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Sample records for augmented space approach

  1. Study of the one-dimensional Holstein model using the augmented space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Atisdipankar [R.K.M.V.C. College, Rahara, 24 Parganas (North), West Bengal (India); Chakraborty, Monodeep [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Mookerjee, A. [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)]. E-mail: abhijit@bose.res.in

    2007-01-15

    A new formalism using the ideas of the augmented space recursion (introduced by one of us) has been proposed to study the ground state properties of ordered and disordered one-dimensional Holstein model. For ordered case our method works equally well in all parametric regime and matches with the existing exact diagonalization and DMRG results. On the other hand, the quenched substitutionally disordered model works in low and intermediate regime of electron phonon coupling. Effect of phononic and substitutional disorder is treated on equal footing.

  2. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties at rough and sharp transition metal–metal interfaces: An augmented space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, Priyadarshini [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Ganguli, Biplab, E-mail: biplabg@nitrkl.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.mookerjee61@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD-III Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Presidency University, College Street, Kolkata (India); Lady Brabourne College, Suhrawardy Avenue, Kolkata (India)

    2015-05-01

    The augmented space formalism (ASF) coupled with recursion method and a tight binding linear muffin-tin orbital basis has been applied to study the layerwise electronic and magnetic properties of (0 0 1) interfaces of body-centered cubic Fe/Ag and face centered cubic Co/Ag, Fe/Cu and Co/Cu. Three different thickness of interfaces are considered: mono, two and three layers of transition metals with metal substrates. Layers of an interface are considered disordered alloys with different degree of disorderedness due to interdiffusion of transition metal layer atoms and substrate atoms during growth process. We show that ASF is applicable to sharp interface also. Result of three layers of transition metal rough interface agrees well with available experimental result. - Highlights: • Study of rough interface of transition metals by augmented space formalism. • Same formalism is extended for nearly sharp interface. • Comparison is made for smooth, 1 layer and 4 layers roughed surfaces. • Layerwise magnetic moments and electronic properties are studied. • Rough interface with 3 layers of transition metals agrees with experiment.

  4. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hahn; Ben Ryckman; Maria Lux

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are ...

  5. Prototype Application of Portable Augmented Reality Technology for Enhancement of Space and Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this project, several different augmentation techniques for locating ground articles from distance through an augmented live view were investigated....

  6. An End User Development Approach for Mobile Web Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bosetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards mobile devices usage has made it possible for the Web to be conceived not only as an information space but also as a ubiquitous platform where users perform all kinds of tasks. In some cases, users access the Web with native mobile applications developed for well-known sites, such as, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter. These native applications might offer further (e.g., location-based functionalities to their users in comparison with their corresponding Web sites because they were developed with mobile features in mind. However, many Web applications have no native counterpart and users access them using a mobile Web browser. Although the access to context information is not a complex issue nowadays, not all Web applications adapt themselves according to it or diversely improve the user experience by listening to a wide range of sensors. At some point, users might want to add mobile features to these Web sites, even if those features were not originally supported. In this paper, we present a novel approach to allow end users to augment their preferred Web sites with mobile features. We support our claims by presenting a framework for mobile Web augmentation, an authoring tool, and an evaluation with 21 end users.

  7. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are normally shelved in the starting location but that are currently checked out. Using formative UX methods, grant staff shaped app interface and functionality through early user testing. This paper reports results of UX testing; a redesigned mobile interface, and provides considerations on the future development of personalized recommendation functionality.

  8. Augmenting Fellow Education Through Spaced Multiple-Choice Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Yun, Heather C

    2018-01-01

    . Fellows consistently indicated that the platform was "highly enjoyed," "beneficial," a "fun format," and "completely satisfied." Fellows additionally commented that they desired more questions and considered the platform helpful in board preparation. Formal survey data post-intervention found that the fellows were satisfied with the new approach, found it to be useful in board preparation, overall educational value, and in-line with their personal learning style (median Likert score of 4 for all queries). Fellows were satisfied with time commitment, spending a mean of 47 min on the spaced education curriculum questions per month. Introduction of a spaced education curriculum resulted in a sustained positive learner experience for >5 yr with demonstrated mastery of material. Spaced education learning is a viable addition to augment training experience, especially in areas of curricular gaps such as operational medicine. Correct answer data may also be useful to perform Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-required objective assessment of knowledge.

  9. Augmented reality approach for metabolic pathways teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vega Garzón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A glycolysis paper puzzle has been used as strategy to teach metabolic pathways, but this kind of game demands a higher number of instructors and limits the follow up of the students’ difficulties. A technology called Augmented Reality (AR was applied to enable the puzzle usage in large audiences, and to provid feedback to students and instructors. Drafted as flashcards readable by an app installed in tablets, it conveys information as molecules 3D-structure, clues for correct assembling of the metabolic pathway and results of student progression in the activity. Such technological improvement brought more autonomy to students for solving proposed exercises and an embedded performance data collection system helpful to understand,and after to unravel students’ difficulties.

  10. Towards augmented reality: The dialectics of physical and virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guga Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaces generated by new media technologies, no matter how abstract they may be, represent a qualitatively new form of the media environment. Moreover, they are integrated into everyday life in a way that they have become the constituents of social reality. Based on dualistic Cartesian understanding of real and virtual space, virtuality still carries a connotation of 'other' world, which is ontologically and phenomenologically different from 'reality'. However, virtuality as a characteristic of new media technologies should neither be equated with illusion, deception or fiction nor set in opposition to reality, given that it embodies real interactions. Instead, we could say that there are different types or levels of reality and that the virtual exists as reality qualitatively different from that of physical reality. Today, when every place on the planet, as well as social, political, and cultural activities, have their digital manifestations, can we still talk about virtual space as an isolated phenomenon? The ubiquitous use of new media technologies such as smartphones or wearables has profoundly transformed the experience of modern man. It is more and more determined by technologically mediated reality, i.e. augmented reality. In this regard, the key issues that will be addressed in this article are the ways technologically mediated spaces redefine not only the social relationships, but also the notions of identity, embodiment, and the self.

  11. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  12. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  13. Hands in space: gesture interaction with augmented-reality interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinghurst, Mark; Piumsomboon, Tham; Huidong Bai

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand (HIT Lab NZ) are investigating free-hand gestures for natural interaction with augmented-reality interfaces. They've applied the results to systems for desktop computers and mobile devices.

  14. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Hahn; Ben Ryckman; Maria Lux

    2015-01-01

    With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features...

  15. Mobile Platform Augmented Reality for Enhanced Operations on the International Space Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To develop an Augmented Reality system that runs on a small portable device to aid crew in routine maintenance activities by providing enhanced information and...

  16. Augmenting Space Technology Program Management with Secure Cloud & Mobile Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Munk, Christopher; Helble, Adelle; Press, Martin T.; George, Cory; Johnson, David

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Game Changing Development (GCD) program manages technology projects across all NASA centers and reports to NASA headquarters regularly on progress. Program stakeholders expect an up-to-date, accurate status and often have questions about the program's portfolio that requires a timely response. Historically, reporting, data collection, and analysis were done with manual processes that were inefficient and prone to error. To address these issues, GCD set out to develop a new business automation solution. In doing this, the program wanted to leverage the latest information technology platforms and decided to utilize traditional systems along with new cloud-based web services and gaming technology for a novel and interactive user environment. The team also set out to develop a mobile solution for anytime information access. This paper discusses a solution to these challenging goals and how the GCD team succeeded in developing and deploying such a system. The architecture and approach taken has proven to be effective and robust and can serve as a model for others looking to develop secure interactive mobile business solutions for government or enterprise business automation.

  17. Modelling of Structural Loads in Drag Augmented Space Debris Removal Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm

    2017-01-01

    A Self-deployable Deorbiting Space Structure (SDSS) is used for drag augmented space debris removal. A highly flexible frame allows for a folding of the structure by bifurcation. This research models the structural loads during the deployment and unfolding of the drag sail in Low Earth Orbit (LEO...

  18. The anatomic approach to primary, revision and augmentation anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Schreiber, Verena M.; Liu, T. Thomas; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomic approach is gaining popularity in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. It is predominantly applied during primary ACL reconstruction. However, following the same principles as during primary surgery, the anatomic approach can also be applied during revision and augmentation

  19. A Rational Approach to Sinus Augmentation: The Low Window Sinus Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Zaniol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinus augmentation is a well-known approach to treating alveolar bone ridge atrophy in the posterior maxilla. The preparation of the lateral window is crucial. Its size, design, and position in the vestibular sinus wall may affect the intra- and postsurgical complication rates and affect the intrasurgical activity of both surgeons and assistants. The present paper describes a rational technique that also exploits the guided surgery approach for design and preparation of a lateral window for sinus augmentation, the Low Window Sinus Lift. To illustrate the use of this approach, a case is presented in which the 50-year-old patient had the left maxillary first molar extracted, followed two months later by sinus augmentation and placement of three implants. One year after delivery of the definitive prosthesis, all three implants were successful, and the prosthesis was fully functional. Controlled studies should be undertaken to assess whether this technique provides significant advantages compared to other sinus augmentation approaches.

  20. Magic cards: a new augmented-reality approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuynck, Olivier; Menendez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) commonly uses markers for detection and tracking. Such multimedia applications associate each marker with a virtual 3D model stored in the memory of the camera-equipped device running the application. Application users are limited in their interactions, which require knowing how to design and program 3D objects. This generally prevents them from developing their own entertainment AR applications. The Magic Cards application solves this problem by offering an easy way to create and manage an unlimited number of virtual objects that are encoded on special markers.

  1. Modelling of Structural Loads in Drag Augmented Space Debris Removal Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Nikolajsen, Jan Ánike; Lauridsen, Peter Riddersholm

    2017-01-01

    A Self-deployable Deorbiting Space Structure (SDSS) is used for drag augmented space debris removal. A highly flexible frame allows for a folding of the structure by bifurcation. This research models the structural loads during the deployment and unfolding of the drag sail in Low Earth Orbit (LEO......). The Spacecraft travels with 7.8 km/s at deployment. As the drag sail unfolds instantaneously the structure must withstand the loads from the unfolding and the drag. Thermal loads are included in the FEA as the temperature varies from -80°C to +80°C during deorbit. The results are used to verify the structural...

  2. Augmenting LTP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex by Spaced Paired Associative Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Lücke, Caroline; Lu, Ming-Kuei; Arai, Noritoshi; Fuhl, Anna; Herrmann, Eva; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Paired associative stimulation (PASLTP) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) can induce LTP-like plasticity by increasing corticospinal excitability beyond the stimulation period. Previous studies showed that two consecutive PASLTP protocols interact by homeostatic metaplasticity, but animal experiments provided evidence that LTP can be augmented by repeated stimulation protocols spaced by ~30 min. Here we tested in twelve healthy selected PASLTP responders the possibility that LTP-like plasticity can be augmented in the human M1 by systematically varying the interval between two consecutive PASLTP protocols. The first PASLTP protocol (PAS1) induced strong LTP-like plasticity lasting for 30-60 min. The effect of a second identical PASLTP protocol (PAS2) critically depended on the time between PAS1 and PAS2. At 10 min, PAS2 prolonged the PAS1-induced LTP-like plasticity. At 30 min, PAS2 augmented the LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS1, by increasing both magnitude and duration. At 60 min and 180 min, PAS2 had no effect on corticospinal excitability. The cumulative LTP-like plasticity after PAS1 and PAS2 at 30 min exceeded significantly the effect of PAS1 alone, and the cumulative PAS1 and PAS2 effects at 60 min and 180 min. In summary, consecutive PASLTP protocols interact in human M1 in a time-dependent manner. If spaced by 30 min, two consecutive PASLTP sessions can augment LTP-like plasticity in human M1. Findings may inspire further research on optimized therapeutic applications of non-invasive brain stimulation in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  3. The satellite based augmentation system – EGNOS for non-precision approach global navigation satellite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej FELLNER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First in the Poland tests of the EGNOS SIS (Signal in Space were conducted on 5th October 2007 on the flight inspection with SPAN (The Synchronized Position Attitude Navigation technology at the Mielec airfield. This was an introduction to a test campaign of the EGNOS-based satellite navigation system for air traffic. The advanced studies will be performed within the framework of the EGNOS-APV project in 2011. The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, is conducted according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. Definition of usefulness and certification of EGNOS as SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System in aviation requires thorough analyses of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability of SIS. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performance of EGNOS to analyze the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft. Location of the EGNOS monitoring station Rzeszów, located near Polish-Ukrainian border, being also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states is very useful for SIS tests in this area. According to current EGNOS programmed schedule, the project activities will be carried out with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow demonstrating the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications.

  4. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.

  5. A New Hybrid Approach for Augmented Reality Maintenance in Scientific Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance in scientific facilities is a difficult issue, especially in large and hazardous facilities, due to the complexity of tasks and equipment. Augmented reality is a technology that has already shown great promise in the maintenance field. With the help of augmented reality applications, maintenance tasks can be carried out faster and more safely. The problem with current applications is that they are small-scale prototypes that do not easily scale to large facility maintenance applications. This paper presents a new hybrid approach that enables the creation of augmented reality maintenance applications for large and hazardous scientific facilities. In this paper, a new augmented reality marker and the algorithm for its recognition is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is verified in three test cases, showing promising results in two of them. Improvements in robustness in the third test case in which the camera is moving quickly or when light conditions are extreme are subject to further studies. The proposed new approach will be integrated into an existing augmented reality maintenance system.

  6. Space Syntax Analysis: Tools for Augmenting the Precision of Healthcare Facility Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Ahmed Hassem; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews and addresses various spatial measures that provide and facilitate accurate descriptions of different layout typologies with particular focus on healthcare facilities. Evidence-based design is a field of study that emphasizes the importance of using credible data in order to influence the design process. It addresses whether/how the design and operation of buildings support positive health outcomes through a growing collection of solutions informed by research and practical knowledge. In order to acquire this knowledge, we must consider the environment in a very precise and measurable way, which can then be investigated quantitatively with regard to various human behaviors and cognitive processes. Space Syntax theory and methods are concerned with understanding how spaces are arranged and connected to one another. It provides quantitative measures of individual spaces and of the entire layout, thereby achieving great accuracy. Space Syntax researchers have used graph theory to define spatial measures and have produced computer tools to quantify the relational properties of spaces and to provide numerical and display values for each. Moreover, they have developed more precise tools that can be embedded within basic Space Syntax concepts in order to augment the credibility of the acquired data. The study elaborates on the effectiveness of Space Syntax and its newly developed measures for the field of healthcare facility design and research. We present a comprehensive model that brings together these measures with their correlated behavioral and perceptual consequences, thereby providing a point of departure for further investigation and exploration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  8. Configuration space as a means for augmenting human performance in teleoperation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanisevic, I; Lumelsky, V J

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers an approach to operator-guided real time motion control of robot arm manipulators that's based on the use of configuration space (C-space). The goal is to improve operator performance in a complex environment with obstacles, In such tasks, traditional teleoperation techniques, which are all based on control in work space (W-space), suffer from human errors tied to deficiencies in human spatial reasoning. The C-space approach transforms the problem into one humans are much better equipped to handle-moving a point in a maze-and results in a significant improvement in performance: shorter path, less time to complete the task, and virtually no arm-obstacle collisions. Versions of the approach are described for two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) tasks, and tools are developed to efficiently interface the human and machine intelligence. Effectiveness of the C-space approach is demonstrated by a series of experiments, showing an improvement in performance on the order of magnitude in the 2-D case and a factor of two to four in the 3-D case, compared to usual work space control.

  9. Real-Time Occlusion Handling in Augmented Reality Based on an Object Tracking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Guan, Tao; Wang, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    To produce a realistic augmentation in Augmented Reality, the correct relative positions of real objects and virtual objects are very important. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time occlusion handling method based on an object tracking approach. Our method is divided into three steps: selection of the occluding object, object tracking and occlusion handling. The user selects the occluding object using an interactive segmentation method. The contour of the selected object is then tracked in the subsequent frames in real-time. In the occlusion handling step, all the pixels on the tracked object are redrawn on the unprocessed augmented image to produce a new synthesized image in which the relative position between the real and virtual object is correct. The proposed method has several advantages. First, it is robust and stable, since it remains effective when the camera is moved through large changes of viewing angles and volumes or when the object and the background have similar colors. Second, it is fast, since the real object can be tracked in real-time. Last, a smoothing technique provides seamless merging between the augmented and virtual object. Several experiments are provided to validate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:22319278

  10. Periareolar augmentation mastopexy: A new approach dealing with the cases as tuberous breasts

    OpenAIRE

    Molt?-Garc?a, Roberto; Villaverde-Dom?nech, Mar?a Elo?sa; Gonz?lez-Alonso, Virina; Ripoll-Orts, Francisco; Simon-Sanz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periareolar augmentation mastopexy is one of the most demanded operations at Plastic Surgery clinics. Nevertheless, it is one of the leads of malpractice claims in United States caused by the high patient expectations and the standard surgical techniques which may result in common complications. The aim of this report is to present a new surgical approach to solve these complications. Methods: After establishing a working hypothesis, we performed a revision study of our patients a...

  11. Reducing the Schizophrenia Stigma: A New Approach Based on Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael D. de C.; Albuquerque, Saulo G. C.; Muniz, Artur de V.; Filho, Pedro P. Rebouças; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pinheiro, Plácido Rogerio; Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C.

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that usually manifests psychotic symptoms and affects an individual’s functionality. The stigma related to this disease is a serious obstacle for an adequate approach to its treatment. Stigma can, for example, delay the start of treatment, and it creates difficulties in interpersonal and professional relationships. This work proposes a new tool based on augmented reality to reduce the stigma related to schizophrenia. The tool is capable of simulating ...

  12. Electronic structure calculations with GPAW: a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkovaara, J.; Rostgaard, Carsten; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    challenges. In this article we present the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method as implemented in the GPAW program package (https://wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/gpaw) using a uniform real-space grid representation of the electronic wavefunctions. Compared to more traditional plane wave or localized basis set...

  13. Guided bone augmentation using ceramic space-maintaining devices: the impact of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderud J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Anderud,1,2 Peter Abrahamsson,2 Ryo Jimbo,1 Sten Isaksson,2 Erik Adolfsson,3 Johan Malmström,2 Yoshihito Naito,4 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Maxillofacial Unit Halmstad, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden; 3Swedish Ceramic Institute, IVF, Mölndal, Sweden; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate histologically, whether vertical bone augmentation can be achieved using a hollow ceramic space maintaining device in a rabbit calvaria model. Furthermore, the chemistry of microporous hydroxyapatite and zirconia were tested to determine which of these two ceramics are most suitable for guided bone generation. 24 hollow domes in two different ceramic materials were placed subperiosteal on rabbit skull bone. The rabbits were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the histology results were analyzed regarding bone-to-material contact and volume of newly formed bone. The results suggest that the effect of the microporous structure of hydroxyapatite seems to facilitate for the bone cells to adhere to the material and that zirconia enhance a slightly larger volume of newly formed bone. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that ceramic space maintaining devices permits new bone formation and osteoconduction within the dome. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, zirconia, guided bone regeneration, GBR, histology, membrane

  14. Exploring Parents' Conceptions of Augmented Reality Learning and Approaches to Learning by Augmented Reality with Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing attention to the role of parents in children's learning, what issues parents consider and how they behave when learning with their children when confronted with the emerging augmented reality (AR) technology may be worth exploring. This study was therefore conducted to qualitatively understand parents' conceptions of AR…

  15. Controlling Virtual Clouds and Making it Rain Particle Systems in Real Spaces Using Situated Augmented Simulation and Portable Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, N.; Lonergan, C. D.

    2012-07-01

    The research described in this paper reports on the design, rationale, development and implementation of a set of new geospatial interfaces that combine multi-touch interaction, portable virtual environments, 'geosimulation gaming', and mobile augmented reality. The result is a set of new ways for us to combine the capabilities of geospatial virtual environments, augmented realitiy and geosimulation. These new hybrid interfaces deliver new geospatial information experiences - new ways of connecting spatial data, simulations, and abstract concepts to real spaces. Their potential to enhance environmental perception and learning must be explored.

  16. CONTROLLING VIRTUAL CLOUDS AND MAKING IT RAIN PARTICLE SYSTEMS IN REAL SPACES USING SITUATED AUGMENTED SIMULATION AND PORTABLE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hedley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper reports on the design, rationale, development and implementation of a set of new geospatial interfaces that combine multi-touch interaction, portable virtual environments, 'geosimulation gaming', and mobile augmented reality. The result is a set of new ways for us to combine the capabilities of geospatial virtual environments, augmented realitiy and geosimulation. These new hybrid interfaces deliver new geospatial information experiences – new ways of connecting spatial data, simulations, and abstract concepts to real spaces. Their potential to enhance environmental perception and learning must be explored.

  17. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  18. Periareolar augmentation mastopexy: A new approach dealing with the cases as tuberous breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Molto-Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periareolar augmentation mastopexy is one of the most demanded operations at Plastic Surgery clinics. Nevertheless, it is one of the leads of malpractice claims in United States caused by the high patient expectations and the standard surgical techniques which may result in common complications. The aim of this report is to present a new surgical approach to solve these complications. Methods: After establishing a working hypothesis, we performed a revision study of our patients and we came to the following conclusion: in order to perform a periareolar mastopexy for ptosis correction, breast has to be tuberous at any level and to have abnormally short inferior pole. These findings may explain the main complications from periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the standard surgical techniques. Consequently, we started a prospective observational study including 56 patients following a new surgical technique which deals the cases as tuberous breasts. Results: During three years, fifty-six periareolar mastopexies were performed with this new surgical approach with one year follow-up. No major complications were observed and 40 of the patients (71% described the results as very positive. Conclusion: “If a periareolar mastopexy can be performed, then it must be a tuberous breast”. According to this, a new surgical technique for periareolar augmentation mastopexy has been developed obtaining an improvement in our surgical results and achieving a totally different view on this pathology, which has not been reported in literature yet.

  19. Periareolar augmentation mastopexy: A new approach dealing with the cases as tuberous breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltó-García, Roberto; Villaverde-Doménech, María Eloísa; González-Alonso, Virina; Ripoll-Orts, Francisco; Simon-Sanz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Periareolar augmentation mastopexy is one of the most demanded operations at Plastic Surgery clinics. Nevertheless, it is one of the leads of malpractice claims in United States caused by the high patient expectations and the standard surgical techniques which may result in common complications. The aim of this report is to present a new surgical approach to solve these complications. After establishing a working hypothesis, we performed a revision study of our patients and we came to the following conclusion: in order to perform a periareolar mastopexy for ptosis correction, breast has to be tuberous at any level and to have abnormally short inferior pole. These findings may explain the main complications from periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the standard surgical techniques. Consequently, we started a prospective observational study including 56 patients following a new surgical technique which deals the cases as tuberous breasts. During three years, fifty-six periareolar mastopexies were performed with this new surgical approach with one year follow-up. No major complications were observed and 40 of the patients (71%) described the results as very positive. "If a periareolar mastopexy can be performed, then it must be a tuberous breast". According to this, a new surgical technique for periareolar augmentation mastopexy has been developed obtaining an improvement in our surgical results and achieving a totally different view on this pathology, which has not been reported in literature yet.

  20. MODIFIED SINGLE ROLL FLAP APPROACH FOR SIMULTANEOUS IMPLANT PLACEMENT AND GINGIVAL AUGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The frequent result of tooth extraction is the resorption of the buccal alveolar wall and formation of I class (Siebert alveolar ridge defect. Another frequent problem in the implant surgery after the elevation of the standard full thickness flap is the choice of the exact vertical implant position to provide adequate biological width with 3mm keratinized soft tissue above a bone level implant. Nowadays the aim is to develop minimally invasive surgical approaches for other surgical applications. AIM: This presentation demonstrates the application of a newly modified, minimally invasive, single roll flap approach for simultaneous implant placement and gingival augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 47 years old patient presented with fractured left central incisor. A new surgical technique for simultaneous implant placement and gingival augmentation was applied. Buccal partial thickness flap was prepared with de-epithelization and roll flap elevation of the crestal keratinized tissue, thus forming new papillae and ensuring implant placement in the exact vertical position. After one week of healing the final screw retained restoration was placed. RESULT: The application of this newly developed by the author modification of the surgical protocol allowed precise implant placement consistent with the biological width requirements and simultaneously achieving buccal gingival augmentation. CONCLUSION: The proposed new surgical approach provides an opportunity for minimally invasive implant placement without periosteal elevation. The modified roll flap preserves the keratinized tissues of the alveolar ridge using them to provide adequate buccal soft tissue volume. Furthermore, this approach ensures precise selection of the optimal implant depth, thus providing maximal functional and aesthetic result.

  1. Electronic and magnetic properties of interfaces of Ni with Ag/Cu/Au substrates using augmented space formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, Priyadarshini; Ganguli, Biplab, E-mail: biplabg@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-02

    We model an interface of Ni as an alloy due to interdiffusion of atoms. Alloy composition is taken different at different layers. We observe significant effect of the interdiffusion on electronic and magnetic properties of each layer. These properties also depend on number of layers of Ni deposited on metal substrates. The study is density functional theory (DFT) based first principle calculation using augmented space formalism (ASF) coupled with recursion and tight binding linear muffin tin orbital (TB-LMTO) methods. The formalism is also extended to sharp interface when interdiffusion is negligible. - Highlights: • Effect of roughness on magnetic moments at Ni–metal interface is studied. • Roughness is considered due to interdiffusion of Ni and substrate atoms. • Study is carried out using augmented space formalism, recursion and TB-LMTO methods. • Our methodology is also applicable to almost sharp interfaces. • Magnetic moment is quite different for one and two layers of Ni on metal substrate.

  2. An economical approach to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teren, F.

    1978-01-01

    Projected energy demand for all NASA, DoD and civil missions for the time span 1981 to 1995 are illustrated. Typical energy cost range from about $300 to $2000 per kW-hr, with an average of about $800 per kW-hr for long-duration missions. At these levels, the cost of the required energy would be several billion dollars per year by about 1985 and might constrain the number and types of NASA programs to be carried out. NASA is extensively pursuing approaches for reducing nonrecurring costs. Two programs are presented for the development of an economical approach to space power systems. They are: (1) Economical Orbital Power (ECOP) with the objective to demonstrate the applicability of a commercial approach to the development of a low cost photovoltaic space power system; and (2) Space Power Experiment (SPEX) which has the objective to demonstrate the application of industrial hardware for space power systems.

  3. Performance analysis of IMU-augmented GNSS tracking systems for space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Markgraf, Markus; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    European space launch operators consider the potential of GNSS (global navigation satellite system) as a promising novel means of localization for the purpose of range safety of launch vehicles like Ariane and Vega, since it is expected that recurring costs are lower and accuracy is higher than currently existing systems like radar tracking. Range safety requires continuous information about the position and velocity of the launch vehicle to quickly detect the occurrence of catastrophic events. However, GNSS outages due, for example, to high jerks at fairing and stage jettisons or other external interferences like (un-)intentional jamming cannot be precluded. The OCAM-G experiment on Ariane 5 flight VA219 has provided evidence that GNSS is capable of providing a highly accurate position and velocity solution during most of the flight, but that outages of several seconds do occur. To increase the continuity of a GNSS-based localization system, it is proposed that the GNSS receiver is augmented by an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is able to output a position and velocity solution even during GNSS outages. Since these outages are expected to be short, a tactical- or even consumer-grade IMU is expected to be sufficient. In this paper, the minimum IMU performance that is required to bridge outages of up to 10 s, and thereby meeting the accuracy requirements of range safety, is determined by means of a thorough simulation study. The focus of the analysis is on current generation microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based IMU, which is lightweight, low-cost, available commercially and has reached acceptable maturity in the last decade.

  4. Human-Robot Collaboration: A Literature Review and Augmented Reality Approach in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Green

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available NASA?s vision for space exploration stresses the cultivation of human-robotic systems. Similar systems are also envisaged for a variety of hazardous earthbound applications such as urban search and rescue. Recent research has pointed out that to reduce human workload, costs, fatigue driven error and risk, intelligent robotic systems will need to be a significant part of mission design. However, little attention has been paid to joint human-robot teams. Making human-robot collaboration natural and efficient is crucial. In particular, grounding, situational awareness, a common frame of reference and spatial referencing are vital in effective communication and collaboration. Augmented Reality (AR, the overlaying of computer graphics onto the real worldview, can provide the necessary means for a human-robotic system to fulfill these requirements for effective collaboration. This article reviews the field of human-robot interaction and augmented reality, investigates the potential avenues for creating natural human-robot collaboration through spatial dialogue utilizing AR and proposes a holistic architectural design for human-robot collaboration.

  5. Human-Robot Collaboration: A Literature Review and Augmented Reality Approach in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Green

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available NASA's vision for space exploration stresses the cultivation of human-robotic systems. Similar systems are also envisaged for a variety of hazardous earthbound applications such as urban search and rescue. Recent research has pointed out that to reduce human workload, costs, fatigue driven error and risk, intelligent robotic systems will need to be a significant part of mission design. However, little attention has been paid to joint human-robot teams. Making human-robot collaboration natural and efficient is crucial. In particular, grounding, situational awareness, a common frame of reference and spatial referencing are vital in effective communication and collaboration. Augmented Reality (AR, the overlaying of computer graphics onto the real worldview, can provide the necessary means for a human-robotic system to fulfill these requirements for effective collaboration. This article reviews the field of human-robot interaction and augmented reality, investigates the potential avenues for creating natural human-robot collaboration through spatial dialogue utilizing AR and proposes a holistic architectural design for human-robot collaboration.

  6. An implementation of core level spectroscopies in a real space Projector Augmented Wave density functional theory code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, M.P.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of K-shell core level spectroscopies (X-ray absorption (XAS), X-ray emission (XES), and X-ray photoemission (XPS)) in the real-space-grid-based Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) GPAW code. The implementation for XAS is based on the Haydock recursion method avoiding...... computation of unoccupied states. The absolute energy scale is computed with the Delta Kohn–Sham method which is possible using specific PAW setups for the core-hole states. We show computed spectra for selected test cases (gas phase H2O and bulk diamond) and discuss the dependence on grid spacing and box...

