by the biosynthetic machinery and transformed into cell-surface sialoglycoconjugates [Keppler, O. T., et al. (2001) Glycobiology 11, 11R-18R]. Such structural alterations to cell surface glycans can be used to probe carbohydrate-dependent phenomena. This report describes our investigation into the extent of tolerance of the pathway toward additional structural alterations of the N-acyl substituent of ManNAc. A panel of analogs with ketone-containing N-acyl groups that varied in the lengthor steric bulk was chemically synthesized and tested for metabolic conversion to cell-surface glycans. We found that extension of the N-acyl chain to six, seven, or eight carbon atoms dramatically reduced utilization by the biosynthetic machinery. Likewise, branching from the linear chain reduced metabolic conversion. Quantitation of metabolic intermediates suggested that cellular metabolism is limited by the phosphorylation of the N-acylmannosamines by ManNAc 6-kinase in the first step of the pathway. This was confirmed by enzymatic assay of the partially purified enzyme with unnatural substrates. Identification of ManNAc 6-kinase as a bottleneck for unnatural sialic acid biosynthesis provides a target for expanding the metabolic promiscuity of mammalian cells.

  19. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was v

  20. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  1. [The determination of sialic acid in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, M; Abbate, I; Gargano, G; Catino, A; Musci, M D; Dragone, C D; De Lena, M

    1992-01-01

    The availability of a new rapid and reproducible laboratory test led to an easy dosage of sialic acid (AS) serum levels in neoplastic patients. This substance, involved in tumoral transformation and metastatic spread, has been evaluated in 278 neoplastic patients: 183 patients were affected by lymphoma (96 NHL and 87 HD), 60 by breast cancer and 35 by lung cancer. All groups of patients considered showed mean values of AS higher than healthy controls and the positive percentages, compared with cut-off levels, were respectively: NHL 71%, HD 70%, breast cancer 38%, lung cancer 89%. Even if the low specificity of this marker limits its clinical validity, AS, that seems related to clinical course of disease, could be useful in the monitoring of many neoplasms.

  2. Complement receptor 1 is a sialic acid-independent erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmenza Spadafora

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of erythrocyte invasion are incompletely understood. P. falciparum depends heavily on sialic acid present on glycophorins to invade erythrocytes. However, a significant proportion of laboratory and field isolates are also able to invade erythrocytes in a sialic acid-independent manner. The identity of the erythrocyte sialic acid-independent receptor has been a mystery for decades. We report here that the complement receptor 1 (CR1 is a sialic acid-independent receptor for the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum. We show that soluble CR1 (sCR1 as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against CR1 inhibit sialic acid-independent invasion in a variety of laboratory strains and wild isolates, and that merozoites interact directly with CR1 on the erythrocyte surface and with sCR1-coated microspheres. Also, the invasion of neuraminidase-treated erythrocytes correlates with the level of CR1 expression. Finally, both sialic acid-independent and dependent strains invade CR1 transgenic mouse erythrocytes preferentially over wild-type erythrocytes but invasion by the latter is more sensitive to neuraminidase. These results suggest that both sialic acid-dependent and independent strains interact with CR1 in the normal red cell during the invasion process. However, only sialic acid-independent strains can do so without the presence of glycophorin sialic acid. Our results close a longstanding and important gap in the understanding of the mechanism of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum that will eventually make possible the development of an effective blood stage vaccine.

  3. Sialic Acid Glycobiology Unveils Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Membrane Physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés B Lantos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues. To tackle this issue, we followed an unnatural sugar approach as bioorthogonal chemical reporters, where the use of azidosialyl residues allowed identifying the acquired sugar. Advanced microscopy techniques, together with biochemical methods, were used to study the trypomastigote membrane from its glycobiological perspective. Main sialyl acceptors were identified as mucins by biochemical procedures and protein markers. Together with determining their shedding and turnover rates, we also report that several membrane proteins, including TS and its substrates, both glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are separately distributed on parasite surface and contained in different and highly stable membrane microdomains. Notably, labeling for α(1,3Galactosyl residues only partially colocalize with sialylated mucins, indicating that two species of glycosylated mucins do exist, which are segregated at the parasite surface. Moreover, sialylated mucins were included in lipid-raft-domains, whereas TS molecules are not. The location of the surface-anchored TS resulted too far off as to be capable to sialylate mucins, a role played by the shed TS instead. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase-C activity is actually not present in trypomastigotes. Therefore, shedding of TS occurs via microvesicles instead of as a fully

  4. Analysis of Sialic acid and Sphingomyelin of Brain of Mice by Using Spectrophotometer and Hplc

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suryaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acid is an important component of brain which is needed to form ganglioside molecule of brain’s membrane, while sphingomyelin has a role in myelination of central nervous system during the growth development of babies. The aims of this research were to analyze the sialic acid and sphingomyelin contents of the brain of mice and compared with their contents in the ration of mice. The study was carried out in three phases as follows: i.e., ration formulation, analysis of sialic acid and s...

  5. The distribution of tissue fibronectin and sialic acid in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süer, S; Baloğlu, H; Güngör, Z; Sönmez, H; Kökoğlu, E

    1998-06-01

    Our findings indicate that sialic acid and fibronectin levels in breast tumors are higher than those in normal tissues. The mean tissue fibronectin and sialic acid concentrations for patients with breast cancer were 30.90 +/- 9.68 microg/mg protein and 21.60 +/- 9.35 microg/mg protein, respectively, and for normal controls were 12.47 +/- 5.69 microg/mg protein, respectively. Tissue fibronectin and sialic acid can be important markers for human breast cancer.

  6. Augmented Reality in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric P A

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss p...

  7. 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric sialic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankoh, Supannee; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Numnuam, Apon; Limbut, Warakorn; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2016-11-15

    A simple and selective colorimetric sensor for sialic acid detection, based on the aggregation of 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles (4-MPBA-AuNPs) was developed. The color of the solution changed from wine-red to blue after binding with sialic acid. The colorimetric sensor provided good analytical performances with a linear dynamic range of 80µM to 2.00mM and a 68±2µM limit of detection without any effect from possible interferences and sample matrix. In addition, the quantitative results were obtained within only 10min. This developed sensor was used to detect sialic acid in blood serum samples and the results were in good agreement with those from the current periodate-resorcinol method (P>0.05) thus indicating that this developed colorimetric sensor can be used as an alternative method for sialic acid detection with a shorter analysis time and a high accuracy.

  8. O-acetylated sialic acids in gangliosides from pig spleen lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, P; Cabezas, J A; Reglero, A

    1988-01-01

    The sialic acid content of gangliosides from pig spleen lymphocytes was studied by thin-layer chromatography. N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid were detected for the first time in this material as the major sialic acids. In addition, two other sialic acids, tentatively designated O-acetylated sialic acids, according to their RF values on cellulose plates, were also found. We have detected several gangliosides showing a retarded migration pattern in two dimensional thin-layer chromatography with an intermediate ammonia treatment. One of these gangliosides could be an O-acetylated derivative of the disialoganglioside GD3, since after de-O-acetyation it co-migrates with GD3. Another ganglioside co-migrated with GM2 before the alkaline treatment; however, after the treatment it was also retarded and co-migrates with GD3.

  9. Macrophage-mediated tumor cytotoxicity: role of macrophage surface sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D J

    1983-02-01

    Cell surface sialic acid levels were compared for monocytes and macrophages obtained from normal volunteers and breast cancer patients. Equal quantities of sialic acid were found on the monocytes obtained from normal volunteers and breast cancer patients. Approximately 60% more cell surface sialic acid was found on the macrophages from breast cancer patients than was found on the macrophages from normal volunteers. In order to determine whether cell surface sialic acid had any effect on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, macrophages were pretreated with neuraminidase (NANAse) prior to co-cultivation with tumor cells. The normal macrophages, after neuraminidase treatment, no longer retained their ability to kill tumor cells. However, when macrophages from breast cancer patients were treated with NANAse, no difference was observed in the ability of untreated and NANAse treated macrophages to kill tumor cells.

  10. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K

    1981-10-01

    We evaluated lipid-bound sialic acid as a "marker" in cancer patients and assessed the individual and combined value of lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen determinations in these patients. Plasma was sampled from 62 normal subjects and 125 cancer patients. Lipid-bound sialic acid was determined by the resorcinol method after total lipid extraction and isolation of the sialolipid fraction from plasma. Neither marker was increased in many breast cancer patients. Carcinoembryonic antigen was increased more commonly and to a greater degree in colon cancer patients and seems to be the preferred marker. Both markers were increased in lung cancer patients and their combined evaluation improved the rate of detection. Lipid-bound sialic acid was increased in more patients with leukemias, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and melanomas, suggesting that it may be a useful biochemical marker in these types of cancer.

  11. Serum sialic acid and glycoprotein levels in some Libyan cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balo, N N; Ishaq, M

    1991-01-01

    Sialic acid is a common conjugate of some serum glycoproteins and glycolipids. Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and alterations in serum glycoproteins have been observed in certain types of cancer. In this study sialic acid concentration in the sera of patients with various types of cancer was determined. In addition to this, serum glycoproteins were also analysed by electrophoretic method. Our results indicate that serum sialic acid levels are generally raised in all types of cancer studied. This increase was more pronounced in case of lung, bronchogenic, intestinal and breast cancer. Some alterations in the serum glycoprotein profiles were also observed, particularly in bronchogenic and gall bladder cancer where an additional band in the low molecular weight region was present and in lung, breast and lymphoma where a band in the middle molecular weight region was found missing when compared with normals.

  12. Sialic acid, periodontal pathogens and Tannerella forsythia: stick around and enjoy the feast!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, G; Roy, S; Honma, K; Sharma, A

    2012-02-01

    Periodontal pathogens, like any other human commensal or pathogenic bacterium, must possess both the ability to acquire the necessary growth factors and the means to adhere to surfaces or reside and survive in their environmental niche. Recent evidence has suggested that sialic acid containing host molecules may provide both of these requirements in vivo for several periodontal pathogens but most notably for the red complex organism Tannerella forsythia. Several other periodontal pathogens also possess sialic acid scavenging enzymes - sialidases, which can also expose adhesive epitopes, but might also act as adhesins in their own right. In addition, recent experimental work coupled with the release of several genome sequences has revealed that periodontal bacteria have a range of sialic acid uptake and utilization systems while others may also use sialic acid as a cloaking device on their surface to mimic host and avoid immune recognition. This review will focus on these systems in a range of periodontal bacteria with a focus on Ta. forsythia.

  13. Clinical usefulness of alterations in sialic acid, sialyl transferase and sialoproteins in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Raval, G. N.; Parekh, L. J.; Patel, D D; Jha, F. P.; Sainger, R. N.; Patel, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Sialic acid, the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates and are reported to be altered in cancer patients. Two hundred and twenty five breast cancer (BC) patients, 100 patients with benign breast disease (BBD) and 100 healthy females (controls) were enrolled for the study. Eight hundred and twenty four follow-up samples of 225 breast carcinoma patients were also evaluated. The association of sialic acid forms, sialyltr...

  14. Inductively Coupled Augmented Railgun

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    We derive the non-linear dynamical equations for an augmented electromagnetic railgun, whose augmentation circuit is inductively coupled to the gun circuit. We solve these differential equations numerically using example parameter values. We find a complicated interaction between the augmentation circuit, gun circuit, and mechanical degrees of freedom, leading to a complicated optimization problem. For certain values of parameters, we find that an augmented electromagnetic railgun has an armature kinetic energy that is 42% larger than the same railgun with no augmentation circuit. Optimizing the parameters may lead to further increase in performance.

  15. Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 utilizes sialic acid as a cellular receptor for virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S; Sharma, Anurag; Mittal, Suresh K

    2009-09-30

    Bovine adenovirus serotype 3 (BAd3) and porcine adenovirus serotype 3 (PAd3) entry into the host cells is independent of Coxsackievirus adenovirus receptor and integrins. The role of sialic acid in BAd3 and PAd3 entry was investigated. Removal of sialic acid by neuraminidase, or blocking sialic acid by wheat germ agglutinin lectin significantly inhibited BAd3, but not PAd3, transduction of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Maackia amurensis agglutinin or Sambucus nigra (elder) agglutinin treatment efficiently blocked BAd3 transduction suggesting that BAd3 utilized alpha(2,3)-linked and alpha(2,6)-linked sialic acid as a cell receptor. BAd3 transduction of MDBK cells was sensitive to sodium periodate, bromelain, or trypsin treatment indicating that the receptor sialoconjugate was a glycoprotein rather than a ganglioside. To determine sialic acid-containing cell membrane proteins that bind to BAd3, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) was performed and showed that sialylated cell membrane proteins in size of approximately 97 and 34 kDa bind to BAd3. The results suggest that sialic acid serves as a primary receptor for BAd3.

  16. Storage material from urine and tissues in the nephropathic phenotype of infantile sialic acid storage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, E; Gruber, W; Ring, E; Sperl, W

    1992-01-01

    We analysed urine and tissue specimens from two nephrotic infantile sialic acid storage disease patients (nISSD) for free and bound sialic acids in comparison to non-nephrotic ISSD patients (ISSD), patients with minimal change nephrosis (nControl) and normal controls (Control). No differences in the excretion of urinary free sialic acid could be detected between ISSD and nISSD urines. Sialyloligosaccharide fractions were only slightly elevated and of apparently normal composition. Owing to glomerular dysfunction, measurable quantities of protein-bound sialic acids were present in nISSD and nControl. In nISSD tissues, free sialic acid was elevated 18-100-fold above control and 3-12-fold above Niemann-Pick A (NPA) samples. The storage of membrane-bound sialic acid was slightly increased compared to control tissues, but equal to those from NPA, thus reflecting an unspecific increase of membranes due to lysosomal storage. According to these results no major biochemical differences were detectable between ISSD and nISSD. The nephrotic syndrome in nISSD could not be related to a general deficit in the sialylation of glycoproteins. Nevertheless, a cell membrane-specific alteration in sialoglycoproteins of glomerular cells might still be possible.

  17. Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid alterations in neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, C; Dixit, M; Hardy, R E

    1990-01-15

    Plasma lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) was assayed in normal volunteers, patients with non-malignant diseases, and a variety of cancer patients. Mean plasma LSA in 50 normal volunteers, 16 patients with non-malignant diseases, 54 breast cancer, 17 lung cancer, 15 colon cancer, 7 ovarian cancer, 5 prostate cancer, 4 leukemia, 4 gastrointestinal, 3 thyroid cancer, 3 pancreas cancer and 2 adrenal cancer patients were 17.7, 23.2, 58, 85, 56.7, 46.2, 56.7, 53.3, 31.1, 33.2 and 119.5 mg/dl, respectively. None of the normal volunteers had elevated plasma LSA values. Plasma LSA level was not significantly different in male and female volunteers. Two out of 114 different cancer patients had plasma LSA levels within normal range exhibiting 98.2% sensitivity of the assay. Plasma LSA, which is relatively simple to assay, may be used as a tumor marker in wide variety of neoplastic diseases.

  18. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; Dina M. M. AlSadek; Mohit P. Mathew; Chen-Zhong Li; Djansugurova, Leyla B.; Yarema, Kevin J.; Hafiz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show s...

  19. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15. Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.

  20. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjuanes Luis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  1. Creating augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Raine

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is used in different occasions in our daily lives. The idea of an electronic display and spectacles that overlays data to people came in 1901. Augmented reality revolution started in 1990, it is a combination of real life and virtual reality. The beginning of AR is being examined from the very beginning of it. In 1999, it gained momentum when Hirokazu Kato published the ARToolkit to the open source community. After this, augmented reality has evolved everywhere, includi...

  2. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using of more complex computational methods such as neural networks. Our goal is to create an affordable augmented reality application suitable which will help car designers in by 'virtualizing' car modifications.

  3. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  4. Sialic acid-to-urea ratio as a measure of airway surface hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther, Charles R; Hill, David B; Button, Brian; Shi, Shuai; Jania, Corey; Duncan, Elizabeth A; Doerschuk, Claire M; Chen, Gang; Ranganathan, Sarath; Stick, Stephen M; Boucher, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    Although airway mucus dehydration is key to pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) and other airways diseases, measuring mucus hydration is challenging. We explored a robust method to estimate mucus hydration using sialic acid as a marker for mucin content. Terminal sialic acid residues from mucins were cleaved by acid hydrolysis from airway samples, and concentrations of sialic acid, urea, and other biomarkers were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In mucins purified from human airway epithelial (HAE), sialic acid concentrations after acid hydrolysis correlated with mucin concentrations (r(2) = 0.92). Sialic acid-to-urea ratios measured from filters applied to the apical surface of cultured HAE correlated to percent solids and were elevated in samples from CF HAEs relative to controls (2.2 ± 1.1 vs. 0.93 ± 1.8, P gold standard measure of mucus hydration. The method proved robust and has potential to serve as flexible techniques to assess mucin hydration, particularly in samples like BALF in which established methods such as percent solids cannot be utilized.

  5. Preferential lectin binding of cancer cells upon sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; Elsayed, Abdelaleim I; Ahmed, Hafiz; Dwek, Miriam V; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B

    2013-10-01

    The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells), as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both cells resulted in increased activities of α2→3/6 sialyltransferases as demonstrated by solid phase assay using lectin binding. However, a very strong Maackia amurensis agglutinin I (MAL-I) staining on the membrane of sialic acid-treated T47D cells was observed, indicating an increase of Neu5Acα2→3Gal on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is a first report showing the utility of lectins, particularly MAL-I, as a means to discriminate between normal and cancer cells after sialic acid treatment under nutrient deprivation. This method is sensitive and allows selective detection of glycan sialylation on a cancer cell surface.

  6. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  7. Augmented Spinor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhong FENG; Lin ZHU; Yanlin YU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Pauli matrices, a notion of augmented spinor space is introduced, and a uniqueness of such augmented spinor space of rank n is proved. It may be expected that this new notion of spaces can be used in mathematical physics and geometry.

  8. Histochemical properties of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in canine anal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of sialic acids appear to be manifold. Additionally, antimicrobial substances serve as a non-specific defense against microorganisms. In this study, therefore, the localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in the anal glands of dog was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium, luminal secretions and excretory ducts exhibited high levels of sialoglycoconjugates that terminated in Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc or Siaα2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc. Additionally, O-acetylated sialic acids were detectable in these glandular structures. Antimicrobial substances, such as lysozyme, immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin and the peptide group of β-defensins, were also demonstrated as products of the anal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the anal glands. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion at the anal mucosa.

  9. Total and lipid-bound serum sialic acid in benign and malignant breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romppanen, J; Eskelinen, M; Tikanoja, S; Mononen, I

    1997-01-01

    Elevation in the total sialic acid (TSA), TSA/total protein (TSA/TP) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LASA) concentration in serum occurs in breast cancer and we have studied the applicability of the assays in classification of undefined breast tumors. Sialic acid was determined by HPLC and the statistical evaluation included the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Youden's index analyses. In cancer patients, the serum LASA and TSA concentration was significantly higher (p breast cancer and benign breast disease and at the specificity level of 0.95 the corresponding sensitivities were 0.32 (TSA), 0.14 (TSA/TP) and 0.23 (LASA). The results indicate that both breast cancer and benign breast disease cause elevation of TSA, TSA/TP and LASA values in serum and do not provide reliable classification of undefined breast tumors.

  10. Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dhakar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

  11. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Relationship between Sialic acid and metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak B Shivananda

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma sialic acid is a marker of the acute phase response. Objective is to study the relationship between sialic acid relationship with metabolic variables in Indian type 2 diabetes with and without microvascular complications. Research design and Methods Fasting Venous blood samples were taken from 200 subjects of which 50 were of diabetes mellitus (DM and nephropathy patients, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and retinopathy, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes without any complications and 50 healthy individuals without diabetes. The Indian subject's aged 15–60 years with type 2 diabetes were recruited for the study. Simultaneously urine samples were also collected from each of the subjects. All the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, fasting and postprandial glucose on fully automated analyzer. Serum and urine sialic acid along with microalbumin levels were also estimated. Results There was a significantly increasing trend of plasma and urine sialic acid with severity of nephropathy (P 1c, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, waist-to-hip ratio and hypertension. Significant correlations were found between sialic acid concentration and cardiovascular risk factors like LDL and TG in the diabetic subjects. Conclusion The main finding of this study is that elevated serum and urinary sialic acid and microalbumin concentrations were strongly related to the presence of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy and cardiovascular risk factors in Indian type 2 diabetic subjects. Further study of acute-phase response markers and mediators as indicators or predictors of diabetic microvascular complications is therefore justified.

  13. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health.

  14. Interactions of chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos with red blood cell membranes. Chrysotile binds to sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, A R; George, G; Hill, L H

    1983-10-01

    Chrysotile and crocidolite are commonly used forms of asbestos. Hemolysis has been widely used as a test of membrane injury, and it has been shown previously that chrysotile causes rapid breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), whereas crocidolite is only weakly hemolytic. A reasonable hypothesis set forth to explain the cytotoxic effects of chrysotile maintains that positively charged chrysotile fibers bind to negatively charged sialic acid residues on RBC membranes causing clustering of membrane proteins and increased cell permeability to Na and K ions. Our studies presented here provide two lines of evidence in direct support of this hypothesis. (a) Morphologic--Ultrastructural techniques showed that both chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos bind to and distort more than 85% of RBCs treated for 15 minutes. The distorting effects of chrysotile, but not crocidolite, were almost totally ablated by pretreating the cells with neuraminidase. In addition, gold-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin was used to label the distribution of sialic acid groups on RBC membranes. Pretreatment of the RBCs with chrysotile, but not crocidolite, reduced the number of gold-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin-labeled sites to less than 30% of the control level. (b) Biochemical--The thiobarbituric acid assay was used to determine the percentage of sialic acid that remained with the cell pellet after neuraminidase and/or asbestos treatment. Asbestos treatment alone caused no release of sialic acid from the cells. Neuraminidase treatment for 3.5 hours removed more than 80% of the sialic acid from cell surfaces. Chrysotile, but not crocidolite, asbestos prevented neuraminidase-mediated removal of sialic acid from RBCs. In addition, x-ray energy spectrometry of freeze-dried cells showed that RBCs distorted by chrysotile, but not by crocidolite, exhibited significant alterations in intracellular Na:K ratios. The morphologic and biochemical data strongly support the hypothesis that chrysotile asbestos

  15. Natural and synthetic sialic acid-containing inhibitors of influenza virus receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosovich, Mikhail; Klenk, Hans-Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Influenza viruses attach to susceptible cells via multivalent interactions of their haemagglutinins with sialyloligosaccharide moieties of cellular glycoconjugates. Soluble macromolecules containing sialic acid from animal sera and mucosal fluids can act as decoy receptors and competitively inhibit virus-mediated haemagglutination and infection. Although a role for these natural inhibitors in the innate anti-influenza immunity is still not clear, studies are in progress on the design of synthetic sialic acid-containing inhibitors of receptor binding which could be used as anti-influenza drugs.

  16. Lipid-associated sialic acid levels in human breast cyst fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannello, F; Bocchiotti, G; Troccoli, R; Gazzanelli, G

    1992-01-01

    Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion. Women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal female population. Sialic acid has drawn considerable interest because of carbohydrate aberrations in malignant cells. The current investigation determined the concentrations of lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA) in 62 breast cyst fluids and sera. Data analyses show a significant increase in the mean values of LASA in metabolically active apocrine cysts when compared to the cysts with Na+/K+ > 3 (flattened cysts) (p breast cancer.

  17. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  18. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  19. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  20. H7N9 influenza viruses interact preferentially with α2,3-linked sialic acids and bind weakly to α2,6-linked sialic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Irene; Krammer, Florian; Hai, Rong; Aguilera, Domingo; Bernal-Rubio, Dabeiba; Steel, John; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2013-11-01

    The recent human outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused worldwide concerns. Receptor binding specificity is critical for viral pathogenicity, and still not thoroughly studied for this emerging virus. Here, we evaluated the receptor specificity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of two human H7N9 isolates (A/Shanghai/1/13 and A/Anhui/1/13) through a solid-phase binding assay and a flow cytometry-based assay. In addition, we compared it with those from several HAs from human and avian influenza viruses. We observed that the HAs from the novel H7 isolates strongly interacted with α2,3-linked sialic acids. Importantly, they also showed low levels of binding to α2,6-linked sialic acids, but significantly higher than other avian H7s.

  1. Sialic acid transporter NanT participates in Tannerella forsythia biofilm formation and survival on epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kiyonobu; Ruscitto, Angela; Frey, Andrew M; Stafford, Graham P; Sharma, Ashu

    2016-05-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a periodontal pathogen implicated in periodontitis. This gram-negative pathogen depends on exogenous peptidoglycan amino sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) for growth. In the biofilm state the bacterium can utilize sialic acid (Neu5Ac) instead of NAM to sustain its growth. Thus, the sialic acid utilization system of the bacterium plays a critical role in the growth and survival of the organism in the absence of NAM. We sought the function of a T. forsythia gene annotated as nanT coding for an inner-membrane sugar transporter located on a sialic acid utilization genetic cluster. To determine the function of this putative sialic acid transporter, an isogenic nanT-deletion mutant generated by allelic replacement strategy was evaluated for biofilm formation on NAM or Neu5Ac, and survival on KB epithelial cells. Moreover, since T. forsythia forms synergistic biofilms with Fusobacterium nucleatum, co-biofilm formation activity in mixed culture and sialic acid uptake in culture were also assessed. The data showed that the nanT-inactivated mutant of T. forsythia was attenuated in its ability to uptake sialic acid. The mutant formed weaker biofilms compared to the wild-type strain in the presence of sialic acid and as co-biofilms with F. nucleatum. Moreover, compared to the wild-type T. forsythia nanT-inactivated mutant showed reduced survival when incubated on KB epithelial cells. Taken together, the data presented here demonstrate that NanT-mediated sialic transportation is essential for sialic acid utilization during biofilm growth and survival of the organism on epithelial cells and implies sialic acid might be key for its survival both in subgingival biofilms and during infection of human epithelial cells in vivo.

  2. INFORMATION VIA AUGMENTED

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Sampson

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of mobile technology today has developed over the past dec-ades. The thirst for information and communication has brought about high data transfer speed on modern mobile handset devices. This makes it possible for Augmented Reality to be used on mobile phones. Vaasa University of Applied Science, Technobothnia science resource center and Lumivaara Museum saw the importance of information and decided to embark on a pilot project where Augmented Reality will not be only us...

  3. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-xu Li; Guo-ying Ma; Min-fang Guo; Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control) cells. We then treated cells with di-valent cations of Ca2+and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to speciifcally remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electro-phoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These ifndings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  4. Sialic acid accelerates the electrophoretic velocity of injured dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-xu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to result in ectopic spontaneous discharges on soma and injured sites of sensory neurons, thereby inducing neuropathic pain. With the increase of membrane proteins on soma and injured site neurons, the negatively charged sialic acids bind to the external domains of membrane proteins, resulting in an increase of this charge. We therefore speculate that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons may be faster than non-injured neurons. The present study established rat models of neuropathic pain via chronic constriction injury. Results of the cell electrophoresis test revealed that the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells was faster than that of non-injured (control cells. We then treated cells with divalent cations of Ca 2+ and organic compounds with positive charges, polylysine to counteract the negatively charged sialic acids, or neuraminidase to specifically remove sialic acids from the membrane surface of injured neurons. All three treatments significantly reduced the electrophoretic velocity of injured neuronal cells. These findings suggest that enhanced sialic acids on injured neurons may accelerate the electrophoretic velocity of injured neurons.

  5. Unified theory of bacterial sialometabolism: how and why bacteria metabolize host sialic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimr, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    Sialic acids are structurally diverse nine-carbon ketosugars found mostly in humans and other animals as the terminal units on carbohydrate chains linked to proteins or lipids. The sialic acids function in cell-cell and cell-molecule interactions necessary for organismic development and homeostasis. They not only pose a barrier to microorganisms inhabiting or invading an animal mucosal surface, but also present a source of potential carbon, nitrogen, and cell wall metabolites necessary for bacterial colonization, persistence, growth, and, occasionally, disease. The explosion of microbial genomic sequencing projects reveals remarkable diversity in bacterial sialic acid metabolic potential. How bacteria exploit host sialic acids includes a surprisingly complex array of metabolic and regulatory capabilities that is just now entering a mature research stage. This paper attempts to describe the variety of bacterial sialometabolic systems by focusing on recent advances at the molecular and host-microbe-interaction levels. The hope is that this focus will provide a framework for further research that holds promise for better understanding of the metabolic interplay between bacterial growth and the host environment. An ability to modify or block this interplay has already yielded important new insights into potentially new therapeutic approaches for modifying or blocking bacterial colonization or infection.

  6. A sialic acid assay in isolation and purification of bovine k-casein glycomacropeptide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takuo; Ozimek, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Sialic acid is a carbohydrate moiety of k-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), which is a 64 amino acid residue C-terminal sialylated phosphorylated glycopeptide released from k-casein by the action of chymosin during cheese making. GMP lacks aromatic amino acids including phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. Because of its unique amino acid composition and various biological activities, GMP is thought to be a potential ingredient for dietetic foods (e.g., a food for PKU patients) and pharmaceuticals. Thus, increased attention has been given to the development of techniques to purify GMP. In this review, techniques of GMP purification described in patents and scientific research papers were introduced. A sialic acid assay is the important method to track GMP isolation and purification processes, for which the thiobarbituric acid reaction with 1-propanol as a chromophore extracting solvent is an inexpensive, practical and specific technique. Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography, cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are the major techniques to identify sialic acid specific to GMP. Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and cellulose acetate electrophoresis are also used to detect GMP sialic acid in whey pearmeate and whey added commercial margarine samples. Future research includes development of an economical industrial scale method to produce high purity GMP.

  7. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  8. Serum sialic acid in malignant tumors, bacterial infections, and chronic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefenelli, N; Klotz, H; Engel, A; Bauer, P

    1985-01-01

    The total serum sialic acid concentration was determined in 2,264 persons with various malignant tumors, bacterial infections, rheumatic diseases, and chronic liver diseases, and in a control group. The thiobarbiturate method according to Warren was used. The upper limit (95% percentile) in the control group was 2.23 mumol/ml. Higher values were found in the groups with neoplasms (mean: 3.04 mumol/ml), inflammatory diseases (e.g., pneumonia: 3.02 mumol/ml), and active rheumatoid arthritis (3.05 mumol/ml). In the group with malignant diseases, the sialic acid concentration at the time of diagnosis was highest for bronchial carcinoma (3.29 mumol/ml) and lowest for breast cancer (2.58 mumol/ml). In chronic liver diseases the mean sialic acid level was lower than in a heterogeneous group of noninflammatory and nonneoplastic diseases. The estimation of the serum sialic acid concentration could be useful in the detection of tumor burden and metastases, and in the evaluation of the later course and prognosis of malignant neoplasms if bacterial/inflammatory and active rheumatoid processes can be excluded.

  9. Racotumomab: An Anti-Idiotype Vaccine Related to N-Glycolyl-Containing-Gangliosides. Preclinical and Clinical Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María eVázquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neu-glycolyl (NeuGc containing gangliosides are attractive targets for immunotherapy with anti-idiotype mAbs, because these glycolipids are not normal components of the cytoplasmatic membrane in humans, but their expression has been demonstrated in several human malignant tumors. Racotumomab is an anti-idiotype mAb specific to P3 mAb, an antibody which reacts to NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides and other antigens expressed in tumors. Preparations containing racotumomab were able to induce a strong antimetastatic effect in tumor-bearing mice. Different Phase I clinical trials have been conducted in patients with advanced melanoma, breast cancer and lung cancer. The results of these clinical trials demonstrated the low toxicity and the high immunogenicity of this vaccine. The induced antibodies recognized and directly killed tumor cells expressing NeuGcGM3. A Phase II/III multicenter, controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated racotumomab vaccine in overall survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The clinical results of this study showed a significant clinical benefit in the patients who were treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine.