  7. Engaging Our School Teachers: an Augmented Reality (AR Approach to Continuous Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Holley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, teachers in the UK learn about behaviour management strategies from theoretical perspectives when training, through discussions with mentors, and by trial and error at their schools. Existing literature mainly focuses on such issues from the ‘adult’ viewpoint, not the voice of the child. This paper reports on work-in-progress developing a range of Augmented Reality (AR resources for these issues, drawing upon co-design research workshops with children from a Year 6 class (aged 10 in a UK Primary School. Our research informs approaches to classroom management by encouraging reflection and analysis of ‘critical incidents’ identified by the pupils, and explored by teachers in workshops through the medium of AR, giving a reality previously uncaptured in more traditional approaches. Our final resources will be a set of Open Education Resources (OER, offered to the wider community for reuse/repurposing for educational settings through a Creative Commons (cc licence.

  8. Cosmonaut Krikalev Views Approaching Space Shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev, flight engineer for Expedition One, is positioned by a porthole aboard the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS) as the Space Shuttle Atlantis approaches for docking to begin several days of joint activities between the two crews. Visible through the window are the crew cabin and forward section of the Shuttle amidst scattered clouds above the Western Pacific. The aft part of the cargo bay stowing the Destiny Laboratory is not visible in this scene.

  9. The Supra-Inframammary Fold Approach to Breast Augmentation: Avoiding a Double Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Swanson, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:. The inframammary incision for breast augmentation is commonly made at or below the existing inframammary fold (IMF in an effort to keep the scar in the crease. In recent studies, surgeons inferiorly relocate the IMF, center the implant at nipple level, and attempt to secure the new IMF with sutures. The fascial attachments (also called ligaments holding the IMF are released, risking a bottoming-out deformity or a double bubble. Methods:. This retrospective study evaluated 160 consecutive women undergoing primary subpectoral breast augmentation. An incision was made 0.5–1.0 cm above the IMF. Dissection proceeded directly to the pectoralis margin, preserving IMF fascial attachments. The pectoralis origin was released from the lower sternum. Surveys were administered to obtain patient-reported outcome data. Ninety-eight patients (61% participated. Results:. Implants often appear high on the chest at early follow-up appointments but gradually settle. One patient (0.6% developed a double bubble. No reoperations were needed for implant malposition. One patient had a mild animation deformity. There were no cases of symmastia. The mean result rating was 9.1/10. Four percent of surveyed patients found their implants too high; 8% found them too low. Ninety-two patients (94% reported that their scars were well-hidden. Ninety-six women (98% said that they would redo the surgery. Conclusions:. A supra-IMF approach anticipates the normal descent of implants after augmentation. Scars remain hidden both in standing and supine positions. This method reduces the short-term risk of reoperation for implant malposition or a double bubble.

  10. Measuring the Usability of Augmented Reality e-Learning Systems: A User-Centered Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragoş Daniel

    The development of Augmented Reality (AR) systems is creating new challenges and opportunities for the designers of e-learning systems. The mix of real and virtual requires appropriate interaction techniques that have to be evaluated with users in order to avoid usability problems. Formative usability aims at finding usability problems as early as possible in the development life cycle and is suitable to support the development of such novel interactive systems. This work presents an approach to the user-centered usability evaluation of an e-learning scenario for Biology developed on an Augmented Reality educational platform. The evaluation has been carried on during and after a summer school held within the ARiSE research project. The basic idea was to perform usability evaluation twice. In this respect, we conducted user testing with a small number of students during the summer school in order to get a fast feedback from users having good knowledge in Biology. Then, we repeated the user testing in different conditions and with a relatively larger number of representative users. In this paper we describe both experiments and compare the usability evaluation results.

  11. An Augmented Incomplete Factorization Approach for Computing the Schur Complement in Stochastic Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Petra, Cosmin G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable approach and implementation for solving stochastic optimization problems on high-performance computers. In this work we revisit the sparse linear algebra computations of the parallel solver PIPS with the goal of improving the shared-memory performance and decreasing the time to solution. These computations consist of solving sparse linear systems with multiple sparse right-hand sides and are needed in our Schur-complement decomposition approach to compute the contribution of each scenario to the Schur matrix. Our novel approach uses an incomplete augmented factorization implemented within the PARDISO linear solver and an outer BiCGStab iteration to efficiently absorb pivot perturbations occurring during factorization. This approach is capable of both efficiently using the cores inside a computational node and exploiting sparsity of the right-hand sides. We report on the performance of the approach on highperformance computers when solving stochastic unit commitment problems of unprecedented size (billions of variables and constraints) that arise in the optimization and control of electrical power grids. Our numerical experiments suggest that supercomputers can be efficiently used to solve power grid stochastic optimization problems with thousands of scenarios under the strict "real-time" requirements of power grid operators. To our knowledge, this has not been possible prior to the present work. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.

  13. Ab interno approach to the suprachoroidal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew K; Sarkisian, Steven R; Vold, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Although glaucoma filtration surgery options are generally effective means of surgically lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), complications have driven innovators to develop novel approaches to the lowering of IOP. Using the suprachoroidal space has been one novel way to avoid these complications. This article reviews how recent innovation has exploited this space to lower IOP. Dr. Sarkisian and Dr. Vold have received research support from Transcend Medical, Inc. and Glaukos Corp. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast Geodesic Active Fields for Image Registration Based on Splitting and Augmented Lagrangian Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosso, Dominique; Bresson, Xavier; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present an efficient numerical scheme for the recently introduced geodesic active fields (GAF) framework for geometric image registration. This framework considers the registration task as a weighted minimal surface problem. Hence, the data-term and the regularization-term are combined through multiplication in a single, parametrization invariant and geometric cost functional. The multiplicative coupling provides an intrinsic, spatially varying and data-dependent tuning of the regularization strength, and the parametrization invariance allows working with images of nonflat geometry, generally defined on any smoothly parametrizable manifold. The resulting energy-minimizing flow, however, has poor numerical properties. Here, we provide an efficient numerical scheme that uses a splitting approach; data and regularity terms are optimized over two distinct deformation fields that are constrained to be equal via an augmented Lagrangian approach. Our approach is more flexible than standard Gaussian regularization, since one can interpolate freely between isotropic Gaussian and anisotropic TV-like smoothing. In this paper, we compare the geodesic active fields method with the popular Demons method and three more recent state-of-the-art algorithms: NL-optical flow, MRF image registration, and landmark-enhanced large displacement optical flow. Thus, we can show the advantages of the proposed FastGAF method. It compares favorably against Demons, both in terms of registration speed and quality. Over the range of example applications, it also consistently produces results not far from more dedicated state-of-the-art methods, illustrating the flexibility of the proposed framework.

  15. Augmentation of Virtual Space Physics Observatory Services to Expand Data Access Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support the effort of Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) by developing services to expand the VSPO search capabilities, developing...

  16. Novel Approach in the Use of Plasma Spray: Preparation of Bulk Titanium for Bone Augmentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Fousova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal plasma spray is a common, well-established technology used in various application fields. Nevertheless, in our work, this technology was employed in a completely new way; for the preparation of bulk titanium. The aim was to produce titanium with properties similar to human bone to be used for bone augmentations. Titanium rods sprayed on a thin substrate wire exerted a porosity of about 15%, which yielded a significant decrease of Young′s modulus to the bone range and provided rugged topography for enhanced biological fixation. For the first verification of the suitability of the selected approach, tests of the mechanical properties in terms of compression, bending, and impact were carried out, the surface was characterized, and its compatibility with bone cells was studied. While preserving a high enough compressive strength of 628 MPa, the elastic modulus reached 11.6 GPa, thus preventing a stress-shielding effect, a generally known problem of implantable metals. U-2 OS and Saos-2 cells derived from bone osteosarcoma grown on the plasma-sprayed surface showed good viability.

  17. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time.

  18. Reducing the Schizophrenia Stigma: A New Approach Based on Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D. de C. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that usually manifests psychotic symptoms and affects an individual’s functionality. The stigma related to this disease is a serious obstacle for an adequate approach to its treatment. Stigma can, for example, delay the start of treatment, and it creates difficulties in interpersonal and professional relationships. This work proposes a new tool based on augmented reality to reduce the stigma related to schizophrenia. The tool is capable of simulating the psychotic symptoms typical of schizophrenia and simulates sense perception changes in order to create an immersive experience capable of generating pathological experiences of a patient with schizophrenia. The integration into the proposed environment occurs through immersion glasses and an embedded camera. Audio and visual effects can also be applied in real time. To validate the proposed environment, medical students experienced the virtual environment and then answered three questionnaires to assess (i stigmas related to schizophrenia, (ii the efficiency and effectiveness of the tool, and, finally (iii stigma after simulation. The analysis of the questionnaires showed that the proposed model is a robust tool and quite realistic and, thus, very promising in reducing stigma associated with schizophrenia by instilling in the observer a greater comprehension of any person during an schizophrenic outbreak, whether a patient or a family member.

  19. Reducing the Schizophrenia Stigma: A New Approach Based on Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael D. de C.; Albuquerque, Saulo G. C.; Muniz, Artur de V.; Filho, Pedro P. Rebouças; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that usually manifests psychotic symptoms and affects an individual's functionality. The stigma related to this disease is a serious obstacle for an adequate approach to its treatment. Stigma can, for example, delay the start of treatment, and it creates difficulties in interpersonal and professional relationships. This work proposes a new tool based on augmented reality to reduce the stigma related to schizophrenia. The tool is capable of simulating the psychotic symptoms typical of schizophrenia and simulates sense perception changes in order to create an immersive experience capable of generating pathological experiences of a patient with schizophrenia. The integration into the proposed environment occurs through immersion glasses and an embedded camera. Audio and visual effects can also be applied in real time. To validate the proposed environment, medical students experienced the virtual environment and then answered three questionnaires to assess (i) stigmas related to schizophrenia, (ii) the efficiency and effectiveness of the tool, and, finally (iii) stigma after simulation. The analysis of the questionnaires showed that the proposed model is a robust tool and quite realistic and, thus, very promising in reducing stigma associated with schizophrenia by instilling in the observer a greater comprehension of any person during an schizophrenic outbreak, whether a patient or a family member. PMID:29317860

  20. Measuring the Channels of Monetary Policy Transmission: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (Favar Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senbet Dawit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is more consensus on the effects of monetary policy than its transmission mechanism. Two channels of transmission mechanisms are the conventional interest rate channel and the credit channel. I investigate the channels of monetary policy transmission in the U.S. using the factor-augmented vector autoregressive (FAVAR models developed by Bernanke, Boivin & Eliasz (2005. The newly developed FAVAR approach allows the researcher to include all relevant macroeconomic variables in the model and analyze them. Therefore, the FAVAR models span a larger information set and generate better estimates of impulse response functions than the commonly used vector autoregressive (VAR models that utilize only 4–8 variables. I include 154 monthly U.S. time series variables for the period 1970–2014. The findings support the existence of the credit channel in the U.S. The conclusion remains the same when the non-borrowed reserve operating regime (October 1979–October 1982 is removed from the sample period.

  1. Reducing the Schizophrenia Stigma: A New Approach Based on Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael D de C; Albuquerque, Saulo G C; Muniz, Artur de V; Filho, Pedro P Rebouças; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Pinheiro, Plácido Rogerio; Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that usually manifests psychotic symptoms and affects an individual's functionality. The stigma related to this disease is a serious obstacle for an adequate approach to its treatment. Stigma can, for example, delay the start of treatment, and it creates difficulties in interpersonal and professional relationships. This work proposes a new tool based on augmented reality to reduce the stigma related to schizophrenia. The tool is capable of simulating the psychotic symptoms typical of schizophrenia and simulates sense perception changes in order to create an immersive experience capable of generating pathological experiences of a patient with schizophrenia. The integration into the proposed environment occurs through immersion glasses and an embedded camera. Audio and visual effects can also be applied in real time. To validate the proposed environment, medical students experienced the virtual environment and then answered three questionnaires to assess (i) stigmas related to schizophrenia, (ii) the efficiency and effectiveness of the tool, and, finally (iii) stigma after simulation. The analysis of the questionnaires showed that the proposed model is a robust tool and quite realistic and, thus, very promising in reducing stigma associated with schizophrenia by instilling in the observer a greater comprehension of any person during an schizophrenic outbreak, whether a patient or a family member.

  2. A learning performance study between the conventional approach and augmented reality textbook among secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Valarmathie; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu

    2016-08-01

    Malaysia is moving towards becoming a developed nation by 2020. As such, the need for adequate human resources in science-related fields is one of the requirements to achieve a developed nation status. Unfortunately, there is a downward trend in the number of students pursuing the science stream at the secondary school level. This paper introduces an enhanced science textbook using Augmented Reality (eSTAR) that is intended to motivate students to be interested in science. The eSTAR was implemented to provide a supplement to the conventional science teaching and learning methods in the secondary schools. A learning performance study with a control group was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the eSTAR for science learning among a sample of 140 Form Two secondary school students. The results indicate that the learning performance of the students in both groups had a significant difference in mean scores between the pre-test and post-test. Students using the eSTAR have a better score in the post-test and eventually resulted in a better learning performance compared to those who were exposed to the conventional science learning. Overall, the results show that the students benefited from the use of the conventional and eSTAR learning approaches.

  3. A Novel Approach on Designing Augmented Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Using Fuzzified Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I.

    This paper proposes a new methodology for designing Fuzzy Cognitive Maps using crisp decision trees that have been fuzzified. Fuzzy cognitive map is a knowledge-based technique that works as an artificial cognitive network inheriting the main aspects of cognitive maps and artificial neural networks. Decision trees, in the other hand, are well known intelligent techniques that extract rules from both symbolic and numeric data. Fuzzy theoretical techniques are used to fuzzify crisp decision trees in order to soften decision boundaries at decision nodes inherent in this type of trees. Comparisons between crisp decision trees and the fuzzified decision trees suggest that the later fuzzy tree is significantly more robust and produces a more balanced decision making. The approach proposed in this paper could incorporate any type of fuzzy decision trees. Through this methodology, new linguistic weights were determined in FCM model, thus producing augmented FCM tool. The framework is consisted of a new fuzzy algorithm to generate linguistic weights that describe the cause-effect relationships among the concepts of the FCM model, from induced fuzzy decision trees.

  4. Dissipative fragmentation in a phase space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.; Di Toro, M.; Bonasera, A.; Gregoire, C.; Gulminelli, F.

    Semi-classical approaches have evidenced the role of one and two-body dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions. On the other hand, a substantial energy dissipation and some angular momentum transfer have been observed at moderate energy where a fragmentation process is the dominant reaction mechanism. In order to analyse main features of these reactions, we developed a phenomenological model taking into account phase space constraints. The transition between deep inelastic collisions and abrasion-like fragmentation is described and a general agreement with available data is found.

  5. Quantitative analysis of transformed ray transferences of optical systems in a space of augmented Hamiltonian matrices*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for methods for quantitative analysis of the first-order optical character of optical systems including the eye and components of the eye.  Because of their symplectic nature ray transferences themselves are not closed under addition and multiplication by ascalar and, hence, are not amenable to conventional quantitative analysis such as the calculation of an arithmetic mean.  However transferences can be transformed into augmented Hamiltonian matrices which are amenable to such analysis.  This paper provides a general methodology and in particular shows how to calculate means and variance-covariances representing the first-order optical character of optical systems.  The systems may be astigmatic and may have decentred elements.  An accompanying paper shows application to the cornea of the human eye with allowance for thickness.

  6. Computing the Dilation of Edge-Augmented Graphs Embedded in Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Let G = (V,E) be an undirected graph with n vertices embedded in a metric space. We consider the problem of adding a shortcut edge in G that minimizes the dilation of the resulting graph. The fastest algorithm to date for this problem has O(n^4) running time and uses O(n^2) space. We show how...... to improve running time to O(n^3*log n) while maintaining quadratic space requirement. In fact, our algorithm not only determines the best shortcut but computes the dilation of G U {(u,v)} for every pair of distinct vertices u and v....

  7. Computing the dilation of edge-augmented graphs in metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be an undirected graph with n vertices embedded in a metric space. We consider the problem of adding a shortcut edge in G that minimizes the dilation of the resulting graph. The fastest algorithm to date for this problem has O(n4) running time and uses O(n2) space. We show how...... to improve the running time to O(n3logn) while maintaining quadratic space requirement. In fact, our algorithm not only determines the best shortcut but computes the dilation of G{(u,v)} for every pair of distinct vertices u and v....

  8. Semantics Enabled Queries in EuroGEOSS: a Discovery Augmentation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Mazzetti, P.; Fugazza, C.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Earth Science Informatics is to build interoperability frameworks which allow users to discover, evaluate, and use information from different scientific domains. This needs to address multidisciplinary interoperability challenges concerning both technological and scientific aspects. From the technological point of view, it is necessary to provide a set of special interoperability arrangement in order to develop flexible frameworks that allow a variety of loosely-coupled services to interact with each other. From a scientific point of view, it is necessary to document clearly the theoretical and methodological assumptions underpinning applications in different scientific domains, and develop cross-domain ontologies to facilitate interdisciplinary dialogue and understanding. In this presentation we discuss a brokering approach that extends the traditional Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) adopted by most Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) to provide the necessary special interoperability arrangements. In the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (A European approach to GEOSS) project, we distinguish among three possible functional brokering components: discovery, access and semantics brokers. This presentation focuses on the semantics broker, the Discovery Augmentation Component (DAC), which was specifically developed to address the three thematic areas covered by the EuroGEOSS project: biodiversity, forestry and drought. The EuroGEOSS DAC federates both semantics (e.g. SKOS repositories) and ISO-compliant geospatial catalog services. The DAC can be queried using common geospatial constraints (i.e. what, where, when, etc.). Two different augmented discovery styles are supported: a) automatic query expansion; b) user assisted query expansion. In the first case, the main discovery steps are: i. the query keywords (the what constraint) are “expanded” with related concepts/terms retrieved from the set of federated semantic services. A default expansion

  9. An integrated approach to endoscopic instrument tracking for augmented reality applications in surgical simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Constantinos; Lahanas, Vasileios; Georgiou, Evangelos

    2013-12-01

    Despite the popular use of virtual and physical reality simulators in laparoscopic training, the educational potential of augmented reality (AR) has not received much attention. A major challenge is the robust tracking and three-dimensional (3D) pose estimation of the endoscopic instrument, which are essential for achieving interaction with the virtual world and for realistic rendering when the virtual scene is occluded by the instrument. In this paper we propose a method that addresses these issues, based solely on visual information obtained from the endoscopic camera. Two different tracking algorithms are combined for estimating the 3D pose of the surgical instrument with respect to the camera. The first tracker creates an adaptive model of a colour strip attached to the distal part of the tool (close to the tip). The second algorithm tracks the endoscopic shaft, using a combined Hough-Kalman approach. The 3D pose is estimated with perspective geometry, using appropriate measurements extracted by the two trackers. The method has been validated on several complex image sequences for its tracking efficiency, pose estimation accuracy and applicability in AR-based training. Using a standard endoscopic camera, the absolute average error of the tip position was 2.5 mm for working distances commonly found in laparoscopic training. The average error of the instrument's angle with respect to the camera plane was approximately 2°. The results are also supplemented by video segments of laparoscopic training tasks performed in a physical and an AR environment. The experiments yielded promising results regarding the potential of applying AR technologies for laparoscopic skills training, based on a computer vision framework. The issue of occlusion handling was adequately addressed. The estimated trajectory of the instruments may also be used for surgical gesture interpretation and assessment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  11. Fiia: A Model-Based Approach to Engineering Collaborative Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Smith, J. David; Phillips, W. Greg; Graham, T. C. Nicholas

    Augmented reality systems often involve collaboration among groups of people. While there are numerous toolkits that aid the development of such augmented reality groupware systems (e.g., ARToolkit and Groupkit), there remains an enormous gap between the specification of an AR groupware application and its implementation. In this chapter, we present Fiia, a toolkit which simplifies the development of collaborative AR applications. Developers specify the structure of their applications using the Fiia modeling language, which abstracts details of networking and provides high-level support for specifying adapters between the physical and virtual world. The Fiia.Net runtime system then maps this conceptual model to a runtime implementation. We illustrate Fiia via Raptor, an augmented reality application used to help small groups collaboratively prototype video games.

  12. Space Sustainment: A New Approach for America in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    permeate all aspects of US policy, yet the history of American activity in space seems to indicate otherwise. Accessing and exploiting space involves...highly specialized technologies, astronomi - cally high costs, and considerable risk of failure. In the formative years for space, these...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing

  13. Augmenting the Thermal Flux Experiment: A Mixed Reality Approach with the HoloLens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted…

  14. Augmenting the Thermal Flux Experiment: A Mixed Reality Approach with the HoloLens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted…

  15. Communicative Competence Inventory for Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Douglas, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) represent a heterogonous group with complex communication needs. AAC--including aided communication means (e.g., pictures, devices) and unaided (e.g., signs, gestures)--is often used to support students who have difficulties with speech production, language comprehension, and…

  16. Augmented chaos-multiple linear regression approach for prediction of wave parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ghorbani

    2017-06-01

    The inter-comparisons demonstrated that the Chaos-MLR and pure MLR models yield almost the same accuracy in predicting the significant wave heights and the zero-up-crossing wave periods. Whereas, the augmented Chaos-MLR model is performed better results in term of the prediction accuracy vis-a-vis the previous prediction applications of the same case study.

  17. Real-space grid implementation of the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    valence wave functions that can be represented on relatively coarse grids. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by calculating the atomization energies of 20 small molecules, and the bulk modulus and lattice constants of bulk aluminum. We show that the approach in terms of computational efficiency...

  18. A piloted simulator investigation of static stability and stability/control augmentation effects on helicopter handling qualities for instrument approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Forrest, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A ground simulator experiment was conducted on the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft at Ames Research Center to investigate the influence of several static stability and stability/control augmentation design parameters on helicopter flying qualities during terminal area operations in instrument conditions. Effects of light turbulence were included. Two levels of static stability in each rotational axis (pitch, roll, yaw) were examined for a hingeless rotor configuration. The variations in pitch and roll were: (1) stable and (2) neutral static stability; in yaw there were two stable levels. Four types of stability/control augmentation were also examined for the lower level of static stability in each axis. This latter investigation covered three helicopter rotor types: hingeless, articulated, and teetering. Four pilots performed a total of 105 evaluations of these parameters for a representative VOR instrument approach task. Pilot rating results indicate the acceptability of neutral static stability longitudinally and laterally and the need for pitch-roll attitude augmentation to achieve a satisfactory system.

  19. SPACE Approach to Concrete's Space Structure and its Mechanical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Stroeven, M.

    2001-01-01

    Structural properties of particulate materials can be described in densities of the particle packing, more generally denoted as particle composition. Obviously, this global measure does not offer information on the way particles are mutually arranged in space. This is associated with particle

  20. GyroWand: An Approach to IMU-Based Raycasting for Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Ramos, Juan David; Özacar, Kasim; Irani, Pourang P; Kitamura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays enable augmented reality (AR) applications that display virtual objects overlaid on the real world. At the core of this new generation of devices are low-cost tracking technologies that allow us to interpret users' motion in the real world in relation to the virtual content for the purposes of navigation and interaction. The advantages of pervasive tracking come at the cost of limiting interaction possibilities, however. To address these challenges the authors introduce GyroWand, a raycasting technique for AR HMDs using inertial measurement unit (IMU) rotational data from a handheld controller.

  1. Real Space Approach to CMB deboosting

    CERN Document Server

    Yoho, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn D.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of our Galaxy's motion through the Cosmic Microwave Background rest frame, which aberrates and Doppler shifts incoming photons measured by current CMB experiments, has been shown to produce mode-mixing in the multipole space temperature coefficients. However, multipole space determinations are subject to many difficulties, and a real-space analysis can provide a straightforward alternative. In this work we describe a numerical method for removing Lorentz- boost effects from real-space temperature maps. We show that to deboost a map so that one can accurately extract the temperature power spectrum requires calculating the boost kernel at a finer pixelization than one might naively expect. In idealized cases that allow for easy comparison to analytic results, we have confirmed that there is indeed mode mixing among the spherical harmonic coefficients of the temperature. We find that using a boost kernel calculated at Nside=8192 leads to a 1% bias in the binned boosted power spectrum at l~2000, while ...

  2. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  3. The Feasibility of Flapless Approach to Sinus Augmentation Using an Implant Device Designed According to Residual Alveolar Ridge Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Better, Hadar; Chaushu, Liat; Nissan, Joseph; Xavier, Samuel; Tallarico, Marco; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2017-12-18

    Hydraulic sinus lift and augmentation may be successfully performed using a dedicated implant device designed according to residual bone height (RBH). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a flapless surgical approach might negatively influence the outcome. A total of 40 consecutive patients (16 men and 24 women) were included in the study, 20 in each group (minimal flap/control versus flapless/study). Inclusion criteria were ≥ 3 mm RBH, ≥ 6 mm width of the residual alveolar ridge according to preoperative cone beam computerized tomography, and ≥ 8 mm buccopalatal keratinized gingiva for the flapless group. Primary outcome parameters included intraoperative membrane perforation. Secondary outcome parameters included postoperative infection, soft tissue healing, bone gain, and short-term dental implant survival. Mean RBH was 4.6 mm. No intraoperative membrane perforations and no postoperative infections were observed. Mean bone gain height was similar for both groups, at 11 mm. Soft tissue healing was observed within 2 months. In all cases, second-stage surgery allowed generation of at least 2 mm of keratinized gingiva buccally. All implants were osseointegrated at second-stage surgery. The use of a flapless approach to maxillary sinus augmentation using an implant device based on RBH yields predictable results.

  4. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  5. Total variation regularization for nonlinear fluorescence tomography with an augmented Lagrangian splitting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Manuel; Clason, Christian; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescence tomography is an imaging modality that seeks to reconstruct the distribution of fluorescent dyes inside a highly scattering sample from light measurements on the boundary. Using common inversion methods with L(2) penalties typically leads to smooth reconstructions, which degrades the obtainable resolution. The use of total variation (TV) regularization for the inverse model is investigated. To solve the inverse problem efficiently, an augmented Lagrange method is utilized that allows separating the Gauss-Newton minimization from the TV minimization. Results on noisy simulation data provide evidence that the reconstructed inclusions are much better localized and that their half-width measure decreases by at least 25% compared to ordinary L(2) reconstructions.

  6. The implementation of an AR (augmented reality) approach to support mammographic interpretation training: an initial feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2017-03-01

    Appropriate feedback plays an important role in optimising mammographic interpretation training whilst also ensuring good interpretation performance. The traditional keyboard, mouse and workstation technical approach has a critical limitation in providing supplementary image-related information and providing complex feedback in real time. Augmented Reality (AR) provides a possible superior approach in this situation, as feedback can be provided directly overlaying the displayed mammographic images so making a generic approach which can also be vendor neutral. In this study, radiological feedback was dynamically remapped virtually into the real world, using perspective transformation, in order to provide a richer user experience in mammographic interpretation training. This is an initial attempt of an AR approach to dynamically superimpose pre-defined feedback information of a DICOM image on top of a radiologist's view, whilst the radiologist is examining images on a clinical workstation. The study demonstrates the feasibility of the approach, although there are limitations on interactive operations which are due to the hardware used. The results of this fully functional approach provide appropriate feedback/image correspondence in a simulated mammographic interpretation environment. Thus, it is argued that employing AR is a feasible way to provide rich feedback in the delivery of mammographic interpretation training.

  7. A vector space approach to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hausner, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of geometry and linear algebra on each other receive close attention in this examination of geometry's correlation with other branches of math and science. In-depth discussions include a review of systematic geometric motivations in vector space theory and matrix theory; the use of the center of mass in geometry, with an introduction to barycentric coordinates; axiomatic development of determinants in a chapter dealing with area and volume; and a careful consideration of the particle problem. 1965 edition.

  8. Approach and Evaluation of a Mobile Video-Based and Location-Based Augmented Reality Platform for Information Brokerage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastageeri, H.; Storz, M.; Koukofikis, A.; Knauth, S.; Coors, V.

    2016-09-01

    Providing mobile location-based information for pedestrians faces many challenges. On one hand the accuracy of localisation indoors and outdoors is restricted due to technical limitations of GPS and Beacons. Then again only a small display is available to display information as well as to develop a user interface. Plus, the software solution has to consider the hardware characteristics of mobile devices during the implementation process for aiming a performance with minimum latency. This paper describes our approach by including a combination of image tracking and GPS or Beacons to ensure orientation and precision of localisation. To communicate the information on Points of Interest (POIs), we decided to choose Augmented Reality (AR). For this concept of operations, we used besides the display also the acceleration and positions sensors as a user interface. This paper especially goes into detail on the optimization of the image tracking algorithms, the development of the video-based AR player for the Android platform and the evaluation of videos as an AR element in consideration of providing a good user experience. For setting up content for the POIs or even generate a tour we used and extended the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML).

  9. APPROACH AND EVALUATION OF A MOBILE VIDEO-BASED AND LOCATION-BASED AUGMENTED REALITY PLATFORM FOR INFORMATION BROKERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dastageeri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing mobile location-based information for pedestrians faces many challenges. On one hand the accuracy of localisation indoors and outdoors is restricted due to technical limitations of GPS and Beacons. Then again only a small display is available to display information as well as to develop a user interface. Plus, the software solution has to consider the hardware characteristics of mobile devices during the implementation process for aiming a performance with minimum latency. This paper describes our approach by including a combination of image tracking and GPS or Beacons to ensure orientation and precision of localisation. To communicate the information on Points of Interest (POIs, we decided to choose Augmented Reality (AR. For this concept of operations, we used besides the display also the acceleration and positions sensors as a user interface. This paper especially goes into detail on the optimization of the image tracking algorithms, the development of the video-based AR player for the Android platform and the evaluation of videos as an AR element in consideration of providing a good user experience. For setting up content for the POIs or even generate a tour we used and extended the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standard Augmented Reality Markup Language (ARML.

  10. Everything Augmented: On the Real in Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Schraffenberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available What is augmented in Augmented Reality (AR? In this paper, we review existing opinions and show how little consensus exists on this matter. Subsequently, we approach the question from a theoretical and technology-independent perspective. We identify spatial and content-based relationships between the virtual and the real as being decisive for AR and come to the conclusion that virtual content augments that to which it relates. Subsequently, we categorize different forms of AR based on what is augmented. We distinguish between augmented environments, augmented objects, augmented humans and augmented content and consider the possibility of augmented perception. The categories are illustrated with AR (art works and conceptual differences between them are pointed out. Moreover, we discuss what the real contributes to AR and how it can shape (future AR experiences. A summary of our findings and suggestions for future research and practice, such as research into multimodal and crossmodal AR, conclude the paper.

  11. Automatic localization of endoscope in intraoperative CT image: A simple approach to augmented reality guidance in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Sylvain; Nicolau, Stéphane A; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Doignon, Christophe; Marescaux, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    The use of augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery has been the subject of much research for more than a decade. The endoscopic view of the surgical scene is typically augmented with a 3D model extracted from a preoperative acquisition. However, the organs of interest often present major changes in shape and location because of the pneumoperitoneum and patient displacement. There have been numerous attempts to compensate for this distortion between the pre- and intraoperative states. Some have attempted to recover the visible surface of the organ through image analysis and register it to the preoperative data, but this has proven insufficiently robust and may be problematic with large organs. A second approach is to introduce an intraoperative 3D imaging system as a transition. Hybrid operating rooms are becoming more and more popular, so this seems to be a viable solution, but current techniques require yet another external and constraining piece of apparatus such as an optical tracking system to determine the relationship between the intraoperative images and the endoscopic view. In this article, we propose a new approach to automatically register the reconstruction from an intraoperative CT acquisition with the static endoscopic view, by locating the endoscope tip in the volume data. We first describe our method to localize the endoscope orientation in the intraoperative image using standard image processing algorithms. Secondly, we highlight that the axis of the endoscope needs a specific calibration process to ensure proper registration accuracy. In the last section, we present quantitative and qualitative results proving the feasibility and the clinical potential of our approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ginger augmented chemotherapy: A novel multitarget nontoxic approach for cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Roopali; Rida, Padmashree C G; Kucuk, Omer; Aneja, Ritu

    2016-06-01

    Cancer, referred to as the 'disease of civilization', continues to haunt humanity due to its dreadful manifestations and limited success of therapeutic interventions such as chemotherapy in curing the disease. Although effective, chemotherapy has repeatedly demonstrated inadequacy in disease management due to its debilitating side effects arising from its deleterious nonspecific effects on normal healthy cells. In addition, development of chemoresistance due to mono-targeting often results in cessation of chemotherapy. This urgently demands development and implementation of multitargeted alternative therapies with mild or no side effects. One extremely promising strategy that yet remains untapped in the clinic is augmenting chemotherapy with dietary phytochemicals or extracts. Ginger, depository of numerous bioactive molecules, not only targets cancer cells but can also mitigate chemotherapy-associated side effects. Consequently, combination therapy involving ginger extract and chemotherapeutic agents may offer the advantage of being efficacious with reduced toxicity. Here we discuss the remarkable and often overlooked potential of ginger extract to manage cancer, the possibility of developing ginger-based combinational therapies, and the major roadblocks along with strategies to overcome them in clinical translation of such inventions. We are optimistic that clinical implementation of such combination regimens would be a much sought after modality in cancer management. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A framework-based approach to designing simulation-augmented surgical education and training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Moussa, Fuad; Dubrowski, Adam

    2011-09-01

    The goal of simulation-based medical education and training is to help trainees acquire and refine the technical and cognitive skills necessary to perform clinical procedures. When designers incorporate simulation into programs, their efforts should be in line with training needs, rather than technology. Designers of simulation-augmented surgical training programs, however, face particular problems related to identifying a framework that guides the curricular design activity to fulfill the particular requirements of such training programs. These problems include the lack of (1) an objective identification of training needs, (2) a systematic design methodology to match training objectives with simulation resources, (3) structured assessments of performance, and (4) a research-centered view to evaluate and validate systematically the educational effectiveness of the program. In this report, we present a process called "Aim - FineTune - FollowThrough" to enable the connection of the identified problems to solutions, using frameworks from psychology, motor learning, education and experimental design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Augmenting the thermal flux experiment: A mixed reality approach with the HoloLens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzys, M. P.; Kapp, S.; Thees, M.; Kuhn, J.; Lukowicz, P.; Knierim, P.; Schmidt, A.

    2017-09-01

    In the field of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), technologies have made huge progress during the last years and also reached the field of education. The virtuality continuum, ranging from pure virtuality on one side to the real world on the other, has been successfully covered by the use of immersive technologies like head-mounted displays, which allow one to embed virtual objects into the real surroundings, leading to a Mixed Reality (MR) experience. In such an environment, digital and real objects do not only coexist, but moreover are also able to interact with each other in real time. These concepts can be used to merge human perception of reality with digitally visualized sensor data, thereby making the invisible visible. As a first example, in this paper we introduce alongside the basic idea of this column an MR experiment in thermodynamics for a laboratory course for freshman students in physics or other science and engineering subjects that uses physical data from mobile devices for analyzing and displaying physical phenomena to students.

  15. A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR READING URBAN OPEN SPACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Al-Bishawi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a methodological approach for reading and analyzing urban open spaces, based on the concept of behavioral setting, which deals with individuals and their behavior as a tool for reading the urban open space. The behavioral setting is defined as the smallest living entity in the physical environment and has three main components: physical (design, social (use and cultural (rules. Based on that, the urban open space, as a part of the physical environment, can be considered as either one setting or a system of settings, according to the activities that take place within it and the users who occupy it. The proposed methodological approach will be discussed through the theoretical analysis of various studies on the physical form of urban open spaces. The approach is expected to help planners and architects in developing and providing urban spaces that comply with people’s needs and values.

  16. Augmented reality haptic (ARH): an approach of electromagnetic tracking in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagador, J B; Sánchez, L F; Sánchez, J A; Bustos, P; Moreno, J; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2011-03-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a widely used surgical technique that requires a long training process due to its difficulty and complexity. We developed an Augmented Reality Haptic (ARH) System based on electromagnetic tracking devices for use in creation training models (computer-enhanced trainers), in computer-assisted surgery or telemanipulation applications. The ARH system consists currently in a Linux driver and a calibration protocol to acquire the tooltip position of conventional laparoscopic tools in real time. A Polhemus Isotrack(®) II was used to track surgical endoscopic tooltip movements. The receiver was mounted on the tool handle in order to measure laparoscopic tools positions without complex modifications. Two validation tests were done to guarantee the proper functioning of the ARH system in a MIS environment. The first one checks the driver operation and the second measures the accuracy and reliability of the tooltip pose estimation process. Jitter and orientation errors for the first test were 2.00±0.10 and 2.00±0.09 mm, respectively. Relative position error of 0.25±0.06 cm for a distance of 5 cm was found. Jitter error for the second test was 127 ± 60, 117 ± 40 and 122 ± 39 mm in Z, Y and X rotations, respectively. Results obtained with the ARH system are sufficiently accurate for use in MIS training. A supplementary correction procedure would be necessary to use this ARH system in computer-assisted surgery or telemanipulation.

  17. Robust control of UAVs using the parameter space approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelmoeti, Samer; Carloni, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a robust PID controller for quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed that uses the pa- rameter space approach. Stability and robustness analyses are carried out in the controller parameter space to determine a set of stable controller gains that guarantee also robustness against

  18. Partial Differential Equations A unified Hilbert Space Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to a solution theory for linear partial differential equations developed in a Hilbert space setting based on a Sobolev Lattice structure, a simple extension of the well established notion of a chain (or scale) of Hilbert spaces. Thefocus on a Hilbert space setting is a highly adaptable and suitable approach providing a more transparent framework for presenting the main issues in the development of a solution theory for partial differential equations.This global point of view is takenby focussing on the issues involved in determining the appropriate func

  19. Tissue-specific endothelial cells: a promising approach for augmentation of soft tissue repair in orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaschi, Amir; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Wada, Susumu; Cong, Guang-Ting; Rodeo, Scott A

    2017-12-01

    Biologics are playing an increasingly significant role in the practice of modern medicine and surgery in general and orthopedics in particular. Cell-based approaches are among the most important and widely used modalities in orthopedic biologics, with mesenchymal stem cells and other multi/pluripotent cells undergoing evaluation in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. On the other hand, fully differentiated endothelial cells (ECs) have been found to perform critical roles in homeostasis of visceral tissues through production of an adaptive panel of so-called "angiocrine factors." This newly discovered function of ECs renders them excellent candidates for novel approaches in cell-based biologics. Here, we present a review of the role of ECs and angiocrine factors in some visceral tissues, followed by an overview of current cell-based approaches and a discussion of the potential applications of ECs in soft tissue repair. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Towards Pervasive Augmented Reality: Context-Awareness in Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2017-06-01

    Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.

  1. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris removal and flame augmentation additives in scramjets for the National Aerospace Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief description of the USRA-sponsored design project at the University of Arizona. Approximately eighty-percent of this effort was spent pursuing a novel engineering concept for the in-situ processing of orbital debris utilizing resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO); the other twenty-percent was devoted to discovering innovative additives for the anchoring of supersonic combustion zones that find direct use in the Aerospace Plane that is expected to use scramjets. The seriousness of the orbital debris problem is briefly described. Available 'solutions' are outlined from the literature. The engineering design is briefly mentioned, with an emphasis on the positive aspects of the space environment that should be used in an economical approach. The aspects of operating in microgravity, vacuum, and in utilizing solar energy are mentioned. A quantitative computer animation was developed to provide design data. Three specific dead spacecraft were identified for an initial cleanup mission. The design concept, which includes a solar processor, remote arm manipulators, and the gradual processing of the debris, is also described. This is followed by a description of hardware construction. Operation and actual processing of simulated debris parts (aluminum, for now) are demonstrated in the NASP task, construction of the new design for measuring the radiation from the key free radicals (as enhanced by the additives) is described. Immediate (1988) and long-range (through 1992) future plans are shown to clearly indicate the full engineering design strategy in the light of the national space program thrusts.

  2. Adaptive Augmented Reality: Plasticity of Augmentations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouaiel, Nehla; Cieutat, Jean-Marc; JESSEL, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; An augmented reality system is used to complete the real world with virtual objects (computer generated) so they seem to coexist in the same space as the real world. The concept of plasticity [4][5] was first introduced for Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It denotes the ability of an HCI interface to fit the context of use defined by the user, the environment and the platform. We believe that plasticity is a very important notion in the domain of augmented reality. T...

  3. Augmented reality implementation methods in mainstream applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on dif­ferent mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in this area is described. The last part of the article out­lines our implementation of key parts of the augmented reality application using the OpenCV library.

  4. MODIFIED SINGLE ROLL FLAP APPROACH FOR SIMULTANEOUS IMPLANT PLACEMENT AND GINGIVAL AUGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kamen Kotsilkov

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The frequent result of tooth extraction is the resorption of the buccal alveolar wall and formation of I class (Siebert) alveolar ridge defect. Another frequent problem in the implant surgery after the elevation of the standard full thickness flap is the choice of the exact vertical implant position to provide adequate biological width with 3mm keratinized soft tissue above a bone level implant. Nowadays the aim is to develop minimally invasive surgical approaches for ot...

  5. a Web Service Approach for Linking Sensors and Cellular Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikdag, U.

    2013-09-01

    More and more devices are starting to be connected to the Internet. In the future the Internet will not only be a communication medium for people, it will in fact be a communication environment for devices. The connected devices which are also referred as Things will have an ability to interact with other devices over the Internet, i.) provide information in interoperable form and ii.) consume /utilize such information with the help of sensors embedded in them. This overall concept is known as Internet-of- Things (IoT). This requires new approaches to be investigated for system architectures to establish relations between spaces and sensors. The research presented in this paper elaborates on an architecture developed with this aim, i.e. linking spaces and sensors using a RESTful approach. The objective is making spaces aware of (sensor-embedded) devices, and making devices aware of spaces in a loosely coupled way (i.e. a state/usage/function change in the spaces would not have effect on sensors, similarly a location/state/usage/function change in sensors would not have any effect on spaces). The proposed architecture also enables the automatic assignment of sensors to spaces depending on space geometry and sensor location.

  6. A State Space Approach to Canonical Factorization with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bart, Harm; Kaashoek, MA; Ran, Andre CM

    2010-01-01

    The present book deals with canonical factorization of matrix and operator functions that appear in state space form or that can be transformed into such a form. A unified geometric approach is used. The main results are all expressed explicitly in terms of matrices or operators, which are parameters of the state space representation. The applications concern different classes of convolution equations. A large part the book deals with rational matrix functions only.

  7. AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Bahn, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    Projektets grundlæggende idé er udvikling af visuel, æstetisk læring med Augmented Reality, hvor intentionen er at bidrage med konkrete undersøgelser og udforskning af begrebet Augmented Reality – herunder koblingen mellem det analoge og digitale i forhold til læring, multimodalitet og it...

  8. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  9. Socket augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shalu Chandna; Kimpreet Kaur; Navkiran Kaur; Anish Manocha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of dental implants have come to the forefront of modern odontology. A successful osseointegration demands an ideal quantity and quality of alveolar bone. Socket augmentation techniques are effective in minimizing postextraction alveolar ridge resorption. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on socket augmentation with special focus on its relation with implant.

  10. Socket augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Chandna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of dental implants have come to the forefront of modern odontology. A successful osseointegration demands an ideal quantity and quality of alveolar bone. Socket augmentation techniques are effective in minimizing postextraction alveolar ridge resorption. The aim of this paper is to review the available literature on socket augmentation with special focus on its relation with implant.

  11. Healthy campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Siu Yu Lau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the architectural and landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress alleviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives: healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches (landscape design, spatial design and green design are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.

  12. A groupoid approach to spaces of generalized connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhinho, J. M.

    2002-02-01

    The quantum completion Ā of the space of connections in a manifold can be seen as the set of all morphisms from the groupoid of the edges of the manifold to the (compact) gauge group. This algebraic construction generalizes an analogous description of the gauge-invariant quantum configuration space overlineA/ G of Ashtekar and Isham, clarifying the relation between the two spaces. We present a description of the groupoid approach which brings the gauge-invariant degrees of freedom to the foreground, thus making the action of the gauge group more transparent.

  13. Demystifying trans-axillary augmentation/periareolar mastopexy: a novel, two-stage, single-operation approach to management of the contralateral breast in implant reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Nina; Cordeiro, Christina N; McCarthy, Colleen M; Cordeiro, Peter G

    2011-04-01

    Following unilateral tissue expander/implant reconstruction, combined augmentation/mastopexy of the contralateral breast may be performed in an attempt to improve breast symmetry. Combined augmentation/mastopexy can be a very difficult operation, even for the surgeon with substantial experience. To simplify the technical approach to this complex problem, the senior author (PGC) has developed a 'two-stage, single-operation' approach. The purpose of this study is to review the safety and efficacy of this approach to the contralateral breast in the setting of unilateral, implant-based reconstruction. A retrospective review of all combined trans-axillary augmentation/periareolar mastopexies performed from 1998 to 2007 was undertaken. Only patients who had a history of prior unilateral mastectomy and immediate expander placement were included. Photographic documentation of long-term aesthetic results was evaluated by two independent observers. In total, 26 combined, trans-axillary augmentation/periareolar mastopexies were performed in patients, who had initiated unilateral, postmastectomy, tissue expander/implant reconstruction on the contralateral side. No patient desired revisional surgery for inadequate ptosis correction or malpositioning of the nipple. A total of 69% of patients had a 'very good to excellent' overall aesthetic result. Of those patients who were deemed to have a 'good' aesthetic result, the development of a capsular contracture in the reconstructed breast detracted from the overall aesthetics. The two-stage, single-operation approach to unilateral augmentation/mastopexy described here can produce a good aesthetic result and allow for adequate oncologic follow-up. In particular, excellent results are seen in patients with grade I or II ptosis and good-quality skin preoperatively. Monitoring of the breast for cancer, using mammography, is still possible with this technique. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic

  14. A Banach Space Regularization Approach for Multifrequency Microwave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Estatico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for microwave imaging of dielectric targets is proposed. It is based on a tomographic approach in which the field scattered by an unknown target (and collected in a proper observation domain is inverted by using an inexact-Newton method developed in Lp Banach spaces. In particular, the extension of the approach to multifrequency data processing is reported. The mathematical formulation of the new method is described and the results of numerical simulations are reported and discussed, analyzing the behavior of the multifrequency processing technique combined with the Banach spaces reconstruction method.

  15. Augmenting Tertiary Students' Soft Skills Via Multiple Intelligences Instructional Approach: Literature Courses in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sherief Eman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the twentieth century is a witness to an unprecedentedly soaring increase in the number of students joining the arena of higher education(UNESCO,2001. Currently, the number of students at Saudi universities and colleges exceeds one million vis-à-vis 7000 in 1970(Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, Washington. Such enormous body of learners in higher education is per se diverse enough to embrace distinct learning styles, assorted repertoire of backgrounds, prior knowledge, experiences, and perspectives; at this juncture, they presumably share common aspiration which is hooking a compatible post in the labor market upon graduation, and to subsequently be capable of acting competently in a scrupulously competitive workplace environment. Bunch of potentialities and skills are patently vital for a graduate to reach such a prospect. Such bunch of skills in a conventional undergraduate paradigm of education were given no heed, being rather postponed to the post-graduation phase. The current Paper postulated tremendous  merits of deploying the Multiple Intelligences theory as a project-based approach, within  literature classes in higher education; a strategy geared towards reigniting students’ engagement, nurturing their critical thinking capabilities, sustaining their individualistic dispositions, molding them as inquiry-seekers, and ending up engendering life-long, autonomous learners,  well-armed with the substantial skills for traversing the rigorous competition in future labor market.

  16. Augmenting nursing care quality and implementing change management in India: an amalgamated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkoo, Arvind Vashishta; Singh, Garima; Kaur, Ramanjeet; Chandra, Vidha; Masih, Leela; Chandra, Hem

    2013-11-01

    High dependency on nursing care in healthcare delivery systems in recent times has made the quality appraisal of nursing care even more imperative for nursing administrators. This study demonstrates the utility of a two-phase technique to identify the most significant shortcomings pertaining to nursing care delivery in general wards of a tertiary care hospital. The same could be used to set priorities. The first phase involved the use of the Delphi technique facilitating the experts to identify the major problems. The mean rank score was used for grading the problems. The second phase of the study involved getting direct feedback from the ward nurses. The sample size was 147 at a level of significance of 5%. Consensus was reached among experts on four problems that should galvanize nursing administration vis-à-vis quality improvement. The responses of ward nurses in the second phase gave a better insight into these problems. Identifying the existing problems and fostering a team spirit among all stakeholders hold the key in strategizing quality improvement in nursing care. Nursing administrators worldwide, after making suitable situation-specific customizations, may use this approach to realize both these objectives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tim N; Chikwem, Adaeze J; Solanki, Nehal R; Golemis, Erica A

    2014-10-01

    Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhan; Kao, Ming-Shan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Marito, Shinta; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-11-09

    Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  19. POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT AND USING OF VISUAL MEANS OF TEACHING INFORMATICS WITH THE APPLICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF AUGMENTED REALITY AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Гриншкун

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the need for and possibility of augmented reality technologies in teaching the course of computer science primary school, as well as the appropriateness of applying this technology in learning the subjects of Informatics that are traditionally difficult to understand and study student’s due to a lack of Visual learning tools. In conditions of informatization of education it is necessary to further improve methodical learning system course Informatics in primary school through evidence-based implementation of augmented reality technologies within specific approaches. The article offered two approaches to creating and using Visual learning tools Informatics using augmented reality technologies in primary school. The first approach is the creation of virtual models displayed on the material out of a real object. The second approach is the creation of a virtual information layer on a real object. Each of the approaches highlighted scope and limitation of use. This article provides examples of Visual teaching tools developed and training tasks in the framework of the proposed approaches, which are invariant in nature and do not depend on specific tools and technical implementation.

  20. A Precision Microbiome Approach Using Sucrose for Selective Augmentation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Fermentation against Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS. The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.

  1. Outlier Detection In Linear Regression Using Standart Parity Space Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Durdag, Utkan; Hekimoglu, Serif

    2013-04-01

    Despite all technological advancements, outliers may occur due to some mistakes in engineering measurements. Before estimation of unknown parameters, aforementioned outliers must be detected and removed from the measurements. There are two main outlier detection methods: the conventional tests based on least square approach (e.g. Baarda, Pope etc.) and the robust tests (e.g. Huber, Hampel etc.) are used to identify outliers in a set of measurement. Standart Parity Space Approach is one of the important model-based Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) technique that usually uses in Control Engineering. In this study the standart parity space method is used for outlier detection in linear regression. Our main goal is to compare success of two approaches of standart parity space method and conventional tests in linear regression through the Monte Carlo simulation with each other. The least square estimation is the most common estimator as known and it minimizes the sum of squared residuals. In standart parity space approach to eliminate unknown vector, the measurement vector projected onto the left null space of the coefficient matrix. Thus, the orthogonal condition of parity vector is satisfied and only the effects of noise vector noticed. The residual vector is derived from two cases that one is absence of an outlier; the other is occurrence of an outlier. Its likelihood function is used for determining the detection decision function for global Test. Localization decision function is calculated for each column of parity matrix and the maximum one of these values is accepted as an outlier. There are some results obtained from two different intervals that one of them is between 3σ and 6σ (small outlier) the other one is between 6σ and 12σ (large outlier) for outlier generator when the number of unknown parameter is chosen 2 and 3. The measure success rates (MSR) of Baarda's method is better than the standart parity space method when the confidence intervals are

  2. A simple coordinate space approach to three-body problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in a simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efficient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated by ...

  3. A simple coordinate space approach to three-body problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show how to treat the dynamics of an asymmetric three-body system consisting of one heavy and two identical light particles in a simple coordinate space variational approach. The method is constructive and gives an efficient way of resolving a three-body system to an effective two-body system. It is illustrated ...

  4. Cooperative synthesis of control and display augmentation for a STOL aircraft in the approach and landing task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Schmidt, David K.

    1988-01-01

    Application of the Cooperative methodology to synthesize control/display augmentation systems for the piloted longitudinal landing task with a modern, statically-unstable, fighter aircraft is considered. Starting with a control augmentation law which yields augmented vehicle dynamics that meet Level I handling qualities specifications, the effect of time-delay in the Head-up-display is studied using model-based criterion. This evaluation showed that even with 'good' conventional dynamics, a realistic value of display time-delay will cause significant deterioration in pilot workload and piloted-system performance. Application of the Cooperative methodology to control augmentation alone resulted in augmented vehicle dynamics which provide direct control of the flight path from the pilot stick. Analytical evaluation of these dynamics indicates that such dynamics might lead to improved pilot ratings over conventional dynamics, especially in the presence of time-delays in the system. Also, application of the methodology to simultaneous synthesis of control augmentation and flight director laws revealed that it might be advantageous to consider the control/display trade-off in the early design stages.

  5. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Besser, R.; Hejduk, M.

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for screening against the high accuracy catalog, then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is a primary source of state estimate uncertainty, and drag is directly governed by space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times, and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag), giving rise to several questions. Does a change in space weather make a close approach safer or riskier? Might performing a maneuver make the approach worse due to uncertainty in predicted location at a given time? What if there are errors in the predicted timing or magnitude of the space weather event? Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of drag perturbations on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction can become riskier or less risky. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag coefficient of the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the effect is likely to have on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, all of the observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  6. Nanotechnologies and regenerative medical approaches for space and terrestrial medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Tasciotti, Ennio; Fine, Daniel; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Sakamoto, Jason; Hu, Ye; Weiner, Bradley; Ferrari, Mauro; Parazynski, Scott

    2012-11-01

    One purpose of the International Space Station (ISS) is to explore powerful new areas of biomedical science in microgravity. Recent advances in nanotechnology applied to medicine--what we now refer to as nano-medicine--and regenerative medicine have enormous untapped potential for future space and terrestrial medical applications. Novel means for drug delivery and nanoscale screening tools will one day benefit astronauts venturing to Mars and places beyond, while the space laboratory will foster advances in nanotechnologies for diagnostic and therapeutic tools to help our patients here on Earth. Herein we review a series of nanotechnologies and selected regenerative medical approaches and highlight key areas of ongoing and future investigation that will benefit both space and terrestrial medicine. These studies target significant areas of human disease such as osteoporosis, diabetes, radiation injury, and many others.

  7. Alternative approaches to space-based power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Satellite Power Stations (SPS) would generate electrical power in space for terrestrial use. Their geosynchronous orbit location permits continuous microwave power transmission to ground receiving antenna farms. Eight approaches to the generation of the electrical power to be transmitted were investigated. Configurations implementing these approaches were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was baselined for each approach, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed, including the associated launches, orbital assembly, and maintenance operations. The required electric power charges to amortize these costs were calculated. They range from 26 to 82 mills/kWh (ground busbar).

  8. Augmented reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-01-01

    .... In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality...

  9. Breast Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... augmentation About Doctors & Departments Care at Mayo Clinic Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. The behavioral approach system and augmenting/reducing in auditory event-related potentials during emotional visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Fracasso, Francesca; Corr, Philip J

    2017-02-01

    In the recent Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ, Corr and Cooper, 2016) the behavioral approach system (BAS) has been conceptualized as multidimensional in which facets of reward interest and reactivity, and goal-drive persistence, are separate from impulsivity. Aim of the present work was to highlight the predictive power of BAS and its facets in differentiating electrocortical responses by using an auditory augmenting/reducing event-related potential (ERP) paradigm during emotional visual stimulation. ERPs were recorded for 5 levels of intensity in 39 women. The RST-PQ was used to measure the total BAS (T-BAS) and its four facets of Goal-Drive Persistence (GDP), Reward Interest (RI), Reward Reactivity (RR), and Impulsivity (IMP). T-BAS and RI, and to a less extent GDP and RR, were significantly associated with higher N1/P2 amplitudes at central sites (C3, Cz, C4) across neutral, positive and negative slides. Similar, but less pronounced relations were found for GDP and RR, but this relation was lacking for Imp facet. In addition, N1/P2 slope at central sites was positively correlated with T-BAS, GDP, RI, RR, but not Imp. Indeed, T-BAS facets failed to maintain a significant correlation with N1/P2 slope, after controlling for T-BAS residual scores, indicating that T-BAS drives these significant correlations. LORETA analysis at 219ms (P2 wave) from tone onset revealed a significant activation of the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40) and left anterior cingulate gyrus (BA32) in high T-BAS compared to low T-BAS participants. Results are discussed within a revised RST framework differentiating reward components from impulsivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  13. Augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  14. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  15. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  16. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A; Iurino, A; Settanni, G; Andrisani, A; Stifanelli, P F; Larizza, P; Mazzia, F; Mininni, R M; Tangaro, S; Bellotti, R

    2016-06-07

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  17. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  18. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, Matthew D.; Newman, Lauri K.; Besser, Rebecca L.; Pachura, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for conjunction assessment screening against the JSpOC high accuracy catalog and then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is the primary source of state estimate uncertainty. Drag magnitude and uncertainty is directly governed by atmospheric density and thus space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature, which do not perform well in prediction. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 (JBH09) atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag). Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of JBH09 model error on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction is likely to become riskier, less risky, or pass unaffected. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag situation for the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the range of possible effects on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, the different types of observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  19. Interactive and Immersive Practices; Critical Spatial Practices. The Augmented Reality of the Exhibition Space Pratiques interactives et immersives ; pratiques spatiales critiques. La réalité augmentée de l’espace d’exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mariani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of installations, as well as immersive and interactive spaces, in both art and science museums has accustomed the public to heightened interactivity, leading to a better understanding of social, natural and scientific phenomena. These spatial systems have also paved the way for the production of innovative environments within exhibition design. This article aims to present a brief overview of the origins of immersive and sensory practices at work in contemporary museums, and to evaluate the potential of these processes to generate critical thinking in the visitor. A concise description of the evolution of the operational and intellectual premise of these museums and their changing practices demonstrates the transformations that have occurred, their modalities, and their application in selected works, notably: The Weather Project by Olafur Eliasson presented at Tate Modern London; Diller + Scofidio’s media pavilion, Blur Building, in Yverdon-les-Bains in Switzerland; and the exhibition Sense of the City at the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal.La multiplication d’installations, d’espaces immersifs et interactifs dans les musées d’art et ensuite dans les musées de sciences, a accoutumé le public à interactivité augmentée favorisant la compréhension de phénomènes sociaux, naturels ou scientifiques. Ces systèmes spatiaux ont ainsi frayé la voie au développement de techniques de scénarisation environnementales. L’article vise à présenter succinctement les origines des pratiques immersives et sensorielles à l’œuvre dans l’espace muséal contemporain et à présenter le potentiel de ces processus à engendrer une réflexion, un raisonnement critique chez le visiteur. Une courte description de l’évolution des postures opérationnelles et intellectuelles du musée et de ces pratiques permettra d’en retracer la transformation, les modalités et l’application dans des œuvres, notamment l

  20. Urban green spaces assessment approach to health, safety and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Akbari Neisiani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city is alive with dynamic systems, where parks and urban green spaces have high strategic importance which help to improve living conditions. Urban parks are used as visual landscape with so many benefits such as reducing stress, reducing air pollution and producing oxygen, creating opportunities for people to participate in physical activities, optimal environment for children and decreasing noise pollution. The importance of parks is such extent that are discussed as an indicator of urban development. Hereupon the design and maintenance of urban green spaces requires integrated management system based on international standards of health, safety and the environment. In this study, Nezami Ganjavi Park (District 6 of Tehran with the approach to integrated management systems have been analyzed. In order to identify the status of the park in terms of the requirements of the management system based on previous studies and all Tehran Municipality’s considerations, a check list has been prepared and completed by park survey and interview with green space experts. The results showed that the utility of health indicators were 92.33 % (the highest and environmental and safety indicators were 72 %, 84 % respectively. According to SWOT analysis in Nezami Ganjavi Park some of strength points are fire extinguishers, first aid box, annual testing of drinking water and important weakness is using unseparated trash bins also as an opportunities, there are some interesting factors for children and parents to spend free times. Finally, the most important threat is unsuitable park facilities for disabled.

  1. Comparison of two Minkowski-space approaches to heavy quarkonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Sofia; Biernat, Elmar P. [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Li, Yang [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, IA (United States); College of William and Mary, Department of Physics, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P. [Iowa State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ames, IA (United States); Pena, M.T. [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Alfred [Universidade de Lisboa, CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade de Evora, Departamento de Fisica, Evora (Portugal)

    2017-10-15

    In this work we compare mass spectra and decay constants obtained from two recent, independent, and fully relativistic approaches to the quarkonium bound-state problem: the Basis Light-Front Quantization approach, where light-front wave functions are naturally formulated; and, the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST), based on a reorganization of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Even though conceptually different, both solutions are obtained in Minkowski space. Comparisons of decay constants for more than ten states of charmonium and bottomonium show favorable agreement between the two approaches as well as with experiment where available. We also apply the Brodsky-Huang-Lepage prescription to convert the CST amplitudes into functions of light-front variables. This provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the similarities and differences at the level of the wave functions. Several qualitative features are observed in remarkable agreement between the two approaches even for the rarely addressed excited states. Leading-twist distribution amplitudes as well as parton distribution functions of heavy quarkonia are also analyzed. (orig.)