  10. Everything Augmented: On the Real in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Schraffenberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What is augmented in Augmented Reality (AR? In this paper, we review existing opinions and show how little consensus exists on this matter. Subsequently, we approach the question from a theoretical and technology-independent perspective. We identify spatial and content-based relationships between the virtual and the real as being decisive for AR and come to the conclusion that virtual content augments that to which it relates. Subsequently, we categorize different forms of AR based on what is augmented. We distinguish between augmented environments, augmented objects, augmented humans and augmented content and consider the possibility of augmented perception. The categories are illustrated with AR (art works and conceptual differences between them are pointed out. Moreover, we discuss what the real contributes to AR and how it can shape (future AR experiences. A summary of our findings and suggestions for future research and practice, such as research into multimodal and crossmodal AR, conclude the paper.

  11. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  12. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  13. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they interact with, or a user can annotate the live video view of a remote worker, enabling them to collaborate at a distance. The overall goal is to augment the face-to-face collaborative experience, or t...

  14. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  15. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2016-03-17

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  16. Augmented Reality i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radmer, Ole; Surland, Mogens; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2016-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) giver ny mulighed for, at elever kan lave undersøgelser i naturfag med enkel teknologi, hvor animationer og simulationer kobles med det virkelige fænomen. I workshoppen kan I afprøve AR eksempler, udviklet i et internationalt EU projekt. Der vil være noget, der direkte kan...

  17. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  18. Collaborative augmented reality environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Manufaktur, a prototype of a concept and infrastructure that goes beyond the classical CVE systems toward a collaborative augmented reality environment, where users? documents and objects appear as live representations in a 3D workspace. Manufaktur supports collaborative...

  19. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.

  20. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  1. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they int

  2. Highly sensitive SERS detection and quantification of sialic acid on single cell using photonic-crystal fiber with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tianxun; Cui, Ying; Goh, Douglas; Voon, Kong Kien; Shum, Perry Ping; Humbert, Georges; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Yong, Ken-Tye; Olivo, Malini

    2015-02-15

    An ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensing platform was developed to detect the mean sialic acid level on the surface of single cell with sensitivity as low as 2 fmol. This platform adopted the use of an interference-free Raman tag, 4-(dihydroxyborophenyl) acetylene (DBA), which selectively binds to sialic acid on the cell membrane. By loading the side channel of a photonic crystal fiber with a mixture of gold nanoparticles and DBA-tagged HeLa cell, and subsequently propagating laser light through the central solid core, strong SERS signal was obtained. This SERS technique achieved accurate detection and quantification of concentration of sialic acid on a single cell, surpassing previously reported methods that required more than 10(5) cells. Moreover, this platform can be developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to potentially analyze sialic acid-related diseases such as tumor malignancy and metastasis in real-time.

  3. Specific synthesis of neurostatin and gangliosides O-acetylated in the outer sialic acids using a sialate transferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez

    Full Text Available Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, commonly found on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. O-acetylation of sialic acid hydroxyl groups is one of the most common modifications in gangliosides. Studies on the biological activity of O-acetylated gangliosides have been limited by their scarcity in nature. This comparatively small change in ganglioside structure causes major changes in their physiological properties. When the ganglioside GD1b was O-acetylated in the outer sialic acid, it became the potent inhibitor of astroblast and astrocytoma proliferation called Neurostatin. Although various chemical and enzymatic methods to O-acetylate commercial gangliosides have been described, O-acetylation was nonspecific and produced many side-products that reduced the yield. An enzyme with O-acetyltransferase activity (SOAT has been previously cloned from the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. This enzyme catalyzed the acetylation of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acid, with high specificity for terminal alpha-2,8-linked residues. Using this enzyme and commercial gangliosides as starting material, we have specifically O-acetylated the gangliosides' outer sialic acids, to produce the corresponding gangliosides specifically O-acetylated in the sialic acid bound in alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,8 residues. We demonstrate here that O-acetylation occurred specifically in the C-9 position of the sialic acid. In summary, we present a new method of specific O-acetylation of ganglioside sialic acids that permits the large scale preparation of these modified glycosphingolipids, facilitating both, the study of their mechanism of antitumoral action and their use as therapeutic drugs for treating glioblastoma multiform (GBM patients.

  4. Sialic acid content in human saliva and anti-influenza activity against human and avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2016-03-01

    It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses.

  5. Clinical significance of sialic acid in acute rheumatic fever with and without carditis

    OpenAIRE

    Maher H. Gomaa; Halah Salah Al-Din Hamza; Mamdouh M. Ali; Ahmed Abd-Allah Ali; Osama Abd Al-Motaal Mansour; Ahmed M. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In Egypt, acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. ARF is a clinical syndrome without a specific diagnostic test or single pathognomonic feature, so the aim of this study is to investigate the utility of using serum total sialic acid (TSA) in differentiation between children suffering from ARF with and without carditis. Methods: In the present study, 62 children were divided into three groups: first group, 16 healthy children; second group, 20...

  6. Sulfate- and sialic acid-containing glycolipids inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbulan, C M; Taki, T; Tamiya-Koizumi, K; Suzuki, M; Savoysky, E; Shoji, M; Yoshida, S

    1994-03-16

    The effects of various glycolipids on the activity of immunoaffinity-purified calf thymus DNA polymerase alpha were studied in vitro. Preincubation with sialic acid-containing glycolipids, such as sialosylparagloboside (SPG), GM3, GM1, and GD1a, and sulfatide (cerebroside sulfate ester, CSE) dose-dependently inhibited the activity of DNA polymerase alpha, while other glycolipids, as well as free sphingosine and ceramide did not. About 50% inhibition was achieved by preincubating the enzyme with 2.5 microM of CSE, 50 microM of SPG or GM3, and 80 microM of GM1. Inhibition was noncompetitive with both the DNA template and the substrate dTTP, as well as with the other dNTPs. Since the inhibition was largely reversed by the addition of 0.05% Nonidet P40, these glycolipids may interact with the hydrophobic region of the enzyme protein. Apparently, the sulfate moiety in CSE and the sialic acid moiety in gangliosides were essential for the inhibition since neither neutral glycolipids (i.e., glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide) nor asialo-gangliosides (GA1 and GA2) showed any inhibitory effect. Furthermore, the ceramide backbone was also found to be necessary for maximal inhibition since the inhibition was largely abolished by substituting the lipid backbone with cholesterol. Increasing the number of sialic acid moieties per molecule further enhanced the inhibition, while elongating the sugar chain diminished it. It was clearly shown that the N-acetyl residue of the sialic acid moiety is particularly essential for inhibition by both SPG and GM3 because the loss of this residue or substitution with a glycolyl residue completely negated their inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha activity.

  7. Discrimination between Sialic Acid-Containing Receptors and Pseudoreceptors Regulates Polyomavirus Spread in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Variations in the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 underlie important biological differences between highly pathogenic large-plaque and relatively nonpathogenic small-plaque strains. These polymorphisms constitute major determinants of virus spread in mice and also dictate previously recognized strain differences in sialyloligosaccharide binding. X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that these determinants affect binding to the sialic acids. Here we report results of further experim...

  8. Glycomic Analysis of Sialic Acid Linkages in Glycans Derived from Blood Serum Glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, William R.; Novotny, Milos V

    2010-01-01

    A number of alterations to the normal glycomic profile have been previously described for a number of diseases and disorders, thus underscoring the medical importance of studying the glycans associated with proteins present in biological samples. An important alteration in cancer progression is an increased level of α2,6-sialylation, which aids in increasing the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Here we report a glycomic method that selectively amidates α2,6-linked sialic acids, while thos...

  9. Sialic acid is required for neuronal inhibition by soluble MAG but not for membrane bound MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat eAl-Bashir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG, a major inhibitor of axonal growth, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig super-family. Importantly, MAG (also known as Siglec-4 is a member of the Siglec family of proteins (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins, MAG binds to complex gangliosides, specifically GD1a and/or GT1b. Therefore, it has been proposed as neuronal receptors for MAG inhibitory effect of axonal growth. Previously, we showed that MAG binds sialic acid through domain 1 at Arg118 and is able to inhibit axonal growth through domain 5.We developed a neurite outgrowth assay (NOG, in which both wild type MAG and mutated MAG (MAG Arg118 are expressed on cells. In addition we also developed a soluble form NOG in which we utilized soluble MAG-Fc and mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc. Only MAG-Fc is able to inhibit neurite outgrowth, but not mutated MAG (Arg118-Fc that has been mutated at its sialic acid binding site. However, both forms of membrane bound MAG- and MAG (Arg118- expressing cells still inhibit neurite outgrowth. Here, we review various results from different groups regarding MAG’s inhibition of axonal growth. Also, we propose a model in which the sialic acid binding is not necessary for the inhibition induced by the membrane form of MAG, but it is necessary for the soluble form of MAG. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the different mechanisms by which MAG inhibits neurite outgrowth in both the soluble fragmented form and the membrane-bound form in myelin debris following CNS damage

  10. Dienophile-Modified Mannosamine Derivatives for Metabolic Labeling of Sialic Acids: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Jeremias E G A; Pfotzer, Jessica; Späte, Anne-Katrin; Wittmann, Valentin

    2017-03-20

    Sialic acids play an important role in numerous cell adhesion processes and sialylation levels are known to be altered under certain pathogenic conditions such as cancer. Metabolic glycoengineering with mannosamine derivatives is a convenient way to introduce non-natural chemical reporter groups into sialylated glycoconjugates offering the opportunity to label sialic acids using bioorthogonal ligation chemistry. The labeling intensity not only depends on the rate of the ligation reaction but also on the extent to which the natural sialic acids are replaced by the modified ones, i.e. the incorporation efficiency. Here we present a comparative study of eight mannosamine derivatives featuring terminal alkenes as chemical reporter groups that can be labeled by an inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (DAinv) reaction. The derivatives differ in chain length as well as the type of linkage (comprising carbamates, amides, and a urea) that connects the terminal alkene to the sugar. As a general trend, increasing chain lengths result in higher DAinv reactivity and at the same time reduced incorporation efficiency. Carbamates are better accepted than amides with the same chain length; nevertheless do the latter result in more intense cell-surface staining visible in life-cell fluorescence microscopy. Finally, a urea derivative was shown to be accepted.

  11. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  12. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    randomized 1:1 to either sertindole 16 mg or placebo, and assessment was done at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Assessment included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, Drug Attitude...... Inventory, fasting glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude...... Inventory. No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  13. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  14. AMI : Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Furio, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components.We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In pa...

  15. AUGMENTED REALITY BASED ASSISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R.Raajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Augmented Reality can be explained as a superimposition of computer generated two dimensional or three dimensional objects over the real time scene acquired into thecapturing device. Thus Augmented Reality adds additional information to the real scene and this can be implemented with the help of markers. The development of the application is simple and easier in case of AR. This idea is extended to the development of Augmented Reality based book that act as a tour guide. This travel guide can give all the basic information regarding the necessities of a finer travel around the places of the destinations. The application will detect the markers found in the real scene and superimpose them with multimedia data giving enormous information. The application can also be made to redirect to the web links for easy access of certain other utilities by interaction. The same idea can also be utilized in engineering laboratories to understand the working of the circuit by visualizing the working of the same circuit where the diagram itself can be used as a marker and thus enhancing the self learning among the students.

  16. Augmented Reality Oculus Rift

    OpenAIRE

    Höll, Markus; Heran, Nikolaus; Lepetit, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the whole process of developing an Augmented Reality Stereoscopig Render Engine for the Oculus Rift. To capture the real world in form of a camera stream, two cameras with fish-eye lenses had to be installed on the Oculus Rift DK1 hardware. The idea was inspired by Steptoe \\cite{steptoe2014presence}. After the introduction, a theoretical part covers all the most neccessary elements to achieve an AR System for the Oculus Rift, following the implementation part where the code ...

  17. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham A. Badr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  18. Lectin-histochemical reactivity of sialic acid in breast cancer and its relationship to prognosis using limulus polyphemus agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, K; Yamaguchi, A; Goi, T; Maehara, M; Nakagawara, G

    1997-04-01

    Studies of circulating sialic acid have revealed its relationship with a variety of malignant tumors. It is not vet clear whether sialic acid could be used as a prognostic marker of breast cancer, and few studies have examined sialic acid expression in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of breast cancer cells by means of the lectin-histochemical technique. In the present study, we used biotinylated limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA), a special binding lectin of sialic acid, to stain sialic acid in breast cancer cells. Of the 104 cases of breast cancer examined, 59 (56.7%) positive cases were observed. There was a significant correlation between the LPA staining and the clinicopathologic features of all patients, including pathological stage and lymph node metastasis. Among the 100 patients who underwent curative operation, the mean disease-free survival rate of the 45 patients who were LPA-negative was significantly higher than that of the 55 LPA-positive patients (psialic acid in breast cancer could be used as a marker of malignancy potential, as well as a poor survival factor, and the biotinylated LPA assay may provide a convenient and useful method to predict the prognosis of breast cancer.

  19. APOPTOSIS OF EPIDIDYMIS EPITHELIUM AND CONTENT OF EPIDIDYMIS SIALIC ACID FOLLOWING TORSED/DETORSED TESTES IN RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵豫刚; 郑新民; 杨志伟; 李世文; 胡礼泉

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the apoptosis of epididymis epithelium and the change of epididymis sialic acid following torsed/detorsed testes. Methods Twenty four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral 720 testicular torsion with the duration of 2h and 4h, then repaired. The ischemic epididymis were collected for detecting the content of sialic acid by using spectrophotometry and the apoptosis with TUNEL technique.Results There were no statistically significant difference in the apoptosis of epididymis epithelium [ ( 9. 51 +2.78)% vs (6. 34 +1.98)% ] and the content of epididymis sialic acid(23. 3851 +9. 2199mg/mgprot vs 19. 36616. 3373mg/mgprot ) at 24h between following 2h-torsed/detorsed testes and those of sham group. There were statistically significant difference in the apopotosis of epididymis epithelium [ (46. 81 + 3. 55 )% vs (6. 34 ± 1.98 )% ] and the content of epididymis sialic acid ( 13. 7249 + 7. 8006mg/ mgprot vs 19. 3661 + 6. 3 373 mg/ mgprot ) at 24h between following 4h-torsed/detorsed testes and those of sham group ( P < O. 05 ). Conclusion The results suggest that the sialic acid-secreting-function of epididymis remain normal at 24h following 2h-torsed/detorsed testes, while the apoptosis index of epididymis epithelium do not increase. The epididymis would be injured at 24h following 4htorsed/detorsed testes, while the apoptosis index increased.

  20. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus......, physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual...

  1. Uptake of sialic acid by human erythrocyte. Characterization of a transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulai, Tatiana; Bratosin, Daniela; Artenie, Vlad; Montreuil, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Upon incubation of human red blood cells (RBC) with [4-9-14C] N-acetylneuraminic acid, the cells incorporated this sugar, as demonstrated by the identification of labelled N-acetylmannosamine in the cytosol, as a result of the action of the sialic acid pyruvate-lyase we discovered previously (Biochimie 84 (2002) 655). The mechanism is saturable and indicates the presence of a limited number of transporter molecules in the RBC membrane. This transport process may have relevance to the desialylation of membrane glycoconjugates which occurs during ageing of erythrocytes.

  2. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  3. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  5. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  6. Changes in ganglioside contents, plasma sialic acid and cAMP levels in experimental hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The present sutdy was designed to assess whether changes in glycolipids and cyclic AMP contents might serve as markers for the diagnosis of malignancy in the liver. The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into three groups:(1) a therapeutic group. which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with the antimetabolism drug 5-flurouracil(0.2mg/day i.p).(2) a control group, which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with 0.2ml 0.9% NaCl day and (3) a normal group of mice . The ganglioside and cAMP contents in the hepatoma tissue, plasma cAMP, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels and red blood cell memebrane sialic acid levels were determined. Results showed that the ganglioside content, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in the control group were significantly higher than those in the livers of normal mice(P<0.01) while these respective values in the therapeutic group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01).The cAMP levels of tumor tissues and plasma in the control group were lower than those in normal mice. No significant difference in red blood cell membrane sialic acid content was observed between the therapeutic and control groups though levels for both were higher than those in normal mice. These results indicate that ganglioside ocntent and sialic acid levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly elevated, and cAMP levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly decreased during proliferation and abnormal differentiation. Key words transplantable hepatoma, gangliosides , sialic acid, cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate, 5-flurouracil 摘自Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2000; Vol 207,29~33 该杂志摘要被美国科学引证索引(SCI)收录

  7. Differential expression of the α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer is associated with metastatic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Lin, Yu; Yue, Liling; Zhao, Xuemei; Liu, Jicheng

    2011-05-01

    Aberrant sialylation is closely associated with the malignant phenotype of cancer cells and metastatic potential. However, the precise nature of the molecules in breast cancers has not been unveiled. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of α2,3-sialic acid residues of 50 primary tumor cases, 50 pair-matched lymph node metastasis tumor samples and in the MDA-MB-231, T-47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential. The expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues was analyzed by histochemistry, cytochemistry and flow cytometry with Maackia amurensis lectin (MAL). The invasion and migration abilities of cells were examined using cell adhesion and transwell in vitro assays. Pair-matched lymph node metastasis tumor samples exhibited higher levels of expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues compared to that of primary tumors (P=0.0432). Furthermore, of 38 tumors cases in T1/T2 stages, 31 (81.58%) had weak staining for MAL, which specifically binds to α2,3-sialic acid residues, whereas of 12 tumor cases in T3/T4 stages, only 1 (8.33%) had weak reactions for MAL. The highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 exhibited the strongest binding to MAL and the highest expression levels of α2,3-sialic acid residues among the selected cell lines, depending on mRNA expression levels of α2,3-sialyltransferase gene. The adhesion, invasion and migration activities confirmed that MDA-MB-231 exhibited the greater cell adhesion to, migration toward and invasion to Matrigel. Taken together, the high expression of α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer was associated with metastatic potential. This property may be important for developing new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer.

  8. Infection with human H1N1 influenza virus affects the expression of sialic acids of metaplastic mucous cells in the ferret airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Glycans terminating in sialic acids serve as receptors for influenza viruses. In this study ferrets were infected with influenza virus A/New Caledonia/20/99, and the in situ localization of sialic acids linked a2-3 and a2-6 in the airways was investigated in infected and non-infected animals by use...

  9. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the up......Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...

  10. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  11. Military Applications of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews military benefits and requirements that have led to a series of research efforts in augmented reality (AR) and related systems...Battlefield Augmented Reality System at the Naval Research Laboratory, which was the first system developed to meet the needs of the dismounted warfighter

  12. Complementing the sugar code: role of GAGs and sialic acid in complement regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eLangford-Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar molecules play a vital role on both microbial and mammalian cells, where they are involved in cellular communication, govern microbial virulence and modulate host immunity and inflammatory responses. The complement cascade, as part of a host’s innate immune system, is a potent weapon against invading bacteria but has to be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate attack and damage to host tissues. A number of complement regulators, such as factor H and properdin, interact with sugar molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid, on host and pathogen membranes and direct the appropriate complement response by either promoting the binding of complement activators or inhibitors. The binding of these complement regulators to sugar molecules can vary from location to location, due to their different specificities and because distinct structural and functional subpopulations of sugars are found in different human organs, such as the brain, kidney and eye. This review will cover recent studies that have provided important new insights into the role of glycosaminoglycans and sialic acid in complement regulation and how sugar recognition may be compromised in disease

  13. Paleoproterozoic anorogenic granitoids of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan): Structural position and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, A. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Shatagin, K. N.; Kotov, A. B.; Ryazantsev, A. V.; Pilitsyna, A. V.; Yakovleva, S. Z.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Plotkina, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The basement of the Zheltav sialic massif (Southern Kazakhstan) is composed of different metamorphic rocks united into the Anrakhai Complex. In the southeastern part of the massif, these rocks form a large antiform with the core represented by amphibole and clinopyroxene gneissic granite varieties. By their chemical composition, dominant amphibole (hastingsite) gneissic granites correspond to subalkaline granites, while their petroand geochemical properties make them close to A-type granites. The U-Pb geochronological study of accessory zircons yielded an age of 1841 ± 6 Ma, which corresponds to the crystallization age of melts parental for protoliths of amphibole gneissic granites of the Zheltav Massif. Thus, the structural-geological and geochronological data make it possible to define the Paleoproterozoic (Staterian) stage of anorogenic magmatism in the Precambrian history of the Zheltav Massif. The combined Sm-Nd isotopic—geochronological data and age estimates obtained for detrital zircons indicate the significant role of the Paleoproterozoic tectono-magmatic stage in the formation of the Precambrian continental crust of sialic massifs in Kazakhstan and northern Tien Shan.

  14. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials. PMID:28084463

  15. Discrimination between sialic acid-containing receptors and pseudoreceptors regulates polyomavirus spread in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, P H; Cui, C; Liu, W R; Stehle, T; Harrison, S C; DeCaprio, J A; Benjamin, T L

    1999-07-01

    Variations in the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 underlie important biological differences between highly pathogenic large-plaque and relatively nonpathogenic small-plaque strains. These polymorphisms constitute major determinants of virus spread in mice and also dictate previously recognized strain differences in sialyloligosaccharide binding. X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that these determinants affect binding to the sialic acids. Here we report results of further experiments designed to test the importance of specific contacts between VP1 and the carbohydrate moieties of the receptor. With minor exceptions, substitutions at positions predicted from crystallography to be important in binding the terminal alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid or the penultimate sugar (galactose) destroyed the ability of the virus to replicate in cell culture. Substitutions that prevented binding to a branched disialyloligosaccharide were found to result in viruses that were both viable in culture and tumorigenic in the mouse. Conversely, substitutions that allowed recognition and binding of the branched carbohydrate chain inhibited spread in the mouse, though the viruses remained viable in culture. Mice of five different inbred strains, all highly susceptible to large-plaque virus, showed resistance to the spread of polyomavirus strains bearing the VP1 type which binds the branched-chain receptor. We suggest that glycoproteins bearing the appropriate O-linked branched sialyloligosaccharide chains are effective pseudoreceptors in the host and that they block the spread of potentially tumorigenic or virulent virus strains.

  16. Requirement for sialic acid on the endothelial ligand of a lymphocyte homing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, D D; Singer, M S; Lasky, L A; Rosen, S D

    1990-12-01

    The entry of blood-borne lymphocytes into most secondary lymphoid organs is initiated by a highly specific adhesive interaction with the specialized cuboidal endothelial cells of high endothelial venules (HEV). The adhesive receptors on lymphocytes that dictate interactions with HEV in different lymphoid organs are called homing receptors, signifying their critical role in controlling organ-selective lymphocyte migration. Considerable work has established that the mouse peripheral lymph node homing receptor (pnHR), defined by the mAb MEL-14, functions as a lectin-like adhesive protein. We have previously shown that sialidase treatment of peripheral lymph node (PN) HEV abrogates lymphocyte attachment to the HEV both in vivo and in vitro. We extend this evidence by demonstrating that Limax agglutinin (LA), a sialic acid-specific lectin, when reacted with HEV exposed in cryostat-cut tissue sections, blocks lymphocyte attachment to PN HEV and, unexpectedly, to the HEV of Peyer's patches (PP) as well. Using a recombinant form of the pnHR as a histochemical probe for its cognate adhesive site (HEV-ligand) on PN HEV, we demonstrate that both sialidase and Limax agglutinin functionally inactive this ligand. It is concluded that the requirement for sialic acid is at the level of the pnHR interaction with its HEV ligand. A distinct sialyloligosaccharide may encode the recognition determinant of a PP HEV ligand.

  17. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, heat stable alkaline phosphatase and fucose as markers of breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P S; Baxi, B R; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1990-01-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid bound sialic acid (LSA), heat stable alkaline phosphatase (HSAP) and fucose were measured in 39 patients with breast carcinoma, 14 patients with benign breast diseases and 35 healthy female individuals. Elevated levels of the four biomarkers in breast carcinoma were significant when compared with controls (p less than 0.001). Fucose levels were most sensitive (71.8%), while TSA levels were most specific (64.3%) for breast carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were 100% when combinations of LSA with fucose and TSA with HSAP were studied respectively. LSA was significantly elevated in infiltrating duct carcinoma patients compared with lobular carcinoma (p less than 0.001). TSA, HSAP and fucose also had lower mean values in lobular carcinoma as compared to infiltrating duct carcinoma. Increase in the levels of LSA and HSAP after surgical removal of the tumor in breast carcinoma occurred prior to the clinical evidence of the recurrence. The results indicate that the combination of the markers studied might be useful in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

  18. Glycomic analysis of sialic acid linkages in glycans derived from blood serum glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William R; Novotny, Milos V

    2010-06-04

    A number of alterations to the normal glycomic profile have been previously described for a number of diseases and disorders, thus underscoring the medical importance of studying the glycans associated with proteins present in biological samples. An important alteration in cancer progression is an increased level of alpha2,6-sialylation, which aids in increasing the metastatic potential of tumor cells. Here we report a glycomic method that selectively amidates alpha2,6-linked sialic acids, while those that are alpha2,3-linked undergo spontaneous lactonization. Following subsequent permethylation, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that many sialylated glycans present on glycoproteins found in blood serum featured increased levels of alpha2,6-sialylation in breast cancer samples. On the basis of the altered ratios of alpha2,3-linked to alpha2,6-linked sialic acids, many of these glycans became diagnostically relevant when they did not act as such indicators when based on traditional glycomic profiling alone.

  19. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  20. Sialic Acid-Responsive Polymeric Interface Material: From Molecular Recognition to Macroscopic Property Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Jiang, Ge; Li, Minmin; Qing, Guangyan; Li, Xiuling; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems that utilize multiple weak non-covalent interactions and hierarchical assemblies to achieve various bio-functions bring much inspiration for the design of artificial biomaterials. However, it remains a big challenge to correlate underlying biomolecule interactions with macroscopic level of materials, for example, recognizing such weak interaction, further transforming it into regulating material’s macroscopic property and contributing to some new bio-applications. Here we designed a novel smart polymer based on polyacrylamide (PAM) grafted with lactose units (PAM-g-lactose0.11), and reported carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI)-promoted macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed investigations indicated that the binding of sialic acid molecules with the grafted lactose units via the CCIs induced conformational transformation of the polymer chains, further resulted in remarkable and reversible switching in surface topography, wettability and stiffness. With these excellent recognition and response capacities towards sialic acid, the PAM-g-lactose0.11 further facilitated good selectivity, strong anti-interference and high adsorption capacity in the capture of sialylated glycopeptides (important biomarkers for cancers). This work provides some enlightenment for the development of biointerface materials with tunable property, as well as high-performance glycopeptide enrichment materials.

  1. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  2. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M B; Ketterer, Margaret R; Coffin, Jeremy E; Reinders, Lorri M; Munson, Robert S; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F; Foster, Eric D; Gibson, Bradford W; Apicella, Michael A

    2016-01-04

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease.

  3. Plant lectin can target receptors containing sialic acid, exemplified by podoplanin, to inhibit transformed cell growth and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alberto Ochoa-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth.

  4. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  5. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus...... of meaning has been implemented. This may take place at different levels, which will be presented and investigated in this article and exemplified by some cases from the fields of tourism and computer games.                       The article suggests that we may use the forensic term crime scene in order...

  6. Navigation in Augmented Reality, Navigation i Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Bernelind, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The concept of augmented reality has existed since the 60’s. In this thesis it has been investigated if navigation using a mobile device would benefit, from a usability perspective, if the navigational data were presented using augmented reality instead of a standardized map. The usability principles from which the applications were evaluated are learnability, user satisfaction, efficiency and effectivity. An AR prototype was developed and tested against a standard map, in the form of Google ...

  7. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  8. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  9. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.

  10. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    “How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show t...... MSO, Aalborg University, Copenhagen. Annette Rahn, MSc, senior lecturer and teacher in anatomy and physiology at the School of Nursing, VIA Health- and Welfare Technology, VIA University College.......“How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...

  11. Serum lipid-bound sialic acid as a marker in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnistrian, A M; Schwartz, M K; Katopodis, N; Fracchia, A A; Stock, C C

    1982-11-01

    The reliability of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a marker in breast cancer was evaluated in 78 normal subjects, 106 patients with benign breast disease, 64 patients with primary operable breast cancer, and 61 patients with recurrent metastatic breast cancer. LSA levels were determined before and after mastectomy and during chemotherapy in selected patients to determine the value of LSA in monitoring therapy and predicting response. LSA levels greater than 20 mg/dl were not seen in normal subjects but were present in patients with benign breast disease (13%), primary breast cancer (47%) and recurrent metastatic breast cancer (62%). LSA levels decreased after initiation of chemotherapy and remained low in patients clinically disease-free. Recurrences were associated with elevated LSA in patients failing chemotherapy or endocrine ablative surgery. LSA measurements appeared to be of limited value in the detection of breast cancer but serial measurements may be useful in assessing disease progression and identifying patients resistant to therapy.