  2. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  3. Containment and contouring (CoCoon) technique: a biologically adequate approach to less invasive autogenous preimplant augmentation of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Tehranchian, Shahram; Kokemüller, Horst; Suarez-Cunqueiro, Maria Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    We have analysed retrospectively whether the less invasive zygomatic buttress graft is able to meet the dimensional and biological requirements of preimplant augmentation of bone. A total of 273 patients were treated by zygomatic buttress graft, of whom 42 (12 men and 30 women) met the criteria for inclusion. Intensity of pain was judged by a visual analogue score (VAS). Complications of grafting were evaluated, and dental implants were studied on clinical and radiographic examinations. The Schneiderian membrane was perforated in 13 cases (28%). The mean (SD) postoperative VAS was 3.1 (0.9) at the donor site. The mean (SD) follow-up after implant was 17(8) months. Two grafts were lost, one from initial dehiscence and later infection, and the other from infection. The mean (SD) marginal resorption of bone graft was 0.5 (0.7) mm. No implant was lost during the observation period. The zygomatic buttress graft meets the biological and dimensional requirements of augmentation of bone before implant that allows the dental implants to survive with satisfactory prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extension of Space Food Shelf Life Through Hurdle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Sirmons, T. A.; Froio-Blumsack, D.; Mohr, L.; Young, M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.

  5. Mobile Collaborative Augmented Reality: The Augmented Stroll

    OpenAIRE

    Renevier, Philippe; Nigay, Laurence

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The paper focuses on Augmented Reality systems in which interaction with the real world is augmented by the computer, the task being performed in the real world. We first define what mobile AR systems, collaborative AR systems and finally mobile and collaborative AR systems are. We then present the augmented stroll and its software design as one example of a mobile and collaborative AR system. The augmented stroll is applied to Archaeology in the MAGIC (Mobile Augmente...

  6. Optical Approach to Augment Current Float Sensing Method of Determining Cryogen Fluid Height Within a Tank Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research, a small technology development company, has teamed with the University of Southern Mississippi Instrument and Cryogenics Research...

  7. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  8. Religion and Communication Spaces. A Semio-pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Odin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the reflection initiated in his book The Spaces of Communication, Roger Odin suggests a new distinction between physical communication spaces and mental communication spaces (spaces that we have inside us. The suggestion is exemplified by three film analyses dedicated to the relationships between religion and communication.

  9. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerla, F.

    2002-01-01

    , who can use it to prepare their lessons, retrieve information and organize the didactic material in order to support their lessons. We think it important to use a user centered "psychology" based on UM: we have to know the needs and expectations of the students. Our intent is to use usability tests not just to prove the site effectiveness and clearness, but also to investigate aesthetical preferences of children and young people. Physics, mathematics, chemistry are just some of the difficult learning fields connected with space technologies. Space culture is a potentially never-ending field, and our scope will be to lead students by hand in this universe of knowledge. This paper will present MARS activities in the framework of the above methodologies aimed at implementing a web based approach to integrate space culture and education. The activities are already in progress and some results will be presented in the final paper.

  10. Novel Approaches to Cellular Transplantation from the US Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research in the treatment of type I diabetes is entering a new era that takes advantage of our knowledge in an ever increasing variety of scientific disciplines. Some may originate from very diverse sources, one of which is the Space Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Space Program contributes to diabetes-related research in several treatment modalities. As an ongoing effort for medical monitoring of personnel involved in space exploration activities NASA and the extramural scientific community investigate strategies for noninvasive estimation of blood glucose levels. Part of the effort in the space protein crystal growth program is high-resolution structural analysis insulin as a means to better understand the interaction with its receptor and with host immune components and as a basis for rational design of a "better" insulin molecule. The Space Program is also developing laser technology for potential early cataract detection as well as a noninvasive analyses for addressing preclinical diabetic retinopathy. Finally, NASA developed an exciting cell culture system that affords some unique advantages in the propagation and maintenance of mammalian cells in vitro. The cell culture system was originally designed to maintain cell suspensions with a minimum of hydrodynamic and mechanical sheer while awaiting launch into microgravity. Currently the commercially available NASA bioreactor (Synthecon, Inc., Houston, TX) is used as a research tool in basic and applied cell biology. In recent years there is continued strong interest in cellular transplantation as treatment for type I diabetes. The advantages are the potential for successful long-term amelioration and a minimum risk for morbidity in the event of rejection of the transplanted cells. The pathway to successful application of this strategy is accompanied by several substantial hurdles: (1) isolation and propagation of a suitable uniform donor cell population; (2) management of

  11. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  12. Sustainability: an Approach in Planning to Raise the Quality of Life Through Open Space Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Y. Khobragade

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A presentation of the notion of sustainable development through the eye of a town planner, by elucidating how open space development would change the character of the city and augment towards harmony in the socio-environmental chords of sustainable development. It is an attempt to put forward awareness about the sustainability and environmental risk to ultimately reconcile ecological, social and economic factors of society. It is an attempt to reflect on socio-environmental dimension of the open space planning by addressing urban metamorphosis.

  13. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student i...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  14. Analysis of PFG Anomalous Diffusion via Real-Space and Phase-Space Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed-field gradient (PFG diffusion experiments can be used to measure anomalous diffusion in many polymer or biological systems. However, it is still complicated to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion, particularly the finite gradient pulse width (FGPW effect. In practical applications, the FGPW effect may not be neglected, such as in clinical diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Here, two significantly different methods are proposed to analyze PFG anomalous diffusion: the effective phase-shift diffusion equation (EPSDE method and a method based on observing the signal intensity at the origin. The EPSDE method describes the phase evolution in virtual phase space, while the method to observe the signal intensity at the origin describes the magnetization evolution in real space. However, these two approaches give the same general PFG signal attenuation including the FGPW effect, which can be numerically evaluated by a direct integration method. The direct integration method is fast and without overflow. It is a convenient numerical evaluation method for Mittag-Leffler function-type PFG signal attenuation. The methods here provide a clear view of spin evolution under a field gradient, and their results will help the analysis of PFG anomalous diffusion.

  15. Estimating Brazilian Monthly GDP: a State-Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Issler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several contributions. The first is to employ a superior interpo lation method that enables to estimate, nowcastandforecast monthly Brazilian GDP for 1980-2012 in an integrated way-see Bernanke, Gertler, & Watson (1997[Systematic monetary policy and the effects of oil price shocks(Brookings Papers in Economic Activity No.1]. Second, along the spirit of Mariano & Murasawa (2003 [A new coincident index of business cycles based on monthly and quarterly series.Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(4, 427-443], we propose and test a myriad of interpolation models and interpolation auxiliary series-all coincident with GDP from a business-cycle dating point of view. Based on these results, we finally choose the most appropriate monthly indicator for Brazilian GDP. Third, this monthly GDP estimate is compared to an economic ac tivity indicator widely used by practitioners in Brazil-the Brazilian Economic Activity Index (IBC-Br. We found that our monthly GDP tracks economic ac tivity better than IBC-Br. This happens by construction, since our state-space approach imposes the restriction (discipline that our monthly estimate must add up to the quarterly observed series in any given quarter, which may not hold regarding IBC-Br. Moreover, our method has the advantage to be easily im plemented: it only requires conditioning on two observed series for estimation, while estimating IBC-Br requires the availability of hundreds of monthly series. Third, in a nowcasting and forecasting exercise, we illustrate the advantages of our integrated approach. Finally, we compare the chronology of recessions of our monthly estimate with those done elsewhere.

  16. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  17. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  18. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-06

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  19. Augmented reality services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assume that one of the key reasons is in the difference between a standalone application and a web service. Both architectures have some advantages and disadvantages. The Standalone application (e.g. Nokia/OVI Maps provides the required functionality. From the user point of view, main asset of this “offline” approach is network connectivity independence. However, this kind of applications must be upgraded manually. Moreover, it is hard to get any data about the application usage because it requires additional actions from the user – data are usually acquired through conventional ways, such as email or web forms.The online service such as Google Maps (including its mobile application can offer the same functionality as the offline application. Nevertheless, a permanent connection to provider servers is necessary. This can be taken as a drawback. On the other hand, usage data collection is easier and can be done without the user intervention. The data collection provides a valuable analysis basis of the user habits and needs. This analysis is necessary for design of a complex “user” based solutions such as Google Now.Augmented reality applications are usually based on the first mentioned approach. In this article, we describe our model of augmented reality as a service and compare its features with standalone solutions. Further, other important key aspects for large emergence of augmented reality services in a mainstream market are discussed.

  20. Exploring the optimum approach to the use of CT densitometry in a randomised placebo-controlled study of augmentation therapy in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parr, David G; Dirksen, Asger; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) lung densitometry has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive and specific outcome measure for the assessment of emphysema-modifying therapy, but the optimum densitometric index has yet to be determined and targeted sampling may be more sensitive than whole...... lung assessment. The EXAcerbations and CT scan as Lung Endpoints (EXACTLE) trial aimed to clarify the optimum approach to the use of CT densitometry data for the assessment of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy on the progression of emphysema in AAT deficiency (AATD). METHODS: Patients...... of emphysema in the apical, middle and basal regions of the lung by measurement with PD15 showed that this treatment effect was more evident when the basal third was sampled (1.722 g/L, p = 0.040). A comparison between different densitometric indices indicated that the influence of inspiratory variability...

  1. Dynamics and control of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ye; Yang, Yueneng

    2017-01-01

    This book develops a dynamical model of the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in both unperturbed and J2-perturbed environments. It explicitly discusses three kinds of typical space missions involving relative orbital control: spacecraft hovering, rendezvous, and formation flying. Subsequently, it puts forward designs for both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes propelled or augmented by the geomagnetic Lorentz force. These control schemes are entirely novel and represent a significantly departure from previous approaches.

  2. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  3. Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.

    2017-05-01

    Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too

  4. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  5. Visions for Space Exploration: ILS Issues and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews some of the logistic issues that the Vision for Space Exploration will entail. There is a review of the vision and the timeline for the return to the moon that will lead to the first human exploration of Mars. The lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS) and other such missions are also reviewed.

  6. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Blom (Stefan); B. Lisser (Bert); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco); M. Weber (Michael); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstract\\begin{abstract} We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes.

  7. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  8. A Database Approach to Distributed State Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.

    2007-01-01

    We study distributed state space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive datatypes. Our solution is to introduce a database

  9. A Database Approach to Distributed State-Space Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Cerna, I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Lisser, Bert; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Weber, M.

    2009-01-01

    We study distributed state-space generation on a cluster of workstations. It is explained why state-space partitioning by a global hash function is problematic when states contain variables from unbounded domains, such as lists or other recursive data types. Our solution is to introduce a database

  10. The rigged Hilbert space approach to the Gamow states

    OpenAIRE

    de la Madrid, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We use the resonances of the spherical shell potential to present a thorough description of the Gamow (quasinormal) states within the rigged Hilbert space. It will be concluded that the natural setting for the Gamow states is a rigged Hilbert space whose test functions fall off at infinity faster than Gaussians.

  11. Geometric approach to evolution problems in metric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojković, Igor

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis contains four chapters where research material is presented. In the second chapter the extension of the product formulas for semigroups induced by convex functionals, from the classical Hilbert space setting to the setting of general CAT(0) spaces. In the third chapter, the

  12. Evaluating public space pedestrian accessibility: a GIS approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morar, T.; Bertolini, L.; Radoslav, R.

    2013-01-01

    Public spaces are sources of quality of life in neighborhoods. Seeking to help professionals and municipalities assess how well a public space can be used by the community it serves, this paper presents a GIS-based methodology for evaluating its pedestrian accessibility. The Romanian city of

  13. Image-guided transorbital procedures with endoscopic video augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P; Mawn, Louise A; Galloway, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Surgical interventions to the orbital space behind the eyeball are limited to highly invasive procedures due to the confined nature of the region along with the presence of several intricate soft tissue structures. A minimally invasive approach to orbital surgery would enable several therapeutic options, particularly new treatment protocols for optic neuropathies such as glaucoma. The authors have developed an image-guided system for the purpose of navigating a thin flexible endoscope to a specified target region behind the eyeball. Navigation within the orbit is particularly challenging despite its small volume, as the presence of fat tissue occludes the endoscopic visual field while the surgeon must constantly be aware of optic nerve position. This research investigates the impact of endoscopic video augmentation to targeted image-guided navigation in a series of anthropomorphic phantom experiments. A group of 16 surgeons performed a target identification task within the orbits of four skull phantoms. The task consisted of identifying the correct target, indicated by the augmented video and the preoperative imaging frames, out of four possibilities. For each skull, one orbital intervention was performed with video augmentation, while the other was done with the standard image guidance technique, in random order. The authors measured a target identification accuracy of 95.3% and 85.9% for the augmented and standard cases, respectively, with statistically significant improvement in procedure time (Z=-2.044, p=0.041) and intraoperator mean procedure time (Z=2.456, p=0.014) when augmentation was used. Improvements in both target identification accuracy and interventional procedure time suggest that endoscopic video augmentation provides valuable additional orientation and trajectory information in an image-guided procedure. Utilization of video augmentation in transorbital interventions could further minimize complication risk and enhance surgeon comfort and

  14. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  15. Phase space picture of quantum mechanics group theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the theory and applications of the Wigner phase space distribution function and its symmetry properties. The book explains why the phase space picture of quantum mechanics is needed, in addition to the conventional Schrödinger or Heisenberg picture. It is shown that the uncertainty relation can be represented more accurately in this picture. In addition, the phase space picture is shown to be the natural representation of quantum mechanics for modern optics and relativistic quantum mechanics of extended objects.

  16. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-09-01

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

  17. Deterring and Dissuading in Space: A Systems Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    Space capabilities have improved life in the United States and around the world, enhanced security, protected lives and the environment, sped information flow, served as an engine for economic growth...

  18. The XML approach to implementing space link extension service management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, W.; Welz, G. A.; Theis, G.; Yamada, T.

    2001-01-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted at JPL, ESOC, and ISAS to assess the possible applications of the eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML) capabilities to the implementation of the CCSDS Space Link Extension (SLE) Service Management function.

  19. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of ROC...

  20. Mobile-health approach: A critical look on its capacity to augment health system of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Davey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mobile-health approach is currently knocking the doors of public health to make use of this rapidly advancing technology in developing countries; therefore, it needs a critical look on its capacity in improving health system of developing countries. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of studies in literature published till 31 st October 2013 of last 10 years on key search word: "Capacity of mobile-health in improving health system of developing countries" was done from medical search engines abstracting databases such as Pub-med, WHO, Cochrane database, Google scholar, and Bio-med Central. Both types of studies elucidating utility and no benefit of mobile-health in developing countries were included as main criteria for deciding the capacity of mobile-health approach in health system of developing countries. M-health studies on areas of impact, effectiveness, and evaluation and previous reviews, conferences data, and exploratory studies were the main study designs incorporated. Studies on m-health in developed world, Indian studies as well data from thesis or dissertation were excluded in this review. Discussion: Multi-faceted mobile-health applications, strategies, and approaches currently lack proper regulation and standardization from health care authorities, and currently their results also vary from good to no beneficial effects as found in this review. Conclusion: Umbrella of mobile-health approaches must be used intelligently, keeping in mind the fact that, it can provide a greater access and quality health care to larger segments of a rural population and its potential to improve the capacity of health system in developing countries.

  1. Mobile-health approach: a critical look on its capacity to augment health system of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sanjeev; Davey, Anuradha; Singh, Jai Vir

    2014-07-01

    The mobile-health approach is currently knocking the doors of public health to make use of this rapidly advancing technology in developing countries; therefore, it needs a critical look on its capacity in improving health system of developing countries. A systematic review of studies in literature published till 31(st) October 2013 of last 10 years on key search word: Capacity of mobile-health in improving health system of developing countries was done from medical search engines abstracting databases such as Pub-med, WHO, Cochrane database, Google scholar, and Bio-med Central. Both types of studies elucidating utility and no benefit of mobile-health in developing countries were included as main criteria for deciding the capacity of mobile-health approach in health system of developing countries. M-health studies on areas of impact, effectiveness, and evaluation and previous reviews, conferences data, and exploratory studies were the main study designs incorporated. Studies on m-health in developed world, Indian studies as well data from thesis or dissertation were excluded in this review. Multi-faceted mobile-health applications, strategies, and approaches currently lack proper regulation and standardization from health care authorities, and currently their results also vary from good to no beneficial effects as found in this review. Umbrella of mobile-health approaches must be used intelligently, keeping in mind the fact that, it can provide a greater access and quality health care to larger segments of a rural population and its potential to improve the capacity of health system in developing countries.

  2. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru

    2015-09-25

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested. - Highlights: • Electrodynamics of fractal media is described by non-integer dimensional spaces. • Applications of the fractal Gauss's and Ampere's laws are suggested. • Fractal Poisson equation, equation for fractal stream of charges are considered.

  3. Lie–Hamilton systems on curved spaces: a geometrical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Tobolski, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    A Lie–Hamilton system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, a Vessiot–Guldberg Lie algebra, of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure. Its general solution can be written as an autonomous function, the superposition rule, of a generic finite family of particular solutions and a set of constants. We pioneer the study of Lie–Hamilton systems on Riemannian spaces (sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic plane), pseudo-Riemannian spaces (anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and Minkowski spacetimes) as well as on semi-Riemannian spaces (Newtonian spacetimes). Their corresponding constants of motion and superposition rules are obtained explicitly in a geometric way. This work extends the (graded) contraction of Lie algebras to a contraction procedure for Lie algebras of vector fields, Hamiltonian functions, and related symplectic structures, invariants, and superposition rules.

  4. Quantitative approach to measuring the cerebrospinal fluid space with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Hartwich, P.

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the subarachnoid space by using an independent CT evaluation unit is described. The normal values have been calculated for patients, according to age, and three examples are presented demonstrating reversible decrease of brain volume in patients suffering anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism.

  5. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  6. Augmented reality for breast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancati, Alberto; Angrigiani, Claudio; Nava, Maurizio B; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola; Ventrice, Fernando; Dorr, Julio

    2018-02-21

    Augmented reality (AR) enables the superimposition of virtual reality reconstructions onto clinical images of a real patient, in real time. This allows visualization of internal structures through overlying tissues, thereby providing a virtual transparency vision of surgical anatomy. AR has been applied to neurosurgery, which utilizes a relatively fixed space, frames, and bony references; the application of AR facilitates the relationship between virtual and real data. Augmented Breast imaging (ABI) is described. Breast MRI studies for breast implant patients with seroma were performed using a Siemens 3T system with a body coil and a four-channel bilateral phased-array breast coil as the transmitter and receiver, respectively. The contrast agent used was (CA) gadolinium (Gd) injection (0.1 mmol/kg at 2 ml/s) by a programmable power injector. Dicom formated images data from 10 MRI cases of breast implant seroma and 10 MRI cases with T1-2 N0 M0 breast cancer, were imported and transformed into Augmented reality images. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) demonstrated stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence, 3D cursor use, and joystick fly-through. Augmented breast imaging (ABI) to the breast can improve clinical outcomes, giving an enhanced view of the structures to work on. It should be further studied to determine its utility in clinical practice.

  7. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Teaching Space Weather to Undergraduate Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W. B., III

    2016-12-01

    Undergraduate Space Weather education is an important component of creating a society that is knowledgeable about space weather and its societal impacts. The space physics community has made great strides in providing academic education for students, typically physics and engineering majors, who are interested in pursuing a career in the space sciences or space weather. What is rarely addressed, however, is providing a broader space weather education to undergraduate students as a whole. To help address this gap, I have created an introductory space weather course for non-science majors, with the idea of expanding exposure to space weather beyond the typical physics and engineering students. The philosophy and methodologies used in this course will be presented, as well as the results of the first attempts to teach it. Using an approach more tailored to the non-scientist, courses such as this can be an effective means of broadening space weather education and outreach.

  8. AMI: Augmented Michelson Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furió, David; Hachet, Martin; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Bousquet, Bruno; Fleck, Stéphanie; Reuter, Patrick; Canioni, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Experiments in optics are essential for learning and understanding physical phenomena. The problem with these experiments is that they are generally time consuming for both their construction and their maintenance, potentially dangerous through the use of laser sources, and often expensive due to high technology optical components. We propose to simulate such experiments by way of hybrid systems that exploit both spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction. In particular, we focus on one of the most popular optical experiments: the Michelson interferometer. In our approach, we target a highly interactive system where students are able to interact in real time with the Augmented Michelson Interferometer (AMI) to observe, test hypotheses and then to enhance their comprehension. Compared to a fully digital simulation, we are investigating an approach that benefits from both physical and virtual elements, and where the students experiment by manipulating 3D-printed physical replicas of optical components (e.g. lenses and mirrors). Our objective is twofold. First, we want to ensure that the students will learn with our simulator the same concepts and skills that they learn with traditional methods. Second, we hypothesis that such a system opens new opportunities to teach optics in a way that was not possible before, by manipulating concepts beyond the limits of observable physical phenomena. To reach this goal, we have built a complementary team composed of experts in the field of optics, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, sensors and actuators, and education science.

  9. Embodied Space: a Sensorial Approach to Spatial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Maria João

    2009-03-01

    A reflection is presented on the significance of the role of the body in the interpretation and future creation of spatial living structures. The paper draws on the body as cartography of sensorial meaning that includes vision, touch, smell, hearing, orientation and movement to discuss possible relationships with psychological and sociological parameters of 'sensorial space'. The complex dynamics of body-space is further explored from the standpoint of perceptual variables such as color, light, materialities, texture and their connections with design, technology, culture and symbology. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of knowledge and experimentation in the design of future habitats where body-sensitive frameworks encompass flexibility, communication, interaction and cognitive-driven solutions.

  10. A multi-spacecraft formation approach to space debris surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Leonard; Emami, M. Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a new mission concept devoted to the identification and tracking of space debris through observations made by multiple spacecraft. Specifically, a formation of spacecraft has been designed taking into account the characteristics and requirements of the utilized optical sensors as well as the constraints imposed by sun illumination and visibility conditions. The debris observations are then shared among the team of spacecraft, and processed onboard of a ;hosting leader; to estimate the debris motion by means of Kalman filtering techniques. The primary contribution of this paper resides on the application of a distributed coordination architecture, which provides an autonomous and robust ability to dynamically form spacecraft teams once the target has been detected, and to dynamically build a processing network for the orbit determination of space debris. The team performance, in terms of accuracy, readiness and number of the detected objects, is discussed through numerical simulations.

  11. The STEREO Mission: A New Approach to Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, michael L.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in July 2006, a new capability will exist for both real-time space weather predictions and for advances in space weather research. Whereas previous spacecraft monitors of the sun such as ACE and SOH0 have been essentially on the sun-Earth line, the STEREO spacecraft will be in 1 AU orbits around the sun on either side of Earth and will be viewing the solar activity from distinctly different vantage points. As seen from the sun, the two spacecraft will separate at a rate of 45 degrees per year, with Earth bisecting the angle. The instrument complement on the two spacecraft will consist of a package of optical instruments capable of imaging the sun in the visible and ultraviolet from essentially the surface to 1 AU and beyond, a radio burst receiver capable of tracking solar eruptive events from an altitude of 2-3 Rs to 1 AU, and a comprehensive set of fields and particles instruments capable of measuring in situ solar events such as interplanetary magnetic clouds. In addition to normal daily recorded data transmissions, each spacecraft is equipped with a real-time beacon that will provide 1 to 5 minute snapshots or averages of the data from the various instruments. This beacon data will be received by NOAA and NASA tracking stations and then relayed to the STEREO Science Center located at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland where the data will be processed and made available within a goal of 5 minutes of receipt on the ground. With STEREO's instrumentation and unique view geometry, we believe considerable improvement can be made in space weather prediction capability as well as improved understanding of the three dimensional structure of solar transient events.

  12. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student i...

  13. Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  15. Learning the Task Management Space of an Aircraft Approach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Joseph; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty

    2014-01-01

    Validating models of airspace operations is a particular challenge. These models are often aimed at finding and exploring safety violations, and aim to be accurate representations of real-world behavior. However, the rules governing the behavior are quite complex: nonlinear physics, operational modes, human behavior, and stochastic environmental concerns all determine the responses of the system. In this paper, we present a study on aircraft runway approaches as modeled in Georgia Tech's Work Models that Compute (WMC) simulation. We use a new learner, Genetic-Active Learning for Search-Based Software Engineering (GALE) to discover the Pareto frontiers defined by cognitive structures. These cognitive structures organize the prioritization and assignment of tasks of each pilot during approaches. We discuss the benefits of our approach, and also discuss future work necessary to enable uncertainty quantification.

  16. A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-03

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Jan 13 – 29 Apr 14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and...01-2013 to 29-04-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Identification 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Random Finite Set Approach to Space Junk Tracking and Indentification Ba-Ngu Vo1, Ba-Tuong Vo1, 1Department of

  17. Discrete phase-space approach to mutually orthogonal Latin squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Mario; Di Matteo, Olivia; Klimov, Andrei B.; de Guise, Hubert

    2014-10-01

    We show there is a natural connection between Latin squares and commutative sets of monomials defining geometric structures in finite phase-space of prime power dimensions. A complete set of such monomials defines a mutually unbiased basis (MUB) and may be associated with a complete set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS). We translate some possible operations on the monomial sets into isomorphisms of Latin squares, and find a general form of permutations that map between Latin squares corresponding to unitarily equivalent mutually unbiased sets.

  18. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  19. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  20. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative approach to overcome the infrared signal detection difficulties.  In this investigation, a Periodical Poled MgO Lithium Niobate...

  1. An Approach to Distributed State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Petrucci, Laure

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach and associated computer tool support for conducting distributed state space exploration for Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs). The distributed state space exploration is based on the introduction of a coordinating process and a number of worker processes. The worker processes...... Tools. This makes the distributed state space exploration and analysis largely transparent to the analyst. We illustrate the use of the developed tool on an example....

  2. Green spaces – a key resources for urban sustainability. The GreenKeys approach for developing green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Smaniotto Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the principles of sustainable development all urban development programmes set down ideas and ideals to develop our cities in a more long-lasting way, especially concerning the environment and the social dimension. These programmes result from a process of searching for and then offering a better quality of life. Green space assumes a key role for improving the quality of urban life - not only because of their ecological and environmental functions but also of their relevance for public health, societal well-being and economic benefits they can provide. Urban green spaces are therefore key resources for sustainable cities. Starting with this principle the GreenKeys Project developed a methodology to approach better green space qualities. Then if we are unable to demonstrate effectively the value that green spaces deliver we risk green spaces remaining on the periphery of public policy priorities and unable to attract more resources. The article presents and discusses the results and outcomes of the GreenKeys Project. Especially the GreenKeys proposal for supporting the formulation of an Urban Green Space Strategy is widely discussed.

  3. Hybrid phase-space-Fock-space approach to evolution of a driven nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezri, Mostafa; Korotkov, Alexander N.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the quantum evolution of a weakly nonlinear resonator due to a classical near-resonant drive and damping. The resonator nonlinearity leads to squeezing and heating of the resonator state. Using a hybrid phase-space-Fock-space representation for the resonator state within the Gaussian approximation, we derive evolution equations for the four parameters characterizing the Gaussian state. Numerical solution of these four ordinary differential equations is much simpler and faster than simulation of the full density matrix evolution, while providing good accuracy for the system analysis during transients and in the steady state. We show that steady-state squeezing of the resonator state is limited by 3 dB; however, this limit can be exceeded during transients.

  4. A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Gamal Abd El-Nasser A.; El-Horbaty, El-Sayed M.

    2015-01-01

    Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space a...

  5. An Alternative Surface Measures Construction in Finite-Dimensional Spaces and its Consistency with the Classical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna V. Moravetska

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The construction of surface measures suggested for infinite-dimensional spaces is a generalization of the classical approach in finite-dimensional spaces. Therefore further investigation of the described approach seems to be reasonable.

  6. An approach towards problem-based learning in virtual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Lutz S; Bockisch, Andreas; Beyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established and efficient approach to sustainable teaching. Here, we describe translation of PBL into the virtual classroom thereby offering novel teaching aspects in the field of Nuclear Medicine. Our teaching approach is implemented on a "moodle" platform and consists of 2 modules: complementary seminar teaching materials and a virtual PBL-classroom, which can be attended via Skype.Over the course of 4 semesters 539 students have accessed our teaching platform. 21 students have participated in the PBL seminar (module 2). After resolving some minor technical difficulties our virtual seminars have evolved into a forum of intense studies, whereby the participating students have learned to become more independent along the workup of the teaching cases. This was reflected in the results of the intra-group presentations and discussions.Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of our moodle-based PBL platform indicates an increasing level of acceptance and enthusiasm by the students. This has initiated discussions about opening our PBL concept to a wider audience within the university and beyond the Nuclear Medicine specialty.

  7. Coordination between Subway and Urban Space: A Networked Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Mao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper selects Changsha as a case study and constructs the models of the subway network and the urban spatial network by using planning data. In the network models, the districts of Changsha are regarded as nodes and the connections between each pair of districts are regarded as edges. The method is based on quantitative analysis of the node weights and the edge weights, which are defined in the complex network theory. And the structures of subway and urban space are visualized in the form of networks. Then, through analyzing the discrepancy coefficients of the corresponding nodes and edges, the paper carries out a comparison between the two networks to evaluate the coordination. The results indicate that only 21.4% of districts and 13.2% of district connections have a rational coordination. Finally, the strategies are put forward for optimization, which suggest adjusting subway transit density, regulating land-use intensity and planning new mass transits for the uncoordinated parts.