  12. Characterization of a sialate-O-acetylesterase (NanS) from the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia that enhances sialic acid release by NanH, its cognate sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansopa, Chatchawal; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Liew, Li Phing; Frey, Andrew M; Farmilo, Thomas; Parker, Jennifer L; Kelly, David J; Emery, Robert J; Thomson, Rebecca I; Royle, Louise; Gardner, Richard A; Spencer, Daniel I R; Stafford, Graham P

    2015-12-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative member of the Bacteroidetes has evolved to harvest and utilize sialic acid. The most common sialic acid in humans is a mono-N-acetylated version termed Neu5Ac (5-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid). Many bacteria are known to access sialic acid using sialidase enzymes. However, in humans a high proportion of sialic acid contains a second acetyl group attached via an O-group, i.e. chiefly O-acetylated Neu5,9Ac2 or Neu5,4Ac2. This diacetylated sialic acid is not cleaved efficiently by many sialidases and in order to access diacetylated sialic acid, some organisms produce sialate-O-acetylesterases that catalyse the removal of the second acetyl group. In the present study, we performed bioinformatic and biochemical characterization of a putative sialate-O-acetylesterase from T. forsythia (NanS), which contains two putative SGNH-hydrolase domains related to sialate-O-acetylesterases from a range of organisms. Purification of recombinant NanS revealed an esterase that has activity against Neu5,9Ac2 and its glycolyl form Neu5Gc,9Ac. Importantly, the enzyme did not remove acetyl groups positioned at the 4-O position (Neu5,4Ac2). In addition NanS can act upon complex N-glycans released from a glycoprotein [erythropoietin (EPO)], bovine submaxillary mucin and oral epithelial cell-bound glycans. When incubated with its cognate sialidase, NanS increased sialic acid release from mucin and oral epithelial cell surfaces, implying that this esterase improves sialic acid harvesting for this pathogen and potentially other members of the oral microbiome. In summary, we have characterized a novel sialate-O-acetylesterase that contributes to the sialobiology of this important human pathogen and has potential applications in the analysis of sialic acid diacetylation of biologics in the pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Sialic acid mediates the initial binding of positively charged inorganic particles to alveolar macrophage membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J E; George, G; Brody, A R

    1987-06-01

    Pulmonary macrophages phagocytize inhaled particles and are postulated to play a role in the development of pulmonary interstitial fibrogenesis. The basic biologic mechanisms through which inhaled particles bind to macrophage membranes and subsequently are phagocytized remain unclear. We hypothesize that positively charged particles bind to negatively charged sialic acid (SA) residues on macrophage membranes. Alveolar Macrophages (AM) were collected by saline lavage from normal rat lungs. The cells adhered to plastic coverslips in serum-free phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C for 45 min and then were maintained at 4 degrees C for the binding experiments. Even distribution of SA groups on AM surfaces was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) conjugated to 50 nm gold spheres. The WGA is a lectin that binds specifically to sialic acid, and pretreatment of AM with this lectin prevented the binding of positively charged carbonyl iron (C-Fe) spheres, aluminum (Al) spheres, and chrysotile asbestos fibers to AM surfaces. Limulus protein, another lectin with binding specificity for SA, similarly blocked the binding of positively charged spheres and chrysotile asbestos fibers but not negatively charged glass spheres or crocidolite asbestos fibers. Con A and ricin, lectins that bind to mannose and galactose residues, respectively, did not block particle binding. When both positively charged iron spheres and negatively charged glass spheres were prebound to AM membranes, subsequent treatment with WGA displaced only the positively charged spheres from macrophage surfaces. Con A and ricin had no effect on prebound positively charged C-Fe and Al spheres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Sialic Acid on the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Regulates PrP-mediated Cell Signaling and Prion Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    The prion diseases occur following the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into disease-related isoforms (PrP(Sc)). In this study, the role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attached to PrP(C) in prion formation was examined using a cell painting technique. PrP(Sc) formation in two prion-infected neuronal cell lines (ScGT1 and ScN2a cells) and in scrapie-infected primary cortical neurons was increased following the introduction of PrP(C). In contrast, PrP(C) containing a GPI anchor from which the sialic acid had been removed (desialylated PrP(C)) was not converted to PrP(Sc). Furthermore, the presence of desialylated PrP(C) inhibited the production of PrP(Sc) within prion-infected cortical neurons and ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. The membrane rafts surrounding desialylated PrP(C) contained greater amounts of sialylated gangliosides and cholesterol than membrane rafts surrounding PrP(C). Desialylated PrP(C) was less sensitive to cholesterol depletion than PrP(C) and was not released from cells by treatment with glimepiride. The presence of desialylated PrP(C) in neurons caused the dissociation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 from PrP-containing membrane rafts and reduced the activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2. These findings show that the sialic acid moiety of the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. These results suggest that pharmacological modification of GPI glycosylation might constitute a novel therapeutic approach to prion diseases.

  15. Salivary total sialic acid levels increase in breast cancer patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Leyla Koç; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Kaşikci, Emel; Demir, Gokhan; Yarat, Aysen

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women living in the Western world, even though it occurs worldwide. Cancer and cancer therapy induce multiple oral complications including dental and periodontal disease. Saliva is a complex and dynamic biologic fluid, which reflects both oral and systemic changes. While saliva is easily accessible body fluid, there has been little effort to study its value in cancer diagnosis. Sialic acids (SA), the end moieties of the carbohydrate chains, are biologically important and essential for functions of glycoconjugates that are reported to be altered in both blood and saliva of various cancer patients. Increased sialylation has been shown to be a characteristic feature in cancer tissue and blood in breast cancer patients. However, there is no data about salivary SA in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary total sialic acid (TSA) levels in breast cancer patients who were under chemotheraphy. The study included 15 breast cancer patients in different stages and 10 healthy individuals as age-matched controls. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. Salivary total protein and SA levels were determined. Flow rate was calculated from salivary volume by the time of secretion. Salivary SA was significantly higher and total protein was lower in breast cancer patients compared to controls. It is concluded that sialylation may be increased in saliva of patients with breast cancer as the same way for cancer tissue and for blood . Increased salivary SA may therefore be useful as a non-invasive predictive marker for breast cancer patients and for the prevention and management of oral complications of cancer and cancer therapy to improve oral function and quality-of-life. The effects of different types of chemotherapies and different stages of the disease on salivary SA levels and salivary sialo-glycomic are worthy of being further investigated in breast cancer patients.

  16. Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Rebouças

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections

  17. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  18. Asthma induction in mice leads to appearance of alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in respiratory goblet-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Jensen, Niels-Erik Viby; Mandel, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    to demonstrate binding of lectins and antibodies that detect alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues. After sensitization and challenge, the histology of the lung changed markedly, and goblet-like cells appeared, most likely caused by Clara cell metaplasia. Normal Clara cells showed no reaction after......Allergic asthmatic inflammation in mice was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and visualized in the airways of asthmatic mice by spatial and temporal changes of carbohydrates containing sialic acid residues. Immunohistochemistry was used...... incubation with the sialic acid detecting agents, while the goblet-like cells expressed both alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in the asthmatic animals. The lectins but not the antibodies reacted with intestinal goblet cells. Instead, an antibody recognizing a disialoganglioside, stained...

  19. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  20. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  1. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  2. Application of a protocol for the detection of disorders of sialic acid metabolism to 124 high-risk Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Cristina D; Mello, Alexandre S; Burin, Maira G; Guidobono, Régis R; Gotardo, Silvane; Giugliani, Roberto; Coelho, Janice C

    2003-06-15

    Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) present great clinical variability. Included in this group are sialic acid metabolism disorders (SAMD). In the present study, we describe the application of a 3-step protocol for the diagnosis of SAMD, including (1). oligosaccharide and sialyloligosaccharide chromatography; (2). quantitative determination of sialic acid; and (3). measurement of neuraminidase activity. Application of our protocol to 124 individuals at risk for SAMD led to the diagnosis of five affected patients, two with type I sialidosis, one with type II sialidosis, and two with galactosialidosis. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, we propose the use of this protocol for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected SAMD, which could be specially useful to non-specialized laboratories and to services located in developing countries.

  3. Host-Derived Sialic Acids Are an Important Nutrient Source Required for Optimal Bacterial Fitness In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. McDonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge facing bacterial intestinal pathogens is competition for nutrient sources with the host microbiota. Vibrio cholerae is an intestinal pathogen that causes cholera, which affects millions each year; however, our knowledge of its nutritional requirements in the intestinal milieu is limited. In this study, we demonstrated that V. cholerae can grow efficiently on intestinal mucus and its component sialic acids and that a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic SiaPQM strain, transporter-deficient mutant NC1777, was attenuated for colonization using a streptomycin-pretreated adult mouse model. In in vivo competition assays, NC1777 was significantly outcompeted for up to 3 days postinfection. NC1777 was also significantly outcompeted in in vitro competition assays in M9 minimal medium supplemented with intestinal mucus, indicating that sialic acid uptake is essential for fitness. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the ability to utilize sialic acid was distributed among 452 bacterial species from eight phyla. The majority of species belonged to four phyla, Actinobacteria (members of Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Mycoplasma, and Streptomyces, Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroides, Capnocytophaga, and Prevotella, Firmicutes (members of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, and Proteobacteria (including Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Haemophilus, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Photobacterium, Vibrio, and Yersinia species, mostly commensals and/or pathogens. Overall, our data demonstrate that the ability to take up host-derived sugars and sialic acid specifically allows V. cholerae a competitive advantage in intestinal colonization and that this is a trait that is sporadic in its occurrence and phylogenetic distribution and ancestral in some genera but horizontally acquired in others.

  4. Tethering of Ficolin-1 to cell surfaces through recognition of sialic acid by the fibrinogen-like domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honore, C.; Rorvig, S.; Hummelshoj, T.;

    2010-01-01

    surface is restricted to monocytes and granulocytes. Ficolin-1 is tethered to the cell surface of these cells through its fibrinogen-like domain, and the ligand involved in the binding of Ficolin-1 is shown to be sialic acid. Moreover, rFicolin-1 bound activated but not resting T lymphocytes. Together......, these results demonstrate a novel self-recognition mechanism of leukocytes mediated by the fibrinogen-like domain of Ficolin-1....

  5. Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses to Cells Expressing Low Levels of Sialic Acid Leads to Loss of Neuraminidase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Influenza A viruses possess two virion surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA binds to sialyloligosaccharide viral receptors, while the NA removes sialic acids from the host cell and viral sialyloligosaccarides. Alterations of the HA occur during adaptation of influenza viruses to new host species, as in the 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics. To gain a better understanding of the contributions of the HA and possibly the NA to this process, we generated cell lines ...

  6. Comparative distribution of human and avian type sialic acid influenza receptors in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major determinant of influenza infection is the presence of virus receptors on susceptible host cells to which the viral haemagglutinin is able to bind. Avian viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3-galactose (SAα2,3-Gal linked receptors, whereas human strains bind to sialic acid α2,6-galactose (SAα2,6-Gal linked receptors. To date, there has been no detailed account published on the distribution of SA receptors in the pig, a model host that is susceptible to avian and human influenza subtypes, thus with potential for virus reassortment. We examined the relative expression and spatial distribution of SAα2,3-GalG(1-3GalNAc and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs from normal post-weaned pigs by binding with lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinins (MAA II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA respectively. Results Both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors were extensively detected in the major porcine organs examined (trachea, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, skeletal muscle, cerebrum, small intestine and colon. Furthermore, distribution of both SA receptors in the pig respiratory tract closely resembled the published data of the human tract. Similar expression patterns of SA receptors between pig and human in other major organs were found, with exception of the intestinal tract. Unlike the limited reports on the scarcity of influenza receptors in human intestines, we found increasing presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors from duodenum to colon in the pig. Conclusions The extensive presence of SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors in the major organs examined suggests that each major organ may be permissive to influenza virus entry or infection. The high similarity of SA expression patterns between pig and human, in particular in the respiratory tract, suggests that pigs are not more likely to be potential hosts for virus reassortment than humans. Our finding of relative abundance of SA receptors

  7. Analysis of monosaccharides, fatty constituents and rare O-acetylated sialic acids from gonads of the starfish Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, Jean-Pierre; Srinivasan, Vinayaga; Schauer, Roland

    2006-02-01

    A previous study (Bergwerff et al., Biochimie 74 (1992) 25-37) reported that sialic acids present in Asterias rubens gonads were essentially composed of 8-methyl-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc8Me), a large part of it being acetylated in position 9. Using GC/MS of heptafluorobutyrate derivatives (Zanetta et al., Glycobiology 11 (2001) 663-676) on the chloroform/methanol soluble and insoluble fractions, we showed that most sialic acids were found in the latter and demonstrated that all sialic acids were derived from N-glycolylneuraminic acid, most of them being 8-methylated, but that the majority were also acetylated in position 4 or 7 (or both positions). GC/MS analyses of the constituents liberated using acid-catalysed methanolysis verified that major glycoprotein-bound glycans were N-linked and of the gluco-oligomannosidic type. Major fatty acids were poly-unsaturated (especially C20:4) and long-chain bases were C22:1 phytosphingosine and C22:2 6-hydroxysphingenine. Major monosaccharides found in the chloroform/methanol extract (quinovose and fucose) were derived from steroidal saponins.

  8. Adaptation of influenza A viruses to cells expressing low levels of sialic acid leads to loss of neuraminidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M T; McGregor, M; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Kawaoka, Y

    2001-04-01

    Influenza A viruses possess two virion surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA binds to sialyloligosaccharide viral receptors, while the NA removes sialic acids from the host cell and viral sialyloligosaccarides. Alterations of the HA occur during adaptation of influenza viruses to new host species, as in the 1957 and 1968 influenza pandemics. To gain a better understanding of the contributions of the HA and possibly the NA to this process, we generated cell lines expressing reduced levels of the influenza virus receptor determinant, sialic acid, by selecting Madin-Darby canine kidney cells resistant to a lectin specific for sialic acid linked to galactose by alpha(2-3) or alpha(2-6) linkages. One of these cell lines had less than 1/10 as much N-acetylneuraminic acid as its parent cell line. When serially passaged in this cell line, human H3N2 viruses lost sialidase activity due to a large internal deletion in the NA gene, without alteration of the HA gene. These findings indicate that NA mutations can contribute to the adaptation of influenza A virus to new host environments and hence may play a role in the transmission of virus across species.

  9. Significance of serum fucose, sialic acid, haptoglobine and phospholipids levels in the evolution and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiricuta, I; Bojan, O; Comes, R; Cristian, R

    1979-01-01

    Serum fucose, sialic acid, haptoglobine and phospholipids were determined in 167 women with breast cancer stages I--III, 30 with benign lesions of the breast, 42 women in various physiological states of the mammary gland (pregnancy, early childbed and lactation) and compared with 30 healthy women as control. Serial determinations of these parameters during the radio-surgical treatment were done in 28 patients with breast cancer stage III. Fucose and phospholipids levels were significantly increased respectively decreased in the group of patients with breast cancers but unmodified in the others. Sialic acid and haptoglobine -- increased in patients with cancer -- were also elevated in patients with early childbed and benign affections of the breast. The surveillance of these four parameters during the radio-surgical treatment of breast cancer evidenced a good correlation between their modified levels and clinical state of the patients. The increase in fucose, sialic acid and haptoglobine respectively the decrease in phospholipids levels was associated with the clinical evidence of recurrences and metastases.

  10. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...

  11. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student i...

  12. Indeterminacy and labor augmenting externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile; Goenka, Aditya

    2002-01-01

    In this two-sector discrete time model of endogenous economic growth intersectoral effects are assumed to be "labor augmenting" We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for local indeterminacy and multiplicity of the balanced growth path in terms of factor intensities in both sectors...

  13. Serum and saliva sialic acid in periodontitis patients with and without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Sehkar; Basar, Isık; Emekli-Alturfan, Ebru; Malali, Ezgi; Elemek, Eser; Ayan, Faruk; Koldas, Lale; Noyan, Ulku; Emekli, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    Serum total sialic acid (sTSA) has recently been shown to be a cardiovascular risk factor. However, there is little information about the role of sTSA and TSA in saliva in periodontitis, a chronic and inflammatory disease known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to investigate the changes in sTSA and TSA levels in saliva in patients having both periodontitis and CVD versus periodontitis patients without diagnosed CVD. The study group consisted of 26 patients with proven periodontitis and 26 controls with no diagnosed systemic disease but periodontitis. sTSA and saliva TSA levels were determined by the thiobarbituric acid method, and C-reactive protein (CRP) was evaluated by the nephelometric method. The severity of periodontitis has been determined by the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). TSA in blood and saliva and CRP levels in blood were significantly increased in CVD patients compared with the control group. CPITN ranged from 2 to 4 in both groups. Significant and positive correlations were found between sTSA and saliva SA levels in patients and controls and between tooth loss and TSA both in blood and saliva. Therefore, TSA in saliva may be a useful marker similar to sTSA in CVD patients.

  14. Sialic acid-containing sugar chains of hen ovalbumin and ovomucoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, K; Tachibana, Y; Hitoi, A; Kobata, A

    1984-07-15

    The acidic oligosaccharide fractions released from hen ovalbumin and ovomucoid by hydrazinolysis contain both sialyloligosaccharides and sulfated oligosaccharides. The sialyloligosaccharides were converted into neutral oligosaccharides by sialidase digestion, and separated from sulfated oligosaccharides by paper electrophoresis. Structural studies of these neutral oligosaccharides showed that the oligosaccharides of ovalbumin have different structural characteristics from those of ovomucoid, i.e., all sialyloligosaccharides from ovomucoid contain a pentasaccharide, alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-[alpha-D-Manp-(1----6)]-beta-D-Manp -(1----4)-GlcpNAc- (1----4)-GlcpNAc, as a common core, and the smallest oligomannosyl core of the sugar chains from ovalbumin is alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----6)-[alpha-D-Manp -(1----3)]-beta-D- Manp-(1----4)-GlcpNAc-(1----4)-GlcpNAc. By methanolysis followed by N-acetylation, sialyl oligosaccharides, free from sulfated oligosaccharides, were recovered quantitatively from the acidic fractions of ovalbumin and ovomucoid. Methylation analysis of these sialyloligosaccharide mixtures, before and after sialidase digestion, showed that all sialic acid of both glycoproteins occurs as a alpha-Sia-(2----3)-D-Galp group.

  15. N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid expression in primary breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S A; Carter, T M

    2001-02-01

    Binding of the lectin from Helix pomatia (HPA), which recognises N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine glycans, is a predictor of metastasis and poor prognosis in a number of human adenocarcinomas, including breast cancer. The glycoproteins to which it binds in these tumours have been only partially characterised, and the mechanisms underlying their biosynthesis remain unknown. In this study, 111 primary breast cancers were assessed for binding of HPA and labelling characteristics were compared directly with those of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin and soybean agglutinin, both of which also recognise N-acetylgalactosamine, Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin II, which recognises N-acetylglucosamine, and Limax flavus agglutinin, Sambucus nigra agglutinin and Maackia amurensis lectin I, all of which recognise sialic acids. Results indicate that the HPA-binding partners expressed by cancer cells are predominantly N-acetylgalactosamine glycans, but some recognition of N-acetylglucosamine species is also likely. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that overexpression of these moieties results from failure in sialylation. Alternative mechanisms, for example alterations in levels of activity of appropriate glycosyl transferases or disruption in transport and processing mechanisms leading to failure of normal chain extension of glycans may be responsible, and these are areas that warrant further investigation.

  16. Expression, solubilisation, and purification of a functional CMP-sialic acid transporter in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Andrea; Hadley, Barbara; von Itzstein, Mark; Tiralongo, Joe

    2014-09-01

    Membrane proteins, including solute transporters play crucial roles in cellular function and have been implicated in a variety of important diseases, and as such are considered important targets for drug development. Currently the drug discovery process is heavily reliant on the structural and functional information discerned from high-resolution crystal structures. However, membrane protein structure determination is notoriously difficult, due in part to challenges faced in their expression, solubilisation and purification. The CMP-sialic acid transporter (CST) is considered to be an attractive target for drug discovery. CST inhibition reduces cancer cell sialylation and decreases the metastatic potential of cancer cells and to date, no crystal structure of the CST, or any other nucleotide sugar transporter exists. Here we describe the optimised conditions for expression in Pichia pastoris, solubilisation using n-nonyl β-d-maltopyranoside (NM) and single step purification of a functional CST. Importantly we show that despite being able to solubilise and purify the CST using a number of different detergents, only NM was able to maintain CST functionality.

  17. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  18. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  19. Measuring patient outcomes in breast augmentation: introducing the BREAST-Q Augmentation module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.

  20. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    end state is an augmented sand table platform that supports a variety of research, training, and operational needs. In recent years, several high-tech... ecommerce No Yes No No Petrasova (2014) GIS-Based Environmental Modeling with Tangible Interaction and Dynamic Visualization Follow-up to Tateosian... platform . Fig. 6 Tank combat game application • ARES Scalability Based on user requirements, a squad-sized version of ARES (7 × 4 ft) is

  1. Photon management for augmented photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Dinh, Cao Thang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sinton, David

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae and cyanobacteria are some of nature's finest examples of solar energy conversion systems, effortlessly transforming inorganic carbon into complex molecules through photosynthesis. The efficiency of energy-dense hydrocarbon production by photosynthetic organisms is determined in part by the light collected by the microorganisms. Therefore, optical engineering has the potential to increase the productivity of algae cultivation systems used for industrial-scale biofuel synthesis. Herein, we explore and report emerging and promising material science and engineering innovations for augmenting microalgal photosynthesis.

  2. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  3. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  4. Radiation/Catalytic Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NATIO& NAk H(fJI At tl TANUAHTOb 19 A ~omm.81-0287 LVL RADIATION/CATALYTIC AUGMENTED COMBUST ION MOSHE LAVID CORPORATE RESEARCH-TECHNOLOGY FEASIBILITY...refinements as necessary. i. Perform cannular combustor experiments to Investigate ignition and flame attachment in flowing, liquid -fuel, unpremixed...stabilizer, with a sintered metal disk on the downstream side through which hot gases or products of partial fuel oxidation can be passed. Experimental

  5. Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Brian; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R

    2010-12-09

    It is commonly accepted that avian influenza viruses (AIVs) bind to terminal α2,3 sialic acid (SA) residues whereas human influenza viruses bind to α2,6 SA residues. By a series of amino acid changes on the HA surface protein, AIVs can switch receptor specificity and recognize α2,6 SA positive cells, including human respiratory epithelial cells. Animal species, like pigs and Japanese quail, that contain both α2,3 and α2,6 SA become ideal environments for receptor switching. Here, we describe the SA patterns and distributions in 6 common minor domestic poultry species: Peking duck, Toulouse geese, Chinese ring-neck pheasant, white midget turkey, bobwhite quail, and pearl guinea fowl. Lectins specific to α2,3 and α2,6 SA (Maakia amurensis agglutinin and Sambuca nigra agglutinin, respectively) were used to detect SA by an alkaline phosphotase-based method and a fluorescent-based method. Differences in SA moieties and their ability to bind influenza viruses were visualized by fluorescent labeling of 4 different H3N2 influenza viruses known to be specific for one receptor or the other. The geese and ducks showed α2,3 SA throughout the respiratory tract and marginal α2,6 SA only in the colon. The four other avian species showed both α2,3 and α2,6 SA in the respiratory tract and the intestines. Furthermore, the turkey respiratory tract showed a positive correlation between age and α2,6 SA levels. The fact that these birds have both avian and human flu receptors, combined with their common presence in backyard farms and live bird markets worldwide, mark them as potential mixing bowl species and necessitates improved surveillance and additional research about the role of these birds in influenza host switching.

  6. Characterization of influenza virus sialic acid receptors in minor poultry species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Gloria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is commonly accepted that avian influenza viruses (AIVs bind to terminal α2,3 sialic acid (SA residues whereas human influenza viruses bind to α2,6 SA residues. By a series of amino acid changes on the HA surface protein, AIVs can switch receptor specificity and recognize α2,6 SA positive cells, including human respiratory epithelial cells. Animal species, like pigs and Japanese quail, that contain both α2,3 and α2,6 SA become ideal environments for receptor switching. Here, we describe the SA patterns and distributions in 6 common minor domestic poultry species: Peking duck, Toulouse geese, Chinese ring-neck pheasant, white midget turkey, bobwhite quail, and pearl guinea fowl. Lectins specific to α2,3 and α2,6 SA (Maakia amurensis agglutinin and Sambuca nigra agglutinin, respectively were used to detect SA by an alkaline phosphotase-based method and a fluorescent-based method. Differences in SA moieties and their ability to bind influenza viruses were visualized by fluorescent labeling of 4 different H3N2 influenza viruses known to be specific for one receptor or the other. The geese and ducks showed α2,3 SA throughout the respiratory tract and marginal α2,6 SA only in the colon. The four other avian species showed both α2,3 and α2,6 SA in the respiratory tract and the intestines. Furthermore, the turkey respiratory tract showed a positive correlation between age and α2,6 SA levels. The fact that these birds have both avian and human flu receptors, combined with their common presence in backyard farms and live bird markets worldwide, mark them as potential mixing bowl species and necessitates improved surveillance and additional research about the role of these birds in influenza host switching.

  7. Evaluation of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Sáez, J J; Senra-Varela, A

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is the evaluation of serum levels of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a of marker cancer. This is a case-control study, and the levels of LSA were determined with blinded duplicates of cases and controls. Histologic verification of all cancer cases was used to confirm the diagnosis. The study included 135 patients with cancer (breast carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer and gastrointestinal cancer) and 95 controls (57 normal subjects and 38 with chronic non-malignant diseases). Marker determination was done by the spectrophotometric procedure of Katopodis with resorcinol. The mean LSA level in the 57 healthy individuals was 15.09 mg/dl(95% C.I., 13.51-16.67), in the entire control group of 95 non-tumoral individuals it was 19.21 mg/dl (17.18-21.24), and in the 135 cancer patients it was 26.64 mg/dl (24.42-28.87). There was a statistically significant difference between patients with chronic non-tumoral diseases and healthy individuals (p 0.001), but not between cancer patients and patients with chronic non-tumoral diseases (p> 0.05). The mean LSA serum values related to tumor site were (mg/dl): breast cancer, 21.49; gastrointestinal tumors, 28.45; head and neck cancer, 28.61 and lung cancer, 32.54. The means according to clinical stage were: complete remission, 18.50 significantly higher than the healthy controls (p< 0.05); local disease, 23.50 (p < 0.01); locoregional disease, (p < 0.05); local disease, 23.50 (p < 0.01); locoregional disease, 27.21 (p < 0.001); metastatic disease, 34.49 (p < 0.001), and relapses, 20.87 (p< 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Clinical significance of sialic acid in acute rheumatic fever with and without carditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher H. Gomaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Egypt, acute rheumatic fever (ARF is the most common cause of acquired heart disease. ARF is a clinical syndrome without a specific diagnostic test or single pathognomonic feature, so the aim of this study is to investigate the utility of using serum total sialic acid (TSA in differentiation between children suffering from ARF with and without carditis. Methods: In the present study, 62 children were divided into three groups: first group, 16 healthy children; second group, 20 patients suffering from chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD; and third group, 26 patients suffering from ARF, subdivided into three subgroups as (A 10 patients suffering from arthritis without carditis, (B 10 patients with carditis but without congestive heart failure (CHF, and (C 6 patients with carditis and CHF. Antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT by latex agglutination test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR by Westergren method, C-reactive protein (CRP by turbidimetric immunoassay method, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity by kinetic method, immunoglobulin levels by radial immunodifussion assay (RID, cardiac troponin I (cTnI by ELISA test kit and TSA by diphenylamine (DPA method were performed. Results: Significant elevated values of ESR, CRP, LDH, IgG and IgA were obtained in ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups; significant values of IgM were found between B and C as compared to control and RHD groups; cTnI showed insignificant difference between all groups; values of TSA showed highly significant difference between ARF as compared to both control and RHD groups as well as between RHD and control groups; significant difference was found between B and C groups as compared to group A. Conclusion: The results of the present study point out the possibility that the levels of TSA could be of help in differentiation between ARF patients with and without carditis. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(4: 305-311

  9. Inhibition of basophil histamine release by gangliosides. Further studies on the significance of cell membrane sialic acid in the histamine release process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Norn, S; Thastrup, Ole

    1987-01-01

    Histamine release from human basophils was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with a glucolipid mixture containing sialic acid-containing gangliosides. This was true for histamine release induced by anti-IgE, Concanavalin A and the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas the release induced by S...... with the glucolipid mixture increased the sialic acid content of the cells, and this increase was attributed to an insertion of gangliosides into the cell membrane. The inhibition of histamine release was abolished by increasing the calcium concentration, which substantiates our previous findings that cell membrane...... sialic acid in basophil leukocytes is involved in the regulation of histamine release, possibly by a modulation of the transmembraneous calcium fluxes preceding histamine release....

  10. Automation of High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Plasma N-Glycome Analysis with Linkage-Specific Sialic Acid Esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladergroen, Marco R; Reiding, Karli R; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Vreeker, Gerda C M; Clerc, Florent; Holst, Stephanie; Bondt, Albert; Wuhrer, Manfred; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-09-04

    Glycosylation is a post-translational modification of key importance with heterogeneous structural characteristics. Previously, we have developed a robust, high-throughput MALDI-TOF-MS method for the comprehensive profiling of human plasma N-glycans. In this approach, sialic acid residues are derivatized with linkage-specificity, namely the ethylation of α2,6-linked sialic acid residues with parallel lactone formation of α2,3-linked sialic acids. In the current study, this procedure was used as a starting point for the automation of all steps on a liquid-handling robot system. This resulted in a time-efficient and fully standardized procedure with throughput times of 2.5 h for a first set of 96 samples and approximately 1 h extra for each additional sample plate. The mass analysis of the thus-obtained glycans was highly reproducible in terms of relative quantification, with improved interday repeatability as compared to that of manual processing.

  11. Biochemical engineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acids alters the kinetics of a glycosylated potassium channel Kv3.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M Kristen; Reutter, Werner; Lindhorst, Thisbe; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2011-10-20

    The sialic acid of complex N-glycans can be biochemically engineered by substituting the physiological precursor N-acetylmannosamine with non-natural N-acylmannosamines. The Kv3.1 glycoprotein, a neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel, contains sialic acid. Western blots of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein isolated from transfected B35 neuroblastoma cells incubated with N-acylmannosamines verified sialylated N-glycans attached to the Kv3.1 glycoprotein. Outward ionic currents of Kv3.1 transfected B35 cells treated with N-pentanoylmannosamine or N-propanoylmannosamine had slower activation and inactivation rates than those of untreated cells. Therefore, the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid is intimately connected with the activation and inactivation rates of this glycosylated potassium channel.

  12. Digital Illumination for Augmented Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Zollmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual studio technology plays an important role for modern television productions. Blue-screen matting is a common technique for integrating real actors or moderators into computer generated sceneries. Augmented reality offers the possibility to mix real and virtual in a more general context. This article proposes a new technological approach for combining real studio content with computer-generated information. Digital light projection allows a controlled spatial, temporal, chrominance and luminance modulation of illumination opening new possibilities for TV studios.

  13. The correlations among serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and sialic acids with peripheral lymphocytes in bovine tropical theileriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed; Emadi, Mahboobeh; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan

    2010-10-01

    The infection with protozoan parasite Theileria annulata induces changes triggering the activation and/or proliferation of the host lymphocytes. In order to find out the possible correlations among peripheral circulatory lymphocytes, cytokine activities and the level of sialic acids, 50 dairy Holstein cattle, naturally infected with T. annulata, were divided into 4 subgroups according to their parasitemia rates (5%). Also, ten non-infected cattle were sampled as control group. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein into acid citrate dextrose-containing tubes for measuring hematological parameters and B and T (CD(4) and CD(8)) cell populations and without anticoagulant for TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and sialic acid concentrations. Remarkable decreases observed in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and packed cell volume (PCV) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones (P < 0.05). Also, with increase in parasitemia rate, total lymphocytes and monocytes alleviated in the diseased groups. By contrast, total neutrohpils and the concentrations of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and total sialic acids were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in infected animals. Accordingly, the circulatory populations of CD(4) and CD(8) T cells and B cells showed a substantial decrease, while a significant increase was observed in T (CD(4) and CD(8)) cells in cattle infected with <1% parasitemia rates. Decreased circulatory T cell population shows the ineffective responses of T cells to the stimulatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha. On the other hand, the elevation of cytokines (particularly IFN-gamma) and sialic acids have presumably an inhibitory role on circulatory B cell population in infected cattle. In addition, a high level of sialic acid concentration indicates the probable role of sialic acid to regulate the parasite-host cell adhesion during sporozoites invasion.

  14. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eBorgeat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition involved listening twice daily with a passive attitude to a recording of individualized formulations of appropriate cognitions and attitudes masked by music. The Control condition involved listening to an indistinguishable recording where the formulations had been replaced by random numbers. Changes in social cognitions were measured by the Social Interaction Self Statements Test (SISST.Results: Patients improved following therapy. The Priming procedure was associated with increased positive cognitions and decreased negative cognitions on the SISST while the Control procedure was not. The Priming procedure induced more cognitive change when applied immediately after the group therapy. Conclusion: An effect of priming was observed on social phobia related cognitions in the expected direction. This self administered addition to a therapy could be seen as an augmentation strategy.

  15. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  16. Human adenovirus 52 uses sialic acid-containing glycoproteins and the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor for binding to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annasara Lenman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most adenoviruses attach to host cells by means of the protruding fiber protein that binds to host cells via the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR protein. Human adenovirus type 52 (HAdV-52 is one of only three gastroenteritis-causing HAdVs that are equipped with two different fiber proteins, one long and one short. Here we show, by means of virion-cell binding and infection experiments, that HAdV-52 can also attach to host cells via CAR, but most of the binding depends on sialylated glycoproteins. Glycan microarray, flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance and ELISA analyses reveal that the terminal knob domain of the long fiber (52LFK binds to CAR, and the knob domain of the short fiber (52SFK binds to sialylated glycoproteins. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 52SFK in complex with 2-O-methylated sialic acid combined with functional studies of knob mutants revealed a new sialic acid binding site compared to other, known adenovirus:glycan interactions. Our findings shed light on adenovirus biology and may help to improve targeting of adenovirus-based vectors for gene therapy.

  17. Harnessing cancer cell metabolism for theranostic applications using metabolic glycoengineering of sialic acid in breast cancer as a pioneering example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; El-Houseini, Motawa E; Saeui, Christopher T; Mathew, Mohit P; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal cell surface display of sialic acids - a family of unusual 9-carbon sugars - is widely recognized as distinguishing feature of many types of cancer. Sialoglycans, however, typically cannot be identified with sufficiently high reproducibility and sensitivity to serve as clinically accepted biomarkers and similarly, almost all efforts to exploit cancer-specific differences in sialylation signatures for therapy remain in early stage development. In this report we provide an overview of important facets of glycosylation that contribute to cancer in general with a focus on breast cancer as an example of malignant disease characterized by aberrant sialylation. We then describe how cancer cells experience nutrient deprivation during oncogenesis and discuss how the resulting metabolic reprogramming, which endows breast cancer cells with the ability to obtain nutrients during scarcity, constitutes an "Achilles' heel" that we believe can be exploited by metabolic glycoengineering (MGE) strategies to develop new diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches. In particular, we hypothesize that adaptations made by breast cancer cells that allow them to efficiently scavenge sialic acid during times of nutrient deprivation renders them vulnerable to MGE, which refers to the use of exogenously-supplied, non-natural monosaccharide analogues to modulate targeted aspects of glycosylation in living cells and animals. In specific, once non-natural sialosides are incorporated into the cancer "sialome" they can be exploited as epitopes for immunotherapy or as chemical tags for targeted delivery of imaging or therapeutic agents selectively to tumors.

  18. A sialic acid-specific lectin from the mushroom Paecilomyces Japonica that exhibits hemagglutination activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Hun; Ryu, Chang Soo; Kim, Ha Na; Na, Young Jun; Park, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hahyung

    2004-12-01

    The mushroom Paecilomyces japonica, grown on the silkworm larvae, has been used in Asia as a nutraceutical, tea, and Chinese medicine. In the present study, a sialic acid-specific lectin has been purified from the mushroom P. japonica using affinity chromatography on a fetuin-agarose column. Electrophoretical analyses indicated that this lectin, designated P. japonica agglutinin (PJA), is an acidic protein with a molecular mass of 16 kDa, and has no intermolecular disulfide bonds. PJA induced hemagglutination activity in human ABO, mouse, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes. This activity was inhibited by sialic acid and sialoglycoproteins, but not by any other carbohydrates. PJA was stable at pH 4.0-8.0, and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. The activity of PJA was independent of EDTA and divalent cations. In addition, PJA exerts cytotoxic effects on the following cancer cell lines: human stomach cancer SNU-1, human pancreas cancer AsPc-1, and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231.

  19. Protein-bound carbohydrates in breast cancer. Liquid-chromatographic analysis for mannose, galactose, fucose, and sialic acid in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochek, J E; Dinsmore, S R; Tormey, D C; Waalkes, T P

    1976-09-01

    We describr high-resolution chromatographic analysis for protein-bound sialic acid in serum, with use of a cerate oxidimetric detector. Values for sera from normal women averaged 680.5 mg/liter, with a coefficient of variation of 23%. Including data obtained by previously developed chromatographic procedures for protein-bound mannose, galactose, and fucsoe, we assessed sera from breast-cancer patients whose malignancy had been categorized as either stable, responsive, or progressive (based on clinical observations spaced from two to five months apart). All of 12 responsive patients had decreases of protein-bound fucose averaging 34.5% (SD, 16.1) and all of 10 patients with progressive disease had increases averaging 38.3% (SD 21.5). Changes in fucose averaged less than 6.7% (SD, 4.9) for eight patients with clinically stable breast cancer. Changes in protein-bound mannose, galactose, and sialic acid did not correlate as well as did fucose with the clinical disease status of the patients.

  20. Protein-bound carbohydrates in breast cancer. Liquid-chromatographic analysis for mannose, galactose, fucose, and sialic acid in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrochek, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Dinsmore, S.R.; Tormey, D.C.; Waalkes, T.P.

    1976-09-01

    High-resolution chromatographic analysis for protein-bound sialic acid in serum, with use of a cerate oxidimetric detector is described. Values for sera from normal women averaged 680.5 mg/liter, with a coefficient of variation of 23%. Including data obtained by previously developed chromatographic procedures for protein-bound mannose, galactose, and fucose, sera from breast-cancer patients whose malignancy had been categorized as either stable, responsive, or progressive (based on clinical observations spaced from two to five months apart) were assessed. All of 12 responsive patients had decreases of protein-bound fucose averaging 34.5% (SD, 16.1) and all of 10 patients with progressive disease had increases averaging 38.3% (SD 21.5). Changes in fucose averaged less than 6.7% (SD, 4.9) for eight patients with clinically stable breast cancer. Changes in protein-bound mannose, galactose, and sialic acid did not correlate as well as did fucose with the clinical disease status of the patients.

  1. InAR:Inverse Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Hao; Cui, Hainan

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality is the art to seamlessly fuse virtual objects into real ones. In this short note, we address the opposite problem, the inverse augmented reality, that is, given a perfectly augmented reality scene where human is unable to distinguish real objects from virtual ones, how the machine could help do the job. We show by structure from motion (SFM), a simple 3D reconstruction technique from images in computer vision, the real and virtual objects can be easily separated in the recon...

  2. Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this research, Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (ARMAR), was to research the design and development of experimental... augmented reality systems for maintenance job aiding. The goal was to explore and evaluate the feasibility of developing prototype adaptive augmented ... reality systems that can be used to investigate how real time computer graphics, overlaid on and registered with the actual equipment being maintained, can

  3. RFIDice - Augmenting Tabletop Dice with RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Langheinrich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Augmented dice allow players of tabletop games to have the result of a roll be automatically recorded by a computer, e.g., for supporting strategy games. We have built a set of three augmented-dice-prototypes based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology, which allows us to build robust, cheap, and small augmented dice. Using a corresponding readout infrastructure and a sample application, we have evaluated our approach and show its advantages over other dice augmentation methods discussed in the literature.

  4. INTEGRATIVE AUGMENTATION OF STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Karapetrovic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The development, features and integrating abilities of different international standards related to management systems are discussed. A group of such standards that augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations is specifically focused on. The concept, characteristics and an illustrative example of one augmenting standard, namely ISO 10001, are addressed. Integration of standardized augmenting systems, both by themselves and within the overall management system, is examined. It is argued that, in research and practice alike, integrative augmentation represents the future of standardized quality and other management systems.

  5. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  6. Augmented reality for improved safety

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes, CERN experts have to operate in low visibility conditions or in the presence of possible hazards. Minimising the duration of the operation and reducing the risk of errors is therefore crucial to ensuring the safety of personnel. The EDUSAFE project integrates different technologies to create a wearable personnel safety system based on augmented reality.    The EDUSAFE integrated safety system uses a camera mounted on the helmet to monitor the working area.  In its everyday operation of machines and facilities, CERN adopts a whole set of measures and safety equipment to ensure the safety of its personnel, including personal wearable safety devices and access control systems. However, sometimes, scheduled and emergency maintenance work needs to be done in zones with potential cryogenic hazards, in the presence of radioactive equipment or simply in demanding conditions where visibility is low and moving around is difficult. The EDUSAFE Marie Curie Innovative&...

  7. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  8. Interactive Assembly Guide using Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard; Larsen, Christian Lindequist

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an Augmented Reality system for aiding a pump assembling process at Grundfos, one of the leading pump producers. Stable pose estimation of the pump is required in order to augment the graphics correctly. This is achieved by matching image edges with synthesized edges from CAD...

  9. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  10. Motor skill learning: age and augmented feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Henk

    2006-01-01

    Learning motor skills is fundamental to human life. One of the most critical variables affecting motor learning, aside from practice itself, is augmented feedback (performance-related information). Although there is abundance of research on how young adults use augmented feedback to learn motor skil

  11. The Spectrum of SLC17A5-Gene Mutations Resulting in Free Sialic Acid–Storage Diseases Indicates Some Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Nina; Salomäki, Pirjo; Timonen, Ritva; Verheijen, Frans; Mancini, Grazia; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Aula, Pertti; Peltonen, Leena

    2000-01-01

    Lysosomal free sialic acid–storage diseases include the allelic disorders Salla disease (SD) and infantile sialic acid–storage disease (ISSD). The defective gene, SLC17A5, coding for the lysosomal free sialic acid transporter was recently isolated by positional cloning. In the present study, we have identified a large number of mutations in SLC17A5 in patients presenting with either Salla disease or the ISSD phenotype. We also report for the first time the exon-intron boundaries of SLC17A5. All Finnish patients with SD (n=80) had a missense mutation changing a highly conserved arginine to cysteine (R39C); 91% of them were homozygotes for this old founder mutation. The compound-heterozygote patients, with the founder mutation in only one allele, presented with a more severe phenotype than did the homozygote patients. The same R39C mutation was also found both in most of the Swedish patients with SD and in a heterozygous form in five patients from central Europe who presented with an unusually severe (intermediate) SD phenotype. Ten different mutations, including deletions, insertions, and missense and nonsense mutations, were identified in patients with the most severe ISSD phenotype, most of whom were compound heterozygotes. Our results indicate some genotype-phenotype correlation in free sialic acid–storage diseases, suggesting that the phenotype associated with the homozygote R39C mutation is milder than that associated with other mutations. PMID:10947946

  12. Enzymatic Decoration of Prebiotic Galacto-oligosaccharides (Vivinal® GOS) with Sialic Acid using Trypanosoma cruzi Trans-Sialidase and Two Bovine Sialoglycoconjugates as Donor Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, Maarten Hotse; Ten Kate, Geert Albert; Sanders, Peter; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leeuwen, Sander S; Sallomons, Erik; Klarenbeek, Bert; Hage, Johannes H; van Vuure, Carine A; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2015-01-01

    Decoration of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) with sialic acid yields mixtures of GOS and sialylated GOS (Sia-GOS), novel products that are expected to have both prebiotic and anti-adhesive functionalities. The recombinantly produced trans-sialidase enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS), an

  13. Aspects of User Experience in Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen

    In Augmented Reality applications, the real environment is annotated or enhanced with computer-generated graphics. This is a topic that has been researched in the recent decades, but for many people this is a brand new and never heard of topic. The main focus of this thesis is investigations...... in human factors related to Augmented Reality. This is investigated partly as how Augmented Reality applications are used in unsupervised settings, and partly in specific evaluations related to user performance in supervised settings. The thesis starts by introducing Augmented Reality to the reader......, followed by a presentation of the technical areas related to the field, and different human factor areas. As a contribution to the research area, this thesis presents five separate, but sequential, papers within the area of Augmented Reality....

  14. Augmented Reality Implementation Methods in Mainstream Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on different mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in th...

  15. Diffuser Augmented Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewal energy technologies are increasingly popular to ensure future energy sustenance and address environmental issues. The tides are enormous and consistent untapped resource of renewable energy. The growing interest in exploring tidal energy has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The tidal energy industry is undergoing an increasing shift towards diffuser augmented turbines. The reason is the higher power output of diffuser augmented turbines compared to conventional open turbines. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines. The components, relative advantages, limitations and design parameters of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are presented in detail. CFD simulation of NACA 0016 airfoil is carried out to explore its potential for designing a diffuser. The core issues associated with diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are also discussed.

  16. Terminal sialic acids on CD44 N-glycans can block hyaluronan binding by forming competing intramolecular contacts with arginine sidechains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E.; Guvench, Olgun

    2014-01-01

    Specific sugar residues and their linkages form the basis of molecular recognition for interactions of glycoproteins with other biomolecules. Seemingly small changes, like the addition of a single monosaccharide in the covalently attached glycan component of glycoproteins, can greatly affect these interactions. For instance, the sialic acid capping of glycans affects protein-ligand binding involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. CD44 is a single-pass transmembrane glycoprotein whose binding with its carbohydrate ligand hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix component, mediates processes such as leukocyte homing, cell adhesion, and tumor metastasis. This binding is highly regulated by glycosylation of the N-terminal extracellular hyaluronan-binding domain (HABD); specifically, sialic acid capped N-glycans of HABD inhibit ligand binding. However, the molecular mechanism behind this sialic acid mediated regulation has remained unknown. Two of the five N-glycosyation sites of HABD have been previously identified as having the greatest inhibitory effect on HA binding, but only if the glycans contain terminal sialic acid residues. These two sites, Asn25 and Asn120, were chosen for in silico glycosylation in this study. Here, from extensive standard molecular dynamics simulations and biased simulations, we propose a molecular mechanism for this behavior based on spontaneously-formed charge-paired hydrogen bonding interactions between the negatively-charged sialic acid residues and positively-charged Arg sidechains known to be critically important for binding to HA, which itself is negatively charged. Such intramolecular hydrogen bonds would preclude associations critical to hyaluronan binding. This observation suggests how CD44 and related glycoprotein binding is regulated by sialylation as cellular environments fluctuate. PMID:25116630

  17. Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses...... in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I......, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results: SIV...

  18. Comparison of backbone dynamics of the type III antifreeze protein and antifreeze-like domain of human sialic acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Geun [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin-Ju [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Eun; Seo, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Ae-Ree; Choi, Seo-Ree; Lee, Shim Sung; Lee, Joon-Hwa, E-mail: joonhwa@gnu.ac.kr [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3{sub 10}-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play important roles in a variety of biological functions, such as development, recognition, and cell adhesion and are synthesized by conserved enzymatic pathways that include sialic acid synthase (SAS). SAS consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal antifreeze-like (AFL) domain, which is similar to the type III AFPs. Despite having very similar structures, AFL and the type III AFPs exhibit very different temperature-dependent stability and activity. In this study, we have performed backbone dynamics analyses of a type III AFP (HPLC12 isoform) and the AFL domain of human SAS (hAFL) at various temperatures. We also characterized the structural/dynamic properties of the ice-binding surfaces by analyzing the temperature gradient of the amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil. The dynamic properties of the two proteins were very different from each other. While HPLC12 was mostly rigid with a few residues exhibiting slow motions, hAFL showed fast internal motions at low temperature. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of thermostability and structural flexibility in homologous psychrophilic HPLC12 and mesophilic hAFL proteins.

  19. Sialic acid transport and catabolism are cooperatively regulated by SiaR and CRP in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jason W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport and catabolism of sialic acid, a critical virulence factor for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, is regulated by two transcription factors, SiaR and CRP. Results Using a mutagenesis approach, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P was identified as a co-activator for SiaR. Evidence for the cooperative regulation of both the sialic acid catabolic and transport operons suggested that cooperativity between SiaR and CRP is required for regulation. cAMP was unable to influence the expression of the catabolic operon in the absence of SiaR but was able to induce catabolic operon expression when both SiaR and GlcN-6P were present. Alteration of helical phasing supported this observation by uncoupling SiaR and CRP regulation. The insertion of one half-turn of DNA between the SiaR and CRP operators resulted in the loss of SiaR-mediated repression of the transport operon while eliminating cAMP-dependent induction of the catabolic operon when GlcN-6P was present. SiaR and CRP were found to bind to their respective operators simultaneously and GlcN-6P altered the interaction of SiaR with its operator. Conclusions These results suggest multiple novel features for the regulation of these two adjacent operons. SiaR functions as both a repressor and an activator and SiaR and CRP interact to regulate both operons from a single set of operators.

  20. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  1. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  2. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  3. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  4. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

  5. Augmented Reality in Architecture: Rebuilding Archeological Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Prieto, J.; Castaño Perea, E.; Labrador Arroyo, F.

    2017-02-01

    With the development in recent years of augmented reality and the appearance of new mobile terminals and storage bases on-line, we find the possibility of using a powerful tool for transmitting architecture. This paper analyzes the relationship between Augmented Reality and Architecture. Firstly, connects the theoretical framework of both disciplines through the Representation concept. Secondly, describes the milestones and possibilities of Augmented Reality in the particular field of archaeological reconstruction. And lastly, once recognized the technology developed, we face the same analysis from a critical point of view, assessing their suitability to the discipline that concerns us is the architecture and within archeology.

  6. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance.

  7. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  8. Treatment algorithm of galactorrhea after augmentation mammoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Lee, Kyeong Tae; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2012-09-01

    Galactorrhea is a known complication of breast surgery, particularly reduction mammoplasty. However, in augmentation mammoplasty, it is a rare event. There are only a few case reports concerning galactorrhea after augmentation mammoplasty. In this report, we present a case of galactorrhea that occurred at 2 weeks postoperatively in a 34-year-old woman who had undergone augmentation mammoplasty with silicone implants via a transaxillary approach. Endocrinologic tests including serum prolactin level, routine blood work, and breast ultrasonography were all normal. The authors decided to manage conservatively with close observation. After 1 month, the symptom resolved without sequelae, and no recurrence has been reported.

  9. Resonant Behavior of an Augmented Railgun

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    We consider a lumped circuit model of an augmented electromagnetic railgun that consists of a gun circuit and an augmentation circuit that is inductively coupled to the gun circuit. The gun circuit is driven by a d.c. voltage generator, and the augmentation circuit is driven by an a.c. voltage generator. Using sample parameters, we numerically solve the three non-linear dynamical equations that describe this system. We find that there is a resonant behavior in the armature kinetic energy as a function of the frequency of the voltage generator in the augmentation circuit. This resonant behavior may be exploited to increase armature kinetic energy. Alternatively, if the presence of the kinetic energy resonance is not taken into account, parameters may be chosen that result in less than optimal kinetic energy and efficiency.

  10. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  11. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  12. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, a......, and otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment......Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate...

  13. The Development of Mobile Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a high-level overview of fifteen years of augmented reality research that was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research...years by a number of university and industrial research laboratories. It laid the groundwork for the development of many commercial mobile augmented ... reality (AR) applications that are currently available for smartphones and tablets. Furthermore, it helped shape a number of ongoing research activities in mobile AR.

  14. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W. (Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B-dot probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models.

  15. Human influenza A virus hemagglutinin distinguishes sialyloligosaccharides in membrane-associated gangliosides as its receptor which mediates the adsorption and fusion processes of virus infection. Specificity for oligosaccharides and sialic acids and the sequence to which sialic acid is attached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Nagao, Y; Kato, H; Matsumoto, M; Nerome, K; Nakajima, K; Nobusawa, E

    1986-12-25

    Human influenza A virus isolates bearing antigenically different H1 (A/PR/8/34), H2 (A/Japan/305/57), and H3 (A/Aichi/2/68, A/X-31) hemagglutinin serotypes caused extensive hemagglutination, low pH fusion, and hemolysis of asialoerythrocytes reconstituted with gangliosides. Sialylparaglobosides (IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer, IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer), I-active and i-active (VI3NeuAc-nLc6Cer) gangliosides, and GM3-NeuAc commonly exhibited significant specific receptor activity toward the viruses. A/PR/8/34 recognized IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer containing the NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal sequence preferentially over IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer containing NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal, whereas the other two recognized the NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal sequence preferentially over NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal. Responsiveness of erythrocytes labeled with gangliosides containing NeuGc to the viruses used was considerably lower than that of erythrocytes labeled with gangliosides containing NeuAc. The activities of GM1a, GM2, and GD1b bearing NeuAc on inner galactose of the ganglio series core were also very low. These results indicate that sialyloligosaccharides of IV3NeuAc-nLc4Cer, IV6NeuAc-nLc4Cer, I-active ganglioside, and VI3NeuAc-nLc6Cer in addition to GM3-NeuAc and GM1b-NeuAc (Suzuki, Y., Matsunaga, M., and Matsumoto, M. (1985), J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1362-1365; Suzuki, Y., Matsunaga, M., Nagao, Y., Taki, T., Hirabayashi, Y., and Matsumoto, M. (1985) Vaccine 3, 201-203) are functional receptor determinants toward hemagglutinin of human influenza A viruses, and the viruses differentiate microdomains of the gangliosides, such as the sialic acid species (NeuAc, NeuGc) and the sequence of sialic acid linkages (NeuAc alpha 2-3Gal, NeuAc alpha 2-6Gal).

  16. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) of porcine rotavirus strain CRW-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Stacy A. [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University (Gold Coast Campus) PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia); Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Szyczew, Alex J.; Kiefel, Milton J.; Itzstein, Mark von; Blanchard, Helen, E-mail: h.blanchard@griffith.edu.au [Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University (Gold Coast Campus) PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726 (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    The sialic acid-binding domain (VP8*) component of the porcine CRW-8 rotavirus spike protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and co-crystallized with an N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å, which has enabled determination of the structure by molecular replacement. Rotavirus recognition and attachment to host cells involves interaction with the spike protein VP4 that projects outwards from the surface of the virus particle. An integral component of these spikes is the VP8* domain, which is implicated in the direct recognition and binding of sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and facilitates subsequent invasion by the virus. The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of VP8* from porcine CRW-8 rotavirus is reported. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution, enabling the determination of the VP8* structure by molecular replacement.

  18. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori HP1029 highlights the functional diversity of the sialic acid-related DUF386 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallese, Francesca; Percudani, Riccardo; Fischer, Wolfgang; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The proteins of the YhcH/YjgK/YiaL (DUF386) family have been implicated in the bacterial metabolism of host-derived sialic acids and biofilm formation, although their precise biochemical function remains enigmatic. We present here the crystal structure of protein HP1029 from Helicobacter pylori. The protein is a homodimer, in which each monomer comprises a molecular core formed by 12 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets flanked by helices. The sandwich formed by the sheets assumes the shape of a funnel opened at one end, with a zinc ion present at the bottom of the funnel. The crystal structure unequivocally shows that HP1029 belongs to the DUF386 family. Although no bioinformatics evidence has been found for sialic acid catabolism in H. pylori, the genomic context of HP1029 in Helicobacter and related organisms suggests a possible role in the metabolism of bacterial surface saccharides, such as pseudaminic acid and its derivatives.

  19. NanR, a Transcriptional Regulator That Binds to the Promoters of Genes Involved in Sialic Acid Metabolism in the Anaerobic Pathogen Clostridium perfringens.

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    Blair Therit

    Full Text Available Among many other virulence factors, Clostridium perfringens produces three sialidases NanH, NanI and NanJ. NanH lacks a secretion signal peptide and is predicted to be an intracellular enzyme, while NanI and NanJ are secreted. Previously, we had identified part of an operon encoding NanE (epimerase and NanA (sialic acid lyase enzymes. Further analysis of the entire operon suggests that it encodes a complete pathway for the transport and metabolism of sialic acid along with a putative transcriptional regulator, NanR. The addition of 30 mM N-acetyl neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac to a semi-defined medium significantly enhanced the growth yield of strain 13, suggesting that Neu5Ac can be used as a nutrient. C. perfringens strain 13 lacks a nanH gene, but has NanI- and NanJ-encoding genes. Analysis of nanI, nanJ, and nanInanJ mutants constructed by homologous recombination revealed that the expression of the major sialidase, NanI, was induced by the addition of Neu5Ac to the medium, and that in separate experiments, the same was true of a nanI-gusA transcriptional fusion. For the nanI and nanJ genes, primer extension identified three and two putative transcription start sites, respectively. Gel mobility shift assays using purified NanR and DNA from the promoter regions of the nanI and nanE genes showed high affinity, specific binding by NanR. We propose that NanR is a global regulator of sialic acid-associated genes and that it responds, in a positive feedback loop, to the concentration of sialic acid in the cell.

  20. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

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    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  1. Porcine Sapelovirus Uses α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid on GD1a Ganglioside as a Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Song; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Koo, Kyung-Min; Kim, Ji-Yun; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Park, Jun-Gyu; Hosmillo, Myra; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Kang, Mun-Il

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The receptor(s) for porcine sapelovirus (PSV), which causes diarrhea, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs, remains largely unknown. Given the precedent for other picornaviruses which use terminal sialic acids (SAs) as receptors, we examined the role of SAs in PSV binding and infection. Using a variety of approaches, including treating cells with a carbohydrate-destroying chemical (NaIO4), mono- or oligosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose, and 6′-sialyllactose), linkage-specific sialidases (neuraminidase and sialidase S), lectins (Maakia amurensis lectin and Sambucus nigra lectin), proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin), and glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors (dl-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol and phospholipase C), we demonstrated that PSV could recognize α2,3-linked SA on glycolipids as a receptor. On the other hand, PSVs had no binding affinity for synthetic histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), suggesting that PSVs could not use HBGAs as receptors. Depletion of cell surface glycolipids followed by reconstitution studies indicated that GD1a ganglioside, but not other gangliosides, could restore PSV binding and infection, further confirming α2,3-linked SA on GD1a as a PSV receptor. Our results could provide significant information on the understanding of the life cycle of sapelovirus and other picornaviruses. For the broader community in the area of pathogens and pathogenesis, these findings and insights could contribute to the development of affordable, useful, and efficient drugs for anti-sapelovirus therapy. IMPORTANCE The porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is known to cause enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis, and reproductive disorders in pigs. However, the receptor(s) that the PSV utilizes to enter host cells remains largely unknown. Using a variety of approaches, we showed that α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA) on the cell surface GD1a ganglioside could be used for PSV

  2. Conservation of structure and mechanism in primary and secondary transporters exemplified by SiaP, a sialic acid binding virulence factor from Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Axel; Severi, Emmanuele; Mulligan, Christopher; Watts, Andrew G; Kelly, David J; Wilson, Keith S; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Thomas, Gavin H

    2006-08-04

    Extracytoplasmic solute receptors (ESRs) are important components of solute uptake systems in bacteria, having been studied extensively as parts of ATP binding cassette transporters. Herein we report the first crystal structure of an ESR protein from a functionally characterized electrochemical ion gradient dependent secondary transporter. This protein, SiaP, forms part of a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter specific for sialic acid in Haemophilus influenzae. Surprisingly, the structure reveals an overall topology similar to ATP binding cassette ESR proteins, which is not apparent from the sequence, demonstrating that primary and secondary transporters can share a common structural component. The structure of SiaP in the presence of the sialic acid analogue 2,3-didehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid reveals the ligand bound in a deep cavity with its carboxylate group forming a salt bridge with a highly conserved Arg residue. Sialic acid binding, which obeys simple bimolecular association kinetics as determined by stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, is accompanied by domain closure about a hinge region and the kinking of an alpha-helix hinge component. The structure provides insight into the evolution, mechanism, and substrate specificity of ESR-dependent secondary transporters that are widespread in prokaryotes.

  3. Removal of sialic acid from the surface of human MCF-7 mammary cancer cells abolishes E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion in an aggregation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deman, J J; Van Larebeke, N A; Bruyneel, E A; Bracke, M E; Vermeulen, S J; Vennekens, K M; Mareel, M M

    1995-09-01

    MCF-7 human breast cancer cells express E-cadherin and show, at least in some circumstances, E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion (Bracke et al., 1993). The MCF-7/AZ variant spontaneously displays E-cadherin-dependent fast aggregation; in the MCF-7/6 variant, E-cadherin appeared not to be spontaneously functional in the conditions of the fast aggregation assay, but function could be induced by incubation of the suspended cells in the presence of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) (Bracke et al., 1993). E-cadherin from MCF-7 cells was shown to contain sialic acid. Treatment with neuraminidase was shown to remove this sialic acid, as well as most of the sialic acid present at the cell surface. Applied to MCF-7/AZ, and MCF-7/6 cells, pretreatment with neuraminidase abolished spontaneous as well as IGF-I induced, E-cadherin-dependent fast cell-cell adhesion of cells in suspension, as measured in the fast aggregation assay. Treatment with neuraminidase did not, however, inhibit the possibly different, but equally E-cadherin-mediated, process of cell-cell adhesion of MCF-7 cells on a flat plastic substrate as assessed by determining the percentage of cells remaining isolated (without contact with other cells) 24 h after plating.

  4. Increased protein oxidation and loss of protein-bound sialic acid in hepatic tissues of D-galactose induced aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakatay, Ufuk; Aydın, Seval; Atukeren, Pınar; Yanar, Karolin; Sitar, Mustafa E; Dalo, Enis; Uslu, Ezel

    2013-07-01

    A redox basis of the increased oxidative protein damage and free radical-mediated desialylation have not been fully elucidated in aging. It is well known that the incidence of several liver diseases increase with age. This original research focuses on protein oxidation mechanisms and protein-bound sialic acid levels in liver tissue of the mimetic aging rats. Injection of D-galactose (60 mg/kg/day) for six weeks to male Sprague-Dawley rats (20-week-old) used to establish mimetic aging model. We investigated the tissue levels of various protein oxidation markers such as protein carbonyl groups, suitable advanced oxidation protein products and protein thiol groups. Our study also covered protein-bound sialic acid in liver tissue of D-galactose-induced aging rats. PCO (Protein Carbonyl Groups), P-OOH (Protein Hydroperoxides) and AOPP (Advanced Oxidation Protein Products) levels in aging rats were significantly higher compared to young control groups. On the other hand, P-SH (Protein Thiol Groups) levels were not found to be different between two groups. SA (Sialic Acid) levels in D-galactose-induced aging rats were significantly lower compared to control groups. Our results demonstrated greater susceptibility to hepatic oxidative protein damage and desialylation of hepatocellular proteins in Dgalactose- induced aging rats. These molecular mechanisms may be operative in the many age-related liver diseases, which are pertinent to increased oxidative stress and altered redox homeostasis.

  5. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  6. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  7. Sialic Acid Expression in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Its Possible Role in Dengue Virus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cime-Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence. Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

  8. A comparison of the effect of glitazones on serum sialic acid in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ur Rahman, Inayat; Idrees, Muhammad; Salman, Mohammad; Khan, Rooh Ullah; Khan, M I; Amin, Fazli; Jan, Naeem Ullah

    2012-07-01

    Although management of hyperglycaemia represents one of the principal treatment goals of diabetes therapy, the high incidence of cardiovascular (CV) complications in diabetes also needs effective management. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine and compare the effect of glitazones on serum sialic acid (SSA), a known risk marker for CV disease, along with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycohaemoglobin (HbA1-c) and blood lipids, in overweight, previously only diet-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (n=60). The study was conducted for a period of 12 months. Significant improvement in FPG and HbA1-c were shown by both rosiglitazone (ppioglitazone (ppioglitazone showed greater beneficial effects on other parameters monitored, significantly reducing total cholesterol (TC) (p≤0.05). Both the drugs showed a decrease in SSA and no significant differences were observed between the groups. However, the decrease was significant only in the pioglitazone-treated group at month 12 (p≤0.05), compared with baseline. A significant decrease in SSA by pioglitazone indicates its greater cardioprotective effect compared with rosiglitazone.

  9. Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

  10. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfling, Jonas; Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Parrish, Colin R; Varki, Ajit

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells.