  8. Towards a first implementation of the WLIMES approach in living system studies advancing the diagnostics and therapy in augmented personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Plamen L

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to advance an extensible theory of living systems using an approach to biomathematics and biocomputation that suitably addresses self-organized, self-referential and anticipatory systems with multi-temporal multi-agents. Our first step is to provide foundations for modelling of emergent and evolving dynamic multi-level organic complexes and their sustentative processes in artificial and natural life systems. Main applications are in life sciences, medicine, ecology and astrobiology, as well as robotics, industrial automation, man-machine interface and creative design. Since 2011 over 100 scientists from a number of disciplines have been exploring a substantial set of theoretical frameworks for a comprehensive theory of life known as Integral Biomathics. That effort identified the need for a robust core model of organisms as dynamic wholes, using advanced and adequately computable mathematics. The work described here for that core combines the advantages of a situation and context aware multivalent computational logic for active self-organizing networks, Wandering Logic Intelligence (WLI), and a multi-scale dynamic category theory, Memory Evolutive Systems (MES), hence WLIMES. This is presented to the modeller via a formal augmented reality language as a first step towards practical modelling and simulation of multi-level living systems. Initial work focuses on the design and implementation of this visual language and calculus (VLC) and its graphical user interface. The results will be integrated within the current methodology and practices of theoretical biology and (personalized) medicine to deepen and to enhance the holistic understanding of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A tailored approach to electromagnetic compatibility requirements in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Ken; Nave, Mark

    1991-01-01

    An approach is outlined which defines the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between NASA and military technologies with attention given to electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements. In order to minimize the cost and weight impact of the changes needed for compatibility the plan emphasizes the incorporation of off-the-shelf technology with current nonstandard methods. NASA designs are structured to meet EMI requirements rather than processing waivers against military-type specifications. The NASA-wide EMI requirements can be documented in three sections: requirements, test methods, and tailoring guidelines. It is shown that a NASA-wide EMC specification would decrease the costs of achieving compatibility by increasing efficiency and optimizing the relationship between EMC design and performance and cost.

  10. Evidence-Based Medicine: Breast Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the key decisions in patient evaluation for cosmetic breast augmentation. 2. Cite key decisions in preoperative planning. 3. Discuss the risks and complications, and key patient education points in breast augmentation. Breast augmentation remains one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The integral information necessary for proper patient selection, preoperative assessment, and surgical approaches are discussed. Current data regarding long term safety and complications are presented to guide the plastic surgeon to an evidence-based approach to the patient seeking breast enhancement to obtain optimal results.

  11. An Adaptive Control for a Free-Floating Space Robot by Using Inverted Chain Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abiko, Satoko; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, we proposed an adaptive control for a free-floating space robot by using the inverted chain approach, which is a unique formulation for a space robot compared with that for a ground-based manipulator system. This gives the explicit description of the coupled dynamics between the end-effector and the robot arm, and provides the advantage of linearity with respect to the inertial parameters for the operational space formulation. In a free-floating space robot, the dynamic param...

  12. Unified Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Space Communication Networks and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barritt, Brian; Bhasin, Kul; Eddy, Wesley; Matthews, Seth

    2010-01-01

    Network simulator software tools are often used to model the behaviors and interactions of applications, protocols, packets, and data links in terrestrial communication networks. Other software tools that model the physics, orbital dynamics, and RF characteristics of space systems have matured to allow for rapid, detailed analysis of space communication links. However, the absence of a unified toolset that integrates the two modeling approaches has encumbered the systems engineers tasked with the design, architecture, and analysis of complex space communication networks and systems. This paper presents the unified approach and describes the motivation, challenges, and our solution - the customization of the network simulator to integrate with astronautical analysis software tools for high-fidelity end-to-end simulation. Keywords space; communication; systems; networking; simulation; modeling; QualNet; STK; integration; space networks

  13. Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today, as humans reach beyond the earth to near and deep space, there is obvious and urgent need to augment the capabilities of human astronauts and (ground-)...

  14. Direct Time-Domain-Based Approach for Study of Space-Vector Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Stankovic, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Direct time-do main-based approach, which is characterized by the simplicity and clarity, is proposed for the study and design of space-vector based methods of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for standard voltage source inverters for adjustable speed motor drives. This approach is based on the detailed...

  15. Sensitivity enhancement for damage detection in linear systems using optimal feedback auxiliary signals and system augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, a sensitivity enhancement technique for damage detection using eigenstructure assignment has been extended from linear to nonlinear systems. Nonlinearities have been accounted for by forming (higher dimensional) augmented systems, which are designed for each trajectory of the nonlinear system, and are characterized by a specific forcing that ensures that the augmented systems follow that trajectory (when projected onto the original, lower dimensional space). The use of system augmentation for damage detection has several benefits beyond its ability to handle nonlinearities. For example, sensitivity can be increased compared to existing linear techniques through nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals because the constraint that the system is stable during its interrogation has to be applied only to the linearized closed loop system, while the augmented linear system does not have that constraint. In this work, the various benefits of nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals are explored for damage detection in linear systems. System augmentation is used in a linear system because a nonlinear controller is employed to enhance sensitivity. In addition to the increased sensitivity, fewer controller actuator points and sensors are required compared to existing linear techniques due to the efficient use of added (augmented) equations. Numerical simulations for a linear mass-spring and a linear mass-spring-damper system are used to validate the approach and discuss the effects of noise.

  16. Confronting an augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    John Hedberg; Robert Fitzgerald; James Steele; Anna Wilson; Matt Bacon; Danny Munnerley

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial...

  17. An Inquiry-Based Augmented Reality Mobile Learning Approach to Fostering Primary School Students' Historical Reasoning in Non-Formal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Irene; Kyza, Eleni A.; Georgiou, Yiannis

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of a location-based augmented reality (AR) inquiry-learning environment in developing 3rd grade students' historical empathy and conceptual understanding. Historical empathy is an important element of historical thinking, which is considered to improve conceptual understanding and support the development of…

  18. The ABC7 regimen: a new approach to metastatic breast cancer using seven common drugs to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and augment capecitabine efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E; Skuli, Nicolas; Cos, Samuel; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Goshen, Ran; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer metastatic to bone has a poor prognosis despite recent advances in our understanding of the biology of both bone and breast cancer. This article presents a new approach, the ABC7 regimen (Adjuvant for Breast Cancer treatment using seven repurposed drugs), to metastatic breast cancer. ABC7 aims to defeat aspects of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that lead to dissemination of breast cancer to bone. As add-on to current standard treatment with capecitabine, ABC7 uses ancillary attributes of seven already-marketed noncancer treatment drugs to stop both the natural EMT process inherent to breast cancer and the added EMT occurring as a response to current treatment modalities. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery provoke EMT in cancer generally and in breast cancer specifically. ABC7 uses standard doses of capecitabine as used in treating breast cancer today. In addition, ABC7 uses 1) an older psychiatric drug, quetiapine, to block RANK signaling; 2) pirfenidone, an anti-fibrosis drug to block TGF-beta signaling; 3) rifabutin, an antibiotic to block beta-catenin signaling; 4) metformin, a first-line antidiabetic drug to stimulate AMPK and inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, (mTOR); 5) propranolol, a beta-blocker to block beta-adrenergic signaling; 6) agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant to stimulate M1 and M2 melatonergic receptors; and 7) ribavirin, an antiviral drug to prevent eIF4E phosphorylation. All these block the signaling pathways – RANK, TGF-beta, mTOR, beta-adrenergic receptors, and phosphorylated eIF4E – that have been shown to trigger EMT and enhance breast cancer growth and so are worthwhile targets to inhibit. Agonism at MT1 and MT2 melatonergic receptors has been shown to inhibit both breast cancer EMT and growth. This ensemble was designed to be safe and augment capecitabine efficacy. Given the expected outcome of metastatic breast cancer as it stands today, ABC7 warrants a cautious trial. PMID:28744157

  19. Digital Illumination for Augmented Studios

    OpenAIRE

    Bimber, Oliver; Grundhöfer, Anselm; Zollmann, Stefanie; Kolster, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Virtual studio technology plays an important role for modern television productions. Blue-screen matting is a common technique for integrating real actors or moderators into computer generated sceneries. Augmented reality offers the possibility to mix real and virtual in a more general context. This article proposes a new technological approach for combining real studio content with computergenerated information. Digital light projection allows a controlled spatial, temporal, chrominance a...

  20. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  1. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  2. An analytical approach to space charge distortions for time projection chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, S; Riegler, W

    2010-01-01

    In a time projection chamber (TPC), the possible ion feedback and also the primary ionization of high multiplicity events result in accumulation of ionic charges inside the gas volume (space charge). This charge introduces electrical field distortions and modifies the cluster trajectory along the drift path, affecting the tracking performance of the detector. In order to calculate the track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution in the TPC, novel representations of the Green's function for a TPC geometry were worked out. This analytical approach finally permits accurate predictions of track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution by solving the Langevin equation.

  3. Phase-space approach to lensless measurements of optical field correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Katelynn A; Brown, Thomas G; Alonso, Miguel A

    2016-07-11

    We analyze and test a general approach for efficiently measuring space-variant partially coherent quasi-monochromatic fields using only amplitude masks and free propagation. A phase-space description is presented to analyze approaches of this type and understand their limitations. Three variants of the method are discussed and compared, the first using an aperture mask, the second employing both an obstacle (the exact inverse of the aperture) and a clear mask, and the last combining the previous two. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each option.

  4. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  5. Spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches in software-defined elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bowen; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the architecture of elastic optical network (EON) has been proposed as a candidate solution to accommodate both huge bandwidth requirements and flexible connections in next generation optical networks. In order to improve the spectrum efficiency, we propose different spectrum-space-divided approaches and develop two integer linear programming (ILP) models and several spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection in software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs). Simulation results show that the ILP models achieve better performance in terms of the number of frequency slots and hop counts than the proposed spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection under the static scenario of connection requests. Furthermore, we apply the spectrum-space-divided spectrum allocation approaches with and without dedicated-path protection to reduce the blocking probability and to improve spectrum efficiency under the dynamic connection requests compared to the traditional first-fit spectrum allocation approach in SD-EONs.

  6. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.

  7. Augmenting a guitar with its digital footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Benford, Steve; Hazzard, Adrian; Chamberlain, Alan; Xu, Liming

    2015-01-01

    We explore how to digitally augment musical instruments by connecting them to their social histories. We describe the use of Internet of Things technologies to connect an acoustic guitar to its digital footprint – a record of how it was designed, built and played. We introduce the approach of crafting interactive decorative inlay into the body of an instrument that can then be scanned using mobile devices to reveal its digital footprint. We describe the design and construction of an augmented...

  8. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate......, and otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment...

  9. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  10. Urban Multisensory Laboratory, AN Approach to Model Urban Space Human Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, T.; Sol, D.; Saenz, J.; Clavijo, D.; García, H.

    2017-09-01

    An urban sensory lab (USL or LUS an acronym in Spanish) is a new and avant-garde approach for studying and analyzing a city. The construction of this approach allows the development of new methodologies to identify the emotional response of public space users. The laboratory combines qualitative analysis proposed by urbanists and quantitative measures managed by data analysis applications. USL is a new approach to go beyond the borders of urban knowledge. The design thinking strategy allows us to implement methods to understand the results provided by our technique. In this first approach, the interpretation is made by hand. However, our goal is to combine design thinking and machine learning in order to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data automatically. Now, the results are being used by students from the Urbanism and Architecture courses in order to get a better understanding of public spaces in Puebla, Mexico and its interaction with people.

  11. Rabbit: A novel approach to find data-races during state-space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, João Paulo dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Data-races are an important kind of error in concurrent shared-memory programs. Software model checking is a popular approach to find them. This research proposes a novel approach to find races that complements model-checking by efficiently reporting precise warnings during state-space exploration (SSE): Rabbit. It uses information obtained across different paths explored during SSE to predict likely racy memory accesses. We evaluated Rabbit on 33 different scenarios of race, i...

  12. Augmented sculptures: what you see is not what you see

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of Augmented Reality Technologies enhances our ability to perceive a location with additional 3D visual elements. A point of interest becomes meta-constructed with addition of extended layers via augmented space elements. Augmented Reality presents us a virtually enriched version of a visually noticeable reality world which already exists and can easily be seen. In this article, in addition to questioning the representative existence of the art object in the work of art called “What ...

  13. Multi-atlas and unsupervised learning approach to perirectal space segmentation in CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Denham, James W; Ebert, Martin A; Kennedy, Angel; Mitra, Jhimli; Dowling, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Perirectal space segmentation in computed tomography images aids in quantifying radiation dose received by healthy tissues and toxicity during the course of radiation therapy treatment of the prostate. Radiation dose normalised by tissue volume facilitates predicting outcomes or possible harmful side effects of radiation therapy treatment. Manual segmentation of the perirectal space is time consuming and challenging in the presence of inter-patient anatomical variability and may suffer from inter- and intra-observer variabilities. However automatic or semi-automatic segmentation of the perirectal space in CT images is a challenging task due to inter patient anatomical variability, contrast variability and imaging artifacts. In the model presented here, a volume of interest is obtained in a multi-atlas based segmentation approach. Un-supervised learning in the volume of interest with a Gaussian-mixture-modeling based clustering approach is adopted to achieve a soft segmentation of the perirectal space. Probabilities from soft clustering are further refined by rigid registration of the multi-atlas mask in a probabilistic domain. A maximum a posteriori approach is adopted to achieve a binary segmentation from the refined probabilities. A mean volume similarity value of 97% and a mean surface difference of 3.06 ± 0.51 mm is achieved in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework with a subset of a clinical trial dataset. Qualitative results show a good approximation of the perirectal space volume compared to the ground truth.

  14. Distress vs. Non-Distress Approach and the Personal Space of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Pamela A.; Thomas, Georgelle

    Examined was the relationship between personal space and sex roles. Feminine females (N=25), androgynous females (N=25) and masculine males (N=25) viewed a film of male and female approaching stimulus persons in distress and non-distress conditions. Subjects marked the Comfortable Interpersonal Distance Scale at the point where they would prefer…

  15. Activity markers and household space in Swahili urban contexts: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Sulas, Federica

    , this paper draws from recent work at a Swahili urban site to illustrate the potential and challenges of an integrated geoarchaeological approach to the study of household space. The site of Songo Mnara (14th–16thc. AD) thrived as a Swahili stonetown off the coast of Tanzania. Here, our work has concentrated...

  16. Electronic transport through nanowires: a real-space finite-difference approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomyakov, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Nanoelectronics is a fast developing ¯eld. Therefore understanding of the electronic transport at the nanoscale is currently of great interest. This thesis "Electronic transport through nanowires: a real-space ¯nite-difference approach" aims at a general theoretical treatment of coherent electronic

  17. Worldview and Social Practice : A discourse-space approach to political text analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Worldview and Social Practice takes a cognitive-discourse approach to semantic analysis of worldview constructions along Space, Time and Attitude (STA) coordinates. It demonstrates how variations in STA schemas shape Dutch political parties’ worldviews and the rationale behind their election

  18. Learning in the Liminal Space: A Semiotic Approach to Threshold Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Ray; Rattray, Julie; Vivian, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The threshold concepts approach to student learning and curriculum design now informs an empirical research base comprising over 170 disciplinary and professional contexts. It draws extensively on the notion of troublesomeness in a "liminal" space of learning. The latter is a transformative state in the process of learning in which there…

  19. The ABC7 regimen: a new approach to metastatic breast cancer using seven common drugs to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and augment capecitabine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kast RE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Richard E Kast,1 Nicolas Skuli,2 Samuel Cos,3 Georg Karpel-Massler,4 Yusuke Shiozawa,5 Ran Goshen,6 Marc-Eric Halatsch4 1IIAIGC Study Center, Burlington, VT, USA; 2INSERM, Centre de Recherches en Cancérologie de Toulouse – CRCT, UMR1037 Inserm/Université Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France; 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria and Valdecilla Research Institute (IDIVAL, Santander, Spain; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany; 5Department of Cancer Biology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; 6Eliaso Consulting Ltd., Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel Abstract: Breast cancer metastatic to bone has a poor prognosis despite recent advances in our understanding of the biology of both bone and breast cancer. This article presents a new approach, the ABC7 regimen (Adjuvant for Breast Cancer treatment using seven repurposed drugs, to metastatic breast cancer. ABC7 aims to defeat aspects of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT that lead to dissemination of breast cancer to bone. As add-on to current standard treatment with capecitabine, ABC7 uses ancillary attributes of seven already-marketed noncancer treatment drugs to stop both the natural EMT process inherent to breast cancer and the added EMT occurring as a response to current treatment modalities. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery provoke EMT in cancer generally and in breast cancer specifically. ABC7 uses standard doses of capecitabine as used in treating breast cancer today. In addition, ABC7 uses 1 an older psychiatric drug, quetiapine, to block RANK signaling; 2 pirfenidone, an anti-fibrosis drug to block TGF-beta signaling; 3 rifabutin, an antibiotic to block beta-catenin signaling; 4 metformin, a first-line antidiabetic drug to stimulate AMPK and inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin, (mTOR; 5 propranolol, a beta-blocker to block beta

  20. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  1. Concept of Draft International Standard for a Unified Approach to Space Program Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryzhak, Y.; Vasilina, V.; Kurbatov, V.

    2002-01-01

    For want of the unified approach to guaranteed space project and product quality assurance, implementation of many international space programs has become a challenge. Globalization of aerospace industry and participation of various international ventures with diverse quality assurance requirements in big international space programs requires for urgent generation of unified international standards related to this field. To ensure successful fulfillment of space missions, aerospace companies should design and process reliable and safe products with properties complying or bettering User's (or Customer's) requirements. Quality of the products designed or processed by subcontractors (or other suppliers) should also be in compliance with the main user (customer)'s requirements. Implementation of this involved set of unified requirements will be made possible by creating and approving a system (series) of international standards under a generic title Space Product Quality Assurance based on a system consensus principle. Conceptual features of the baseline standard in this system (series) should comprise: - Procedures for ISO 9000, CEN and ECSS requirements adaptation and introduction into space product creation, design, manufacture, testing and operation; - Procedures for quality assurance at initial (design) phases of space programs, with a decision on the end product made based on the principle of independence; - Procedures to arrange incoming inspection of products delivered by subcontractors (including testing, audit of supplier's procedures, review of supplier's documentation), and space product certification; - Procedures to identify materials and primary products applied; - Procedures for quality system audit at the component part, primary product and materials supplier facilities; - Unified procedures to form a list of basic performances to be under configuration management; - Unified procedures to form a list of critical space product components, and unified

  2. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  3. Service Areas of Local Urban Green Spaces: AN Explorative Approach in Arroios, Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R.; Gonçalves, A. B.; Ramos, I. L.

    2016-09-01

    The identification of service areas of urban green spaces and areas with lack of these is increasingly necessary within city planning and management, as it translates into important indicators for the assessment of quality of life. In this setting, it is important to evaluate the attractiveness and accessibility dynamics through a set of attributes, taking into account the local reality of the territory under study. This work presents an operational methodology associated with these dynamics in local urban green spaces, assisting in the planning and management of this type of facilities. The methodology is supported firstly on questionnaire surveys and then on network analysis, processing spatial data in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. In the case study, two local green spaces in Lisbon were selected, on a local perspective explorative approach. Through field data, it was possible to identify service areas for both spaces, and compare the results with references in the literature. It was also possible to recognise areas with lack of these spaces. The difficulty to evaluate the dynamics of real individuals in their choices of urban green spaces and the respective route is a major challenge to the application of the methodology. In this sense it becomes imperative to develop different instruments and adapt them to other types of urban green spaces.

  4. Asteroid Redirect Mission Concept: A Bold Approach for Utilizing Space Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavour from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid 2020's using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  5. A state space approach for the eigenvalue problem of marine risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2017-10-05

    A numerical state-space approach is proposed to examine the natural frequencies and critical buckling limits of marine risers. A large axial tension in the riser model causes numerical limitations. These limitations are overcome by using the modified Gram–Schmidt orthonormalization process as an intermediate step during the numerical integration process with the fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The obtained results are validated against those obtained with other numerical methods, such as the finite-element, Galerkin, and power-series methods, and are found to be in good agreement. The state-space approach is shown to be computationally more efficient than the other methods. Also, we investigate the effect of a high applied tension, a high apparent weight, and higher-order modes on the accuracy of the numerical scheme. We demonstrate that, by applying the orthonormalization process, the stability and convergence of the approach are significantly improved.

  6. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    environment and methodology, with associated laboratories that uses lean development methods and creativity-enhancing processes to invent and develop new solutions for space exploration. This paper will discuss the Swamp Works approach to developing space mining and resource extraction systems and the vision of space development it serves. The ultimate goal of the Swamp Works is to expand human civilization into the solar system via the use of local resources utilization. By mining and using the local resources in situ, it is conceivable that one day the logistics supply train from Earth can be eliminated and Earth independence of a space-based community will be enabled.

  7. Transferencia de calor incrementada en espacios anulares con elementos helicoidales insertados//Review of augmentation techniques for heat transfer coefficient in annular spaces using helical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert‐González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia de calor incrementada por métodos pasivos se emplea en diversosintercambiadores de calor de alta efectividad. El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue la evaluación del estado de las investigaciones en el campo de la transferencia de calor mejorada en espacios anulares, a partir del empleo de elementos turbulizadores helicoidales como técnicas pasivas. La revisión se centró en el empleo de láminas helicoidales y espirales, la obtención de ecuaciones de correlación del coeficiente de transferencia de calor incrementado, el coeficiente de fricción y la evaluación que se realiza de este proceso por parte de diferentes autores. El análisis crítico permitió realizar valoraciones integradas y recomendar sobre los aspectos que podrían ser analizados en el futuro en esta temática.Palabras claves: transferencia de calor incrementada, láminas helicoidales, espirales, espacios anulares, métodos pasivos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe transfer enhancement by passive methods is used in several heat exchanger of high effectiveness. The objective of the presented work was the evaluation of the state of the investigations in heat transfer enhancement in annular spaces, from the employment of elements helical. The revision was centered in the employment of twisted tape and wire coil in spiral, the equations of correlation obtained of the coefficient of transfer of increased heat, the coefficient of friction and the evaluation that was carried out of this process on the part of different authors. From the critical analysis of the published results, the authors recommend on the topics that can be analyzed in the future in this area.Key words: heat transfer enhancement, twisted tape, helical springs, annular spaces, passive methods.

  8. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight...

  9. Augmenting the access grid using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The Access Grid (AG) targets an advanced collaboration environment, with which multi-party group of people from remote sites can collaborate over high-performance networks. However, current AG still employs VIC (Video Conferencing Tool) to offer only pure video for remote communication, while most AG users expect to collaboratively refer and manipulate the 3D geometric models of grid services' results in live videos of AG session. Augmented Reality (AR) technique can overcome the deficiencies with its characteristics of combining virtual and real, real-time interaction and 3D registration, so it is necessary for AG to utilize AR to better assist the advanced collaboration environment. This paper introduces an effort to augment the AG by adding support for AR capability, which is encapsulated in the node service infrastructure, named as Augmented Reality Service (ARS). The ARS can merge the 3D geometric models of grid services' results and real video scene of AG into one AR environment, and provide the opportunity for distributed AG users to interactively and collaboratively participate in the AR environment with better experience.

  10. Collaborative Approaches in Developing Environmental and Safety Management Systems for Commercial Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Stacey; Murray, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) licenses and permits U.S. commercial space launch and reentry activities, and licenses the operation of non-federal launch and reentry sites. ASTs mission is to ensure the protection of the public, property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States during commercial space transportation activities and to encourage, facilitate, and promote U.S. commercial space transportation. AST faces unique challenges of ensuring the protection of public health and safety while facilitating and promoting U.S. commercial space transportation. AST has developed an Environmental Management System (EMS) and a Safety Management System (SMS) to help meet its mission. Although the EMS and SMS were developed independently, the systems share similar elements. Both systems follow a Plan-Do-Act-Check model in identifying potential environmental aspects or public safety hazards, assessing significance in terms of severity and likelihood of occurrence, developing approaches to reduce risk, and verifying that the risk is reduced. This paper will describe the similarities between ASTs EMS and SMS elements and how AST is building a collaborative approach in environmental and safety management to reduce impacts to the environment and risks to the public.

  11. Global navigation satellite systems performance analysis and augmentation strategies in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Moore, Terry; Ramasamy, Subramanian

    2017-11-01

    In an era of significant air traffic expansion characterized by a rising congestion of the radiofrequency spectrum and a widespread introduction of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are being exposed to a variety of threats including signal interferences, adverse propagation effects and challenging platform-satellite relative dynamics. Thus, there is a need to characterize GNSS signal degradations and assess the effects of interfering sources on the performance of avionics GNSS receivers and augmentation systems used for an increasing number of mission-essential and safety-critical aviation tasks (e.g., experimental flight testing, flight inspection/certification of ground-based radio navigation aids, wide area navigation and precision approach). GNSS signal deteriorations typically occur due to antenna obscuration caused by natural and man-made obstructions present in the environment (e.g., elevated terrain and tall buildings when flying at low altitude) or by the aircraft itself during manoeuvring (e.g., aircraft wings and empennage masking the on-board GNSS antenna), ionospheric scintillation, Doppler shift, multipath, jamming and spurious satellite transmissions. Anyone of these phenomena can result in partial to total loss of tracking and possible tracking errors, depending on the severity of the effect and the receiver characteristics. After designing GNSS performance threats, the various augmentation strategies adopted in the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management and Avionics (CNS + A) context are addressed in detail. GNSS augmentation can take many forms but all strategies share the same fundamental principle of providing supplementary information whose objective is improving the performance and/or trustworthiness of the system. Hence it is of paramount importance to consider the synergies offered by different augmentation strategies including Space Based Augmentation System (SBAS), Ground

  12. Interactive augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Moret Gabarró, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera realitzat en col.laboració amb el Royal Institute of Technology Augmented reality can provide a new experience to users by adding virtual objects where they are relevant in the real world. The new generation of mobile phones offers a platform to develop augmented reality application for industry as well as for the general public. Although some applications are reaching commercial viability, the technology is still limited. The main problem designers have to face w...

  13. Design of diffractive optical elements for the fractional Fourier transform domain: phase-space approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testorf, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Phase-space optics is used to relate the problem of designing diffractive optical elements for any first-order optical system to the corresponding design problem in the Fraunhofer diffraction regime. This, in particular, provides a novel approach for the fractional Fourier transform domain. For fractional Fourier transforms of arbitrary order, the diffractive element is determined as the optimum design computed for a generic Fourier transform system, scaled and modulated with a parabolic lens function. The phase-space description also identifies critical system parameters that limit the performance and applicability of this method. Numerical simulations of paraxial wave propagation are used to validate the method.

  14. Space-time trajectories of wind power generation: Parameterized precision matrices under a Gaussian copula approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastu, Julija; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on generating space-time trajectories of wind power generation, consisting of paths sampled from high-dimensional joint predictive densities, describing wind power generation at a number of contiguous locations and successive lead times. A modelling approach taking advantage......-correlations. Estimation is performed in a maximum likelihood framework. Based on a test case application in Denmark, with spatial dependencies over 15 areas and temporal ones for 43 hourly lead times (hence, for a dimension of n = 645), it is shown that accounting for space-time effects is crucial for generating skilful...

  15. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  16. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  17. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  18. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  19. EgoSAR: Towards a personalized spatial augmented reality experience in multi-user environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ridel, Brett; Mignard-Debise, Lois; Granier, Xavier; Reuter, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Common spatial augmented reality techniques use video projection to superimpose virtual information over a physical scene. As the augmentation happens directly in the real world, multiple users can see the augmented scene, however, the augmentation is the same for all users. We introduce EgoSAR, a new approach that makes it possible to have a personalized, view-dependent augmentation, in multiuser environments. Our key idea is to use retroreflective material for the pe...

  20. Autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using star sensors based on a Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Zhou, Fuqiang

    2015-04-10

    When imaged by detectors, space targets (including satellites and debris) and background stars have similar point-spread functions, and both objects appear to change as detectors track targets. Therefore, traditional tracking methods cannot separate targets from stars and cannot directly recognize targets in 2D images. Consequently, we propose an autonomous space target recognition and tracking approach using a star sensor technique and a Kalman filter (KF). A two-step method for subpixel-scale detection of star objects (including stars and targets) is developed, and the combination of the star sensor technique and a KF is used to track targets. The experimental results show that the proposed method is adequate for autonomously recognizing and tracking space targets.

  1. The NASA Space Launch System Program Systems Engineering Approach for Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, John J.; Whitehead, Josh; Hanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently developing the Space Launch System to provide the United States with a capability to launch large Payloads into Low Earth orbit and deep space. One of the development tenets of the SLS Program is affordability. One initiative to enhance affordability is the SLS approach to requirements definition, verification and system certification. The key aspects of this initiative include: 1) Minimizing the number of requirements, 2) Elimination of explicit verification requirements, 3) Use of certified models of subsystem capability in lieu of requirements when appropriate and 4) Certification of capability beyond minimum required capability. Implementation of each aspect is described and compared to a "typical" systems engineering implementation, including a discussion of relative risk. Examples of each implementation within the SLS Program are provided.

  2. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  3. New pharmacologic approaches to the prevention of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Macdonald, Scott

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental approaches used in the selection of new agents for the evaluation in the prevention of space-motion sickness (SMS) are reviewed, with emphasis on drugs under investigation at the Johnson Space Center. These approaches are: (1) the selection of agents from drug classes that possess pharmacologic properties of established antimotion sickness agents, (2) the selection of drugs that are used to prevent emesis caused by means other than the exposure to motion, and (3) basic research that characterizes individual differences in susceptibility to SMS. In the latter type of studies, it was found that subjects who were more resistant to SMS had higher plasma AVP after severe nausea than subjects with lower resistance. The review details the experimental data collected on AVP and adrenocorticotropin. It is noted that data support interrelated roles for AVP and opioid peptides in SMS.

  4. The Opportunity in Commercial Approaches for Future NASA Deep Space Exploration Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, NASA released a report assessing the market for commercial crew and cargo services to low Earth orbit (LEO). The report stated that NASA had spent a few hundred million dollars in the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program on the portion related to the development of the Falcon 9 launch vehicle. Yet a NASA cost model predicted the cost would have been significantly more with a non-commercial cost-plus contracting approach. By 2016 a NASA request for information stated it must "maximize the efficiency and sustainability of the Exploration Systems development programs", as "critical to free resources for reinvestment...such as other required deep space exploration capabilities." This work joins the previous two events, showing the potential for commercial, public private partnerships, modeled on programs like COTS, to reduce the cost to NASA significantly for "...other required deep space exploration capabilities." These other capabilities include landers, stages and more. We mature the concept of "costed baseball cards", adding cost estimates to NASA's space systems "baseball cards." We show some potential costs, including analysis, the basis of estimates, data sources and caveats to address a critical question - based on initial assessment, are significant agency resources justified for more detailed analysis and due diligence to understand and invest in public private partnerships for human deep space exploration systems? The cost analysis spans commercial to cost-plus contracting approaches, for smaller elements vs. larger, with some variation for lunar or Mars. By extension, we delve briefly into the potentially much broader significance of the individual cost estimates if taken together as a NASA investment portfolio where public private partnership are stitched together for deep space exploration. How might multiple improvements in individual systems add up to NASA human deep space exploration achievements, realistically, affordably

  5. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Simon; Coffey, Chris; Gravesen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    -space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short...... term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models...