  11. Loss of sialic acid binding domain redirects protein σ1 to enhance M cell-directed vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Zlotkowska

    Full Text Available Ovalbumin (OVA genetically fused to protein sigma 1 (pσ1 results in tolerance to both OVA and pσ1. Pσ1 binds in a multi-step fashion, involving both protein- and carbohydrate-based receptors. To assess the relative pσ1 components responsible for inducing tolerance and the importance of its sialic binding domain (SABD for immunization, modified OVA-pσ1, termed OVA-pσ1(short, was deleted of its SABD, but with its M cell targeting moiety intact, and was found to be immunostimulatory and enhanced CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell proliferation. When used to nasally immunize mice given with and without cholera toxin (CT adjuvant, elevated SIgA and serum IgG responses were induced, and OVA-pσ1(s was more efficient for immunization than native OVA+CT. The immune antibodies (Abs were derived from elevated Ab-forming cells in the upper respiratory tissues and submaxillary glands and were supported by mixed Th cell responses. Thus, these studies show that pσ1(s can be fused to vaccines to effectively elicit improved SIgA responses.

  12. Highly sensitive detection of influenza virus by boron-doped diamond electrode terminated with sialic acid-mimic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Teruhiko; Ujie, Michiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Akahori, Miku; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Toshinori

    2016-08-09

    The progression of influenza varies according to age and the presence of an underlying disease; appropriate treatment is therefore required to prevent severe disease. Anti-influenza therapy, such as with neuraminidase inhibitors, is effective, but diagnosis at an early phase of infection before viral propagation is critical. Here, we show that several dozen plaque-forming units (pfu) of influenza virus (IFV) can be detected using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode terminated with a sialic acid-mimic peptide. The peptide was used instead of the sialyloligosaccharide receptor, which is the common receptor of influenza A and B viruses required during the early phase of infection, to capture IFV particles. The peptide, which was previously identified by phage-display technology, was immobilized by click chemistry on the BDD electrode, which has excellent electrochemical characteristics such as low background current and weak adsorption of biomolecules. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that H1N1 and H3N2 IFVs were detectable in the range of 20-500 pfu by using the peptide-terminated BDD electrode. Our results demonstrate that the BDD device integrated with the receptor-mimic peptide has high sensitivity for detection of a low number of virus particles in the early phase of infection.

  13. Combined measurement and significance of lipid-bound sialic acid and carcinoembryonic antigen in detection of human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, D D; Picken, J; Pritchard, J

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA) as a "tumor marker" and assessed individual and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in cancer patients. Serum LSA and CEA concentrations were measured by the resorcinol method after total lipid extraction and isolation of the sialolipid fraction, and by Abbott enzyme immunoassay procedures, respectively. Results indicate that the frequency of elevation and mean LSA values were highest in patients with lung cancer (318 mg/liter), intermediate in miscellaneous (210 mg/liter) and colorectal cancers (200 mg/liter), and lowest in breast cancer (175 mg/liter); while mean CEA values were highest in colorectal cancer (162.5 micrograms/liter), followed by lung (33.8 micrograms/liter), miscellaneous (30.3 micrograms/liter), and breast cancers (11.6 micrograms/liter). Statistically, LSA and CEA values for cancer patients were significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than for normal subjects. The combined measurement of LSA and CEA in serum provides better detection potential for cancer patients than either of the two markers alone.

  14. Individual and combined usefulness of lipid associated sialic acid, mucoid proteins and hexoses as tumor markers in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P S; Baxi, B R; Adhvaryu, S G; Balar, D B

    1990-06-15

    Serum levels of lipid associated sialic acid (LASA), mucoid proteins (MP) and hexoses (galactose + mannose) were measured in 41 breast cancer patients, 14 patients with benign breast diseases and 36 healthy age matched female individuals. In breast carcinoma patients, we have observed significant increase in the levels of the three markers compared with the controls (P less than 0.001) and in MP and hexoses compared to the patients with benign breast diseases (P less than 0.001). LASA and hexoses levels were significantly higher in benign breast diseases with respect to controls (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.01, respectively). We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the markers individually and in combination. MP were most sensitive (71.8%) and specific (71.4%). Both sensitivity and specificity were increased when combinations of the markers were studied. Combination of MP with LASA was most sensitive (97.4%) while the combination of MP and hexoses was most specific (92.9%). LASA was significantly elevated in infiltrating duct carcinoma compared to lobular carcinoma (P less than 0.001). MP and hexoses also showed higher mean value in infiltrating duct carcinoma than lobular carcinoma. The present study suggests that the combination of the markers investigated might be useful for diagnosis and classification of breast carcinoma.

  15. Mutation in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis causes severe glomerular proteinuria and is rescued by N-acetylmannosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Klootwijk, Riko; Manoli, Irini; Sun, MaoSen; Ciccone, Carla; Darvish, Daniel; Starost, Matthew F; Zerfas, Patricia M; Hoffmann, Victoria J; Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley; Krasnewich, Donna M; Gahl, William A; Huizing, Marjan

    2007-06-01

    Mutations in the key enzyme of sialic acid biosynthesis, uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) kinase (GNE/MNK), result in hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM), an adult-onset, progressive neuromuscular disorder. We created knockin mice harboring the M712T Gne/Mnk mutation. Homozygous mutant (Gne(M712T/M712T)) mice did not survive beyond P3. At P2, significantly decreased Gne-epimerase activity was observed in Gne(M712T/M712T) muscle, but no myopathic features were apparent. Rather, homozygous mutant mice had glomerular hematuria, proteinuria, and podocytopathy. Renal findings included segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and reduced sialylation of the major podocyte sialoprotein, podocalyxin. ManNAc administration yielded survival beyond P3 in 43% of the Gne(M712T/M712T) pups. Survivors exhibited improved renal histology, increased sialylation of podocalyxin, and increased Gne/Mnk protein expression and Gne-epimerase activities. These findings establish this Gne(M712T/M712T) knockin mouse as what we believe to be the first genetic model of podocyte injury and segmental glomerular basement membrane splitting due to hyposialylation. The results also support evaluation of ManNAc as a treatment not only for HIBM but also for renal disorders involving proteinuria and hematuria due to podocytopathy and/or segmental splitting of the glomerular basement membrane.

  16. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

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    Madjid Maidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  17. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  18. Formwork application optimization by using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, R.; Petruse, R.; Brindasu, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    By using the PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) principle on the formwork case study, after determining the functions and the technical solutions, the application must be made as optimum as possible in order to assure productivity and provide the necessary information as quick as possible. The concept is to create a complex management for the formwork based on augmented reality. By taking into account the development rate of the information, augmented reality is tending to be one of the widest (in term of domain) visualization instrument. Also used in the construction domain, augmented reality can be applied also for the case of formwork design and management. The application of the solution will be retrieved in the construction of the product, its transportation and deposit. The usage of this concept will help reduce, even eliminate human or technical errors and can offer a precise state of a specific required formwork from the stock.

  19. Augmenting Tractable Fragments of Abstract Argumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Ordyniak, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We present a new and compelling approach to the efficient solution of important computational problems that arise in the context of abstract argumentation. Our approach makes known algorithms defined for restricted fragments generally applicable, at a computational cost that scales with the distance from the fragment. Thus, in a certain sense, we gradually augment tractable fragments. Surprisingly, it turns out that some tractable fragments admit such an augmentation and that others do not. More specifically, we show that the problems of credulous and skeptical acceptance are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the distance from the fragment of acyclic argumentation frameworks. Other tractable fragments such as the fragments of symmetrical and bipartite frameworks seem to prohibit an augmentation: the acceptance problems are already intractable for frameworks at distance 1 from the fragments. For our study we use a broad setting and consider several different semantics. For the algorithmic results...

  20. A Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Augmented Reality (AR refers to a set of technologies and devices able to enhance and improve human perception, thus bridging the gap between real and virtual space. Physical and artificial objects are mixed together in a hybrid space where the user can move without constraints. This mediated reality is spread in our everyday life: work, study, training, relaxation, time spent traveling are just some of the moments in which you can use AR applications.This paper aims to provide an overview of current technologies and future trends of augmented reality as well as to describe the main application domains, outlining benefits and open issues.

  1. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  2. Aloqa and layar augmented reality feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    Aloqa is a service that proactively notifies the user of Point Of Interests (POIs). It runs on iPhone, blackberry and android. With this tool you can easily get directions to events, places, buildings or other places of interests. Layar builds on the same principle, but has a browser that augments t

  3. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency renderi

  4. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer BOZYER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  5. Augmentation of board games using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulsinskas, Arturas; Balan, Catalin; Egede Bukdahl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players’ social presence...

  6. The Educational Possibilities of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabero, Julio; Barroso, Julio

    2016-01-01

    A large number of emergent technologies have been acquiring a strong impulse in recent years. One of these emergent technologies is Augmented Reality (RA), which will surely have a high level of penetration into all our educational centers, including universities, in the next 3 to 5 years, as a number of different reports have already highlighted.…

  7. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzgern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment...

  8. Understanding the Conics through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Patricia; Pulido, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the production of a digital environment to foster the learning of conics through augmented reality. The name conic refers to curves obtained by the intersection of a plane with a right circular conical surface. The environment gives students the opportunity to interact with the cone and the plane as virtual objects in real…

  9. E-Learning: Between Augmentation and Disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilesen, Simon B.; Josephsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Based on a framework for analysis combining diffusion theory, content layer analysis and sense making, this paper discusses the theme of "e-learning as augmentation or disruption" from the point of view of technological innovation. Two cases of on-campus blended learning at Roskilde University, Denmark, are introduced to illustrate the…

  10. Mobile-based tourism as spatial augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    By discussing the uses of mobile information mainly for tourism purposes, I argue that the consequence of the use of mobile technologies is neither a collapse nor a doubling of space and place. Rather they are producing new types of places and new types of spatial experiences. In short, mobile...... technologies facilitate an augmentation of space...

  11. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  12. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  13. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  14. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  15. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  16. Augmented reality for Android application development

    CERN Document Server

    Grubert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial-based guide aimed at giving you hands-on practical experience to develop AR applications for Android.Augmented Reality for Android Application Development is for Android mobile application developers who are familiar with Android Development Tools and deployment, JMonkeyEngine, and the Vuforia SDK.

  17. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  18. MULTILEVEL AUGMENTATION METHODS FOR SOLVING OPERATOR EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhongying; Wu Bin; Xu Yuesheng

    2005-01-01

    We introduce multilevel augmentation methods for solving operator equations based on direct sum decompositions of the range space of the operator and the solution space of the operator equation and a matrix splitting scheme. We establish a general setting for the analysis of these methods, showing that the methods yield approximate solutions of the same convergence order as the best approximation from the subspace. These augmentation methods allow us to develop fast, accurate and stable nonconventional numerical algorithms for solving operator equations. In particular, for second kind equations, special splitting techniques are proposed to develop such algorithms. These algorithms are then applied to solve the linear systems resulting from matrix compression schemes using wavelet-like functions for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. For this special case, a complete analysis for computational complexity and convergence order is presented. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods. In these examples we use the proposed augmentation method to solve large scale linear systems resulting from the recently developed wavelet Galerkin methods and fast collocation methods applied to integral equations of the secondkind. Our numerical results confirm that this augmentation method is particularly efficient for solving large scale linear systems induced from wavelet compression schemes.

  19. Group augmentation and the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Santema, Peter; Taborsky, Michael; Komdeur, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The group augmentation (GA) hypothesis states that if helpers in cooperatively breeding animals raise the reproductive success of the group, the benefits of living in a resulting larger group - improved survival or future reproductive success favour the evolution of seemingly altruistic helping beha

  20. Rapid and simple solid-phase esterification of sialic acid residues for quantitative glycomics by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Yasuro; Furukawa, Jun-ichi; Nagahori, Noriko; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative method for solid-phase methyl esterification of carboxy groups of various sialylated oligosaccharides has been established. The method employed a triazene derivative, 3-methyl-1-p-tolyltriazene, for facile derivatization of oligosaccharides immobilized onto general solid supports such as Affi-Gel Hz and gold colloidal nanoparticles in a multiwell plate. The workflow protocol was optimized for the solid-phase processing of captured sialylated/unsialylated oligosaccharides separated from crude sample mixtures by chemical ligation. From tryptic and/or PNGase F-digest mixtures of glycoproteins, purification by chemoselective immobilization, esterification and recovery were achieved in the same well of the filter plate within three hours when used in conjunction with "glycoblotting technology" (S.-I. Nishimura, K. Niikura, M. Kurogochi, T. Matsushita, M. Fumoto, H. Hinou, R. Kamitani, H. Nakagawa, K. Deguchi, N. Miura, K. Monde, H. Kondo, High-throughput protein glycomics: Combined use of chemoselective glycoblotting and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry: Angew. Chem. 2005, 117, 93-98; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 91-96). The recovered materials were directly applicable to subsequent characterization by mass spectrometric techniques such as MALDI-TOF for large-scale glycomics of both neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides. On-bead/on-gold nanoparticle derivatization of glycans containing sialic acids allowed rapid and quantitative glycoform profiling by MALDI-TOF MS with reflector and positive ion mode. In addition to its simplicity and speed, the method eliminates the use of unfavorable halogenated solvents such as chloroform and dichloromethane or volatile solvents such as diethyl ether and hexane, resulting in a practical and green chemical method for automated robotic adaptation.

  1. BIOTRANSFORMATION USING RECOMBINANT CMP SIALIC ACID SYNTHETASE AND α-2, 6-SIALYLTRAN SFERASE: ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF SIALOSIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Hubl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we successfully expressed recombinant CMP-sialic Acid Synthetase (CSS from Neisseria meningitides and 2,6-Sialyltransferase (SAT from Photobacterium damsela in E. coli BL21(DE3 fermented at a scale of up to 8 litres using individual plasmids pIRL-1 and pIRL-4b, respectively. After cell lysis with BugBuster, enzyme levels of 2U and 22U per litre were produced for CSS and SAT, respectively. The enzyme solutions were either used directly as crude preparations or further purified by affinity chromatography. Characterization of the CSS and SAT confirmed that both enzymes had comparable properties to those described in the literature. The production of cytidine 5’-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc and CMP-9-azido-NeuAc using crude CSS was successful with >90% conversion at scales from 100 mg to 5 g. Activated sugar purification by ethanol precipitation was optimized. Finally, the CSS and SAT enzymes were applied to a large-scale synthesis of a sialylated lactosamine glycoside via a two-step biotransformation. The initial step employed crude CSS to convert Cytidine Triphosphate (CTP and 9-azido-NeuAc to CMP-9-azido-NeuAc at a conversion efficiency of 98%. This reaction mixture, after ultrafiltration to remove β-galactosidase activity co-expressed by E. coli BL21, was used as the donor substrate for the second step involving SAT. The sialoside 9-azido-sialyl-α-2,6’-lactosamine glycoside was produced with 86% conversion of the starting glycoside. Purification of the product was achieved by chromatography on Diaion HP-20 (a hydrophobic styrenic resin.

  2. Siglec-15, a member of the sialic acid-binding lectin, is a novel regulator for osteoclast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruma, Yoshiharu, E-mail: hiruma.yoshiharu.hy@daiichisankyo.co.jp [Biological Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan); Hirai, Takehiro [Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology Department, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan); Tsuda, Eisuke [Biological Research Laboratories, Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo 134-8630 (Japan)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Siglec-15 was identified as a gene overexpressed in giant cell tumor. {yields} Siglec-15 mRNA expression increased in association with osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Polyclonal antibody to Siglec-15 inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells derived from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors and are critically responsible for bone resorption. In giant cell tumor of bone (GCT), numerous TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells emerge and severe osteolytic bone destruction occurs, implying that the emerged giant cells are biologically similar to osteoclasts. To identify novel genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, we searched genes whose expression pattern was significantly different in GCT from normal and other bone tumor tissues. By screening a human gene expression database, we identified sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) as one of the genes markedly overexpressed in GCT. The mRNA expression level of Siglec-15 increased in association with osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse primary unfractionated bone marrow cells (UBMC), RAW264.7 cells of the mouse macrophage cell line and human osteoclast precursors (OCP). Treatment with polyclonal antibody to mouse Siglec-15 markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage (BMM) cells stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. The antibody also inhibited osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse UBMC and RAW264.7 cells stimulated with active vitamin D{sub 3} and RANKL, respectively. Finally, treatment with polyclonal antibody to human Siglec-15 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP-positive multinuclear cell formation in a human OCP culture. These results suggest that Siglec-15 plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation.

  3. Total sialic acid: an acute phase reactant in cats with a possible role in feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2009-04-01

    The aims of this study were to validate a colorimetric method to measure total sialic acid (TSA) in feline serum and to investigate the serum concentration of TSA in clinically healthy cats seronegative (n = 9) and seropositive (n = 48) for feline coronavirus (FCoV), and in cats affected by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, n = 28), tumors (n = 20), or inflammation (n = 16). The correlation between TSA and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) was also investigated. The method employed in this study is precise and accurate at TSA levels (in mg/L) commonly encountered in feline serum. No significant differences between seropositive (385.6 +/- 192.2 mg/L) and seronegative (433.5 +/- 179.0 mg/L) cats were detectable, suggesting that the simple infection by FCoVs does not influence TSA levels. Compared with seropositive controls, the concentration of TSA was higher in cats with FIP (556.7 +/- 268.3 mg/L, P = 0.003), tumors (522.5 +/- 294.4 mg/L, P = 0.028), and inflammation (546.8 +/- 208.3 mg/L, P = 0.018). The discriminating power of TSA for FIP is moderate (area under the ROC curve = 0.65) and the likelihood ratio is higher than 3.0 only at high TSA levels. Consequently, TSA could support a diagnosis of FIP only at extremely high serum concentration (> 800 mg/L) or when the pre-test probability of FIP is high. No correlations were found between the TSA and AGP concentrations in cats with FIP, suggesting that sialylated proteins other than AGP are present. Both the antibody titre and the degree of AGP sialylation were negatively correlated with TSA levels, suggesting that increased TSA may contribute to reduce the burden of FCoVs.

  4. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  5. Epoetin beta pegol, but not recombinant erythropoietin, retains its hematopoietic effect in vivo in the presence of the sialic acid-metabolizing enzyme sialidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Ken; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Hirata, Michinori; Endo, Koichi; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2016-08-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used for treating chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated anemia. The biological activity of ESAs is mainly regulated by the number of sialic acid-containing carbohydrates on the erythropoietin (EPO) peptide. Sialidase, a sialic acid-metabolizing enzyme that accumulates in CKD patients, is suspected of contributing to shortening the circulation half-life of ESAs. Epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator; C.E.R.A.), is an EPO integrated with methoxypolyethylene glycol (PEG). It has been suggested that C.E.R.A. may exert a favorable therapeutic effect, even under conditions of elevated sialidase; however, no detailed investigation of the pharmacological profile of C.E.R.A. in the presence of sialidase has been reported. In the present study, we injected C.E.R.A. or EPO pre-incubated with sialidase into rats, and assessed the hematopoietic effect by reticulocyte count. The hematopoietic effect of C.E.R.A., but not EPO, was preserved after sialidase treatment, despite the removal of sialic acid. Proliferation of EPO-dependent leukemia cells (AS-E2) was significantly increased by desialylated C.E.R.A. and EPO compared to non-treated C.E.R.A. or EPO. In conclusion, we show that C.E.R.A. exerts a favorable hematopoietic effect even under conditions of elevated sialidase. Our findings may contribute to a better understanding of CKD and more effective therapeutic approaches based on a patient's profile of anemia.

  6. Current concepts on complications associated with sinus augmentation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffano, P.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The sinus augmentation, or sinus lift procedure, is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus, which is intended to increase the vertical bony dimension in the lateral maxilla to make the placement of dental implants possible. Complication rate associated with maxillary sinus augmentation proc

  7. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  8. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  9. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wojciechowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  10. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  11. Index matrices towards an augmented matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, Krassimir T

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the very concept of an index matrix and its related augmented matrix calculus in a comprehensive form. It mostly illustrates the exposition with examples related to the generalized nets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets which are examples of an extremely wide array of possible application areas. The present book contains the basic results of the author over index matrices and some of its open problems with the aim to stimulating more researchers to start working in this area.

  12. Designing Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Cuendet, Sébastien; Bonnard, Quentin; Do-Lenh, Son; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has recently received a lot of attention in education. Multiple AR systems for learning have been developed and tested through empirical studies often conducted in lab settings. While lab studies can be insightful, they leave out the complexity of a classroom environment. We developed three AR learning environments that have been used in genuine classroom contexts, some of them being now part of classroom regular practices. These systems and the learning activities they...

  13. Soft tissue augmentation in dermatology - 2009 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Gold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of products available to dermatologists for soft tissue augmentation has grown significantly over the past several years in the US. This manuscript will review the various hyaluronic acid fillers and other Food and Drug Administration -approved products we are utilizing for our patients in the rejuvenation process. It is hoped that through this article clinicians will feel more comfortable using these products in their everyday practice of dermatology.

  14. Augmented REality Sandtables (ARESs) Impact on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ARL-CR-0803 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Augmented REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N...REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N Schmidt-Daly, Jennifer M Riley, Kelly S Hale, David Yacht, and Jack Hart Design...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  15. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts.

  16. Emergent Gravity from an Augmented Variational Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Tuveri, Matteo; Ferraris, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A direct and non-trivial link between Padmanabhan's entropy used in emergent gravity and standard GR action is established. To do that, Augmented Variational Principles (AVP) will be used. We shall discuss how this link accounts for the details of the variation of Padmanabhan's action based on gravitational entropy. It will also clarify the role of the background metric and its non-dynamical role.

  17. Learning by Augmenting Rules and Accumulating Censors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    ideas about learning from precedents and exercises, ideas about learning using near misses , ideas about generalizing if-then rules and ideas about...precedent and exercise and by near miss . Finally, I describe precedents for this work itself, including ideas that stimulated what I have done, such as...may be by direct telling, or it may be by precedent and exercise, or it may be by near - miss . Augmented Rules can be Learned by Precedent and Exerise

  18. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  19. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  20. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  2. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  3. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  4. Approximate Augmented Lagrangian Functions and Nonlinear Semidefinite Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. X. HUANG; K. L. TEO; X. Q. YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an approximate augmented Lagrangian function for nonlinear semidefinite programs is introduced. Some basic properties of the approximate augmented Lagrange function such as monotonicity and convexity are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for approximate strong duality results are derived. Conditions for an approximate exact penalty representation in the framework of augmented Lagrangian are given. Under certain conditions, it is shown that any limit point of a sequence of stationary points of approximate augmented Lagrangian problems is a KKT point of the original semidefinite program and that a sequence of optimal solutions to augmented Lagrangian problems converges to a solution of the original semidefinite program.

  5. Anti-bacterial effects of enzymatically-isolated sialic acid from glycomacropeptide in a Helicobacter pylori-infected murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Koh, Hong Bum; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Cho, Hyang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization of the stomach mucosa and duodenum is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathology in humans. Efforts to find effective anti-bacterial strategies against H. pylori for the non-antibiotic control of H. pylori infection are urgently required. In this study, we used whey to prepare glycomacropeptide (GMP), from which sialic acid (G-SA) was enzymatically isolated. We investigated the anti-bacterial effects of G-SA against H. pylori in vitro and in an H. pylori-infected murine model. MATERIALS/METHODS The anti-bacterial activity of G-SA was measured in vitro using the macrodilution method, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was measured in H. pylori and AGS cell co-cultures by ELISA. For in vivo study, G-SA 5 g/kg body weight (bw)/day and H. pylori were administered to mice three times over one week. After one week, G-SA 5 g/kg bw/day alone was administered every day for one week. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of G-SA. In addition, real-time PCR was performed to measure the genetic expression of cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). RESULTS G-SA inhibited the growth of H. pylori and suppressed IL-8 production in H. pylori and in AGS cell co-cultures in vitro. In the in vivo assay, administration of G-SA reduced levels of IL-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines whereas IL-10 level increased. Also, G-SA suppressed the expression of cagA in the stomach of H. pylori-infected mice. CONCLUSION G-SA possesses anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect in an experimental H. pylori-infected murine model. G-SA has potential as an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of H. pylori infection and H. pylori-induced gastric disease prevention. PMID:28194260

  6. Lysosomal pH Decrease in Inflammatory Cells Used To Enable Activatable Imaging of Inflammation with a Sialic Acid Conjugated Profluorophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhu; Wu, Xuanjun; Lin, Bijuan; Han, Jiahuai; Yang, Liu; Han, Shoufa

    2015-07-07

    Inflammation causes significant morbidity and mortality, necessitating effective in vivo imaging of inflammation. Prior approaches often rely on combination of optical agents with entities specific for proteinaceous biomarkers overexpressed in inflammatory tissues. We herein report a fundamentally new approach to image inflammation by targeting lysosomes undergoing acidification in inflammatory cells with a sialic acid (Sia) conjugated near-infrared profluorophore (pNIR). Sia-pNIR contains a sialic acid domain for in vivo targeting of inflamed tissues and a pNIR domain which isomerizes into fluorescent and optoacoustic species in acidic lysosomes. Sia-pNIR displays high inflammation-to-healthy tissue signal contrasts in mice treated with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or lipopolysaccharide. In addition, inflammation-associated fluorescence is switched off upon antibiotics treatment in mice. This report shows the potentials of Sia-pNIR for activatable dual-modality inflammation imaging, and particularly the use of lysosomes of inflamed cells as a previously unappreciated biomarker for inflammation imaging.

  7. Comparison of the nature of interactions of two sialic acid specific lectins Saraca indica and Sambucus nigra with N-acetylneuraminic acid by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Shuvendu [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bose, Partha P. [Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur 844101 (India); Ganguly, Tapan [School of Laser Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Campana, Patricia T. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ghosh, Rina [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Bishnu P., E-mail: cbishnup@gmail.com [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The present paper deals with the isolation and purification of a new sialic acid binding lectin from the seed integument of Saraca indica (Ashok) and the purified lectin was designated Saracin II. Comparative studies on the interactions of saracin II and another sialic acid specific lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were made using UV–vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to reveal the nature and mechanisms of binding of these two lectins with NANA. The experimental observations obtained from UV–vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated that SNA–NANA system formed relatively stronger ground state complex than saracin II–NANA pair. CD measurements further substantiated the propositions made from steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations. It was inferred that during interaction of SNA with NANA, the lectin adopted a relatively looser conformation with the extended polypeptide structures leading to the exposure of the hydrophobic cavities which favoured stronger binding with NANA. - Highlights: • Of the two lectins, stronger binding of SNA with NANA is observed. • Full exposure of the hydrophobic cavities of SNA favors the stronger interactions. • Saracin II can be used for the new generation of lectin based-therapeutics.

  8. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  9. Freegaming: Mobile, Collaborative, Adaptive and Augmented Exergaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Görgü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the obesity epidemic that plagues many societies remains an outstanding public health issue. One innovative approach to addressing this problem is Exergaming. A combination of Exercise and Gaming, the objective is to motivate people participate in exercise regimes, usually in their home environment. In this article a more holistic interpretation of this exercise paradigm is proposed. Freegaming augments Exergaming in a number of key dimensions but especially through the promotion of games in outdoor mobile contexts and within a social environment. The design and implementation of a platform for Freegaming is described and illustrated through the description of a sample game.

  10. Terrain Simplification Research in Augmented Scene Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    environment. As one of the most important tasks in augmented scene modeling, terrain simplification research has gained more and more attention. In this paper, we mainly focus on point selection problem in terrain simplification using triangulated irregular network. Based on the analysis and comparison of traditional importance measures for each input point, we put forward a new importance measure based on local entropy. The results demonstrate that the local entropy criterion has a better performance than any traditional methods. In addition, it can effectively conquer the "short-sight" problem associated with the traditional methods.

  11. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadasz Peter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891, there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism.

  12. Heat transfer augmentation in nanofluids via nanofins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasz, Peter

    2011-02-18

    Theoretical results derived in this article are combined with experimental data to conclude that, while there is no improvement in the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids beyond the Maxwell's effective medium theory (J.C. Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 1891), there is substantial heat transfer augmentation via nanofins. The latter are formed as attachments on the hot wire surface by yet an unknown mechanism, which could be related to electrophoresis, but there is no conclusive evidence yet to prove this proposed mechanism.

  13. Bridge feedback for active damping augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.-S.; Lurie, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for broadband damping augmentation of a structural system in which the active members (with feedback control) were developed such that their mechanical input impedance can be electrically adjusted to maximize the energy dissipation rate in the structural system. The active member consists of sensors, an actuator, and a control scheme. A mechanical/electrical analogy is described to model the passive structures and the active members in terms of their impedance representation. As a result, the problem of maximizing dissipative power is analogous to the problem of impedance matching in the electrical network. Closed-loop performance was demonstrated for single- and multiple-active-member controlled truss structure.

  14. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sudarmilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  15. Augmented reality for breast tumors visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Ali; Heydarzadeh, Mehrdad; Nourani, Mehrdad; Gupta, Gopal; Tamil, Lakshman

    2016-08-01

    3D visualization of breast tumors are shown to be effective by previous studies. In this paper, we introduce a new augmented reality application that can help doctors and surgeons to have a more accurate visualization of breast tumors; this system uses a marker-based image-processing technique to render a 3D model of the tumors on the body. The model can be created using a combination of breast 3D mammography by experts. We have tested the system using an Android smartphone and a head-mounted device. This proof of concept can be useful for oncologists to have a more effective screening, and surgeons to plan the surgery.

  16. Towards Wearable Gaze Supported Augmented Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toshiaki Kurauchi, Andrew; Hitoshi Morimoto, Carlos; Mardanbeigi, Diako;

    to reduce the amount of information and provide an appropriate mechanism for low and divided attention interaction. We claim that most current gaze interaction paradigms are not appropriate for wearable computing because they are not designed for divided attention. We have used principles suggested...... by the wearable computing community to develop a gaze supported augmented cognition application with three interaction modes. The application provides information of the person being looked at. The continuous mode updates information every time the user looks at a different face. The key activated discrete mode...

  17. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K. (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm {times} 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described.

  18. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  19. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  20. Prospects for optogenetic augmentation of brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eJarvis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically ``implanted'' novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function.

  1. Moderate excess of pyruvate augments osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna E. Fong

    2013-03-01

    Cell differentiation leads to adaptive changes in energy metabolism. Conversely, hyperglycemia induces malfunction of many body systems, including bone, suggesting that energy metabolism reciprocally affects cell differentiation. We investigated how the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, large polykaryons formed through fusion and growth of cells of monocytic origin, is affected by excess of energy substrate pyruvate and how energy metabolism changes during osteoclast differentiation. Surprisingly, small increases in pyruvate (1–2 mM above basal levels augmented osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo, while larger increases were not effective in vitro. Osteoclast differentiation increased cell mitochondrial activity and ATP levels, which were further augmented in energy-rich conditions. Conversely, the inhibition of respiration significantly reduced osteoclast number and size. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK acts as a metabolic sensor, which is inhibited in energy-rich conditions. We found that osteoclast differentiation was associated with an increase in AMPK levels and a change in AMPK isoform composition. Increased osteoclast size induced by pyruvate (1 mM above basal levels was prevented in the presence of AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR. In keeping, inhibition of AMPK using dorsomorphin or siRNA to AMPKγ increased osteoclast size in control cultures to the level observed in the presence of pyruvate. Thus, we have found that a moderate excess of pyruvate enhances osteoclastogenesis, and that AMPK acts to tailor osteoclastogenesis to a cell's bioenergetics capacity.

  2. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy enhances duodenogastric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Wei-Jen; Magoun, S.; Wierzbinski, B.; Ryo, U-Yun [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Medical Center; Lee, Jong-Kang

    1995-11-01

    Morphine intervention in cholescintigraphy decreases imaging time to diagnose acute cholecystitis. Not infrequently we observe duodenogastric reflux during scintigraphy with and without morphine intervention. To evaluate occurrence of duodenogastric reflux related to morphine, we reviewed 55 patients who underwent cholescintigraphy with (32) and without (23) morphine intervention. Morphine was injected when there was bowel activity with non-visualization of the gallbladder at 60 min. Duodenogastric reflux was identified by the appearance of activity in the area just below or immediately adjacent to the tip of the left hepatic lobe laterally. Among 32 patients with morphine intervention, 19 had acute cholecystitis and 13 chronic cholecystitis. Eleven of 19 (58%) with acute cholecystitis had duodenogastric reflux and 6 of 13 (46%) had duodenogastric reflux in chronic cholecystitis. The total of duodenogastric reflux in the group with morphine injection was 53%. Two patients` duodenogastric reflux occurred before morphine injection and was more apparent after morphine was given. In the without morphine group, 3 had acute cholecystitis and 20 had chronic cholecystitis; 2 (one acute and one chronic cholecystitis) of these 23 (9%) had duodenogastric reflux. Our results indicate: occurrence of duodenogastric reflux in morphine augmented cholescintigraphy is not significantly different in cholecystitis from that in chronic cholecystitis; duodenogastric reflux in morphine augmentation occurs significantly more often than without morphine intervention (p<0.001). We conclude that cholescintigraphy with morphine enhances duodenogastric reflux. The degree of duodenogastric reflux in the acute cholecystitis patients has been more severe than in the chronic cholecystitis patients. (author).

  3. Treating cockroach phobia with augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juani; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa; García-Palacios, Azucena

    2010-09-01

    In vivo exposure is the recommended treatment of choice for specific phobias; however, it demonstrates a high attrition rate and is not effective in all instances. The use of virtual reality (VR) has improved the acceptance of exposure treatments to some individuals. Augmented reality (AR) is a variation of VR wherein the user sees the real world augmented by virtual elements. The present study tests an AR system in the short (posttreatment) and long term (3, 6, and 12 months) for the treatment of cockroach phobia using a multiple baseline design across individuals (with 6 participants). The AR exposure therapy was applied using the "one-session treatment" guidelines developed by Ost, Salkovskis, and Hellström (1991). Results showed that AR was effective at treating cockroach phobia. All participants improved significantly in all outcome measures after treatment; furthermore, the treatment gains were maintained at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up periods. This study discusses the advantages of AR as well as its potential applications.

  4. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  5. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    CERN Document Server

    Stastny, Jiri; Koubek, Tomas; Landa, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the tr...

  6. The educational possibilities of Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cabero Almenara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of emergent technologies have been acquiring a strong impulse in recent years. One of these emergent technologies is Augmented Reality (RA, which will surely have a high level of penetration into all our educational centers, including universities, in the next 3 to 5 years, as a number of different reports have already highlighted. The present paper shows various elements which, in our opinion, play an essential role when it comes to the incorporation of Augmented Reality into teaching, stressing the fact that this incorporation should not entail a technological problem but an educational and didactic issue. A mention is additionally made of several studies which have been performed with regard to the didactic exploitation of this emergent technology, as well as to the potential that it offers us. Our study forms part of an R&D&I initiative undertaken within the framework of the Plan Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia 2013-2016 [2013-16 State (National Plan for the Promotion of Excellence Scientific and Technical Research], with reference EDU2014-57446-P.

  7. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinsin, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance results from a test house equipped with a parallel solar augmented heat pump system with off-peak storage and a utility interconnection back-up, are presented. The collector array consisted of 12 air heating flat plates with a 9 l/sec flow. Thermal storage was consigned to a 260 cu ft crushed limestone pebble bed, with an 8.8 kW heat pump used to draw heat from storage during off-peak hours and a 15 kW electrical resistance heater used to charge the pebble bed. Monitoring and data recording were carried out on all energy inputs and outputs of the systems, and a modified TRNSYS program was employed to model the system performance. The data indicate that although the system offered the possibility of reducing the utility capacity, the addition of the solar system did not significantly augment the performance of the heat-pump system, at least in terms of the cost of supplementary electricity.

  8. Lift augmentation for highly swept wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhanvada M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pair of spaced slots, disposed on each side of an aircraft centerline and spaced well inboard of the wing leading edges, are provided in the wing upper surfaces and directed tangentially spanwise toward thin sharp leading wing edges of a highly swept, delta wing aircraft. The slots are individually connected through separate plenum chambers to separate compressed air tanks and serve, collectively, as a system for providing aircraft lift augmentation. A compressed air supply is tapped from the aircraft turbojet power plant. Suitable valves, under the control of the aircraft pilot, serve to selective provide jet blowing from the individual slots to provide spanwise sheets of jet air closely adjacent to the upper surfaces and across the aircraft wing span to thereby create artificial vortices whose suction generate additional lift on the aircraft. When desired, or found necessary, unequal or one-side wing blowing is employed to generate rolling moments for augmented lateral control. Trailing flaps are provided that may be deflected differentially, individually, or in unison, as needed for assistance in take-off or landing of the aircraft.

  9. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  10. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  11. HDF Augmentation: Interoperability in the Last Mile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutchak, J.; Folk, M. J.; Habermann, T.; Knox, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science data files are generally written to serve well-defined purposes for a small science teams. In many cases, the organization of the data and the metadata are designed for custom tools developed and maintained by and for the team. Using these data outside of this context many times involves restructuring, re-documenting, or reformatting the data. This expensive and time-consuming process usually prevents data reuse and thus decreases the total life-cycle value of the data considerably. If the data are unique or critically important to solving a particular problem, they can be modified into a more generally usable form or metadata can be added in order to enable reuse. This augmentation process can be done to enhance data for the intended purpose or for a new purpose, to make the data available to new tools and applications, to make the data more conventional or standard, or to simplify preservation of the data. The HDF Group has addressed augmentation needs in many ways: by adding extra information, by renaming objects or moving them around in the file, by reducing complexity of the organization, and sometimes by hiding data objects that are not understood by specific applications. In some cases these approaches require re-writing the data into new files and in some cases it can be done externally, without affecting the original file. We will describe and compare several examples of each approach.

  12. Augmentation of Pedicle Screw Fixation with Calcium Phosphate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shu-hua; FU De-hao; LI Jin; XU Wei-hua; YANG Cao; YE Zhe-wei; ZUO Xiao-yan

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether a biodegradable calcium phosphate cement(CPC) provides significant augmentation of pedicle screw fixation or not,an in vitro biomechanical study was carried out to evaluate the biomechanical effect of CPC in the restoration and augmentation of pedicle screw fixation.Axial pullout test and cyclic bending resistance test were employed in the experiment,and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was chosen as control.The results demonstrate that the pullout strengths following CPC restoration and augmentation are 74% greater on an average than those of the control group,but less than those of PMMA restoration group and augmentation group respectively (increased by 126% versus control).In cyclic bending resistance test,the CPC augmented screws are found to withstand a greater number of cycles or greater loading with less displacement before loosening,but the augmentation effect of PMMA is greater than that of CPC.

  13. Towards an interactive medical system by augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Khawla Ben Abderrahim; Mohamed Kallel; M.S. Bouhlel

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is a computer field that progresses rapidly. Its principle is to mix the real world and the virtual world. Many applications already use augmented reality, particularly the medical field. Medical image allows doctors to make diagnosis of the patient. This diagnosis allows him to make the best decision without committing professional mistakes that can cause problems. Hence the idea of integrating augmented reality with medical image analysis to help the doctor to make the bes...

  14. Integrative Augmentation with the New ISO 10000 Standards1

    OpenAIRE

    Karapetrovic Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Application and integration of the systems based on ISO 10001: 2007 and other new augmentative standards are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the quality management standards forming the front end of the ISO 10000 series, namely ISO 10001, ISO 10002 and ISO 10003, as well as ISO 19011, the standard which stems from the original augmentative ISO 10000 guideline, specifically ISO 10011 on quality auditing. The ability of these and other similar standards to augment the performance of ...

  15. Composite augmentation phalloplasty: personal experience after 275 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Monreal

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to co...

  16. N-Acetylneuraminyllactosylceramide, GM3-NeuAc, a new influenza A virus receptor which mediates the adsorption-fusion process of viral infection. Binding specificity of influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) to membrane-associated GM3 with different molecular species of sialic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Matsunaga, M; Matsumoto, M

    1985-02-10

    Agglutinates of native chicken erythrocytes caused by influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) at 4 degrees C were potently fused and lysed at low pH (optimum pH 5.3) at 37 degrees C. Exogenous gangliosides GM3 (Sia alpha 2-3Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-ceramide) and GM2 (GalNAc beta 1-4(Sia alpha 2-3)-Gal beta 1-4Glc beta 1-ceramide) were integrated into the membranes of chicken asialoerythrocytes within 5-min incubation at 37 degrees C. We found that the incorporation of ganglioside GM3 containing N-acetylneuraminic acid into asialoerythrocytes restored the biological responsiveness to the virus as established by agglutination at 4 degrees C and fusion and hemolysis at 37 degrees C at pH 5.3. Biological responsiveness of GM3-NeuAc-erythrocytes to the virus was considerably higher than that of GM3-NeuGc-erythrocytes under the same experimental conditions. Treatment of the GM3-NeuAc-erythrocytes with neuraminidase again resulted in the complete abolishment of the response to the virus. Erythrocytes containing GM2-NeuAc showed no detectable biological responses toward the virus. The above results indicate that the hemagglutinin of influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) recognizes the sialyloligosaccharide chain of ganglioside GM3 as its receptor which mediates the adsorption and fusion process on the virus entry into the host cells and has more preferential specificity for binding to N-acetylneuraminic acid-containing GM3 than that to N-glycolyl type in the target cell membranes.

  17. Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Riquarts, Christian; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) system that extends a regular mobile C-arm by a video camera provides an X-ray and video image overlay. Thanks to the mirror construction and one time calibration of the device, the acquired X-ray images are co-registered with the video images without any calibration or registration during the intervention. It is very important to quantify and qualify the system before its introduction into the OR. In this communication, we extended the previously performed overlay accuracy analysis of the CamC system by another clinically important parameter, the applied radiation dose for the patient. Since the mirror of the CamC system will absorb and scatter radiation, we introduce a method for estimating the correct applied dose by using an independent dose measurement device. The results show that the mirror absorbs and scatters 39% of X-ray radiation.

  18. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  19. Dermal fillers for tissue augmentation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeplin, Philip H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available [english] Treatments with dermal fillers for tissue augmentation constitute the majority of all non-surgical procedures in plastic surgery. Newly developed products get launched and the market grows continuously, but the “ideal” substance has yet not been found. The substances used these days are high molecular compounds. They have substantial differences in their physicochemical properties and are suspended in complex matrices. This overview describes the latest history of dermal fillers and the commonly used substances of different origin and formalizes the need for the development of systematic procedures of standardized pre-clinical tests with subsequent certification as well as the establishment of interdisciplinary clinical guidelines to ensure custumer’s safety.

  20. Development of the augmented musculature device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Pankretz, Ty

    2004-12-01

    We developed an Augmented Musculature Device (AMD) that assists the movements of its wearer. It has direct application to aiding military and law enforcement personnel, the neurologically impaired, or those requiring any type of cybernetic assistance. The AMD consists of a collection of artificial muscles, each individually actuated, strategically placed along the surface of the human body. The actuators employed by the AMD are known as 'air muscles' and operate pneumatically. They are commercially available from several vendors and are relatively inexpensive. They have a remarkably high force-to-weight ratio--as high as 400:1 (as compared with 16:1 typical of DC motors). They are flexible and elastic, even when powered, making them ideal for interaction with humans.

  1. Transaxillary endoscopic silicone gel breast augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Louis L

    2010-09-01

    Following the return of silicone gel breast implants to the US market in 2006, augmentation with these implants has become increasingly popular. Surgeons have an array of refined techniques from which to choose when performing these procedures, many of which offer the advantage of reduced or less-obvious postoperative scarring. For obvious reasons, many patients are requesting placement of the implants through incisions that are removed from the breast area (and thereby hidden). The challenge of these approaches is to provide a level of technical control that matches what is afforded with the traditional inframammary approach. The addition of endoscopic assistance has provided a level of tissue visualization and technical control not previously possible with the transaxillary approach, with results that rival those of an inframammary procedure. In this article, the author presents his current operative technique, which has allowed for the routine placement of silicone gel breast implants through a transaxillary incision using endoscopic assistance.

  2. Digital Facial Augmentation for Interactive Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Hieda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital projection technology allows for effective and entertaining spatial augmented reality applications. Leveraging the capabilities of reasonably accurate object tracking using commodity cameras and/or depth sensors to determine the 3D position and pose of objects in real time, it is possible to project dynamic graphical content on arbitrary surfaces, such as a person’s face. Coupling these capabilities with a simple drawing application, participants can have the experience of "painting" on someone’s face, or even on their own, by observing the projection in a mirror. Similarly, integrating 2D rigid-body, fluid and gravity simulation, one may interact with virtual objects projected on their own face or body.

  3. Out of the Cube: Augmented Rubik's Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Bergig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming habits have a tendency to evolve with technology, the best being ones that immerse both our imagination and intellect. Here, we describe a new game platform, an Augmented Reality Rubik's cube. The cube acts simultaneously as both the controller and the game board. Gameplay is controlled by the cube, and game assets are rendered on top of it. Shuffling and tilting operations on the cube are mapped to game interaction. We discuss the game design decisions involved in developing a game for this platform, as well as the technological challenges in implementing it. Ultimately, we describe two games and discuss the conclusions of an informal user study based on those games.

  4. Anti-HIV Ⅰ/Ⅱ Activity and Molecular Cloning of a Novel Mannose/Sialic Acid-binding Lectin from Rhizome of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie AN; Jin-Ku BAO; Jin-Zhi LIU; Chuan-Fang WU; Jian LI; Lei DAI; Els Van DAMME; Jan BALZARINI; Erik De CLERCQ; Fang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ⅰ/Ⅱ activity of a mannose and sialic acid binding lectin isolated from rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua was elucidated by comparing its HIV infection inhibitory activity in MT-4 and CEM cells with that of other mannose-binding lectins (MBLs). The anti-HIV activity of Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua lectin (PCL) was 10- to 100-fold more potent than other tested MBLs, but without significant cytotoxicity towards MT-4 or CEM cells. To amplify cDNA of PCL by 3'/5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the 30 amino acids of N-terminal were determined by sequencing and the degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed. The full-length cDNA of PCL contained 693 bp with an open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 160 amino acid residues, consisting of a 28-residue signal peptide, a 22-residue C-terminal cleavage peptide and a 110-residue mature polypeptide which contained three tandemly arranged subdomains with an obvious sequence homology to the monocot MBL. However, only one active mannose-binding site (QDNVY) was found in subdomain Ⅰ of PCL, that of subdomain Ⅱ and Ⅲ changed to HNNVY and PDNVY, respectively. There was no intron in PCL, which was in good agreement with other monocot MBLs. Molecular modeling of PCL indicated that its three-dimen-sional structure resembles that of the snowdrop agglutinin. By docking, an active sialic acid-binding site was found in PCL. The instabilization of translation initiation region (TIR) in mRNA of PCL benefits its high expression in rhizomes.

  5. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  6. Augmented reality in neurosurgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, Antonio; Cutolo, Fabrizio; Carbone, Marina; Cagnazzo, Federico; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2016-05-07

    Neuronavigation has become an essential neurosurgical tool in pursuing minimal invasiveness and maximal safety, even though it has several technical limitations. Augmented reality (AR) neuronavigation is a significant advance, providing a real-time updated 3D virtual model of anatomical details, overlaid on the real surgical field. Currently, only a few AR systems have been tested in a clinical setting. The aim is to review such devices. We performed a PubMed search of reports restricted to human studies of in vivo applications of AR in any neurosurgical procedure using the search terms "Augmented reality" and "Neurosurgery." Eligibility assessment was performed independently by two reviewers in an unblinded standardized manner. The systems were qualitatively evaluated on the basis of the following: neurosurgical subspecialty of application, pathology of treated lesions and lesion locations, real data source, virtual data source, tracking modality, registration technique, visualization processing, display type, and perception location. Eighteen studies were included during the period 1996 to September 30, 2015. The AR systems were grouped by the real data source: microscope (8), hand- or head-held cameras (4), direct patient view (2), endoscope (1), and X-ray fluoroscopy (1) head-mounted display (1). A total of 195 lesions were treated: 75 (38.46 %) were neoplastic, 77 (39.48 %) neurovascular, and 1 (0.51 %) hydrocephalus, and 42 (21.53 %) were undetermined. Current literature confirms that AR is a reliable and versatile tool when performing minimally invasive approaches in a wide range of neurosurgical diseases, although prospective randomized studies are not yet available and technical improvements are needed.

  7. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  8. [Vestibularly displaced flap with bone augmentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalian, V L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to achieve esthetic gingival contours with the help of less traumatic mucogingival surgeries. 9 Patients were operated with horizontal deficiencies in 9 edentulous sites, planned to be restored with fixed partial dentures. In all cases there was lack of keratinized tissues. Temporary bridges were fabricated to all patients. Before surgery the bridges were removed and the abutment teeth were additionally cleaned with ultrasonic device. A horizontal incision was made from lingual (palatal) side between the abutment teeth, which was connected with two vertical releasing incisions to the mucogingival junction from the vestibular side. The horizontal incision was made on a distance 6-10 mm from the crest of the alveolar ridge. A partial thickness flap in the beginning 3-5 mm, then a full thickness flap up to the mucogingival junction, then a partial thickness flap was made. The flap was mobilized and displaced vestibularly. In the apical part the cortical bone was perforated, graft material was put and the flap was sutured. In all 9 cases the horizontal defect was partially or fully eliminated. The width of the keratinized tissues was also augmented in all cases. The postoperative healing was without complications, discomfort and painless. The donor sites also healed without complications. The application of Solcoseryl Dental Adhesive Paste 3 times a day for 7-10 days helped for painless healing of the donor site. The offered method of soft tissue and bone augmentation is effective in the treatment of horizontal defects of edentulous alveolar ridges of not big sizes. It makes possible to achieve esthetic results without traumatizing an additional donor-site.

  9. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  10. Pose estimation for mobile devices and augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce the reader to the field of Augmented Reality (AR) and describe aspects of an AR system. We show the current uses in treatment of phobias, games, sports and industry. We present the challenges for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality in which the real world is perceived n

  11. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  12. ARLearn: Learning activities and interaction in augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Ternier, S., Tabuenca, B., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: Learning activities and interaction in augmented reality. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the Mobile Augmented Reality for Education Workshop (pp. 10-13). October, 16-17, 2012, Helsinki, Finland.

  13. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  14. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  15. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  16. TOLLAN-XICOCOTITLAN: A RECONSTRUCTED CITY BY AUGMENTED REALITY (EXTENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. en C. Martha Rosa Cordero López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Work In Terminal presents the analysis, design, implementation and results of Reconstruction Xicocotitlan Tollan-through augmented reality (Extended, which will release information about the Toltec capital supplemented by presenting an overview of the main premises of the Xicocotitlan Tollan city supported dimensional models based on the augmented reality technique showing the user a virtual representation of buildings in Tollan phase.

  17. RECONSTRUCTION OF TOLLANXICOCOTITLAN CITY BY AUGMENTED REALITY (EXTENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. en C. Martha Rosa Cordero Lopez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Work In Terminal presents the analysis, design, implementation and results of Reconstruction Xicocotitlan Tollan-through augmented reality (Extended, which will release information about the Toltec capital supplemented by presenting an overview of the main premises of the Xicocotitlan Tollan city supported dimensional models based on the augmented reality technique showing the user a virtual representation of buildings in Tollan phase.

  18. Hoe maak je gebruik van augmented reality in het onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Kester, Liesbeth; Schmitz, Birgit; Kluijfhout, Eric; Wolff, Charlotte; Maassen, Marcel; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Berkhout, Jeroen; Storm, Jeroen; Roks, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Ternier, S., Kester, L., Wolff, C., Maasen, M., Gijselaers, J., Berkhout, J., & Storm, J. (2012, 16 November). Hoe maak je gebruik van augmented reality in het onderwijs. Masterclass in de OpenU community Open Universiteit, Heerlen, Nederland. Beschikbaar op http://portal.ou.nl/web/augmented-realit

  19. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  20. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  1. Routine sensor-augmented pump therapy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kirsten; Scaramuzza, Andrea; Bratina, Natasa

    2013-01-01

    Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia.......Sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy can improve glycemic control, compared with multiple daily insulin injections or with insulin pump therapy alone, without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia....

  2. Sensor-augmented pump therapy at 36 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start.......This follow-up study investigates the metabolic and psychosocial effects of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes 36 months after therapy start....

  3. Maxillary sinus augmentation with microstructured tricalcium phosphate ceramic in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, R.J.; Hoekstra, J.W.M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Meijer, G.J.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological performance of osteoinductive microstructured tricalcium phosphate (MSTCP) particles in maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery in sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sinus floor augmentation was performed in eight Swifter sheep. In e

  4. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  5. PARAMETERS OF AUGMENTED REALITY AND ITS USE IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEŘÁBEK, Tomáš

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the issue of augmented reality and possibilities of its application in education. It briefly reports on selected results of a broader survey focused on technological, psychological, physiological and didactical aspects of the issue. It presumes that augmented reality has its unique place in technical teaching tools since it is a technological-perception concept, which in certain didactical situations creates more suitable perceptual environment than real environment itself on one hand, or virtual environment on the other. It focuses on identification of the technological-functional properties and specifics of augmented reality systems and on verification of model examples of augmented reality applications in school practice. It characterizes the course and results of empirical research project based on a descriptive case study exploring the cases of implementing selected application solutions of augmented reality into learning experience in accordance with the model of pro-active action research.

  6. Buku Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan Teknologi Augmented Reality Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quraish Quraish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Buku adalah media yang paling sederhana untuk memperoleh dan memberikan informasi, Augmented Reality dapat digunakan untuk menampilkan multimedia dengan cara menambahkannya pada dunia nyata, dengan penggabungan buku dalam hal ini bahasa inggris dan augmented reality maka multimedia dapat ditampilkan dan dapat digunakan sebagai media pembelajaran yang interaktif. Untuk membangun aplikasi dalam hal ini augmented reality dibutuhkan suatu metode, metode yang digunakan untuk membangun aplikasi augmented reality ini adalah SDLC (Software Defelopment Life Cycle yang menggunakan teknik waterfall, hal ini dipilih karena waterfall lebih terurut dalam membangun aplikasi. Augmented Reality yang dibangun memiliki keberhasilan deteksi yang berbeda-beda, jarak yang dapat dipakai dalam mendeteksi penanda adalah mulai dari jarak 15cm sampai 60cm dan semakin besar tingkat kemiringan penanda terhadap kamera maka semakin sulit penanda terdeteksi, semakin besar persentase penanda terhalang maka semakin besar juga kemungkinan penanda sulit terdeteksi.

  7. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  8. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  9. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul

    2016-07-11

    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  10. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  11. Augmented Reality Marker Hiding with Texture Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norihiko; Sato, Tomokazu; Nakashima, Yuta; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2016-10-19

    Augmented reality (AR) marker hiding is a technique to visually remove AR markers in a real-time video stream. A conventional approach transforms a background image with a homography matrix calculated on the basis of a camera pose and overlays the transformed image on an AR marker region in a real-time frame, assuming that the AR marker is on a planar surface. However, this approach may cause discontinuities in textures around the boundary between the marker and its surrounding area when the planar surface assumption is not satisfied. This paper proposes a method for AR marker hiding without discontinuities around texture boundaries even under nonplanar background geometry without measuring it. For doing this, our method estimates the dense motion in the marker's background by analyzing the motion of sparse feature points around it, together with a smooth motion assumption, and deforms the background image according to it. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in various environments with different background geometries and textures.

  12. HUNT: Scavenger Hunt with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This project shows a creative approach to the familiar scavenger hunt game. It involved the implementation of an iPhone application, HUNT, with Augmented Reality (AR capability for the users to play the game as well as an administrative website that game organizers can use to create and make available games for users to play. Using the HUNT mobile app, users will first make a selection from a list of games, and they will then be shown a list of objects that they must seek. Once the user finds a correct object and scans it with the built-in camera on the smartphone, the application will attempt to verify if it is the correct object and then display associated multi-media AR content that may include images and videos overlaid on top of real world views. HUNT not only provides entertaining activities within an environment that players can explore, but the AR contents can serve as an educational tool. The project is designed to increase user involvement by using a familiar and enjoyable game as a basis and adding an educational dimension by incorporating AR technology and engaging and interactive multimedia to provide users with facts about the objects that they have located

  13. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  15. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sdegno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems. The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a more direct way. After the geometrical analysis of the picture, we started the digital restitution of the perspective references and proceed to model the virtual scene using Boolean primitives and applying all the textures to render the scene in a very realistic way. The further step was to convert the model into a dynamic form with AR algorithms and associate it with spatial references to allow users to do a virtual experience of it.

  17. Evaluating User Experience of Augmented Reality Eyeglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Luciano; Orso, Valeria; Beretta, Andrea; Jacucci, Giulio; Spagnolli, Anna; Rimondi, Romina

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality based applications have been experimented with in various contexts. Typically, the interaction is supported by handled devices, which, in specific scenarios, may hinder the interaction and spoil the experience of use, as the user is forced to hold the device and to keep her eyes on it at all times. The recent launch on the market of light-weight, unobtrusive head-mounted displays may change this circumstance. Nevertheless, investigations are needed to understand if such head-worn devices effectively outperform handheld devices in terms of comfort and pleasant experience of use. Here we present two experiments aimed at assessing the comfort of wearing a head-worn, see-through AR viewer in both a controlled and a natural setting. Besides the comfort of wearing the device, aspects related to the user experience were also investigated in the field evaluation. Our findings suggest that the head-mounted display examined is comfortable to wear regardless of the context of use. Interestingly in the field trails, participants did not express concern for the impression they would have made on other people and the experience of use was overall pleasant. Possible issues related to visual fatigue emerged.

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Augmented Fish Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1989-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. This project provides a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its second year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1988. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1988 and will compare sampling results from 1987 and 1988. The analysis will be divided in two sections: adult analysis and juvenile analysis. The adult analysis will include results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on index stocks. Additionally, highlights from monthly monitoring exams will identify any significant and unusual findings from the routine exams completed in 1988. 6 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  1. FEATURES OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Kravchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the concept and technology of augmented reality, the rationale given the relevance and timeliness of its use to support educational processes. Paper is a survey and study of the possibility of using augmented reality technology in education. Architecture is proposed and constructed algorithms of the software system management QR-codes media objects. An overview of the features and uses of augmented reality technology to support educational processes is displayed, as an option of a new form of visual demonstration of complex objects, models and processes. 

  2. Augmented reality as a design tool for mobile interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Nielsen, Christina

    2000-01-01

    This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA...... applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness...... are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design....

  3. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  4. SmartG: Spontaneous Malaysian Augmented Reality Tourist Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Subramaniam, Tanabalan

    2016-11-01

    In effort to attract higher tourist expenditure along with higher tourist arrivals, this paper proposes a travel application called the SmartG, acronym for Spontaneous Malaysian Augmented Reality Tourist Guide, which operates by making recommendations to user based on the travel objective and individual budget constraints. The applications relies on augmented reality technology, whereby a three dimensional model is presented to the user based on input from real world environment. User testing returned a favorable feedback on the concept of using augmented reality in promoting Malaysian tourism.

  5. Introduction to Mobile Augmented Reality Development in Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Greene

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson serves as an introduction to creating mobile augmented reality applications. Augmented reality (AR can be defined as the overlaying of digital content (images, video, text, sound, etc. onto physical objects or locations, and it is typically experienced by looking through the camera lens of an electronic device such as a smartphone, tablet, or optical head-mounted display (e.g. Microsoft Hololens. Although AR is a cutting-edge, complex technology, there are a number of user-friendly platforms that allow people with no previous coding experience to create compelling augmented reality experiences.

  6. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  7. Prototype Application of Portable Augmented Reality Technology for Enhancement of Space and Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this project, several different augmentation techniques for locating ground articles from distance through an augmented live view were investigated....

  8. Dry cooling tower with water augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, R.G.; Tramontini, V.N.

    1981-06-23

    An air cooling tower system is disclosed for condensing exhaust steam in power plants, that has water cooling augmentation to maintain the plant cooling capacity during high atmospheric temperature periods. The cooling tower includes a plurality of banks of brazed aluminum plate and fin type heat exchangers arranged in inverted ''v'' shaped sets. These heat exchangers cool ammonia used as the cooling fluid in the primary condenser for the power plant turbine exhaust steam. Each of these heat exchangers has a core consisting of a plurality of parallel aluminum plates spaced apart by fin assemblies that define a plurality of fluid passes. Approximately every other one of these passes has closed sides that open at the ends of the core to headers and define ammonia passes. The passes adjacent the ammonia passes are open at the sides and define air passes that permit the free flow of air transversely through the heat exchanger cores. An additional pass is provided adjacent every fourth one of the ammonia passes and these have closed sides and ends and define the passes for the cooling water. The water passes communicate at the bottom of the core with a water inlet manifold and at the top of the core with a water outlet manifold. The cooling tower system is designed so that at 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperatures or below, the cooling air alone will provide the necessary cooling for the ammonia to satisfy plant requirements. Above 55 degrees fahrenheit air temperature, cooling water from a separate water tank is pumped through the water passes to provide an additional cooling effect to maintain the design cooling capacity.

  9. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  10. Die Welt als Spielfeld: Mobile Serious Games mit Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Schneider, Jan; Happe, Sven; Bockelmann, Timo; Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations enable us to connect computer games with the environment they are played in: augmented reality games take the world as their playground. In this talk, the use of such technologies for mobile serious games is explored.

  11. Mobile Cloud Computing: A Review on Smartphone Augmentation Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Abolfazli, Saeid; Gani, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones have recently gained significant popularity in heavy mobile processing while users are increasing their expectations toward rich computing experience. However, resource limitations and current mobile computing advancements hinder this vision. Therefore, resource-intensive application execution remains a challenging task in mobile computing that necessitates device augmentation. In this article, smartphone augmentation approaches are reviewed and classified in two main groups, namely hardware and software. Generating high-end hardware is a subset of hardware augmentation approaches, whereas conserving local resource and reducing resource requirements approaches are grouped under software augmentation methods. Our study advocates that consreving smartphones' native resources, which is mainly done via task offloading, is more appropriate for already-developed applications than new ones, due to costly re-development process. Cloud computing has recently obtained momentous ground as one of the major co...

  12. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives.

  13. Virtual, augmented reality and serious games for healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Anderson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    There is a tremendous interest among researchers for the development of virtual, augmented reality and games technologies due to their widespread applications in medicine and healthcare. To date the major applications of these technologies include medical simulation, telemedicine, medical and healthcare training, pain control, visualisation aid for surgery, rehabilitation in cases such as stroke, phobia, and trauma therapies. Many recent studies have identified the benefits of using Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, or serious games in a variety of medical applications.   This research volume on Virtual, Augmented Reality and Serious Games for Healthcare 1 offers an insightful introduction to the theories, development and applications of virtual, augmented reality and digital games technologies in medical and clinical settings and healthcare in general. It is divided into six sections: section one presents a selection of applications in medical education and healthcare management; Section two relates to th...