  6. Formulation space search approach for the teacher/class timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetov Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well known NP-hard teacher/class timetabling problem. Variable neighborhood search and tabu search heuristics are developed based on idea of the Formulation Space Search approach. Two types of solution representation are used in the heuristics. For each representation we consider two families of neighborhoods. The first family uses swapping of time periods for teacher (class timetable. The second family bases on the idea of large Kernighan-Lin neighborhoods. Computation results for difficult random test instances show high efficiency of the proposed approach. .

  7. Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring...

  8. Infinite-dimensional approach to system identification of Space Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S. A.; Lee, K. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The identification of a unique set of system parameters in large space structures poses a significant new problem in control technology. Presented is an infinite-dimensional identification scheme to determine system parameters in large flexible structures in space. The method retains the distributed nature of the structure throughout the development of the algorithm and a finite-element approximation is used only to implement the algorithm. This approach eliminates many problems associated with model truncation used in other methods of identification. The identification is formulated in Hilbert space and an optimal control technique is used to minimize weighted least squares of error between the actual and the model data. A variational approach is used to solve the problem. A costate equation, gradients of parameter variations and conditions for optimal estimates are obtained. Computer simulation studies are conducted using a shuttle-attached antenna configuration, more popularly known as the Space Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) as an example. Numerical results show a close match between the estimated and true values of the parameters.

  9. A Principled Approach to the Specification of System Architectures for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvin, Mark L. Jr.; Castillo, Robert; Bonanne, Kevin; Bonnici, Michael; Cox, Brian; Gibson, Corrina; Leon, Juan P.; Gomez-Mustafa, Jose; Jimenez, Alejandro; Madni, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Modern space systems are increasing in complexity and scale at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, innovative methods, processes, and tools are needed to cope with the increasing complexity of architecting these systems. A key systems challenge in practice is the ability to scale processes, methods, and tools used to architect complex space systems. Traditionally, the process for specifying space system architectures has largely relied on capturing the system architecture in informal descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled design documents and domain expertise. Such informal descriptions often lead to misunderstandings between design teams, ambiguous specifications, difficulty in maintaining consistency as the architecture evolves throughout the system development life cycle, and costly design iterations. Therefore, traditional methods are becoming increasingly inefficient to cope with ever-increasing system complexity. We apply the principles of component-based design and platform-based design to the development of the system architecture for a practical space system to demonstrate feasibility of our approach using SysML. Our results show that we are able to apply a systematic design method to manage system complexity, thus enabling effective data management, semantic coherence and traceability across different levels of abstraction in the design chain. Just as important, our approach enables interoperability among heterogeneous tools in a concurrent engineering model based design environment.

  10. State-Space Approach to Structural Representation of Perturbed Pitch Period Sequences in Voice Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamendi, Gabriel A; Schlotthauer, Gastón; Torres, María E

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a state space-based approach to model perturbed pitch period sequences (PPSs), extracted from real sustained vowels, combining the principal features of disturbed real PPSs with structural analysis of stochastic time series and state space methods. The PPSs were obtained from a database composed of 53 healthy subjects. State space models were developed taking into account different structures and complexity levels. PPS features such as trend, cycle, and irregular structures were considered. Model parameters were calculated using optimization procedures. For each PPS, state estimates were obtained combining the developed models and diffuse initialization with filtering and smoothing methods. Statistical tests were applied to objectively evaluate the performance of this method. Statistical tests demonstrated that the proposed approach correctly represented more than the 75% of the database with a significance value of 0.05. In the analysis, structural estimates suitably characterized the dynamics of the PPSs. Trend estimates proved to properly represent slow long-term dynamics, whereas cycle estimates captured short-term autoregressive dependencies. The present study demonstrated that the proposed approach is suitable for representing and analyzing real perturbed PPSs, also allowing to extract further information related to the phonation process. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Using a Space Filling Curve Approach for the Management of Dynamic Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomadaki, S.; van Oosterom, P. J. M.; Tijssen, T. P. M.; Baart, F.

    2016-10-01

    Point cloud usage has increased over the years. The development of low-cost sensors makes it now possible to acquire frequent point cloud measurements on a short time period (day, hour, second). Based on the requirements coming from the coastal monitoring domain, we have developed, implemented and benchmarked a spatio-temporal point cloud data management solution. For this reason, we make use of the flat model approach (one point per row) in an Index Organised Table within a RDBMS and an improved spatio-temporal organisation using a Space Filling Curve approach. Two variants coming from two extremes of the space-time continuum are also taken into account, along with two treatments of the z dimension: as attribute or as part of the space filling curve. Through executing a benchmark we elaborate on the performance - loading and querying time -, and storage required by those different approaches. Finally, we validate the correctness and suitability of our method, through an out-of-the-box way of managing dynamic point clouds.

  12. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  13. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described.

  14. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  15. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  16. Prediction of Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing in Squeeze Casting Using Fuzzy Logic Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel M.G.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the squeeze castings is significantly affected by secondary dendrite arm spacing, which is influenced by squeeze cast input parameters. The relationships of secondary dendrite arm spacing with the input parameters, namely time delay, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring and die temperatures are complex in nature. The present research work focuses on the development of input-output relationships using fuzzy logic approach. In fuzzy logic approach, squeeze cast process variables are expressed as a function of input parameters and secondary dendrite arm spacing is expressed as an output parameter. It is important to note that two fuzzy logic based approaches have been developed for the said problem. The first approach deals with the manually constructed mamdani based fuzzy system and the second approach deals with automatic evolution of the Takagi and Sugeno’s fuzzy system. It is important to note that the performance of the developed models is tested for both linear and non-linear type membership functions. In addition the developed models were compared with the ten test cases which are different from those of training data. The developed fuzzy systems eliminates the need of a number of trials in selection of most influential squeeze cast process parameters. This will reduce time and cost of trial experimentations. The results showed that, all the developed models can be effectively used for making prediction. Further, the present research work will help foundrymen to select parameters in squeeze casting to obtain the desired quality casting without much of time and resource consuming.

  17. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Maidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  18. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  19. Robotic assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Caputo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Augmentation ileocystoplasty is a common treatment in adults with low capacity bladders due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. We describe here our technique for robotic assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in an adult with a low capacity bladder due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Materials and Methods: The patient is a 35 years-old man with neurogenic bladder due to a C6 spinal cord injury in 2004. Cystometrogram shows a maximum capacity of 96cc and Pdet at maximum capacity of 97cmH2O. He manages his bladder with intermittent catheterization and experiences multiple episodes of incontinence between catheterizations. He experiences severe autonomic dysreflexia symptoms with indwelling urethral catheter. He has previously failed non operative management options of his bladder dysfunction. Our surgical technique utilizes 6 trocars, of note a 12mm assistant trocar is placed 1cm superior to the pubic symphysis, and this trocar is solely used to pass a laparoscopic stapler to facilitate the excision of the ileal segment and the enteric anastomosis. Surgical steps include: development of the space of Retzius/dropping the bladder; opening the bladder from the anterior to posterior bladder neck; excision of a segment of ileum; enteric anastomosis; detubularizing the ileal segment; suturing the ileal segment to the incised bladder edge. Results: The surgery had no intraoperative complications. Operative time was 286 minutes (4.8 hours. Estimated blood loss was 50cc. Length of hospital stay was 8 days. He did experience a postoperative complication on hospital day 3 of hematemesis, which did not require blood transfusion. Cystometrogram at 22 days post operatively showed a maximum bladder capacity of 165cc with a Pdet at maximum capacity of 10cmH2O. Conclusions: As surgeon comfort and experience with robotic assisted surgery grows, robotic surgery can successfully be applied to less frequently performed procedures

  20. Drawing Millions of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2017-01-01

    02.10.2017 Drawing Millions of Spaces Helle Brabrand, KADK, School of Architecture, Copenhagen My project Drawing Millions of Spaces takes up some recurring questions about drawing and perception, stating that kinesthetic perception alone is a decisive force in drawing architecture. The assertion...... is that awareness of produced sensuous effects is a core issue of drawing, framing the way we see and imagine. Affective tonality attaches to proprioceptive and kinesthetic experience, being the mode of experience that transverse the senses. Movement is always there; you have to make distinctions between kinds...... of movement and experimental dynamics, questioning what difference they may create. Drawing Millions of Spaces looks for ambiguous and resonant body-space articulations, preparing for a use of AR (augmented reality) as an additional creation approach. For instance, working with combined projections, using...

  1. Learning in Earth and space science: a review of conceptual change instructional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-03-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the general characteristics of the research, the conceptual change instructional approaches that were used, and the methods employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches. The findings of this review support four assertions about the existing research: (1) astronomical phenomena have received greater attention than geological phenomena; (2) most studies have viewed conceptual change from a cognitive perspective only; (3) data about conceptual change were generated pre- and post-intervention only; and (4) the interventions reviewed presented limited opportunities to involve students in the construction and manipulation of multiple representations of the phenomenon being investigated. Based upon these assertions, the authors recommend that new research in the Earth and space science disciplines challenges traditional notions of conceptual change by exploring the role of affective variables on learning, focuses on the learning of geological phenomena through the construction of multiple representations, and employs qualitative data collection throughout the implementation of an instructional approach.

  2. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  3. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  4. The Augmented Book

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, D

    2015-01-01

    The Augmented Book: Sherwood Rise 30 January 2015 at 14:48 From 2012-13 I carried out practice-based research for the UNESCO future of the book project. The aim was to consider the future of the book using new media technology, particularly Augmented Reality (AR) on mobile phones. My research question was: How could digital media and physical books work together and interact to make a coherent story? I set about making an interactive story where participatory interaction with digital media vi...

  5. Thermoelectric Generators on Satellites—An Approach for Waste Heat Recovery in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian von Lukowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental radiation in space (from the Sun, etc. and operational thermal loads result in heat flows inside the structure of satellites. Today these heat flows remain unused and are collected, transported to a radiator and emitted to space to prevent the satellite from overheating, but they hold a huge potential to generate electrical power independently of solar panels. Thermoelectric generators are a promising approach for such applications because of their solid state characteristics. As they do not have any moving parts, they do not cause any vibrations in the satellite. They are said to be maintenance-free and highly reliable. Due to the expected small heat flows modern devices based on BiTe have to be considered, but these devices have no flight heritage. Furthermore, energy harvesting on space systems is a new approach for increasing the efficiency and reliability. In this paper, different systems studies and applications are discussed based some experimental characterisation of the electrical behaviour and their dependence on thermal cycles and vibration.

  6. A novel variable selection approach that iteratively optimizes variable space using weighted binary matrix sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao

    2014-10-07

    In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/.

  7. Space-Hotel Early Bird - An Educational and Public Outreach Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01

    education and public outreach can be combined and how a cooperation among an association, the industry and academia can work successfully. Representatives of the DGLR and the academia developed a method to spread space related knowledge in a short time to a motivated working group. The project was a great success in the sense to involve other disciplines in space related topics by interdisciplinary work and in the sense of public and educational outreach. With more than 2.3 million contacts the DGLR e.V. promoted space and the vision of living (in) space to the public. The task of the paper is mainly to describe the approach and the experience made related to the organization, lectures, financing and outreach efforts in respect to similar future international outreach activities, which are planned for the 54th International Astronautical Congress in Bremen/Germany. www.spacehotel.org

  8. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.

  9. Collaboration in Augmented Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, S.; Billinghurst, M.; Alem, L.; Kiyokawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology that allows users to view and interact in real time with virtual images seamlessly superimposed over the real world. AR systems can be used to create unique collaborative experiences. For example, co-located users can see shared 3D virtual objects that they

  10. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  11. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  12. Augmented Reality i naturfagsundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radmer, Ole; Surland, Mogens; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    Augmented Reality (AR) giver ny mulighed for, at elever kan lave undersøgelser i naturfag med enkel teknologi, hvor animationer og simulationer kobles med det virkelige fænomen. I workshoppen kan I afprøve AR eksempler, udviklet i et internationalt EU projekt. Der vil være noget, der direkte kan...

  13. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šťastný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral part of production process in many companies is prototyping. Although, these companies commonly have high quality visualization tools (large screen projections, virtual reality, prototyping was never abandoned. There is a number of reasons. The most important is the possibility of model observation from any angle without any physical constraints and its haptic feedback. The interactivity of model adjustments is important as well. The direct work with the model allows the designers to focus on the creative process more than work with a computer. There is still a problem with a difficult adjustability of the model. More significant changes demand completely new prototype or at least longer time for its realization.The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the triple of points which represents a general plane in space. There is discussed the space identification of these points and the description of representation of their position and orientation be means of transformation

  14. A New Approach to Space Situational Awareness using Small Ground-Based Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Cliff S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report discusses a new SSA approach evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that may lead to highly scalable, small telescope observing stations designed to help manage the growing space surveillance burden. Using the methods and observing tools described in this report, the team was able to acquire and track very faint satellites (near Pluto’s apparent brightness). Photometric data was collected and used to correlate object orbital position as a function of atomic clock-derived time. Object apparent brightness was estimated by image analysis and nearby star calibration. The measurement performance was only limited by weather conditions, object brightness, and the sky glow at the observation site. In the future, these new SSA technologies and techniques may be utilized to protect satellite assets, detect and monitor orbiting debris fields, and support Outer Space Treaty monitoring and transparency.

  15. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  16. Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA: a new systems approach to identify therapeutic targets for human genetic diseases [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3gk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Wiley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interaction networks that underlie most human diseases are highly complex and poorly defined. Better-defined networks will allow identification of a greater number of therapeutic targets. Here we introduce our Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA approach and test it with the X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA disease gene UBA1. First, we express UBA1 and a mutant variant in fission yeast and use high-throughput methods to identify fission yeast genetic modifiers of UBA1. Second, we analyze available protein-protein interaction network databases in both fission yeast and human to construct UBA1 genetic networks. Third, from these networks we identified potential therapeutic targets for SMA. Finally, we validate one of these targets in a vertebrate (zebrafish SMA model. This study demonstrates the power of combining synthetic and chemical genetics with a simple model system to identify human disease gene networks that can be exploited for treating human diseases.

  17. Managing Deep Postanal Space Sepsis via an Intersphincteric Approach: Our Early Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Koh, Dean C; Tsang, Charles B

    2013-04-01

    Managing deep postanal (DPA) sepsis often involves multiple procedures over a long time. An intersphincteric approach allows adequate drainage to be performed while tackling the primary pathology at the same sitting. The aim of our study was to evaluate this novel technique in managing DPA sepsis. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent this intersphincteric technique in managing DPA sepsis from February 2008 to October 2010 was performed. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. Seventeen patients with a median age of 43 years (range, 32 to 71 years) and comprised of 94.1% (n = 16) males formed the study group. In all patients, an internal opening in the posterior midline with a tract leading to the deep postanal space was identified. This intersphincteric approach operation was adopted as the primary procedure in 12 patients (70.6%) and was successful in 11 (91.7%). In the only failure, the sepsis recurred, and a successful advancement flap procedure was eventually performed. Five other patients (29.4%) underwent this same procedure as a secondary procedure after an initial drainage operation. Only one was successful. In the remaining four patients, one had a recurrent abscess that required drainage while the other three patients had a tract between the internal opening and the intersphincteric incision. They subsequently underwent a drainage procedure with seton insertion and advancement flap procedures. Managing DPA space sepsis via an intersphincteric approach is successful in 70.6% of patients. This single-staged technique allows for effective drainage of the sepsis and removal of the primary pathology in the intersphincteric space.

  18. Solution of two nucleon systems using vector variables in momentum space - an innovative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Saravanan

    An alternate formalism that uses vector variables to treat the two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equation for realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials in momentum space is discussed in this thesis. The formalism uses the symmetry properties of the nucleon-nucleon potential and expands the nucleon-nucleon potential in terms of six linearly independent spin operators. The alternate formalism discussed in this thesis brings to light the role of time-odd spin operators. The vector variable formalism's treatment of spin degrees of freedom heavily depends on the analytical computation of hundreds of algebraic expression. A mathematical framework and computer algorithms for an automated symbolic reduction of algebraic expressions into scalar functions of vector variables are explained in this thesis. The vector variable formalism requires nucleon-nucleon potentials that are in operator form as input. The configuration space nucleon-nucleon potential Argonne V18 is one such potential that can be used for relativistic energies if it can be computed efficiently in momentum space. This thesis develops an efficient numerical technique using Chebyshev approximation to compute the Argonne V18 potential in momentum-space. The tools discussed in this thesis, the algebraic system and the efficient computation of the Argonne V18 potential in momentum space are tested by computing the binding energy and bound state wavefunctions of the deuteron using the vector variable approach. The results were successful and the first step towards a higher goal of using vector formalism of the three-body Faddeev equations for intermediate and high energies has been made.

  19. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  20. Truncated Hilbert space approach to the 2d ϕ{sup 4} theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltan [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics,Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Lajer, Marton [Roland Eötvös University,Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-11

    We apply the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the two dimensional ϕ{sup 4} theory in finite volume. We focus on the broken phase and determine the finite size spectrum of the model numerically. We interpret the results in terms of the Bethe-Yang spectrum, from which we extract the infinite volume masses and scattering matrices for various couplings. We compare these results against semiclassical analysis and perturbation theory. We also analyze the critical point of the model and confirm that it is in the Ising universality class.

  1. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  2. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  3. Researcher’s Academic Culture in the Educational Space of the University: Linguo-Axiological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Semenog

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the nature of the concepts “classic University”, “cultural and educational space of the University”, “research activity of future professional”, “researcher’s academic culture” and approach to academic culture as the basis of research culture in a university. It is defined that the concept of academic culture is complex. We are talking in general about the culture at the university, values, traditions, norms, rules of scientific research, and the scientific language culture, the culture of spirituality and morality, the culture of communication between science tutors and students, a culture of unique pedagogical action of master and his social, moral responsibility for the studying results. The formation of academic culture and own style, is better to develop on the positions of personal-activity, competence, axiological, cultural, acmeological approaches.

  4. The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlig, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

  5. A Semantic Approach for the Modeling of Trajectories in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheni, Donia; Frihida, Ali; Ghezala, Henda Ben; Claramunt, Christophe

    The modeling and analysis of trajectories in space and time have been long a domain of social science studies since early developments of Time Geography. Early works have been mainly conceptual, but things are changing with recent advances in telecommunications and ubiquitous computing that allow representation of moving points and trajectories within spatial database systems. These have generated a large amount of research in formal and qualitative modeling of moving points, providing many opportunities to enrich emerging geometrical-based data structures with semantic approaches. This is the objective of the research presented in this paper that introduces a semantic-based model and manipulation language of trajectories. It is based on an algebraic Spatio-Temporal Trajectory data type (STT) endowed with a set of operations designed as a way to cover the syntax and semantics of a trajectory. The approach is formally presented and illustrated by a case study.

  6. An integrative approach to space-flight physiology using systems analysis and mathematical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.; White, R. J.; Rummel, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    An approach was developed to aid in the integration of many of the biomedical findings of space flight, using systems analysis. The mathematical tools used in accomplishing this task include an automated data base, a biostatistical and data analysis system, and a wide variety of mathematical simulation models of physiological systems. A keystone of this effort was the evaluation of physiological hypotheses using the simulation models and the prediction of the consequences of these hypotheses on many physiological quantities, some of which were not amenable to direct measurement. This approach led to improvements in the model, refinements of the hypotheses, a tentative integrated hypothesis for adaptation to weightlessness, and specific recommendations for new flight experiments.

  7. Methodological approaches for research of local market of IT services in the information space of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Antokhonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the local market of services in the field of information technologies as a part of information space of the region including all institutional units and IT infrastructure of the region is considered. Such approach is caused by rather small contribution of this type of activity to a gross regional product in the conditions of economic crisis, reducing by the companies costs and freezing of large infrastructure projects. Development of information society is characterized by tendencies of promotion of mobile services, artificial intelligence, socialization, use of a cloud computing and is followed by involvement of households, state management and business in a common information space. However traditionally market research of IT services and information space represent the isolated researches of the market and humanitarian direction.The purpose of this article is development of a single technique and system of indicators for the analysis of the local market of IT services in information space of the region. Authors determinae components of information space in which there is a configuration of the local market, the demand and supply. Development of an analysis technique of the local market of IT services is preceded by the description of structure of information space of the region as the open system exchanging with the external environment information resources. Basic elements of structure are social and economic system in which the local market of IT services, ICT infrastructure and information resources functions. Information analysis base is the system of statistics which sources can be an official statistics, analytics of Internet resources and data of selective inspections of demand in the local market.The technique of a research represents an analysis algorithm of all components of information space and the market of IT services. For each analysis stage authors proved statistics for the solution of a certain task. At the final

  8. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  9. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Ab interno approach to the subconjunctival space using a collagen glaucoma stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    This review considers a minimally invasive ab interno approach to glaucoma filtration surgery. Glaucoma filtration surgery can be defined as an attempt to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by the surgical formation of an artificial drainage pathway from the anterior chamber to the subconjunctival space. Subconjunctival drainage of aqueous fluid has been a cornerstone of glaucoma surgery for more than a century. Varying techniques have been deployed to provide access to this space. Yet, despite numerous innovations in filtering surgery to achieve safe IOP reduction, too many short-term and long-term complications are associated with this surgery. This article describes the development of a new, soft, and permanent ab interno collagen implant (XEN gel stent) to optimize aqueous drainage to the subconjunctival space. Specific characteristics are critical in designing such an implant. Determining the optimum size of the device lumen to avoid hypotony while maximizing long-term outflow is crucial. Other topics discussed include material, length, diameter, flexibility, stability, and biocompatibility of the implant. Preclinical and human eye testing shows that the implant does not seem to occlude inside the lumen and the implant material does not appear to cause tissue reaction in the eye. The ab interno placement of the stent offers an alternative for lowering IOP with a minimally invasive procedure, minimum conjunctival tissue disruption, restricted flow to avoid hypotony, and long-term safety. Dr. Lewis received financial support from Aquesys, Inc. as a consultant. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design Space Approach in Optimization of Fluid Bed Granulation and Tablets Compression Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Djuriš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors.

  12. Design space approach in optimization of fluid bed granulation and tablets compression process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuriš, Jelena; Medarević, Djordje; Krstić, Marko; Vasiljević, Ivana; Mašić, Ivana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize fluid bed granulation and tablets compression processes using design space approach. Type of diluent, binder concentration, temperature during mixing, granulation and drying, spray rate, and atomization pressure were recognized as critical formulation and process parameters. They were varied in the first set of experiments in order to estimate their influences on critical quality attributes, that is, granules characteristics (size distribution, flowability, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and moisture content) using Plackett-Burman experimental design. Type of diluent and atomization pressure were selected as the most important parameters. In the second set of experiments, design space for process parameters (atomization pressure and compression force) and its influence on tablets characteristics was developed. Percent of paracetamol released and tablets hardness were determined as critical quality attributes. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied in order to determine design space. ANNs models showed that atomization pressure influences mostly on the dissolution profile, whereas compression force affects mainly the tablets hardness. Based on the obtained ANNs models, it is possible to predict tablet hardness and paracetamol release profile for any combination of analyzed factors.

  13. Third International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel is Approaching Reality» (Successful Event in Difficult Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the presentations of participants of III International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel – approaching reality», held on 6–7 November 2014 in Kharkiv, Ukraine

  14. A robust ballistic design approach for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, M. A.; Jordan, F. W.; Stockham, L. W.

    1993-06-01

    A robust design approach has been developed for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that enhances the potential for program success. This is accomplished by application of state of the art ballistic modelling techniques coupled with an aggressive contingency planning methodology. Application of this approach addresses the design challenges associated with development of the ASRM because of it's large size, high length to diameter ratio, and demanding thrust-time trace shape requirements. Advanced ballistic modelling techniques applied include deformed grain modelling, spatial burn rate mapping, erosive burning response characterization, and ballistic/structural/CFD flow-grain interactions. Model fidelity is further improved by utilizing the extensive RSRM experience base for validation proposes. In addition to this modelling approach, development of contingency plans covers the remaining prediction uncertainties, and readily allows fine tuning of the propellant grain configuration to meet design objectives after the first motor firing. This approach promises to produce an optimum flight motor design that meets all performance objectives while accommodating program development uncertainties.

  15. A new unified approach to determine geocentre motion using space geodetic and GRACE gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Kusche, Jürgen; Landerer, Felix W.

    2017-06-01

    Geocentre motion between the centre-of-mass of the Earth system and the centre-of-figure of the solid Earth surface is a critical signature of degree-1 components of global surface mass transport process that includes sea level rise, ice mass imbalance and continental-scale hydrological change. To complement GRACE data for complete-spectrum mass transport monitoring, geocentre motion needs to be measured accurately. However, current methods of geodetic translational approach and global inversions of various combinations of geodetic deformation, simulated ocean bottom pressure and GRACE data contain substantial biases and systematic errors. Here, we demonstrate a new and more reliable unified approach to geocentre motion determination using a recently formed satellite laser ranging based geocentric displacement time-series of an expanded geodetic network of all four space geodetic techniques and GRACE gravity data. The unified approach exploits both translational and deformational signatures of the displacement data, while the addition of GRACE's near global coverage significantly reduces biases found in the translational approach and spectral aliasing errors in the inversion.

  16. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Simon

    2013-08-13

    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state-space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models of residential buildings. Quantitative measures are provided of the standard deviation of concentration and exposure within a range of residential multizone buildings. Ratios of the maximum short term concentrations and exposures to single zone building estimates are also provided for the same buildings. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Comparing laser interferometry and atom interferometry approaches to space-based gravitational-wave measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ira Thorpe, James; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul; Baker, John G.

    2012-07-01

    The science enabled by a space-based low-frequency gravitational-wave instrument is a high-priority objective of the international astronomy community. Mission concepts based on laser interferometry, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), have been thoroughly studied and determined to be capable of delivering significant science returns. Ongoing developments in laboratory atom interferometry techniques have inspired new gravitational-wave mission concepts. We present a comparative analysis of LISA-like light interferometer systems and atom interferometer systems for gravitational-wave detection. Specific attention is paid to the sources of instrumental noise that are most important for light interferometer systems. We find that the response to laser frequency noise is identical in light interferometer and atom interferometer systems and that similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple-arm interferometers) must be employed to reach interesting gravitational wave sensitivities. Response to acceleration of the optical platforms is slightly different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but the acceleration noise requirements are similar. Based on this analysis, we find no clear advantage of the atom interferometry approach over traditional laser interferometry.

  18. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  19. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    . The study design was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study including patients with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision schizophrenia (F20.0-F20.3) and treated with clozapine for at least 6 months who had not achieved sufficient response. Patients were...... Inventory, fasting glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude...... Inventory. No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  20. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  1. Extending peripersonal space representation without tool-use: evidence from a combined behavioural-computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSerino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli from different sensory modalities occurring on or close to the body are integrated in a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e. peripersonal space (PPS. PPS dynamically modifies depending on experience, e.g. it extends after using a tool to reach far objects. However, the neural mechanism underlying PPS plasticity after tool use is largely unknown. Here we use a combined computational-behavioural approach to propose and test a possible mechanism accounting for PPS extension. We first present a neural network model simulating audio-tactile representation in the PPS around one hand. Simulation experiments showed that our model reproduced the main property of PPS neurons, i.e. selective multisensory response for stimuli occurring close to the hand. We used the neural network model to simulate the effects of a tool-use training. In terms of sensory inputs, tool use was conceptualized as a concurrent tactile stimulation from the hand, due to holding the tool, and an auditory stimulation from the far space, due to tool-mediated action. Results showed that after exposure to those inputs, PPS neurons responded also to multisensory stimuli far from the hand. The model thus suggests that synchronous pairing of tactile hand stimulation and auditory stimulation from the far space is sufficient to extend PPS, such as after tool-use. Such prediction was confirmed by a behavioural experiment, where we used an audio-tactile interaction paradigm to measure the boundaries of PPS representation. We found that PPS extended after synchronous tactile-hand stimulation and auditory-far stimulation in a group of healthy volunteers. Control experiments both in simulation and behavioural settings showed that asynchronous tactile and auditory inputs did not change PPS. We conclude by proposing a biological-plausible model to explain plasticity in PPS representation after tool-use, supported by computational and behavioural data.

  2. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  3. APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN FACADE REDESIGN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEJIĆ Petar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is a computer technology where the perception of the user is enhanced by the seamless blending between real environment and computer-generated virtual objects coexisting in the same space. When it comes to a redesign of the existing facades, it is necessary to create a visual presentation of the proposed changes. For this reason, contemporary architectural approach assumes creating a digital 3D model of the newly designed facade. Since the façade redesign is a real world change, the AR can be used for newly designed facade project presentation. In this paper a case study of the AR application for façade redesign presentation of a single family house located in Babušnica (Serbia is presented.

  4. An approach to ground based space surveillance of geostationary on-orbit servicing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert (Lauchie); Ellery, Alex

    2015-07-01

    On Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a class of dual-use robotic space missions that could potentially extend the life of orbiting satellites by fuel replenishment, repair, inspection, orbital maintenance or satellite repurposing, and possibly reduce the rate of space debris generation. OOS performed in geostationary orbit poses a unique challenge for the optical space surveillance community. Both satellites would be performing proximity operations in tight formation flight with separations less than 500 m making atmospheric seeing (turbulence) a challenge to resolving a geostationary satellite pair when viewed from the ground. The two objects would appear merged in an image as the resolving power of the telescope and detector, coupled with atmospheric seeing, limits the ability to resolve the two objects. This poses an issue for obtaining orbital data for conjunction flight safety or, in matters pertaining to space security, inferring the intent and trajectory of an unexpected object perched very close to one's satellite asset on orbit. In order to overcome this problem speckle interferometry using a cross spectrum approach is examined as a means to optically resolve the client and servicer's relative positions to enable a means to perform relative orbit determination of the two spacecraft. This paper explores cases where client and servicing satellites are in unforced relative motion flight and examines the observability of the objects. Tools are described that exploit cross-spectrum speckle interferometry to (1) determine the presence of a secondary in the vicinity of the client satellite and (2) estimate the servicing satellite's motion relative to the client. Experimental observations performed with the Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope on co-located geostationary satellites (acting as OOS proxy objects) are described. Apparent angular separations between Anik G1 and Anik F1R from 5 to 1 arcsec were observed as the two satellites appeared to graze one another. Data

  5. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  6. Approaches for processing spectral measurements of reflected sunlight for space object detection and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquy, Marie-Astrid A.