  14. Exploring Urban Environments Using Virtual and Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Papakonstantinou

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the use of specific system architecture, based on mobile device, for navigation in urban environments. The aim of this work is to assess how virtual and augmented reality interface paradigms can provide enhanced location based services using real-time techniques in the context of these two different technologies. The virtual reality interface is based on faithful graphical representation of the localities of interest, coupled with sensory information on the location and orientation of the user, while the augmented reality interface uses computer vision techniques to capture patterns from the real environment and overlay additional way-finding information, aligned with real imagery, in real-time. The knowledge obtained from the evaluation of the virtual reality navigational experience has been used to inform the design of the augmented reality interface. Initial results of the user testing of the experimental augmented reality system for navigation are presented.

  15. Augmented reality aiding collimator exchange at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Héctor, E-mail: hector.martinez@sensetrix.com [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Fabry, Thomas [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Laukkanen, Seppo [SenseTrix, PL 20 FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Jouni [Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 527, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Tabourot, Laurent [SYMME, Université de Savoie, Polytech Annecy-Chambéry, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74944 Annecy le Vieux (France)

    2014-11-01

    Novel Augmented Reality techniques have the potential to have a large positive impact on the way remote maintenance operations are carried out in hazardous areas, e.g. areas where radiation doses that imply careful planning and optimization of maintenance operations are present. This paper describes an Augmented Reality strategy, system and implementation for aiding the remote collimator exchange in the LHC, currently the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator. The proposed system relies on marker detection and multi-modal augmentation in real-time. A database system has been used to ensure flexibility. The system has been tested in a mock-up facility, showing real time performance and great potential for future use in the LHC. The technical-scientific difficulties identified during the development of the system and the proposed solutions described in this paper may help the development of future Augmented Reality systems for remote handling in scientific facilities.

  16. Integrative Augmentation with the New ISO 10000 Standards1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetrovic Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Application and integration of the systems based on ISO 10001: 2007 and other new augmentative standards are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the quality management standards forming the front end of the ISO 10000 series, namely ISO 10001, ISO 10002 and ISO 10003, as well as ISO 19011, the standard which stems from the original augmentative ISO 10000 guideline, specifically ISO 10011 on quality auditing. The ability of these and other similar standards to augment the performance of quality management systems in organizations and to foster integration of the respective augmentative systems themselves or within the overarching management systems is addressed and further illustrated through an example of their use in engineering education.

  17. Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring...

  18. Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today, as humans reach beyond the earth to near and deep space, there is obvious and urgent need to augment the capabilities of human astronauts and (ground-)...

  19. Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus; Ternier, Stefaan; Greller, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Specht, M., Ternier, S., & Greller, W. (2011). Dimensions of Mobile Augmented Reality for Learning: A First Inventory. Journal of the Research for Educational Technology (RCET), 7(1), 117-127. Spring 2011.

  20. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation in symptomatic multiple osteoporotic compression fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Allen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs have been treated with polymethylmethacrylate augmentation; however, there are cement complications and long-term fracture healing that are unknown. Transpedicle body augmenter (a porous titanium spacer has been reported as an internal support to reconstruct the vertebral body combining short-segment fixation in burst fracture and Kümmell′s disease with cord compression. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation (TpBA also has been reported successfully in treating single painful VCF and vertebral metastasis lesions including pending fractures and pathologic compression fractures. To test the hypothesis that TpBA can effectively and safely treat the symptomatic multiple VCFs, this retrospective study was done by analyzing the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic results of TpBA for symptomatic multiple (more than two levels VCFs in 62 patients with a total of 236 levels, i.e. 3.8 VCFs per patient. Manual reduction and TpBA via paramedian incisions with blunt dissection were done. One incision was made for two continuous levels and alternative side was selected for next incision. Mean age was 74.3 years (range, 62-87 years, and female-male ratio was 5.2:1. Anterior vertebral height and wedge angle by radiographic findings were measured at preoperative, initial follow-up and final follow-up. Clinical results were assessed by questionnaires and clinical observations. By July 2008, 58 patients returned to answer the questionnaire including quantification of pain on the visual analog scale, the response to operations (better, same, or worse after operation, returned to their pre-fracture function (yes/no and satisfaction (a scale of 0 = completely dissatisfied to 10 = completely satisfied. Results: The mean symptom duration was 7 months, and follow-up, 48 months. The average operation time

  1. Implementasi Augmented Reality Pada Pengenalan Kebudayaan Nias Berbasis Android

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is a country that is rich in culture and tribes in it, one of which is Culture. Nias culture is ancestral cultural heritage society. Hombo Rocks Nias culture one that got particular attention because it is endangered, this is due to the lack of Community interest in Nias against culture. one solution to solve this problem is through the technology of Augmented Reality. Application of Augmented Reality is very helpful in Nias culture also actually visualize, so that people who are fa...

  2. Colovesical fistula: unexpected complication 7 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Hafez, Ashraf T

    2013-11-01

    Augmentation enterocystoplasty has been extensively used to attain high-capacity low-pressure urinary reservoirs in patients with neuropathic bladder, exstrophy-epispadias complex, valve bladder syndrome, and contracted bladder. Enterovesical fistula might occur as an early complication after enterocystoplasty. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy, who presented with chronic watery diarrhea 7 years after augmentation ileocystoplasty. A colovesical fistula was diagnosed. We discuss the clinical presentation, management plan, and operative findings.

  3. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. V...

  4. The Visual Web User Interface Design in Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouyin Hsu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Upon the popularity of 3C devices, the visual creatures are all around us, such the online game, touch pad, video and animation. Therefore, the text-based web page will no longer satisfy users. With the popularity of webcam, digital camera, stereoscopic glasses, or head-mounted display, the user interface becomes more visual and multi-dimensional. For the consideration of 3D and visual display in the research of web user interface design, Augmented Reality technology providing the convenient tools and impressive effects becomes the hot topic. Augmented Reality effect enables users to represent parts of the digital objects on top of the physical surroundings. The easy operation with webcam greatly improving the visual representation of web pages becomes the interest of our research. Therefore, we apply Augmented Reality technology for developing a city tour web site to collect the opinions of users. Therefore, the website stickiness is an important measurement. The major tasks of the work include the exploration of Augmented Reality technology and the evaluation of the outputs of Augmented Reality. The feedback opinions of users are valuable references for improving AR application in the work. As a result, the AR increasing the visual and interactive effects of web page encourages users to stay longer and more than 80% of users are willing to return for visiting the website soon. Moreover, several valuable conclusions about Augmented Reality technology in web user interface design are also provided for further practical references.

  5. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  6. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  7. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* sialic acid-binding domain of porcine rotavirus strain OSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang-De, E-mail: zhangyd1960@yahoo.com.cn; Li, Hao [National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Hui; Pan, Yi-Feng [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institution of Biomedical Engineering, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China)

    2007-02-01

    Porcine rotavirus strain OSU VP8* domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from different crystal forms of the VP8* domain have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. The rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 is utilized in the process of rotavirus attachment to and membrane penetration of host cells. VP4 is cleaved by trypsin into two domains: VP8* and VP5*. The VP8* domain is implicated in initial interaction with sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and triggers subsequent virus invasion. The VP8* domain from porcine OSU rotavirus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Different crystal forms (orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2) were harvested from two distinct crystallization conditions. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution and the VP8*{sub 65–224} structure was determined by molecular replacement.

  9. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  10. Association between dental-oral health in young adults and salivary glutathione, lipid peroxidation and sialic acid levels and carbonic anhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Öztürk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between salivary oxidative stress and dental-oral health. Healthy young adults, matched for gender and age, with (N = 21, 10 men, mean age: 20.3 ± 1 years and without (N = 16, 8 men, mean age: 21.2 ± 1.8 years caries were included in this study. The World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria were used for determining the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index. The oral hygiene and gingival status were assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index and gingival index, respectively. Unstimulated salivary total protein, glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation and total sialic acid levels, carbonic anhydrase activity, and salivary buffering capacity were determined by standard methods. Furthermore, salivary pH was measured with pH paper and salivary flow rate was calculated. Simplified oral hygiene index and gingival index were not significantly different between groups but DMFT scores were significant (P < 0.01. Only, GSH values were significantly different (P < 0.05 between groups (2.2 and 1.6 mg/g protein in young adults without caries and with caries, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between DMFT and GSH (r = -0.391; P < 0.05; Pearson's correlation coefficient. Our results suggest that there is an association between caries history and salivary GSH levels.

  11. Sialic Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-like Lectin G Promotes Atherosclerosis and Liver Inflammation by Suppressing the Protective Functions of B-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Gruber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is initiated and sustained by hypercholesterolemia, which results in the generation of oxidized LDL (OxLDL and other metabolic byproducts that trigger inflammation. Specific immune responses have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response during atherogenesis. The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin G (Siglec-G is a negative regulator of the functions of several immune cells, including myeloid cells and B-1 cells. Here, we show that deficiency of Siglec-G in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibits plaque formation and diet-induced hepatic inflammation. We further demonstrate that selective deficiency of Siglec-G in B cells alone is sufficient to mediate these effects. Levels of B-1 cell-derived natural IgM with specificity for OxLDL were significantly increased in the plasma and peritoneal cavity of Siglec-G-deficient mice. Consistent with the neutralizing functions of OxLDL-specific IgM, Siglec-G-deficient mice were protected from OxLDL-induced sterile inflammation. Thus, Siglec-G promotes atherosclerosis and hepatic inflammation by suppressing protective anti-inflammatory effector functions of B cells.

  12. Synthesis of screening substrates for the directed evolution of sialic acid aldolase: towards tailored enzymes for the preparation of influenza A sialidase inhibitor analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, Thomas; Williams, Gavin; Berry, Alan; Nelson, Adam

    2005-05-01

    The stereoselective synthesis of two epimeric screening substrates, (4R, 5R, 6R)- and (4S, 5R, 6R)-6-dipropylcarbamoyl-2-oxo-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoic acid, for the directed evolution of sialic acid aldolase is described. The complementary methods relied on stereoselective indium-mediated additions of ethyl alpha-bromomethyl acrylate to functionalised aldehydes. With an alpha-hydroxy aldehyde, (2R, 3R)-2,3-dihydroxy-4-oxo butanoic acid dipropylamide, the addition was chelation controlled, and the syn product, (6R, 5R, 4S)-6-dipropylcarbamoyl-2-methylidene-4,5,6-trihydroxy-hexanoic acid ethyl ester, was obtained. In contrast, the stereochemical outcome of the addition to (2R, 3R)-N,N-dipropyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-4-oxobutyramide was consistent with Felkin-Anh control, and the anti adduct, (4R, 5R, 6R)-6-dipropylcarbamoyl-2-methylidene-4-hydroxy-5,6-O-isopropylidene-hexanoic acid ethyl ester, was the major product. Ozonolysis and deprotection gave the screening substrates as mixtures of furanose and pyranose forms, in good yields.

  13. M89V Sialic acid Acetyl Esterase (SIAE) and all other non-synonymous common variants of this gene are catalytically normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappa, Vasant; Taylor, Kendra N; Pedrick, Kathryn; Donado, Carlos; Netravali, Ilka Arun; Haider, Khaleda; Cariappa, Annaiah; Dalomba, Natasha F; Pillai, Shiv

    2013-01-01

    Catalytically defective rare variants of Sialic acid Acetyl Esterase (SIAE) have previously been linked to autoimmunity. Studies presented here confirm that the M89V SIAE protein and all other products of common variant alleles of SIAE are catalytically normal. Although overexpressing transfected non-lymphoid cells secrete small amounts of SIAE that can associate with the cell surface, normal human lymphocytes do not exhibit cell surface SIAE, supporting genetic evidence in mice that indicates that this protein functions in a lymphocyte intrinsic manner. Analyses of the plasma proteome also indicate that SIAE is not secreted in vivo. A re-analysis exclusively of catalytically defective rare variant alleles of SIAE in subjects in which this gene was completely sequenced confirmed an association of SIAE with autoimmunity. A subset of catalytically defective rare variant SIAE alleles has previously been typed in a large genotyping study comparing a diverse group of disease subjects and controls; our re-analysis of this data shows that catalytically defective alleles are enriched in disease subjects. These data suggest that SIAE may be associated with autoimmunity and that further study of catalytically defective rare variant SIAE alleles in terms of autoimmune disease susceptibility is strongly warranted.

  14. M89V Sialic acid Acetyl Esterase (SIAE and all other non-synonymous common variants of this gene are catalytically normal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Chellappa

    Full Text Available Catalytically defective rare variants of Sialic acid Acetyl Esterase (SIAE have previously been linked to autoimmunity. Studies presented here confirm that the M89V SIAE protein and all other products of common variant alleles of SIAE are catalytically normal. Although overexpressing transfected non-lymphoid cells secrete small amounts of SIAE that can associate with the cell surface, normal human lymphocytes do not exhibit cell surface SIAE, supporting genetic evidence in mice that indicates that this protein functions in a lymphocyte intrinsic manner. Analyses of the plasma proteome also indicate that SIAE is not secreted in vivo. A re-analysis exclusively of catalytically defective rare variant alleles of SIAE in subjects in which this gene was completely sequenced confirmed an association of SIAE with autoimmunity. A subset of catalytically defective rare variant SIAE alleles has previously been typed in a large genotyping study comparing a diverse group of disease subjects and controls; our re-analysis of this data shows that catalytically defective alleles are enriched in disease subjects. These data suggest that SIAE may be associated with autoimmunity and that further study of catalytically defective rare variant SIAE alleles in terms of autoimmune disease susceptibility is strongly warranted.

  15. Composite augmentation phalloplasty: personal experience after 275 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Monreal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the author's experience in augmentation phalloplasty by studying a retrospective series of patients who underwent fat grafting for girth enhancement or a composite technique based on suspensory ligament release plus fat grafting performed simultaneously. Methods: The author analyzed retrospectively the outcomes of 275 augmentation phalloplasty procedures performed in 259 patients until November 2013. Of these, 127 correspond to girth augmentation with fat grafting and 148 to composite augmentation phalloplasty (girth augmentation with fat grafting and length improvement by suspensory ligament release. In 16 patients girth and length enhancement were performed in two separate procedures. Results: Of this 259 patients, 87 underwent postoperative follow-up for at least 12 months and 160 patients underwent follow-up for at least 6 months. The average increase in circumference at 6 months was 1.7 cm (1.57 cm at 12 months and the average increase in length of 3.2 cm (3.1 cm at 12 months. Twenty-two patients showed minor complications that were treated without sequelae and without influencing the final result. Conclusion: By judicious use of currently available techniques, it is possible to achieve stable increases in penis size. The use of composite techniques provides better final results than the use of individual techniques performed alone due to the increase of the actual volume of the penis. An adequate informed consent is essential in all patients due to the unrealistic expectations expressed by the majority of them.

  16. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  17. Data augmentation for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Ben; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    We present analyses of data augmentation for machine learning redshift estimation. Data augmentation makes a training sample more closely resemble a test sample, if the two base samples differ, in order to improve measured statistics of the test sample. We perform two sets of analyses by selecting 800k (1.7M) SDSS DR8 (DR10) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts. We construct a base training set by imposing an artificial r band apparent magnitude cut to select only bright galaxies and then augment this base training set by using simulations and by applying the K-correct package to artificially place training set galaxies at a higher redshift. We obtain redshift estimates for the remaining faint galaxy sample, which are not used during training. We find that data augmentation reduces the error on the recovered redshifts by 40% in both sets of analyses, when compared to the difference in error between the ideal case and the non augmented case. The outlier fraction is also reduced by at least 10% and up to 80% u...

  18. Mobility and low contrast trip hazard avoidance using augmented depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris; Walker, Janine G.; Lieby, Paulette; Scott, Adele; Barnes, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We evaluated a novel visual representation for current and near-term prosthetic vision. Augmented depth emphasizes ground obstacles and floor-wall boundaries in a depth-based visual representation. This is achieved by artificially increasing contrast between obstacles and the ground surface via a novel ground plane extraction algorithm specifically designed to preserve low-contrast ground-surface boundaries. Approach. The effectiveness of augmented depth was examined in human mobility trials compared against standard intensity-based (Intensity), depth-based (Depth) and random (Random) visual representations. Eight participants with normal vision used simulated prosthetic vision with 20 phosphenes and eight perceivable brightness levels to traverse a course with randomly placed small and low-contrast obstacles on the ground. Main results. The number of collisions was significantly reduced using augmented depth, compared with intensity, depth and random representations (48%, 44% and 72% less collisions, respectively). Significance. These results indicate that augmented depth may enable safe mobility in the presence of low-contrast obstacles with current and near-term implants. This is the first demonstration that an augmentation of the scene ensuring key objects are visible may provide better outcomes for prosthetic vision.

  19. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Jensen, M.K.

    1979-05-01

    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report.

  20. Marker-Based Embodied Interaction for Handheld Augmented Reality Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rohs

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with embodied user interfaces for handheld augmented reality games, which consist of both physical and virtual components. We have developed a number of spatial interaction techniques that optically capture the device’s movement and orientation relative to a visual marker. Such physical interactions in 3D space enable manipulative control of mobile games. In addition to acting as a physical controller that recognizes multiple game-dependent gestures, the mobile device augments the camera view with graphical overlays. We describe three game prototypes that use ubiquitous product packaging and other passive media as backgrounds for handheld augmentation. The prototypes can be realized on widely available off-the-shelf hardware and require only minimal setup and infrastructure support.

  1. Active member bridge feedback control for damping augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gun-Shing; Lurie, Boris J.

    1992-01-01

    An active damping augmentation approach using active members in a structural system is described. The problem of maximizing the vibration damping in a lightly damped structural system is considered using the analogy of impedance matching between the load and source impedances in an electrical network. The proposed active damping augmentation approach therefore consists of finding the desired active member impedances that maximize the vibration damping, and designing a feedback control in order to achieve desired active member impedances. This study uses a bridge feedback concept that feeds back a combination of signals from sensors of the axial force and relative velocity across the active member to realize the desired active member impedance. The proposed active damping augmentation approach and bridge feedback concept were demonstrated on a three-longeron softly suspended truss structure.

  2. Integration Of Sensor Orientation Data Into An Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Artemčiukas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, such microelectromechanical sensors as accelerome­ters, gyroscopes and magnetometers are the dominant sensors in mobile devices. The market of mobile devices is constantly expanding and focused on sensor integration process by adding supplementary functionality for the applications; therefore, it is possible to adapt these sensors for augmented reality technology solutions. Many augmented reality solutions are based on computer vision processing methods in order to identify and track markers or other objects. However, the main problem is chaotic environment, lighting conditions where object recognition and tracking in real-time becomes difficult and sometimes is an impossible process. This paper analyses possibilities to apply microelectromechanical sensors. Additionally, it investigates quaternion use for sensor data to estimate reliable and accurate camera orientation and represent virtual content in augmented reality technology.

  3. A Survey on Augmented Reality Challenges and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Rabbi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents classification of different challenges and tracking techniques in the field of Augmented Reality. The challenges in augmented reality are categorized in performance challenges, alignment challenges, interaction challenges, mobility/portability challenges and visualization challenges. Augmented reality tracking techniques are mainly divided into sensor based tracking, vision based tracking and hybrid tracking. The sensor based tracking are further divided into optical tracking, magnetic tracking, acoustic tracking, inertial tracking or any combination of these to form hybrid sensors tracking. Similarly, the vision based tracking is divided into marker based tracking and markerless tracking. Each tracking technique has its advantages and limitations. Hybrid tracking provides a robust and accurate tracking but it is costly and computationally difficulties involve.

  4. Augmented-pressure colostogram in imperforate anus with fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.W. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Wolfson, P.J. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Surgery); Pena, A. (Schneider Children' s Hospital, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery)

    1991-12-01

    Most newborns with imperforate anus, except for those with very low varieties, undergo a diverting colostomy performed in the postnatal period, with definitive surgical repair at a later age. Accurate demonstration of the anatomy of any associated fistula between the rectum and urogenital tract is essential for optimal surgical management. An augmented-pressure distal segment colostogram is recommended prior to definitive repair, both to confirm the level of rectal atresia and to define any associated fistulous communication. We report a case of high imperforate anus with rectourethral fistula in which the fistulous tract was not identified on the conventional contrast colostogram but was readily delineated when an augmented-pressure modification of the technique was utilized. The technical aspects of augmented-pressure colostography are presented. (orig.).

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  6. "Messing with the Mind: Evolutionary Challenges to Human Brain Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR eSANIOTIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce augmented brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties.

  7. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.

  8. Unpower aerocraft augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at designing the unpower aerocraft attitude control system in a simple and practical way,the guaranteed cost control is adopted.To eliminate the steady-error,a novel tracking control approach-augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is proposed.Firstly,the unpower aerocraft is modeled as a linear system with norm bounded parameter uncertain,then the linear matrix inequality based state feedback gnaranteed cost control law is combined with the augmented state feedback tracking control from a new point of view.The sufficient condition of the existence of the augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is derived and converted to the feasible problem of the linear matrix inequality.Finally,the proposed approach is applied to a specified unpower aerocraft.The six dimensions of freedom simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  9. AUGMENTED REALITY BROWSERS: A PROPOSAL FOR ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sambinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology evolution of smartphones, systems and the growing of telecommunications, allow the use of Augmented Reality in the exploration of geo-referenced information, complementing the real environment of the users with various types of content displayed on robust mobile cameras through applications called augmented reality browsers. Although this type of application is being in development and growing use by society, the technology, and especially its software architecture do not have any kind of standardization. This work presents concepts about augmented reality browsers for mobile devices. It shows the main aspects and applications of those types of reality. Besides that, the specific features of those types of architecture are discussed and compared, and new architecture, whose most relevant feature is the interoperability of applications in various platforms for mobile devices, are presented. This work has the objective to develop an architectural framework for the development of these browsers.

  10. Memantine as an Augmentation Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS, may play a role in the development of anxiety. Memantine partially blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors' glutamate channels located in the CNS. This paper evaluates memantine as an augmentation therapy for treatment of anxiety. Methods. 15 consecutive partially responding anxious patients were treated with adjunctive memantine for 10 weeks. Memantine was dosed 5–20 mg/day. Result. Memantine augmentation resulted in clinically relevant reduction in anxiety symptoms when compared to baseline. Forty percent of patients achieved remission (HAM-A ≥ 7. Memantine improved sleep quality. Mean dose was 14 mg/d (range 5–20 mg/d. Typical adverse events included nausea and headache. Conclusion. The NMDA receptor antagonist memantine may be an effective augmentation therapy in patients with treatment-resistant anxiety.

  11. Secreted Ectodomain of Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-Like Lectin-9 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Synergistically Regenerate Transected Rat Peripheral Nerves by Altering Macrophage Polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumiya; Matsubara, Kohki; Ueda, Minoru; Hibi, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2017-03-01

    Peripheral nerves (PNs) exhibit remarkable self-repairing reparative activity after a simple crush or cut injury. However, the neuronal transection involving a nerve gap overwhelms their repairing activity and causes persistent paralysis. Here, we show that an implantation of the serum-free conditioned medium from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) immersed in a collagen sponge into the nerve gap formed by rat facial nerves transection restored the neurological function. In contrast, SHED-CM specifically depleted of a set of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage inducers, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (sSiglec-9) lost the ability to restore neurological function in this model. Notably, the combination of MCP-1 and sSiglec-9 induced the polarization of M2 macrophages in vitro, resulting in the expression of multiple trophic factors that enhanced proliferation, migration, and differentiation of Schwann cells, blood vessel formation, and nerve fiber extension. Furthermore, the implantation of a collagen graft containing MCP-1/sSiglec-9 into the nerve gap induced anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage polarization, generated a Schwann-cell bridge instead of fibrotic scar, induced axonal regrowth, and restored nerve function. The specific elimination of M2 macrophages by Mannosylated-Clodrosome suppressed the MCP-1/sSiglec-9-mediated neurological recovery. Taken together, our data suggest that MCP-1/sSiglec-9 regenerates PNs by inducing tissue-repairing M2 macrophages and may provide therapeutic benefits for severe peripheral nerve injuries. Stem Cells 2017;35:641-653.

  12. Relationship between proliferative activity of bone marrow micrometastasis and plasmatic level of a new cancer marker: lipid associated sialic acid (LASA) in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsbourg, M; Musset, M; Misset, J L; Mathé, G

    1986-01-01

    The correlation between elevated level of a new plasma cancer marker, Lipid Associated Sialic Acid (LASA) and detection of bone marrow heterotopic epithelial cells by monoclonal antibodies using an immunocytologic technique, associated with the study of the proliferative activity of these heterotopic cells by measurement of their labelling index (LI) was analyzed in 158 samples obtained from 94 breast cancer patients. Six different groups of patients in complete remission of breast cancer, after radical treatment of the primary (minimal residual disease (MRD] were defined, according to the presence with or without proliferative activity of heterotopic cells in the bone marrow or the absence of such cells and to the level, normal or elevated of LASA in the serum of the same patient at the same time. 115 samples (73%) of the patients had an elevated LASA level at the time of the study among which 71 (45%) came from patients in which heterotopic cells were detected in the bone marrow, 32 (20%) of which with proliferative activity (LI+) 39 (25%) without (LI-). In 44 (28%) samples, no heterotopic cells were detected in the B.M. 43 samples (27%) of the patients had a normal LASA level. In 29 (18%) no heterotopic cells could be detected in the B.M. In only 14 could such cells be found, 5 with LI+, 9 with LI-. Both of these cytological and biological parameters can be useful markers of minimal residual disease and help to determine the prognosis and define optimal therapeutic strategy for curable breast cancer. Their prognostic value in predicting relapse awaits further observation with longer follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Augmented exercise biking with virtual environments for elderly users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Serafin, Stefania;

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been shown to function well as an assistive technology to physical therapy for elderly users. Elderly users are a unique user group in this field, due to their characteristics and demands. They are also a user group that can definitely benefit from VR technology, which...... routine. The results showed that a majority of subjects reported to support the VE augmentation and preferred the VE based exercise experience to the conventional exercise. This supports VR as an assisting technology for physical therapy, and suggests the potentiality VE augmented exercises, tailored...

  14. Soft tissue augmentation - Use of hyaluronic acid as dermal filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedamurthy Maya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue augmentation has revolutionized the treatment of the aging face. It is a technique in which a substance is injected under the skin. The concept of utilizing materials for soft tissue augmentation actually began around 1950 with the use of fluid silicone. Today we have a large armamentarium of implant materials to delay the tell tale signs of aging. Filling has replaced conventional surgery in facial rejuvenation. In this article, the emphasis will be on hyaluronic acid as this substance is easily available in India and ranks among the most widely used dermal fillers.

  15. Bayesian missing data problems EM, data augmentation and noniterative computation

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ming T; Ng, Kai Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian Missing Data Problems: EM, Data Augmentation and Noniterative Computation presents solutions to missing data problems through explicit or noniterative sampling calculation of Bayesian posteriors. The methods are based on the inverse Bayes formulae discovered by one of the author in 1995. Applying the Bayesian approach to important real-world problems, the authors focus on exact numerical solutions, a conditional sampling approach via data augmentation, and a noniterative sampling approach via EM-type algorithms. After introducing the missing data problems, Bayesian approach, and poste

  16. Augmenting amisulpride with clozapine had led to unmasking of akathisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Ray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amisulpride is a newer antipsychotic, which is very effective on its own, as well as augmenting other antipsychotic clozapine, which is an effective molecule for treatment resistant schizophrenia. In most cases, amisulpride is added on, in partial responders to clozapine. Here a case is reported where clozapine was added on, in an amisulpride partial responder but this produced side effect and had to be discontinued. The case later responded to clozapine alone. It has been discussed about possible reasons of this finding. It has also been suggested if sequence of introduction of medication is critical regarding getting the desired effect of the augmentation strategy.

  17. Satellite link augmentation of ground based packet switched data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J. B.; McLane, P. J.; Campbell, L. L.

    Use of satellite link augmentation to improve the performance of a packet switched data network is considered. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of two queues in series from the standpoint of time delay. A finite state machine model is used to aid the analysis. The results from the analysis are then used in a flow deviation routing algorithm. This algorithm is applied to study the performance improvement when satellite links are used to augment the Canadian DATAPAC network. The results are backed up by extensive simulations on a digital computer.

  18. The Future of Learning and Training in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangdon Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Students acquire knowledge and skills through different modes of instruction that include classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, and the like. The availability and choice of learning innovation depends on the individual’s access to technologies and on the infrastructure environment of the surrounding community. In this rapidly changing society, information needs to be adopted and applied at the right time and right place to maintain efficiency in all settings. Augmented reality is one technology that dramatically shifts the timing and location of learning. This paper describes augmented reality, how it applies to learning, and its potential impact on future education.

  19. Bladder augmentation and urinary diversion for neurogenic LUTS: current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Goldman, Howard B

    2012-10-01

    Augmentation cystoplasty and urinary diversion are no longer commonplace in the management of patients with neurogenic bladder, but remain an important surgical treatment for those with refractory LUTS who have failed neuromodulation and onabotulinum toxin treatment or who are not candidates for those treatments. Augmentation is an option in patients who can perform intermittent catheterization and is usually performed with ileum or large intestine. Some patients benefit from continent cutaneous catherizable channels. Supravesical urinary diversion may be necessary in more severe cases. Ileovesicostomies are being supplanted by indwelling suprapubic catheters, and when catheters fail conduits may be a better option. When feasible, the diverted bladder should be excised to avoid pyocystis.

  20. Experimental Investigations of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Stability Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A team of researchers from the Army Research Laboratory, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Bell Helicopter-Textron, Inc. have completed hover-cell and wind-tunnel testing of a 1/5-size aeroelastically-scaled tiltrotor model using a new active control system for stability augmentation. The active system is based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm originally developed at NASA LaRC in 1997 for un-known disturbance rejection. Results of these investigations show that GPC combined with an active swashplate can significantly augment the damping and stability of tiltrotors in both hover and high-speed flight.

  1. Restarted FOM Augmented with Ritz Vectors for Shifted Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The restarted FOM method presented by Simoncini [7] according to the natural collinearity of all residuals is an efficient method for solving shifted systems, which generates the same Krylov subspace when the shifts are handled simultaneously. However, restarting slows down the convergence. We present a practical method for solving the shifted systems by adding some Ritz vectors into the Krylov subspace to form an augmented Krylov subspace.Numerical experiments illustrate that the augmented FOM approach (restarted version) can converge more quickly than the restarted FOM method.

  2. Breast Imaging after Breast Augmentation with Autologous Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Seo, Bo Kyung; Shim, Eddeum; Song, Sung Eun; Cho, Kyu Ran [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eul Sik [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Ok Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The use of autologous tissue transfer for breast augmentation is an alternative to using foreign implant materials. The benefits of this method are the removal of unwanted fat from other body parts, no risk of implant rupture, and the same feel as real breast tissue. However, sometimes there is a dilemma about whether or not to biopsy for calcifications or masses detected after the procedure is completed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the procedures of breast augmentation with autologous tissues, the imaging features of various complications, and the role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of complications and hidden breast diseases.

  3. [Augmented anterior cruciate ligament replacement with the Kennedy-LAD (ligament augmentation device)--long term outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, K A

    1998-01-01

    The ligament augmentation device (Kennedy-LAD) is used to protect tendon grafts during the posttransplantation decrease in strength in anterior cruciate ligament (acl) reconstructions. The augmentation with the LAD is based on the concept of load sharing. Since 1983 we used the LAD in acl-reconstructions in 856 patients. In 63 cases we had to treat complications like infection (8), recurrent effusions (21), arthrofibrosis (34). The overall results are good with respect to stability, regain of strength and sports activity. In 73 cases resurgery was necessary because of synovitis (7), LAD-rupture due to re-injury (9), fatigue-rupture of the LAD (22), meniscal tears (35), 2.7 +/- 2.3 years (range: 2 months to 10 years) after LAD implantation. Modern techniques in acl reconstruction lead to comparable results without synthetic augmentation. Therefore, we now recommend the use of a LAD only in cases of repeated acl replacement with week tendon grafts, to avoid an allograft.

  4. RNase activity of sialic acid-binding lectin from bullfrog eggs drives antitumor effect via the activation of p38 MAPK to caspase-3/7 signaling pathway in human breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kariya, Yukiko; Tatsuta, Takeo; Sugawara, Shigeki; Kariya, Yoshinobu; Nitta, Kazuo; Hosono, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acid-binding lectin obtained from bullfrog eggs (SBL) induces cell death in cancer cells but not in normal cells. This antitumor effect is mediated through its ribo-nuclease (RNase) activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was activated when SBL induced cell death in three human breast cancer cell lines: SK-BR-3, MCF-7, and MDA-MB231. The suppression of p38 MAPK phosphorylation...

  5. Cranial implant design using augmented reality immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhuming; Evenhouse, Ray; Leigh, Jason; Charbel, Fady; Rasmussen, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Software tools that utilize haptics for sculpting precise fitting cranial implants are utilized in an augmented reality immersive system to create a virtual working environment for the modelers. The virtual environment is designed to mimic the traditional working environment as closely as possible, providing more functionality for the users. The implant design process uses patient CT data of a defective area. This volumetric data is displayed in an implant modeling tele-immersive augmented reality system where the modeler can build a patient specific implant that precisely fits the defect. To mimic the traditional sculpting workspace, the implant modeling augmented reality system includes stereo vision, viewer centered perspective, sense of touch, and collaboration. To achieve optimized performance, this system includes a dual-processor PC, fast volume rendering with three-dimensional texture mapping, the fast haptic rendering algorithm, and a multi-threading architecture. The system replaces the expensive and time consuming traditional sculpting steps such as physical sculpting, mold making, and defect stereolithography. This augmented reality system is part of a comprehensive tele-immersive system that includes a conference-room-sized system for tele-immersive small group consultation and an inexpensive, easily deployable networked desktop virtual reality system for surgical consultation, evaluation and collaboration. This system has been used to design patient-specific cranial implants with precise fit.

  6. Glucocorticoid augmentation of prolonged exposure therapy: rationale and case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pratchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Prolonged exposure (PE therapy has been found to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; however, it is difficult for many patients to engage fully in the obligatory retelling of their traumatic experiences. This problem is compounded by the fact that habituation and cognitive restructuring – the main mechanisms through which PE is hypothesized to work – are not instantaneous processes, and often require several weeks before the distress associated with imaginal exposure abates. Case reports: Two cases are described that respectively illustrate the use of hydrocortisone and placebo, in combination with PE, for the treatment of combat-related PTSD. Based on known effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory performance, we hypothesized that augmentation with hydrocortisone would improve the therapeutic effects of PE by hastening “new” learning and facilitating decreases in the emotional impact of fear memories during the course of treatment. The veteran receiving hydrocortisone augmentation of PE displayed an accelerated and ultimately greater decline in PTSD symptoms than the veteran receiving placebo. Conclusions: While no general conclusion can be derived from comparison of two patients, the findings are consistent with the rationale for augmentation. These case reports support the potential for an appropriately designed and powered clinical trial to examine the efficacy of glucocorticoids in augmenting the effects of psychotherapy for PTSD.

  7. Augmented metacognition addressing dynamic allocation of tasks requiring visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Doesburg, W. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cognitive models as augmented metacognition on task allocation for tasks requiring visual attention. In the domain of naval warfare, the complex and dynamic nature of the environment makes that one has to deal with a large number of tasks in parallel. Therefore, human

  8. Aortic homograft for pulmonary artery augmentation in single lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Pablo; Morales, Jose; Guzman, Enrique; Tellez, Jose L; Niebla, Benito A; Avalos, Alejandro; Patiño, Hilda

    2005-06-01

    We present a case of unilateral lung transplantation in which a segment of the donor's descending aorta was used as a homograft for pulmonary artery augmentation in the donor lung. This technique can be used when the donor's lung artery has been cut at the base of the hilum during the harvesting procedure.

  9. Graph-like continua, augmenting arcs, and Menger's theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Vella, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    We show that an adaptation of the augmenting path method for graphs proves Menger's Theorem for wide classes of topological spaces. For example, it holds for locally compact, locally connected, metric spaces, as already known. The method lends itself particularly well to another class of spaces...

  10. Restorative Virtual Environment Design for Augmenting Nursing Home Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Serafin, Stefania; Kofoed, Lise

    2017-01-01

    to experience natural surroundings. Augmenting a conventional biking exercise with a recreational virtual environment (RVE) has shown to serve as an intrinsic motivation contributor to exercise for nursing home residents. RVEs might be able to provide some of the health benefits that regular nature experiences...

  11. Haptics-Augmented Simple-Machine Educational Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II; Chen, Meng-Yun; Seaton, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unique project using commercial haptic interfaces to augment the teaching of simple machines in elementary school. Suggests that the use of haptics in virtual simple-machine simulations has the potential for deeper, more engaging learning. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Sense-Assess-Augment: A Taxonomy for Human Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    executive function , and visual/aural acuity. More controversial techniques such as implants or even genetic modification are possible augmentation...revealed that automation does not always function in the way intended by designers and, moreover, can produce deleterious performance effects...include saliva-based biomarkers (dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin A, and alpha- amylase ) in the data collection process. These

  13. Augmenting traditional instruments with a motion capture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Vidolin, Alvise; Bernardini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some composition works where the real instruments have been augmented through a motion capture system (Phasespace). While playing his instrument in the traditional way, the player is also controlling some other sound effects by moving his hands: the instrument becomes totally...

  14. An Efficiency Analysis of Augmented Reality Marker Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurpytė Dovilė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the investigation of augmented reality system which is designed for identification and augmentation of 100 different square markers. Marker recognition efficiency was investigated by rotating markers along x and y axis directions in range from −90° to 90°. Virtual simulations of four environments were developed: a an intense source of light, b an intense source of light falling from the left side, c the non-intensive light source falling from the left side, d equally falling shadows. The graphics were created using the OpenGL graphics computer hardware interface; image processing was programmed in C++ language using OpenCV, while augmented reality was developed in Java programming language using NyARToolKit. The obtained results demonstrate that augmented reality marker recognition algorithm is accurate and reliable in the case of changing lighting conditions and rotational angles - only 4 % markers were unidentified. Assessment of marker recognition efficiency let to propose marker classification strategy in order to use it for grouping various markers into distinct markers’ groups possessing similar recognition properties.

  15. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M;

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of...

  16. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  17. Sensor fusion in head pose tracking for augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persa, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on studying diverse techniques, methods and sensors for position and orientation determination with application to augmented reality applications. In Chapter 2 we reviewed a variety of existing techniques and systems for position determination. From a practical point of v

  18. Mobile Camera as a Human Vision in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Ng Gaip Weng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The real world objects can be recognized by using marker based and marker-less augmented reality systems. Mostly, the previous developers used markers based augmented reality systems. However, those systems actually hide the reality and it was also difficult to keep the markers everywhere. Furthermore, the previous marker-less approaches use client-server architecture, which is drastically affected by network latency. Smartphone camera is matured enough that it can recognize real world objects without markers. It can guide users about their location and the direction in a convenient way. The use of Smartphone is best suited for outdoor mobile augmented-reality applications. Therefore, a marker-less natural features based tracking system in mobile augmented reality was formulated. In the adapted framework, the state-of-the-art algorithm (speed up robust features was modified for computing image features from live mobile camera image and compares with locally stored images features for recognition. Moreover, the local static database of location tagged image features using SQLite was implemented to bypass the server. The proposed system was tested in a mobile AR-prototype application using iPhone called UNIMAS Guide. It was found from the results that the adapted marker-less system could recognize the real world objects in speedy, easy and convenient way. This technology can be applied in tourism industry, surgery and educational fields.  

  19. Peripheral "oscillatory" compliance is associated with aortic augmentation index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P; Qasem, A; De Backer, T; Carlier, S; Verdonck, P; Avolio, A

    2001-01-01

    The augmentation index (AIx) and "oscillatory" compliance (C-2) are wave contour analysis parameters for the central aorta (P-ao) and radial artery pressure wave (P-rad)(x) respectively. Both are sensitive to cardiovascular risk factors such as aging, hypertension, and diabetes and have been propose

  20. MHP Oriented Interactive Augmented Reality System for Sports Broadcasting Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias D. Kammann

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Television and movie images have been altered ever since it was technically possible. Nowadays embedding advertisements, or incorporating text and graphics in TV scenes, are common practice, but they can not be considered as integrated part of the scene. The introduction of new services for interactive augmented television is discussed in this paper. We analyse the main aspects related with the whole chain of augmented reality production.Interactivity is one of the most important added values of the digital television: This paper aims to break the model where all TV viewers receive the same final image. Thus, we introduce and discuss the new concept of interactive augmented television, i. e. real time composition of video and computer graphics - e.g. a real scene and freely selectable images or spatial rendered objects - edited and customized by the end user within the context of the user's set top box and TV receiver.We demonstrate a sample application introducing "Interactive Augmented Television" for sport broadcasts additionally with 3D virtual objects in order to enhance or alter the presentation of the match with a new interface. We also introduce a pure virtual world where the user can select the camera position.

  1. Cortical excitability changes following grasping exercise augmented with electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barsi, Gergely Istvan; Popovic, Dejan B.; Tarkka, Ina M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation with augmented electrical stimulation can enhance functional recovery after stroke, and cortical plasticity may play a role in this process. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three training paradigms on cortical excitability in healthy subjects. Cortical excit...

  2. Effect on Academic Procrastination after Introducing Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendicho, Peña Fabiani; Mora, Carlos Efren; Añorbe-Díaz, Beatriz; Rivero-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Students suffer academic procrastination while dealing with frequent deadlines and working under pressure. This causes to delay their coursework and may affect their academic progress, despite feeling worse. Triggering students' motivation, like introducing technologies, helps to reduce procrastination. In this context, Augmented Reality has been…

  3. Augmented Reality in science education – affordances for student learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2016-01-01

    Most extant studies examining augmented reality (AR) have focused on the technology itself. This paper presents findings addressing the issue of AR for educational purposes based on a sequential survey distributed to 35 expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from...

  4. Using Augmented Reality in the Treatment of CRPS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L; Hansen, Helle Puggård; Baskarada, D

    . This work examines Augmented Reality (AR) as MVF treatment. Materials and Methods An AR setup was built for CPRS patients with left arms as affected extremities. The AR displays a virtual left arm, which mirrors the movements of the right arm, on images of the real world. To explore motivational benefits...

  5. VirtualTable: a projection augmented reality game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak

    2015-01-01

    VirtualTable is a projection augmented reality installation where users are engaged in an interactive tower defense game. The installation runs continuously and is designed to attract people to a table, which the game is projected onto. Any number of players can join the game for an optional period...

  6. Using Augmented Reality Tools to Enhance Children's Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Tamara R.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been used and documented for a variety of commercial and educational purposes, and the proliferation of mobile devices has increased the average person's access to AR systems and tools. However, little research has been done in the area of using AR to supplement traditional library services, specifically for patrons aged…

  7. Visual Environment for Designing Interactive Learning Scenarios with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, José Miguel; Ruiz-Rube, Iván; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Figueiredo, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) technology allows the inclusion of virtual elements on a vision of actual physical environment for the creation of a mixed reality in real time. This kind of technology can be used in educational settings. However, the current AR authoring tools present several drawbacks, such as, the lack of a mechanism for tracking the…

  8. The Design of Immersive English Learning Environment Using Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Cheng-Ting; Cheng, Shein-Yung; Tsai, Chung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The study uses augmented reality (AR) technology to integrate virtual objects into the real learning environment for language learning. The English AR classroom is constructed using the system prototyping method and evaluated by semi-structured in-depth interviews. According to the flow theory by Csikszenmihalyi in 1975 along with the immersive…

  9. Augmented Reality in Education--Cases, Places and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Matt; Howe, Cathie; McCredie, Nerida; Robinson, Austin; Grover, David

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is poised to profoundly transform Education as we know it. The capacity to overlay rich media onto the real world for viewing through web-enabled devices such as phones and tablet devices means that information can be made available to students at the exact time and place of need. This has the potential to reduce cognitive…

  10. Minimally invasive maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation using brushite based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Bassett, David C; Habibovic, Pamela; Luceron, Elena; Barralet, Jake E

    2009-01-01

    An ideal material for maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation procedures should not only be osteoconductive, biocompatible and mechanically strong, but should also be applied using minimally invasive procedures and remain stable with respect to the original bone surfaces. This way, implant exposure and infection might be reduced and good mechanical stability may be achieved. Calcium phosphate cements are proven biocompatible and osteoconductive materials that can be injected using minimally invasive procedures. Among these cements, brushite based cements have the added advantage of being biodegradable in vivo. Therefore, this material has the potential for use in the aforementioned procedures. An in vivo study was performed in rabbits to evaluate the potential use of brushite cements in minimally invasive maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation procedures. In this study, we injected self-setting brushite cements on the subperiosteal bone surface using a minimally invasive tunnelling technique. The cement pastes were stable on the bone surface and hardened soon after they were injected thereby negating the need for additional supports such as membranes or meshes. The animals were sacrificed 8 weeks after the intervention and histological observations revealed signs of successful vertical bone augmentation. Therefore, we have demonstrated a minimally invasive vertical bone augmentation procedure that is an attractive alternative to current surgical procedures in terms of increased simplicity, reduced trauma, and lower cost of surgery.

  11. Minimally invasive maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation using brushite based cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamimi, Faleh; Torres, Jesus; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Bassett, David C.; Habibovic, Pamela; Luceron, Elena; Barralet, Jake E.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal material for maxillofacial vertical bone augmentation procedures should not only be osteoconductive, biocompatible and mechanically strong, but should also be applied using minimally invasive procedures and remain stable with respect to the original bone surfaces. This way, implant exposure

  12. Augmented Reality Games: Using Technology on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard; Burton, Erin Peters; Frazier, Wendy; Cheng, Rebecca; Chmiel, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    As smartphones become more ubiquitous among adolescents, there is increasing potential for these as a tool to engage students in science instruction through innovative learning environments such as augmented reality (AR). Aligned with the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and integrating the three dimensions of "A Framework for K-12…

  13. Learning Physics through Play in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Noel; Danish, Joshua A.; Delacruz, Girlie; Kumar, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Learning Physics through Play Project (LPP) engaged 6-8-year old students (n = 43) in a series of scientific investigations of Newtonian force and motion including a series of augmented reality activities. We outline the two design principles behind the LPP curriculum: 1) the use of socio-dramatic, embodied play in the form of participatory…

  14. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  15. Current Status, Opportunities and Challenges of Augmented Reality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Although augmented reality (AR) has gained much research attention in recent years, the term AR was given different meanings by varying researchers. In this article, we first provide an overview of definitions, taxonomies, and technologies of AR. We argue that viewing AR as a concept rather than a type of technology would be more productive for…

  16. Construction of ontology augmented networks for protein complex prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Protein complexes are of great importance in understanding the principles of cellular organization and function. The increase in available protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology and other resources make it possible to develop computational methods for protein complex prediction. Most existing methods focus mainly on the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this article, we constructed ontology augmented networks with protein-protein interaction data and gene ontology, which effectively unified the topological structure of protein-protein interaction networks and the similarity of gene ontology annotations into unified distance measures. After constructing ontology augmented networks, a novel method (clustering based on ontology augmented networks) was proposed to predict protein complexes, which was capable of taking into account the topological structure of the protein-protein interaction network, as well as the similarity of gene ontology annotations. Our method was applied to two different yeast protein-protein interaction datasets and predicted many well-known complexes. The experimental results showed that (i) ontology augmented networks and the unified distance measure can effectively combine the structure closeness and gene ontology annotation similarity; (ii) our method is valuable in predicting protein complexes and has higher F1 and accuracy compared to other competing methods.

  17. E-learning as augmentation rather than disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Josephsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    levels. And that this may well account for some of the present disillusionment with e-learning. Further, we argue that e-learning already has had a significant impact on our world view and understanding of education and that questions of augmentation or disruption should be studied over a long period...

  18. A Basis for Powers of the Augmentation Ideal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M. Parmenter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an inductive method is given for constructing a Z-basis of the abelian group Δn(G) whenever G is a finite elementary abelian p-group,where Δ(G) is the augmentation ideal of the integral group ring ZG. This result is then applied to the problem of finding a presentation for Δn(G).

  19. On Introspection, Metacognitive Control and Augmented Data Mining Live Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We discuss metacognitive modelling as enhancement to cognitive modelling and computing. Metacognitive control mechanisms should enable AI systems to self-reflect, reason about their actions, and to adapt to new situations. In this respect, we propose implementation details of a knowledge taxonomy and an augmented data mining life cycle.

  20. Titanium Granules for Augmentation of the Maxillary Sinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstadaas, Ståle Petter; Verket, Anders; Pinholt, Else Marie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomaterials are commonly used to augment the maxillary sinus floor prior to or in conjunction with dental implant installation. Recently, porous titanium granules (PTGs) have been used in oral implant surgery to stabilize implants and function as an osteoconductive matrix. PURPOSE: T...

  1. A Human-Information Interaction Perspective on Augmented Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Griffith, Douglas

    2006-10-15

    Nearly a half-century ago, J.C.R. Licklider expressed a vision for “man-machine symbiosis,” coupling human brains and computing machines in a partnership that “will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” Until relatively recently, this vision was largely left idle by human factors engineering (HFE) research that grew over the decades from an initial focus on design of equipment to accommodate human limitations to cognitive systems engineering research to a more recent perspective focusing on design of human-information interaction. These perspective shifts and insights have brought a degree of success to the field in design efforts aimed at enhancing human-system performance. In recent years, the research area of augmented cognition has begun to shift the focus once more not only to enhancing the interaction environment, but also the cognitive abilities of the human operators and decision makers themselves. Ambitious goals of increasing total cognitive capacity through augmented cognition technologies are still on the horizon of this research program. This paper describes a framework within which augmented cognition research may identify requirements that compensate for human information processing shortcomings and augment human potential.

  2. Review of soft tissue augmentation in the face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Newman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available James NewmanFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CAFacial Plastic Surgery, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: A primary pillar of facial rejuvenation is the replacement of soft tissue atrophy via a variety of augmentation techniques. The techniques can be classified into three categories, skeletal onlay grafts, subcutaneous volumizers, and dermal fillers. While onlay grafts and subcutaneous volumizers have the most persistent results, the emergence of improved dermal fillers in the past 5 years has become increasingly popular. An accurate diagnosis of the level(s of soft tissue atrophy in the face needs to be made prior to selection of the category or combination of techniques. In the younger patient, the selection of a dermal filler or combination of fillers can be adequate for treatment. A comparison of the composition and characteristics of the available dermal fillers are discussed in detail to assist the clinician in understanding the actual mechanism of soft tissue augmentation. In the more advanced aging face, a combination of the three categories may be necessary to produce optimal results. Just as dermal fillers have become more differentiated to increase their longevity, the non-injectible long-lasting implants are becoming more developed to mimic accurate viscoelastic properties of the facial soft tissues. All three classes of augmentation techniques can provide patients with very satisfactory results as part of overall facial rejuvenation.Keywords: soft tissue, dermal fillers, facial implants, facial augmentation

  3. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  4. Invariant-Based Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A calibration-free augmented reality based on affine invariant is firstly formulated by tensor method. This approach does not use the calibration parameters of the camera and the 3D locations of the environment’s object, and can realize the augmentation of virtual objects. Meanwhile, a new approach to resolving occlusion problem in augmented reality is presented. Based on an arm-optimized implementation of  the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm developed by David Lowe and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm, the point correspondences in any two views are determined. According to the invariant for two views and these point correspondences, the occluding contours can be transferred to any views, so the occlusion is resolved. Some typical experiments show that the approach of invariant-based augmented reality is feasible on mobile phones. 

  5. Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection with Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Department of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/10-03 Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection with...dog great pyrenees dalmation dog domestic dog canis familiaris dog andiron firedog dog dog-iron frump dog pawl detent click dog chap fellow feller

  6. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  7. Sialic acid receptor detection in the human respiratory tract: evidence for widespread distribution of potential binding sites for human and avian influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Yi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus binds to cell receptors via sialic acid (SA linked glycoproteins. They recognize SA on host cells through their haemagglutinins (H. The distribution of SA on cell surfaces is one determinant of host tropism and understanding its expression on human cells and tissues is important for understanding influenza pathogenesis. The objective of this study therefore was to optimize the detection of α2,3-linked and α2,6-linked SA by lectin histochemistry by investigating the binding of Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA for SAα2,6Gal and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA for SAα2,3Gal in the respiratory tract of normal adults and children. Methods We used fluorescent and biotinylated SNA and MAA from different suppliers on archived and prospectively collected biopsy and autopsy specimens from the nasopharynx, trachea, bronchus and lungs of fetuses, infants and adults. We compared different methods of unmasking for tissue sections to determine if these would affect lectin binding. Using serial sections we then compared the lectin binding of MAA from different suppliers. Results We found that unmasking using microwave treatment in citrate buffer produced increased lectin binding to the ciliated and glandular epithelium of the respiratory tract. In addition we found that there were differences in tissue distribution of the α2,3 linked SA when 2 different isoforms of MAA (MAA1 and MAA2 lectin were used. MAA1 had widespread binding throughout the upper and lower respiratory tract and showed more binding to the respiratory epithelium of children than in adults. By comparison, MAA2 binding was mainly restricted to the alveolar epithelial cells of the lung with weak binding to goblet cells. SNA binding was detected in bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells and binding of this lectin was stronger to the paediatric epithelium compared to adult epithelium. Furthermore, the MAA lectins from 2 suppliers (Roche and EY Labs tended

  8. Sensors for Location-Based Augmented Reality the Example of Galileo and Egnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Alain; Henriques, José; Stricker, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Augmented Reality has long been approached from the point of view of Computer Vision and Image Analysis only. However, much more sensors can be used, in particular for location-based Augmented Reality scenarios. This paper reviews the various sensors that can be used for location-based Augmented Reality. It then presents and discusses several examples of the usage of Galileo and EGNOS in conjonction with Augmented Reality.

  9. Mobile Augmented Reality enhances indoor navigation for wheelchair users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chagas de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with mobility impairments associated with lower limb disabilities often face enormous challenges to participate in routine activities and to move around various environments. For many, the use of wheelchairs is paramount to provide mobility and social inclusion. Nevertheless, they still face a number of challenges to properly function in our society. Among the many difficulties, one in particular stands out: navigating in complex internal environments (indoors. The main objective of this work is to propose an architecture based on Mobile Augmented Reality to support the development of indoor navigation systems dedicated to wheelchair users, that is also capable of recording CAD drawings of the buildings and dealing with accessibility issues for that population. Methods Overall, five main functional requirements are proposed: the ability to allow for indoor navigation by means of Mobile Augmented Reality techniques; the capacity to register and configure building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers, points of interest and obstacles to be avoided by the wheelchair user; the capacity to find the best route for wheelchair indoor navigation, taking stairs and other obstacles into account; allow for the visualization of virtual directional arrows in the smartphone displays; and incorporate touch or voice commands to interact with the application. The architecture is proposed as a combination of four layers: User interface; Control; Service; and Infrastructure. A proof-of-concept application was developed and tests were performed with disable volunteers operating manual and electric wheelchairs. Results The application was implemented in Java for the Android operational system. A local database was used to store the test building CAD drawings and the position of fiducial markers and points of interest. The Android Augmented Reality library was used to implement Augmented Reality and the Blender open source

  10. Improved Chemical Structure-Activity Modeling Through Data Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Bender, Andreas

    2015-12-28

    Extending the original training data with simulated unobserved data points has proven powerful to increase both the generalization ability of predictive models and their robustness against changes in the structure of data (e.g., systematic drifts in the response variable) in diverse areas such as the analysis of spectroscopic data or the detection of conserved domains in protein sequences. In this contribution, we explore the effect of data augmentation in the predictive power of QSAR models, quantified by the RMSE values on the test set. We collected 8 diverse data sets from the literature and ChEMBL version 19 reporting compound activity as pIC50 values. The original training data were replicated (i.e., augmented) N times (N ∈ 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10), and these replications were perturbed with Gaussian noise (μ = 0, σ = σnoise) on either (i) the pIC50 values, (ii) the compound descriptors, (iii) both the compound descriptors and the pIC50 values, or (iv) none of them. The effect of data augmentation was evaluated across three different algorithms (RF, GBM, and SVM radial) and two descriptor types (Morgan fingerprints and physicochemical-property-based descriptors). The influence of all factor levels was analyzed with a balanced fixed-effect full-factorial experiment. Overall, data augmentation constantly led to increased predictive power on the test set by 10-15%. Injecting noise on (i) compound descriptors or on (ii) both compound descriptors and pIC50 values led to the highest drop of RMSEtest values (from 0.67-0.72 to 0.60-0.63 pIC50 units). The maximum increase in predictive power provided by data augmentation is reached when the training data is replicated one time. Therefore, extending the original training data with one perturbed repetition thereof represents a reasonable trade-off between the increased performance of the models and the computational cost of data augmentation, namely increase of (i) model complexity due to the need for optimizing

  11. 血清唾液酸水平检测在非小细胞肺癌中的诊断价值%Estimation of serum total sialic acid levels as tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 王立伟; 张铁; 赵兴波; 张远春

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估血清唾液酸水平在非小细胞肺癌诊断与疗效监测中的应用价值.方法 采用酶法对60例健康人(健康对照组),30例肺部良性疾病患者(肺部良性疾病组),100例非小细胞肺癌患者(非小细胞肺癌组)进行血清唾液酸含量的统计分析.结果 健康对照组血清唾液酸水平为(568±62) mg/L,肺部良性疾病组和非小细胞肺癌组血清唾液酸水平分别为(639±92) mg/L和(813±218)mg/L,非小细胞肺癌患者血清的唾液酸水平明显高于健康对照组和良性疾病组(P<0.01);根据健康对照组的检测数值,唾液酸检测非小细胞肺癌的Cut-off值为695 mg/L,敏感度为69.00%,特异度为88.90%.100例非小细胞肺癌患者中,腺癌、鳞癌、鳞腺癌和未分化癌各25例.其中腺癌组、鳞癌组、鳞腺癌组和未分化癌组血清唾液酸水平分别为( 845±91) mg/L、(782±91)mg/L、(794±126)mg/L和(831±113) mg/L,不同组织病理类型的恶性肿瘤的血清唾液酸含量明显高于对照组,但各组织病理类型的恶性肿瘤之间的血清唾液酸含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).非小细胞肺癌患者血清唾液酸水平随着肿瘤分级、分期的升高而升高.结论 血清中唾液酸检测在非小细胞肺癌的筛查、诊断、术后疗效评估及监测均有重要意义.%Objective Sialic acid has recently been suggested as a marker of non-small cell lung cancer.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of serum sialic acid in diagnosis and early detection of non-small cell lung cancer.Methods We analyzed serum samples that had been collected between 2010 and 2011 from 100 patients with Non-small cell lung cancer of different histopathology types before tumor resection at various stages [stage Ⅰ (n=15),stage Ⅱ (n=25),stage Ⅲ (n =40),and stageⅣ(n =20)]; adenocarcinoma(n =25),squamous cell carcinoma( n =25 ),adenosquamous carcinoma( n =25 ),undifferentiated carcinoma( n =25 ),30 benign lung

  12. The Augmentative and Alternative Communication Olympics: Raising and Showcasing Communication Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patti

    2004-01-01

    The Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Olympics is a project serving a twofold purpose for augmented communicators in the Broward County Public School System in Florida. While allowing young augmented communicators to build competencies in using AAC devices, the Olympics provide a meaningful extracurricular experience to students…

  13. Augmented Reality Environments in Learning, Communicational and Professional Contexts in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Gutiérrez, Jorge; Meneses Fernández, María Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores educational and professional uses of augmented learning environment concerned with issues of training and entertainment. We analyze the state-of-art research of some scenarios based on augmented reality. Some examples for the purpose of education and simulation are described. These applications show that augmented reality can…

  14. An Analysis of Engagement in a Combination Indoor/Outdoor Augmented Reality Educational Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkestad, James; O'Shea, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a qualitative analysis of video captured during a dual indoor/outdoor Augmented Reality experience. Augmented Reality is the layering of virtual information on top of the physical world. This Augmented Reality experience asked students to interact with the San Diego Museum of Art and the Botanical Gardens in San…

  15. The Effect of an Augmented Reality Enhanced Mathematics Lesson on Student Achievement and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapa, Anne; Nadolny, Larysa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess student achievement and motivation during a high school augmented reality mathematics activity focused on dimensional analysis. Included in this article is a review of the literature on the use of augmented reality in mathematics and the combination of print with augmented reality, also known as interactive…

  16. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... AGENCY Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water... teleconference of the augmented SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee to provide early advice on the... that the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value...

  17. [Bladder augmentation in children: experience with 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortes, L; Zambudio, G A

    1996-07-01

    From 1993 to 1995 bladder augmentation was performed in 11 female and 4 male patients from 1 to 13 years old (average age 6.7 years). Indications included neurogenic bladder, extrophy and epispadias with small bladder. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been performed in 6 patients for hydrocephalus. We used 22 segments since 5 patients had 2 segments. Segments included sigmoid in 12 cases, stomach in 5, small bowel in 1, cecum and appendix in 2. We have used the AMS-800 artificial urinary sphincter in 7 patients. Upper tracts and renal function have remained stable in these patients. Continence was achieved in 7 of 9 cases with augmentation, and in 6 of those patients with artificial urinary sphincter. The most common complication was leaks and the hematuria-dysuria syndrome when stomach was used.

  18. ARZombie: A Mobile Augmented Reality Game with Multimodal Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Cordeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality games have the power to extend virtual gaming into real world scenarios with real people, while enhancing the senses of the user. This paper describes the AR- Zombie game developed with the aim of studying and developing mobile augmented reality applications, specifically for tablets, using face recognition interaction techniques. The goal of the ARZombie player is to kill zombies that are detected through the display of the device. Instead of using markers as a mean of tracking the zombies, this game incorporates a facial recognition system, which will enhance the user experience by improving the interaction of players with the real world. As the player moves around the environment, the game will display virtual zombies on the screen if the detected faces are recognized as belonging to the class of the zombies. ARZombie was tested with users to evaluate the interaction proposals and its components were evaluated regarding the performance in order to ensure a better gaming experience.

  19. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language.

  20. Use of display technologies for augmented reality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is seen as an important tool for the future of user interfaces as well as training applications. An important application area for AR is expected to be in the digitization of training and worker instructions used in the Brilliant Factory environment. The transition of work instructions methods from printed pages in a book or taped to a machine to virtual simulations is a long step with many challenges along the way. A variety of augmented reality tools are being explored today for industrial applications that range from simple programmable projections in the work space to 3D displays and head mounted gear. This paper will review where some of these tool are today and some of the pros and cons being considered for the future worker environment.