    2004-09-01

    The proliferation of small, lightweight, ‘micro- ’ and ‘nanosatellite’ (largest dimension systems. Moreover, some satellites in geo-orbit are just simply too distant to be resolved by ground systems. The core concept of using Non-Imaging Measurements (NIM) to gather information about these objects comes from the fact that after reflection on a satellite surface, the reflected light contains information about the surface materials of the satellite. This approach of using NIM for satellite evaluation is getting new attention. In this dissertation, the accuracy of using these spectral measurements to match an unknown spectrum to a database containing known spectra and to estimate the fractional composition for materials contained in a synthetic spectrum is discussed. This problem is divided into two parts, a pattern recognition problem and a spectral unmixing problem. Two methods were developed for the pattern recognition problem. The first approach is a distance classifier processing different input features. The second method is an artificial neural network designed to process central moments of real measured spectra. This spectrum database is the Spica database provided by the Maui Space Surveillance Site (MSSS), Hawaii USA and consists in spectra from more than 100 different satellites. For the spectral unmixing part, four different approaches were tested. These approaches are based on the ability of spectral signal processing to estimate fractional composition of materials from the measurement of a single spectrum. Material spectra were provided by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to create synthetic spectra. A statistical approach based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm as well as a constrained linear estimator were used to estimate fractional compositions and presence of materials in a synthetic spectrum. The last two unmixing methods are based on inverse matrices, singular value decomposition and constrained pseudoinverse. The results

  7. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  8. Modal parameter identification by an iterative approach and by the state space model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiès, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    The problem of estimating a spectral representation of exponentially decaying signals from a set of sampled data is of considerable interest in several applications such as in vibration analysis of mechanical systems. In this paper we present a nonparametric and a parametric method for modal parameter identification of vibrating systems when only output data is available. The nonparametric method uses an iterative adaptive algorithm based in the formation of a two dimensional grid mesh, both in frequency and damping domains. We formulate the identification problem as an optimization problem where the signal energy is obtained from each frequency grid point and damping grid point. The modal parameters are then obtained by minimizing the signal energy from all grid points other than the grid point which contains the modal parameters of the system. The parametric approach uses the state space model and properties of the controllability matrix to obtain the state transition matrix which contains all modal information. We discuss and illustrate the benefits of the proposed algorithms using a numerical and two experimental tests and we conclude that the nonparametric approach is very time consuming when a large number of samples is considered and does not outperform the parametric approach.

  9. Numerical Approaches for the Optimization of Plasma Sources for Space Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melazzi, Davide; Lancellotti, Vito; Cardinali, Alessandro; Manente, Marco; Pavarin, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    The optimization of radiofrequency magnetized plasma sources for space thrusters has focused on power deposition in nonuniform plasmas. However, many researchers assumed rather than computed the induced current density on the antenna, and considered a uniform and constant magneto-static field aligned with the source axis. To overcome these limitations, we propose two methods: (i) a full-wave approach to compute the current distribution on the antenna and (ii) a ray-tracing approach to investigate the influence of actual magneto-static fields on the wave propagation and power deposition. Plasma density profiles are included in both approaches. In the full-wave method, we derive a surface integral equation for the antenna and a volume integral equation for the plasma by applying the electromagnetic equivalence principles. A comparative study of different antennas will be presented. In the second method, the propagation and absorption of electromagnetic waves are investigated by solving the 3D Maxwell-Vlasov model equations by a WKB asymptotic expansion. Unconventional mode conversions and power deposition profiles are found when realistic confinement magnetic field are considered.

  10. Space base laser torque applied on LEO satellites of various geometries at satellite’s closest approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    In light of using laser power in space applications, the motivation of this paper is to use a space based solar pumped laser to produce a torque on LEO satellites of various shapes. It is assumed that there is a space station that fires laser beam toward the satellite so the beam spreading due to diffraction is considered to be the dominant effect on the laser beam propagation. The laser torque is calculated at the point of closest approach between the space station and some sun synchronous l...

  11. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wojciechowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  12. Assessing the standard Molybdenum projector augmented wave VASP potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Multi-Scale Science

    2014-07-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Equation of State (EOS) construction is a prominent part of Sandia’s capabilities to support engineering sciences. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data. This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave (PAW) potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Using the tools discussed in SAND2012-7389 we assess the standard Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) PAWs for Molybdenum.

  13. Graphical user interface concepts for tactical augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Chris; Murphy, Anne; Hinton, Jeremy; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Steve

    2010-04-01

    Applied Research Associates and BAE Systems are working together to develop a wearable augmented reality system under the DARPA ULTRA-Vis program†. Our approach to achieve the objectives of ULTRAVis, called iLeader, incorporates a full color 40° field of view (FOV) see-thru holographic waveguide integrated with sensors for full position and head tracking to provide an unobtrusive information system for operational maneuvers. iLeader will enable warfighters to mark-up the 3D battle-space with symbologic identification of graphical control measures, friendly force positions and enemy/target locations. Our augmented reality display provides dynamic real-time painting of symbols on real objects, a pose-sensitive 360° representation of relevant object positions, and visual feedback for a variety of system activities. The iLeader user interface and situational awareness graphical representations are highly intuitive, nondisruptive, and always tactically relevant. We used best human-factors practices, system engineering expertise, and cognitive task analysis to design effective strategies for presenting real-time situational awareness to the military user without distorting their natural senses and perception. We present requirements identified for presenting information within a see-through display in combat environments, challenges in designing suitable visualization capabilities, and solutions that enable us to bring real-time iconic command and control to the tactical user community.

  14. Infinite-mode squeezed coherent states and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics (phase-space-picture approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Leehwa

    1993-01-01

    The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.

  15. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  16. A reproducing kernel hilbert space approach for q-ball imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Enrico; Kruggel, Frithjof

    2011-11-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has enabled us to reveal the white matter geometry in the living human brain. The Q-ball technique is widely used nowadays to recover the orientational heterogeneity of the intra-voxel fiber architecture. This article proposes to employ the Funk-Radon transform in a Hilbert space with a reproducing kernel derived from the spherical Laplace-Beltrami operator, thus generalizing previous approaches that assume a bandlimited diffusion signal. The function estimation problem is solved within a Tikhonov regularization framework, while a Gaussian process model allows for the selection of the smoothing parameter and the specification of confidence bands. Shortcomings of Q-ball imaging are discussed.

  17. High-resolution spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data using a regularization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghouani, N.

    2017-07-01

    The problem of estimating the power spectrum of unevenly spaced time series is considered. Indeed, this problem is quite common in ground-based astronomy, and the use of classical methods leads to aliased frequency detection. Moreover, the spectral resolution is limited by the observation time (Shannon-Nyquist law). We propose a regularized method to estimate the power spectrum of such irregular time series. We also show that with this approach, one can achieve high resolution. The method is described in detail and applied to simulated data as well as helioseismic velocities. A fast algorithm is also presented for the numerical implementation. The results show that accurate frequency estimation can be obtained from short, noisy and irregularly sampled signals.

  18. Analytic Semigroup Approach to Generalized Navier-Stokes Flows in Besov Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Min

    2017-12-01

    The energy dissipation of the Navier-Stokes equations is controlled by the viscous force defined by the Laplacian -Δ , while that of the generalized Navier-Stokes equations is determined by the fractional Laplacian (-Δ )^α . The existence and uniqueness problem is always solvable in a strong dissipation situation in the sense of large α but it becomes complicated when α is decreasing. In this paper, the well-posedness regarding to the unique existence of small time solutions and small initial data solutions is examined in critical homogeneous Besov spaces for α ≥ 1/2. An analytic semigroup approach to the understanding of the generalized Navier-Stokes equations is developed and thus the well-posedness on the equations is examined in a manner different to earlier investigations.

  19. Solar pumping of solid state lasers for space mission: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetti, N. G.; Lousteau, J.; Negro, D.; Mura, E.; Scarpignato, G. C.; Perrone, G.; Milanese, D.; Abrate, S.

    2017-11-01

    Solar pumped laser (SPL) can find wide applications in space missions, especially for long lasting ones. In this paper a new technological approach for the realization of a SPL based on fiber laser technology is proposed. We present a preliminary study, focused on the active material performance evaluation, towards the realization of a Nd3+ -doped fiber laser made of phosphate glass materials, emitting at 1.06 μm. For this research several Nd3+ -doped phosphate glass samples were fabricated, with concentration of Nd3+ up to 10 mol%. Physical and thermal properties of the glasses were measured and their spectroscopic properties are described. The effect of Nd3+ doping concentration on emission spectra and lifetimes was investigated in order to study the concentration quenching effect on luminescence performance.

  20. A new approach to the analysis of the phase space of f(R)-gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Sante

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new dynamical system formalism for the analysis of f(R) cosmologies. The new approach eliminates the need for cumbersome inversions to close the dynamical system and allows the analysis of the phase space of f(R)-gravity models which cannot be investigated using the standard technique. Differently form previously proposed similar techniques, the new method is constructed in such a way to associate to the fixed points scale factors, which contain four integration constants (i.e. solutions of fourth order differential equations). In this way a new light is shed on the physical meaning of the fixed points. We apply this technique to some f(R) Lagrangians relevant for inflationary and dark energy models.

  1. Groups, matrices, and vector spaces a group theoretic approach to linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2017-01-01

    This unique text provides a geometric approach to group theory and linear algebra, bringing to light the interesting ways in which these subjects interact. Requiring few prerequisites beyond understanding the notion of a proof, the text aims to give students a strong foundation in both geometry and algebra. Starting with preliminaries (relations, elementary combinatorics, and induction), the book then proceeds to the core topics: the elements of the theory of groups and fields (Lagrange's Theorem, cosets, the complex numbers and the prime fields), matrix theory and matrix groups, determinants, vector spaces, linear mappings, eigentheory and diagonalization, Jordan decomposition and normal form, normal matrices, and quadratic forms. The final two chapters consist of a more intensive look at group theory, emphasizing orbit stabilizer methods, and an introduction to linear algebraic groups, which enriches the notion of a matrix group. Applications involving symm etry groups, determinants, linear coding theory ...

  2. Truncated Hilbert Space Approach for the 1+1D phi^4 Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    (an informal seminar, not a regular string seminar) We used the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the broken phase of the 1+1 dimensional scalar phi^4 model in finite volume, similarly to the work by S. Rychkov and L. Vitale. In our work, the finite size spectrum was determined numerically using an effective eigensolver routine, which was followed by a simple extrapolation in the cutoff energy. We analyzed both the periodic and antiperiodic sectors. The results were compared with semiclassical and Bethe-Yang results as well as perturbation theory. We obtained the coupling dependence of the infinite volume breather and kink masses for moderate couplings. The results fit well with semiclassics and perturbative estimations, and confirm the conjecture of Mussardo that at most two neutral excitations can exist in the spectrum. We believe that improving our method with the renormalization procedure of Rychkov et al. enables to measure further interesting quantities such as decay ra...

  3. Robust Speed Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Motor using State-Space Nonlinear Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik MOHAMMED CHIKOUCHE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison between two controllers (fuzzy logic and variable gain PI of the one part and the conventional PI on the other hand, used for speed control with indirect rotor flux orientation of doubly fed Induction Motor (DFIM fed by two PWM inverters with separate DC bus link. By introducing a new approach for decoupling the motor’s currents in a rotating (d-q frame, based on the state space input-output decoupling method, we obtain the same transfer function (1/s for all four decoupled currents. Thereafter and in order to improve the performances of the machine’s control, the VPGI and fuzzy logic controllers with five subsets were used for the regulation speed. The Results obtained in Matlab/Simulink environment show well the effectiveness of the technique employed for the decoupling and the speed regulation of the machine.

  4. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willaime, Julien M. Y., E-mail: julien.willaime@siemens.com; Aboagye, Eric O. [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Turkheimer, Federico E. [Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). Methods: A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV {sub mean}) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal and synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine PET test–retest dataset. Results: TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4–6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV {sub mean} or TV measurements across imaging protocols. Conclusions: The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification.

  5. Real-space protein-model completion: an inverse-kinematics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bedem, Henry; Lotan, Itay; Latombe, Jean Claude; Deacon, Ashley M

    2005-01-01

    Rapid protein-structure determination relies greatly on software that can automatically build a protein model into an experimental electron-density map. In favorable circumstances, various software systems are capable of building over 90% of the final model. However, completeness falls off rapidly with the resolution of the diffraction data. Manual completion of these partial models is usually feasible, but is time-consuming and prone to subjective interpretation. Except for the N- and C-termini of the chain, the end points of each missing fragment are known from the initial model. Hence, fitting fragments reduces to an inverse-kinematics problem. A method has been developed that combines fast inverse-kinematics algorithms with a real-space torsion-angle refinement procedure in a two-stage approach to fit missing main-chain fragments into the electron density between two anchor points. The first stage samples a large number of closing conformations, guided by the electron density. These candidates are ranked according to density fit. In a subsequent refinement stage, optimization steps are projected onto a carefully chosen subspace of conformation space to preserve rigid geometry and closure. Experimental results show that fitted fragments are in excellent agreement with the final refined structure for lengths of up to 12-15 residues in areas of weak or ambiguous electron density, even at medium to low resolution.

  6. A new approach for the evaluation of the effective electrode spacing in spherical ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Tersa Street 12211, Giza P.O. Box: 136 (Egypt); Shqair, Mohammed [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-10-21

    Proper determination of the effective electrode spacing (d{sub eff}) of an ion chamber ensures proper determination of its collection efficiency either in continuous or in pulsed radiation in addition to the proper evaluation of the transit time. Boag's method for the determination of d{sub eff} assumes the spherical shape of the internal electrode of the spherical ion chambers which is not always true, except for some cases, its common shape is cylindrical. Current work provides a new approach for the evaluation of the effective electrode spacing in spherical ion chambers considering the cylindrical shape of the internal electrode. Results indicated that d{sub eff} values obtained through current work are less than those obtained using Boag's method by factors ranging from 12.1% to 26.9%. Current method also impacts the numerically evaluated collection efficiency (f) where values obtained differ by factors up to 3% at low potential (V) values while at high V values minor differences were noticed. Additionally, impacts on the evaluation of the transit time (τ{sub i}) were obtained. It is concluded that approximating the internal electrode as a sphere may result in false values of d{sub eff}, f, and τ{sub i}.

  7. Krylov-space approach to the equilibrium and nonequilibrium single-particle Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Matthias; Gdaniec, Nadine; Potthoff, Michael

    2012-01-25

    The zero-temperature single-particle Green's function of correlated fermion models with moderately large Hilbert-space dimensions can be calculated by means of Krylov-space techniques. The conventional Lanczos approach consists of finding the ground state in a first step, followed by an approximation for the resolvent of the Hamiltonian in a second step. We analyze the character of this approximation and discuss a numerically exact variant of the Lanczos method which is formulated in the time domain. This method is extended to obtain the nonequilibrium single-particle Green's function defined on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour in the complex time plane which describes the system's nonperturbative response to a sudden parameter switch in the Hamiltonian. The proposed method will be important as an exact-diagonalization solver in the context of self-consistent or variational cluster-embedding schemes. For the recently developed nonequilibrium cluster-perturbation theory, we discuss its efficient implementation and demonstrate the feasibility of the Krylov-based solver. The dissipation of a strong local magnetic excitation into a non-interacting bath is considered as an example for applications.

  8. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alain [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 # 502, 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  9. Dynamic analysis of heartbeat rate signals of epileptics using multidimensional phase space reconstruction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Yuan; Wu, Tzuyin; Yang, Po-Hua; Wang, Yeng-Tseng

    2008-04-01

    The heartbeat rate signal provides an invaluable means of assessing the sympathetic-parasympathetic balance of the human autonomic nervous system and thus represents an ideal diagnostic mechanism for detecting a variety of disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac disease and so forth. The current study analyses the dynamics of the heartbeat rate signal of known epilepsy sufferers in order to obtain a detailed understanding of the heart rate pattern during a seizure event. In the proposed approach, the ECG signals are converted into heartbeat rate signals and the embedology theorem is then used to construct the corresponding multidimensional phase space. The dynamics of the heartbeat rate signal are then analyzed before, during and after an epileptic seizure by examining the maximum Lyapunov exponent and the correlation dimension of the attractors in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the results reveal that the heartbeat rate signal transits from an aperiodic, highly-complex behaviour before an epileptic seizure to a low dimensional chaotic motion during the seizure event. Following the seizure, the signal trajectories return to a highly-complex state, and the complex signal patterns associated with normal physiological conditions reappear.

  10. Ethical approach to digital skills. Sense and use in virtual educational spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan GARCÍA-GUTIÉRREZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of technology and cyberspace, should we do everything we can do? The answer given to this question is not ethical, is political: safety. The safety and security are overshadowing the ethical question about the meaning of technology. Cyberspace imposes a "new logic" and new forms of "ownership". When it comes to the Internet in relation to children not always adopt logic of accountability to the cyberspace, Internet showing a space not only ethical and technical. We talk about safe Internet, Internet healthy, and Internet Fit for Children... why not talk over Internet ethics? With this work we approach digital skills as those skills that help us to position ourselves and guide us in cyberspace. Something that is not possible without also ethical skills. So, in this article we will try to build and propose a model for analyzing the virtual learning spaces (and cyberspace in general based on the categories of "use" and "sense" as different levels of ownership that indicate the types of competences needed to access cyberspace.  

  11. A New Approach to Hausdorff Space Theory via the Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzide Şenel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the concept of soft bitopological Hausdorff space (SBT Hausdorff space as an original study. Firstly, I introduce some new concepts in soft bitopological space such as SBT point, SBT continuous function, and SBT homeomorphism. Secondly, I define SBT Hausdorff space. I analyse whether a SBT space is Hausdorff or not by SBT homeomorphism defined from a SBT Hausdorff space to researched SBT space. I end my study by defining SBT property and hereditary SBT by SBT homeomorphism and investigate the relations between SBT space and SBT subspace.

  12. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Leehwa [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  13. Design Space Approach for Preservative System Optimization of an Anti-Aging Eye Fluid Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Felipe Rebello; Francisco, Fabiane Lacerda; Ferreira, Márcia Regina Spuri; Andreoli, Terezinha De Jesus; Löbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Nádia

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives must be optimized in order to ensure the efficacy of an antimicrobial system as well as the product safety. Despite the wide variety of preservatives, the synergistic or antagonistic effects of their combinations are not well established and it is still an issue in the development of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The purpose of this paper was to establish a space design using a simplex-centroid approach to achieve the lowest effective concentration of 3 preservatives (methylparaben, propylparaben, and imidazolidinyl urea) and EDTA for an emulsion cosmetic product. Twenty-two formulae of emulsion differing only by imidazolidinyl urea (A: 0.00 to 0.30% w/w), methylparaben (B: 0.00 to 0.20% w/w), propylparaben (C: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) and EDTA (D: 0.00 to 0.10% w/w) concentrations were prepared. They were tested alone and in binary, ternary and quaternary combinations. Aliquots of these formulae were inoculated with several microorganisms. An electrochemical method was used to determine microbial burden immediately after inoculation and after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 168 h. An optimization strategy was used to obtain the concentrations of preservatives and EDTA resulting in a most effective preservative system of all microorganisms simultaneously. The use of preservatives and EDTA in combination has the advantage of exhibiting a potential synergistic effect against a wider spectrum of microorganisms. Based on graphic and optimization strategies, we proposed a new formula containing a quaternary combination (A: 55%; B: 30%; C: 5% and D: 10% w/w), which complies with the specification of a conventional challenge test. A design space approach was successfully employed in the optimization of concentrations of preservatives and EDTA in an emulsion cosmetic product.

  14. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  15. A multi-objective stochastic approach to combinatorial technology space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag B.

    Historically, aerospace development programs have frequently been marked by performance shortfalls, cost growth, and schedule slippage. New technologies included in systems are considered to be one of the major sources of this programmatic risk. Decisions regarding the choice of technologies to include in a design are therefore crucial for a successful development program. This problem of technology selection is a challenging exercise in multi-objective decision making. The complexity of this selection problem is compounded by the geometric growth of the combinatorial space with the number of technologies being considered and the uncertainties inherent in the knowledge of the technological attributes. These problems are not typically addressed in the selection methods employed in common practice. Consequently, a method is desired to aid the selection of technologies for complex systems design with consideration of the combinatorial complexity, multi-dimensionality, and the presence of uncertainties. Several categories of techniques are explored to address the shortcomings of current approaches and to realize the goal of an efficient and effective combinatorial technology space exploration method. For the multi-objective decision making, a posteriori preference articulation is implemented. To realize this, a stochastic algorithm for Pareto optimization is formulated based on the concepts of SPEA2. Techniques to address the uncertain nature of technology impact on the system are also examined. Monte Carlo simulations using the surrogate models are used for uncertainty quantification. The concepts of graph theory are used for modeling and analyzing compatibility constraints among technologies and assessing their impact on the technology combinatorial space. The overall decision making approach is enabled by the application of an uncertainty quantification technique under the framework of an efficient probabilistic Pareto optimization algorithm. As a result, multiple

  16. Jupiter's auroras during the Juno approach phase as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. D.; Clarke, J. T.; Orton, G. S.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Bunce, E. J.; Stallard, T.; Badman, S. V.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.; Radioti, K.; Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Valek, P. W.; Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J.; Mauk, B.; Clark, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Kimura, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Tao, C.; Bolton, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present movies of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Jupiter's FUV auroras observed during the Juno approach phase and first capture orbit, and compare with Juno observations of the interplanetary medium near Jupiter and inside the magnetosphere. Jupiter's FUV auroras indicate the nature of the dynamic processes occurring in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and the approach phase provided a unique opportunity to obtain a full set of interplanetary data near to Jupiter at the time of a program of HST observations, along with the first simultaneous with Juno observations inside the magnetosphere. The overall goal was to determine the nature of the solar wind effect on Jupiter's magnetosphere. HST observations were obtained with typically 1 orbit per day over three intervals: 16 May - 7 June, 22-30 June and 11-18 July, i.e. while Juno was in the solar wind, around the bow shock and magnetosphere crossings, and in the mid-latitude middle-outer magnetospheres. We show that these intervals are characterised by particularly dynamic polar auroras, and significant variations in the auroral power output caused by e.g. dawn storms, intense main emission and poleward forms. We compare the variation of these features with Juno observations of interplanetary compression regions and the magnetospheric environment during the intervals of these observations.

  17. A Bayesian state-space approach for damage detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzunic, Zoran; Chen, Justin G.; Mobahi, Hossein; Büyüköztürk, Oral; Fisher, John W.

    2017-11-01

    The problem of automatic damage detection in civil structures is complex and requires a system that can interpret collected sensor data into meaningful information. We apply our recently developed switching Bayesian model for dependency analysis to the problems of damage detection and classification. The model relies on a state-space approach that accounts for noisy measurement processes and missing data, which also infers the statistical temporal dependency between measurement locations signifying the potential flow of information within the structure. A Gibbs sampling algorithm is used to simultaneously infer the latent states, parameters of the state dynamics, the dependence graph, and any changes in behavior. By employing a fully Bayesian approach, we are able to characterize uncertainty in these variables via their posterior distribution and provide probabilistic estimates of the occurrence of damage or a specific damage scenario. We also implement a single class classification method which is more realistic for most real world situations where training data for a damaged structure is not available. We demonstrate the methodology with experimental test data from a laboratory model structure and accelerometer data from a real world structure during different environmental and excitation conditions.

  18. Robust mode space approach for atomistic modeling of realistically large nanowire transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun Z.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Nanoelectronic transistors have reached 3D length scales in which the number of atoms is countable. Truly atomistic device representations are needed to capture the essential functionalities of the devices. Atomistic quantum transport simulations of realistically extended devices are, however, computationally very demanding. The widely used mode space (MS) approach can significantly reduce the numerical cost, but a good MS basis is usually very hard to obtain for atomistic full-band models. In this work, a robust and parallel algorithm is developed to optimize the MS basis for atomistic nanowires. This enables engineering-level, reliable tight binding non-equilibrium Green's function simulation of nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a realistic cross section of 10 nm × 10 nm using a small computer cluster. This approach is applied to compare the performance of InGaAs and Si nanowire n-type MOSFETs (nMOSFETs) with various channel lengths and cross sections. Simulation results with full-band accuracy indicate that InGaAs nanowire nMOSFETs have no drive current advantage over their Si counterparts for cross sections up to about 10 nm × 10 nm.

  19. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzqern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kalkofen, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment. Results show that presenting annotations in object space or image space leads to a significant difference in task performance. Furthermore, there is a significant interaction between rendering space and update frequency of annotations. Participants improve significantly in locating annotations, when annotations are presented in object space, and view management update rate is limited. In a follow-up experiment, participants appear to be more satisfied with limited update rate in comparison to a continuous update rate of the view management system.

  20. Combined Neuropeptide S and D-Cycloserine Augmentation Prevents the Return of Fear in Extinction-Impaired Rodents: Advantage of Dual versus Single Drug Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Simone B; Maurer, Verena; Murphy, Conor; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Muigg, Patrick; Neumann, Inga D; Whittle, Nigel; Singewald, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Despite its success in treating specific anxiety disorders, the effect of exposure therapy is limited by problems with tolerability, treatment resistance, and fear relapse after initial response. The identification of novel drug targets facilitating fear extinction in clinically relevant animal models may guide improved treatment strategies for these disorders in terms of efficacy, acceleration of fear extinction, and return of fear. The extinction-facilitating potential of neuropeptide S, D-cycloserine, and a benzodiazepine was investigated in extinction-impaired high anxiety HAB rats and 129S1/SvImJ mice using a classical cued fear conditioning paradigm followed by extinction training and several extinction test sessions to study fear relapse. Administration of D-cycloserine improved fear extinction in extinction-limited, but not in extinction-deficient, rodents compared with controls. Preextinction neuropeptide S caused attenuated fear responses in extinction-deficient 129S1/SvImJ mice at extinction training onset and further reduced freezing during this session. While the positive effects of either D-cycloserine or neuropeptide S were not persistent in 129S1/SvImJ mice after 10 days, the combination of preextinction neuropeptide S with postextinction D-cycloserine rendered the extinction memory persistent and context independent up to 5 weeks after extinction training. This dual pharmacological adjunct to extinction learning also protected against fear reinstatement in 129S1/SvImJ mice. By using the potentially nonsedative anxiolytic neuropeptide S and the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine to facilitate deficient fear extinction, we provide here the first evidence of a purported efficacy of a dual over a single drug approach. This approach may render exposure sessions less aversive and more efficacious for patients, leading to enhanced protection from fear relapse in the long term. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  1. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  2. Augmented reality in medical education?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-01-01

    .... Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer...

  3. The effects of augmented reality on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuei-Fang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new approach to the implementation of Augmented Reality (AR) in the educational environment was taken by creating a Chemistry Augmented Reality Learning System (CARLS), using the existing teaching curriculum, together with physical activity. This system combined learning with three types of physical activity: aerobic fitness, muscle strength and flexibility fitness. This study reveals that the students using all three types of physical activity together with CARLS result in significantly higher academic performance compared to the traditional Keyboard-Mouse CAI (KMCAI). This improvement is most evident for the non-memorized knowledge component of Science. Moreover, the students in the AR group with 'muscle strength' physical activity had significantly more positive learning attitude change toward Science than those in the KMCAI group. A great additional benefit of our approach is that, students also obtained more physical fitness while learning.

  4. Toward natural fiducials for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchin, Paul; Martinez, Kirk

    2005-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) requires a mapping between the camera(s) and the world, so that virtual objects can be correctly registered. Current AR applications either use pre-prepared fiducial markers or specialist equipment or impose significant constraints on lighting and background. Each of these approaches has significant drawbacks. Fiducial markers are susceptible to loss or damage, can be awkward to work with and may require significant effort to prepare an area for Augmented interaction. Use of such markers may also present an imposition to non-augmented observers, especially in environments such as museums or historical landmarks. Specialist equipment is expensive and not universally available. Lighting and background constraints are often impractical for real-world applications. This paper presents initial results in using the palm of the hand as a pseudo-fiducial marker in a natural real-world environment, through colour, feature and edge analysis. The eventual aim of this research is to enable fiducial marker cards to be dispensed with entirely in some situations in order to allow more natural interaction in Augmented environments. Examples of this would be allowing users to "hold" virtual 3D objects in the palm of their hand or use gestures to interact with virtual objects.

  5. Augmented reality for non-rigid surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Pilet, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the process of integrating virtual elements in reality, often by mixing computer graphics into a live video stream of a real scene. It requires registration of the target object with respect to the cameras. To this end, some approaches rely on dedicated hardware, such as magnetic trackers or infra-red cameras, but they are too expensive and cumbersome to reach a large public. Others are based on specifically designed markers which usually look like bar-codes. However...

  6. An innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and test of the Space Station distributed avionics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Thomas; Scheffer, Terrance; Small, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and testing of the Space Station distributed avionics systems. The environment's relationship to the process flow of the Space Station verification from systems development to on-orbit verification is presented. This paper also describes the uses of the environment's hardware implementation called Data Management System (DMS) kits. The way in which this environment allows system developers to independently verify their system's performance, fault detection, and recovery capability is explained.

  7. A Paradigm Confronting Reality: The River Basin Approach and Local Water Management Spaces in the Pucara Basin, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cossío

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current Bolivian water policy incorporates the IWRM paradigm adopting the river basin as the space for water management in the country. The linkage of water management with communal territories in the Andes challenges the application of the river basin approach, bringing water spaces into the discussion. Considering the example of the Pucara River Basin, the article uses space theory to identify characteristics of local spaces for water management and to contrast them with the river basin concept. The river basin concept is applied by water professionals, mostly taking the perceived dimension of this space into consideration and sometimes in abstract terms. In contrast, the lived dimension of space is more important in local water management spaces and it is not represented in abstract terms. Local water spaces are flexible and strongly related to local organisations, which allows them to respond appropriately to the needs and demands of peasant society in the area, characteristics that cannot be found in the river basin space.

  8. Real-space grids and the Octopus code as tools for the development of new simulation approaches for electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Strubbe, David; De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Varas, Alejandro; Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Verstraete, Matthieu J.; Stella, Lorenzo; Nogueira, Fernando; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Castro, Alberto; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Rubio, Angel

    Real-space grids are a powerful alternative for the simulation of electronic systems. One of the main advantages of the approach is the flexibility and simplicity of working directly in real space where the different fields are discretized on a grid, combined with competitive numerical performance and great potential for parallelization. These properties constitute a great advantage at the time of implementing and testing new physical models. Based on our experience with the Octopus code, in this article we discuss how the real-space approach has allowed for the recent development of new ideas for the simulation of electronic systems. Among these applications are approaches to calculate response properties, modeling of photoemission, optimal control of quantum systems, simulation of plasmonic systems, and the exact solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for low-dimensionality systems.

  9. Summer school in the field of Space Technologies: A novel approach for teenage education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolea, Paul; Vladut Dascal, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the main practical aspects regarding the organization of a summer school in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. This one-week summer school is aimed for education of teenagers between 12 and 16 years. Currently, the summer school reached its third edition. During this educational activities some especially designed prototype equipments were used with the main purpose of educating adolescents towards a scientific career in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. The main equipments and associated experiments are presented as follows: 1. A teaching purpose radio telescope emphasizing the working principle of professional radio telescopes. The experiments were focused on scanning the sky for identifying the positions of geostationary satellites and the Sun. 2. A weather satellite reception equipment used for downloading real-time APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) weather data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather satellite fleet. The visual images were used for emphasizing the clouds and cloud systems over Europe. 3. A prototype equipment for receiving electromagnetic waves in the field of VLF (Very Low Frequency) with the purpose of analyzing the electromagnetic radio frequency spectrum. The main emphasized phenomenons in the VLF band (3 kHz - 30 kHz) are related to radio transmitters, electrical discharges in the atmosphere (lightning) and the electromagnetic pollution. 4. An equipment designed for initiating teenagers in the field of radio communication. This equipment was used for transmission and reception of images and sound over a distance of few kilometers, by using high-gain directional antennas. 5. Other sets of experiments were undertaken with the main purpose of mapping the countryside area in which the experiments had taken place. For this activity GPS devices were used. This paper may be considered a practical guideline for those who want to attract young students towards a

  10. Coral growth on three reefs: development of recovery benchmarks using a space for time approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, T. J.; Devantier, L. M.; Turak, E.; Fisk, D. A.; Wakeford, M.; van Woesik, R.

    2010-12-01

    This 14-year study (1989-2003) develops recovery benchmarks based on a period of very strong coral recovery in Acropora-dominated assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) following major setbacks from the predatory sea-star Acanthaster planci in the early 1980s. A space for time approach was used in developing the benchmarks, made possible by the choice of three study reefs (Green Island, Feather Reef and Rib Reef), spread along 3 degrees of latitude (300 km) of the GBR. The sea-star outbreaks progressed north to south, causing death of corals that reached maximum levels in the years 1980 (Green), 1982 (Feather) and 1984 (Rib). The reefs were initially surveyed in 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1994, which represent recovery years 5-14 in the space for time protocol. Benchmark trajectories for coral abundance, colony sizes, coral cover and diversity were plotted against nominal recovery time (years 5-14) and defined as non-linear functions. A single survey of the same three reefs was conducted in 2003, when the reefs were nominally 1, 3 and 5 years into a second recovery period, following further Acanthaster impacts and coincident coral bleaching events around the turn of the century. The 2003 coral cover was marginally above the benchmark trajectory, but colony density (colonies.m-2) was an order of magnitude lower than the benchmark, and size structure was biased toward larger colonies that survived the turn of the century disturbances. The under-representation of small size classes in 2003 suggests that mass recruitment of corals had been suppressed, reflecting low regional coral abundance and depression of coral fecundity by recent bleaching events. The marginally higher cover and large colonies of 2003 were thus indicative of a depleted and aging assemblage not yet rejuvenated by a strong cohort of recruits.

  11. An approach to computerized preliminary design procedure of mid-size superyachts from hull modeling to interior space arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Nam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A concept of preliminary design for mid-size superyachts is explored. First, the profile of a superyacht is interactively designed with the help of freeform curve functionality and graphical user interface (GUI based interaction. The hull form is then constructed using major characteristic curves such as design waterline, deck sideline, and sections in addition to the predefined profile curve. After exterior hull modeling is done, the arrangement of significant interior spaces of all decks is carried out. A genetic algorithm is exploited to find a space arrangement by considering space fitness values, space proximity, and stairs connectivity of relevant spaces. A goal of the paper is to offer a step-by-step procedure for superyacht design from scratch or when initial information is not sufficient for complete design. For this purpose, a GUI based superyacht design system is developed. This design approach is expected to help users interactively design mid-size superyachts.

  12. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  13. Real-Space Renormalization-Group Approach to the Integer Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Philipp; Römer, Rudolf A.

    We review recent results based on an application of the real-space renormalization group (RG) approach to a network model for the integer quantum Hall (QH) transition. We demonstrate that this RG approach reproduces the critical distribution of the power transmission coefficients, i.e., two-terminal conductances, Pc(G), with very high accuracy. The RG flow of P(G) at energies away from the transition yields a value of the critical exponent ν that agrees with most accurate large-size lattice simulations. A description of how to obtain other relevant transport coefficients such as RL and RH is given. From the non-trivial fixed point of the RG flow we extract the critical level-spacing distribution (LSD). This distribution is close, but distinctively different from the earlier large-scale simulations. We find that the LSD obeys scaling behavior around the QH transition with ν = 2.37±0.02. Away from the transition it crosses over towards the Poisson distribution. We next investigate the plateau-to-insulator transition at strong magnetic fields. For a fully quantum coherent situation, we find a quantized Hall insulator with RH≈h/e2 up to RL 20h/e2 when interpreting the results in terms of most probable value of the distribution function P(RH). Upon further increasing RL→∞, the Hall insulator with diverging Hall resistance R H∝ R Lκ is seen. The crossover between these two regimes depends on the precise nature of the averaging procedure for the distributions P(RL) and P(RH). We also study the effect of long-ranged inhomogeneities on the critical properties of the QH transition. Inhomogeneities are modeled by a smooth random potential with a correlator which falls off with distance as a power law r-α. Similar to the classical percolation, we observe an enhancement of ν with decreasing α. These results exemplify the surprising fact that a small RG unit, containing only five nodes, accurately captures most of the correlations responsible for the localization

  14. [Augmented spontaneous breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T

    1996-09-01

    Impaired pulmonary gas exchange can result from lung parenchymal failure inducing oxygenation deficiency and fatigue of the respiratory muscles, which is characterized by hypercapnia or a combination of both mechanisms. Contractility of and coordination between the diaphragm and the thoracoabdominal respiratory muscles predominantly determine the efficiency of spontaneous breathing. Sepsis, cardiac failure, malnutrition or acute changes of the load conditions may induce fatigue of the respiratory muscles. Augmentation of spontaneous breathing is not only achieved by the application of different technical principles or devices; it also has to improve perfusion, metabolism, load conditions and contractility of the respiratory muscles. Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) allows spontaneous breathing of the patient and augments alveolar ventilation by periodically applying positive airway pressure tidal volumes, which are generated by the respirator. Potential advantages include lower mean airway pressure (PAW), as compared with controlled mechanical ventilation, and improved haemodynamics. Suboptimal IMV systems may impose increased work and oxygen cost of breathing, fatigue of the respiratory muscles and CO2 retention. During pressure support ventilation (PSV), inspiratory alterations of PAW or gas flow (trigger) are detected by the respirator, which delivers a gas flow to maintain PAW at a fixed value (usually 5-20 cm H2O) during inspiration. PSV may be combined with other modalities of respiratory therapy such as IMV or CPAP. Claimed advantages of PSV include decreased effort of breathing, reduced systemic and respiratory muscle consumption of oxygen, prophylaxis of diaphragmatic fatigue and an improved extubation rate after prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation. Minimum alveolar ventilation is not guaranteed during PSV; thus, close observation of the patient is mandatory to avoid serious respiratory complications. Continuous positive airway pressure

  15. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  16. Today in breast augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Calderón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide among aesthetic reconstructive surgeries. Among the indications for performing the procedure are primary and secondary alterations related to breasts shape and volume. During the initial assessment, emphasis should be placed in the anamnesis and physical examination, allowing to define target sizing and realistic expectations to prospectively determine the possible postoperative satisfaction rates. There are several methods used to select the appropriate implants that have become more accurate with time and with the use of technology. Although there are multiple materials developed, to this moment silicone implants continue to be the ones most used worldwide with low complication rates depending on each patient and on the technique used. It is considered as one of the aesthetic reconstructive surgeries with the highest degree of acceptance among the general population who undergo this type of procedures.

  17. Augmented nonlinear differentiator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.

  18. Maxillary sinus augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Tarun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Placing dental implants in the maxillary posterior region can be both challenging and un-nerving for a regular implant dentist who is not well versed with advanced surgical procedures. It is vital for a general dentist to understand the fundamentals of bone grafting the maxillary sinus if he/she is really committed to providing the best health care for their patients. The dental practice is seeing an increasing group of patients who are living longer, and this group of older baby boomers often has an edentulous posterior maxilla either unilateral or bilateral. When edentulous, the posterior maxilla more likely has diminished bone height, which does not allow for the placement of dental implants without creating additional bone. Through grafting the maxillary sinus, bone of ideal quality can be created (allowing for placement of dental implants, which offer many advantages over other tooth replacement modalities. The sinus graft offers the dental patient a predictable procedure of regenerating lost osseous structure in the posterior maxilla. This offers the patient many advantages for long-term success. If dentists understand these concepts, they can better educate their patients and guide them to have the procedure performed. This article outlines bone grafting of the maxillary sinus for the purpose of placing dental implants. This review will help the readers to understand the intricacies of sinus augmentation. They can relate their patient's condition with the available literature and chalk out the best treatment plan for the patient, especially by using indirect sinus augmentation procedures which are less invasive and highly successful if done using prescribed technique.

  19. Review of the Space Mapping Approach to Engineering Optimization and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We review the Space Mapping (SM) concept and its applications in engineering optimization and modeling. The aim of SM is to avoid computationally expensive calculations encountered in simulating an engineering system. The existence of less accurate but fast physically-based models is exploited. S......-based Modeling (SMM). These include Space Derivative Mapping (SDM), Generalized Space Mapping (GSM) and Space Mapping-based Neuromodeling (SMN). Finally, we address open points for research and future development....

  20. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  1. The Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Augmented Reality Interface Tactical map with browser and manipulators / tangible markers Yes Yes Unknown No Kalphat (2009) Tactical......Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES) by Charles R Amburn, Nathan L Vey, and MAJ Jerry R Mize Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Michael

  2. Testing for Level Shifts in Fractionally Integrated Processes: a State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based on the autocorrela......Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based...... on the autocorrelation function or the periodogram. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification that allows to disentangle the level shifts from the fractionally integrated component. The estimation is carried out on the basis of a state-space methodology...... and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts. Once the memory parameter is correctly estimated, we use the KPSS test for presence of level shift. The Monte Carlo simulations show how this approach produces unbiased estimates of the memory parameter...

  3. Different Approaches for Ensuring Performance/Reliability of Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, R. David; Sandor, Mike; Agarwal, Shri; Moor, Andrew F.; Cooper, Kim A.

    2000-01-01

    Engineers within the commercial and aerospace industries are using trade-off and risk analysis to aid in reducing spacecraft system cost while increasing performance and maintaining high reliability. In many cases, Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components, which include Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), are candidate packaging technologies for spacecrafts due to their lower cost, lower weight and enhanced functionality. Establishing and implementing a parts program that effectively and reliably makes use of these potentially less reliable, but state-of-the-art devices, has become a significant portion of the job for the parts engineer. Assembling a reliable high performance electronic system, which includes COTS components, requires that the end user assume a risk. To minimize the risk involved, companies have developed methodologies by which they use accelerated stress testing to assess the product and reduce the risk involved to the total system. Currently, there are no industry standard procedures for accomplishing this risk mitigation. This paper will present the approaches for reducing the risk of using PEMs devices in space flight systems as developed by two independent Laboratories. The JPL procedure involves primarily a tailored screening with accelerated stress philosophy while the APL procedure is primarily, a lot qualification procedure. Both Laboratories successfully have reduced the risk of using the particular devices for their respective systems and mission requirements.

  4. A space-for-time (SFT substitution approach to studying historical phenological changes in urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Buyantuyev

    Full Text Available Plant phenological records are crucial for predicting plant responses to global warming. However, many historical records are either short or replete with data gaps, which pose limitations and may lead to erroneous conclusions about the direction and magnitude of change. In addition to uninterrupted monitoring, missing observations may be substituted via modeling, experimentation, or gradient analysis. Here we have developed a space-for-time (SFT substitution method that uses spatial phenology and temperature data to fill gaps in historical records. To do this, we combined historical data for several tree species from a single location with spatial data for the same species and used linear regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA to build complementary spring phenology models and assess improvements achieved by the approach. SFT substitution allowed increasing the sample size and developing more robust phenology models for some of the species studied. Testing models with reduced historical data size revealed thresholds at which SFT improved historical trend estimation. We conclude that under certain circumstances both the robustness of models and accuracy of phenological trends can be enhanced although some limitations and assumptions still need to be resolved. There is considerable potential for exploring SFT analyses in phenology studies, especially those conducted in urban environments and those dealing with non-linearities in phenology modeling.

  5. A nonlinear optimization approach for disturbance rejection in flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design of an active control law for the rejection of persistent disturbances in large space structures is presented. The control system design approach is based on a deterministic model of the disturbances, with a model-based-compensator (MBC) structure, optimizing the magnitude of the disturbance that the structure can tolerate without violating certain predetermined constraints. In addition to closed-loop stability, the explicit treatment of state, control and control rate constraints, such as structural displacement, control actuator effort, and compensator time guarantees that the final design will exhibit desired performance characteristics. The technique is applied for the vibration damping of a simple two bay truss structure which is subjected to persistent disturbances, such as shuttle docking. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system can reject considerable persistent disturbances by utilizing most of the available control, while limiting the structural displacements to within desired tolerances. Further work, however, for incorporating additional design criteria, such as compensator robustness to be traded-off against performance specifications, is warranted.

  6. Micromorphic approach for gradient-extended thermo-elastic-plastic solids in the logarithmic strain space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldakheel, Fadi

    2017-11-01

    The coupled thermo-mechanical strain gradient plasticity theory that accounts for microstructure-based size effects is outlined within this work. It extends the recent work of Miehe et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 268:704-734, 2014) to account for thermal effects at finite strains. From the computational viewpoint, the finite element design of the coupled problem is not straightforward and requires additional strategies due to the difficulties near the elastic-plastic boundaries. To simplify the finite element formulation, we extend it toward the micromorphic approach to gradient thermo-plasticity model in the logarithmic strain space. The key point is the introduction of dual local-global field variables via a penalty method, where only the global fields are restricted by boundary conditions. Hence, the problem of restricting the gradient variable to the plastic domain is relaxed, which makes the formulation very attractive for finite element implementation as discussed in Forest (J Eng Mech 135:117-131, 2009) and Miehe et al. (Philos Trans R Soc A Math Phys Eng Sci 374:20150170, 2016).

  7. Augmented virtuality based on stereoscopic reconstruction in multimodal image-guided neurosurgery: methods and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Perrine; Fleig, Oliver; Jannin, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Displaying anatomical and physiological information derived from preoperative medical images in the operating room is critical in image-guided neurosurgery. This paper presents a new approach referred to as augmented virtuality (AV) for displaying intraoperative views of the operative field over three-dimensional (3-D) multimodal preoperative images onto an external screen during surgery. A calibrated stereovision system was set up between the surgical microscope and the binocular tubes. Three-dimensional surface meshes of the operative field were then generated using stereopsis. These reconstructed 3-D surface meshes were directly displayed without any additional geometrical transform over preoperative images of the patient in the physical space. Performance evaluation was achieved using a physical skull phantom. Accuracy of the reconstruction method itself was shown to be within 1 mm (median: 0.76 mm +/- 0.27), whereas accuracy of the overall approach was shown to be within 3 mm (median: 2.29 mm +/- 0.59), including the image-to-physical space registration error. We report the results of six surgical cases where AV was used in conjunction with augmented reality. AV not only enabled vision beyond the cortical surface but also gave an overview of the surgical area. This approach facilitated understanding of the spatial relationship between the operative field and the preoperative multimodal 3-D images of the patient.

  8. Space commerce in a global economy: Comparison of US and Australian approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States and Australia are among the 20 or more nations of the world having industries currently engaging in some form of space commerce. As a matter of national policy, the United States has encouraged private investment and involvement in space activities since 1984, when the Congress declared it in the best interest of the Nation that NASA '...seek and encourage to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.' Australia's space policy, announced in 1986, has the objective of encouraging greater involvement by industry in space research and development, and the development of commercial space activities. This paper discusses the underlying policies, current status, and prospects for the future of commercial space business activities in the two countries.

  9. A Hybrid Water Distribution Networks Design Optimization Method Based on a Search Space Reduction Approach and a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Reca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new approach to increase the efficiency of the heuristics methods applied to the optimal design of water distribution systems. The approach is based on reducing the search space by bounding the diameters that can be used for every network pipe. To reduce the search space, two opposite extreme flow distribution scenarios are analyzed and velocity restrictions to the pipe flow are then applied. The first scenario produces the most uniform flow distribution in the network. The opposite scenario is represented by the network with the maximum flow accumulation. Both extreme flow distributions are calculated by solving a quadratic programming problem, which is a very robust and efficient procedure. This approach has been coupled to a Genetic Algorithm (GA. The GA has an integer coding scheme and variable number of alleles depending on the number of diameters comprised within the velocity restrictions. The methodology has been applied to several benchmark networks and its performance has been compared to a classic GA formulation with a non-bounded search space. It considerably reduced the search space and provided a much faster and more accurate convergence than the GA formulation. This approach can also be coupled to other metaheuristics.

  10. New approach to calculating the spectrum of a quantum space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubtsev, A. N.

    2017-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a massive pointlike particle coupled to gravity in four space-time dimensions. It has the same degrees of freedom as an ordinary particle: its coordinates with respect to a chosen origin (observer) and the canonically conjugate momenta. The effect of gravity is that such a particle is a black hole: its momentum becomes spacelike at a distances to the origin less than the Schwarzschild radius. This happens because the phase space of the particle has a nontrivial structure: the momentum space has curvature, and this curvature depends on the position in the coordinate space. The momentum space curvature in turn leads to the coordinate operator in quantum theory having a nontrivial spectrum. This spectrum is independent of the particle mass and determines the accessible points of space-time.

  11. Graph-like continua, augmenting arcs, and Menger's theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Vella, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    We show that an adaptation of the augmenting path method for graphs proves Menger's Theorem for wide classes of topological spaces. For example, it holds for locally compact, locally connected, metric spaces, as already known. The method lends itself particularly well to another class of spaces......, namely the locally arcwise connected, hereditarily locally connected, metric spaces. Finally, it applies to every space where every point can be separated from every closed set not containing it by a finite set, in particular to every subspace of the Freudenthal compactification of a locally finite...

  12. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  13. New approaches to augment fungal biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Balajee; Luckman, Scott; Summers, Mia; Bernan, Valerie; Greenstein, Michael

    2003-05-01

    The possibility of using solid supports and intermittent substrate feeding to manipulate biotransformation by fungi was examined, with amoxapine as a model compound. Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 8688a grown as free cells in six-well plates showed 7-hydroxyamoxapine as the major metabolite of amoxapine biotransformation. However, when cells were grown in the presence of activated carbon, N-formyl-7-hydroxyamoxapine was formed as the major metabolite. Intermittent feeding of amoxapine also favored the formation of N-formyl-7-hydroxyamoxapine.

  14. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  15. Time, knowledge, and the clash of civilisations: An Islamic approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... augment the excitement of modern civilizations.1 This paper examines the Islamic perspective of time and the allencompassing nature of its wisdom or knowledge (which is beyond the absolute restriction of time and space) and its approach to the clash of civilizations. The theoretical framework is Huntington's CoC-theory.

  16. Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis of Chronic Disorders of Consciousness: Detecting Peripersonal Space by Using Ultrasonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Naro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of behavioral responsiveness in patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC, including Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS and Minimally Conscious State (MCS, is challenging. Even if a patient is unresponsive, he/she may be covertly aware in reason of a cognitive-motor dissociation, i.e., a preservation of cognitive functions despite a solely reflexive behavioral responsiveness. The approach of an external stimulus to the peripersonal space (PPS modifies some biological measures (e.g., hand-blink reflex amplitude to the purpose of defensive responses from threats. Such modulation depends on a top-down control of subcortical neural circuits, which can be explored through changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV, using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD and, thus, gaining useful, indirect information on brain connectivity. These data may be used for the DoC differential diagnosis. We evaluated the changes in CBFV by measuring the pulsatility index (PI in 21 patients with DoC (10 patients with MCS and 11 with UWS and 25 healthy controls (HC during a passive movement and motor imagery (MI task in which the hand of the subject approached and, then, moved away from the subject’s face. In the passive movement task, the PI increased progressively in the HCs when the hand was moved toward the face and, then, it decreased when the hand was removed from the face. The PI increased when the hand was moved toward the face in patients with DoC, but then, it remained high when the hand was removed from the face and up to 30 s after the end of the movement in the patients with MCS (both MCS+ and MCS− and 1 min in those with UWS, thus differentiating between patients with MCS and UWS. In the MI task, all the HCs, three out of four patients with MCS+, and one out of six patients with MCS− showed an increase–decrease PI change, whereas the remaining patients with MCS and all the patients with UWS showed no

  17. A Nanotechnology Approach to Lightweight Multifunctional Polyethylene Composite Materials for Use Against the Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polyethylene-based composite materials are under consideration as multifunctional structural materials, with the expectation that they can provide radiation...

  18. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  19. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  20. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    the potential of Augmented reality increasing students level of understanding, interaction and engagement with the object. I will demonstrate the technology and show you the human lungs in your body and the future perspectives of the technology. Organization: developed in collaboration with Mie Buhl, Professor......“How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...

  1. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    , air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible......IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...... at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping occupants...

  2. Trial and Error: A new Approach to Space-Bounded Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ameur, F.; Fischer, Paul; Hoeffgen, H.-U.

    1996-01-01

    A pac-learning algorithm is d-space bounded, if it stores at most d examples from the sample at any time. We characterize the d-space learnable concept classes. For this purpose we introduce the compression parameter of a concept class 𝒞 and design our trial and error learning algorithm. We ...

  3. Multigrid method based on a space-time approach with standard coarsening for parabolic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Franco (Sebastião Romero); F.J. Gaspar Lorenz (Franscisco); M.A. Villela Pinto (Marcio Augusto); C. Rodrigo (Carmen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn this work, a space-time multigrid method which uses standard coarsening in both temporal and spatial domains and combines the use of different smoothers is proposed for the solution of the heat equation in one and two space dimensions. In particular, an adaptive smoothing strategy,

  4. Considering Race and Space: Mapping Developmental Approaches for Providing Culturally Responsive Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roland W.; Wood, Gerald K.; Witherspoon, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory essay critically examines how social relations structure the production of space on a college campus. In particular, we analyze how the organization of one particular site--the student advising office at a southeastern university--calls attention to the relationship between race and space in ways that re-inscribe narrow…

  5. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  6. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 27.672 Section 27.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 27.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  7. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 25.672 Section 25.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show...

  8. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... power-operated systems. 29.672 Section 29.672 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Construction Control Systems § 29.672 Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems. If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show...

  9. Building HIA approaches into strategies for green space use: an example from Plymouth's (UK) Stepping Stones to Nature project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Goss, Z; Pratt, A; Sharman, J; Tighe, M

    2013-12-01

    The health and well-being benefits of access to green space are well documented. Research suggests positive findings regardless of social group, however barriers exist that limit access to green space, including proximity, geography and differing social conditions. Current public health policy aims to broaden the range of environmental public health interventions through effective partnership working, providing opportunities to work across agencies to promote the use of green space. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a combination of methods and procedures to assess the potential health and well-being impacts of policies, developments and projects. It provides a means by which negative impacts can be mitigated and positive impacts can be enhanced, and has potential application for assessing green space use. This paper describes the application of a HIA approach to a multi-agency project (Stepping Stones to Nature--SS2N) in the UK designed to improve local green spaces and facilitate green space use in areas classified as having high levels of deprivation. The findings suggest that the SS2N project had the potential to provide significant positive benefits in the areas of physical activity, mental and social well-being. Specific findings for one locality identified a range of actions that could be taken to enhance benefits, and mitigate negative factors such as anti-social behaviour. The HIA approach proved to be a valuable process through which impacts of a community development/public health project could be enhanced and negative impacts prevented at an early stage; it illustrates how a HIA approach could enhance multi-agency working to promote health and well-being in communities.

  10. MetaTree: augmented reality narrative explorations of urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ruth; Margolis, Todd; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Mendelowitz, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    As cities world-wide adopt and implement reforestation initiatives to plant millions of trees in urban areas, they are engaging in what is essentially a massive ecological and social experiment. Existing air-borne, space-borne, and fieldbased imaging and inventory mechanisms fail to provide key information on urban tree ecology that is crucial to informing management, policy, and supporting citizen initiatives for the planting and stewardship of trees. The shortcomings of the current approaches include: spatial and temporal resolution, poor vantage point, cost constraints and biological metric limitations. Collectively, this limits their effectiveness as real-time inventory and monitoring tools. Novel methods for imaging and monitoring the status of these emerging urban forests and encouraging their ongoing stewardship by the public are required to ensure their success. This art-science collaboration proposes to re-envision citizens' relationship with urban spaces by foregrounding urban trees in relation to local architectural features and simultaneously creating new methods for urban forest monitoring. We explore creating a shift from overhead imaging or field-based tree survey data acquisition methods to continuous, ongoing monitoring by citizen scientists as part of a mobile augmented reality experience. We consider the possibilities of this experience as a medium for interacting with and visualizing urban forestry data and for creating cultural engagement with urban ecology.

  11. Reinforcement Learning in an Environment Synthetically Augmented with Digital Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador E. Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning requires information about states, actions, and outcomes as the basis for learning. For many applications, it can be difficult to construct a representative model of the environment, either due to lack of required information or because of that the model's state space may become too large to allow a solution in a reasonable amount of time, using the experience of prior actions. An environment consisting solely of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of specific events attributable to a human actor may appear to lack the necessary structure for the positioning of responding agents in time and space using reinforcement learning. Digital pheromones can be used to synthetically augment such an environment with event sequence information to create a more persistent and measurable imprint on the environment that supports reinforcement learning. We implemented this method and combined it with the ability of agents to learn from actions not taken, a concept known as fictive learning. This approach was tested against the historical sequence of Somali maritime pirate attacks from 2005 to mid-2012, enabling a set of autonomous agents representing naval vessels to successfully respond to an average of 333 of the 899 pirate attacks, outperforming the historical record of 139 successes.

  12. Crime Scenes as Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    , physical damage: they are all readable and interpretable signs. As augmented reality the crime scene carries a narrative which at first is hidden and must be revealed. Due to the process of investigation and the detective's ability to reason and deduce, the crime scene as place is reconstructed as virtual......Using the concept of augmented reality, this article will investigate how places in various ways have become augmented by means of different mediatization strategies. Augmentation of reality implies an enhancement of the places' emotional character: a certain mood, atmosphere or narrative surplus...... of meaning has been implemented. This may take place at different levels, which will be presented and investigated in this article and exemplified by some cases from the fields of tourism and computer games.                       The article suggests that we may use the forensic term crime scene in order...

  13. Fault detection and isolation of PEM fuel cell system based on nonlinear analytical redundancy. An application via parity space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitouche, A.; Yang, Q.; Ould Bouamama, B.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a procedure dealing with the issue of fault detection and isolation (FDI) using nonlinear analytical redundancy (NLAR) technique applied in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on its mathematic model. The model is proposed and simplified into a five orders state space representation. The transient phenomena captured in the model include the compressor dynamics, the flow characteristics, mass and energy conservation and manifold fluidic mechanics. Nonlinear analytical residuals are generated based on the elimination of the unknown variables of the system by an extended parity space approach to detect and isolate actuator and sensor faults. Finally, numerical simulation results are given corresponding to a faults signature matrix.

  14. Bi-directional free space laser communication of gigabit ethernet telemetry data using dual atmospheric effect mitigation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric; Saint Clair, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents experimental demonstration of optical components applicable in free space laser communication systems for bi-directional transmission of Gigabit Ethernet (GBE) telemetry data and control messages using a dual atmospheric effect mitigation approach. The objective is to address the challenges for optical transmission of telemetry data. (1) Turbulence effects which cause optical beam scintillation, wander and breakup, all of which cause signal degradation at the receiver. (2) An optical signal in free space has a fading effect which is caused by communications terminal equipment`s in-ability to maintain perfect pointing along a line of sight due to vibrations/motions of the mobile platform.

  15. Military Applications of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    interest in AR technology has a long history. The Ultrasound Augmented Reality project [State et al(1996)] is one note- worthy example of a project...Many military bases have “towns” for training that consist of concrete block buildings with multiple levels and architec- tural configurations. AR...Livingston MA, Hirota G, Garrett WF, Whitton MC, Pisano ED, Fuchs H (1996) Technologies for augmented reality systems: Realizing ultrasound -guided

  16. Space base laser torque applied on LEO satellites of various geometries at satellite’s closest approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Khalifa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of using laser power in space applications, the motivation of this paper is to use a space based solar pumped laser to produce a torque on LEO satellites of various shapes. It is assumed that there is a space station that fires laser beam toward the satellite so the beam spreading due to diffraction is considered to be the dominant effect on the laser beam propagation. The laser torque is calculated at the point of closest approach between the space station and some sun synchronous low Earth orbit cubesats. The numerical application shows that space based laser torque has a significant contribution on the LEO cubesats. It has a maximum value in the order of 10−8 Nm which is comparable with the residual magnetic moment. However, it has a minimum value in the order 10−11 Nm which is comparable with the aerodynamic and gravity gradient torque. Consequently, space based laser torque can be used as an active attitude control system.

  17. Phase-space densities and effects of resonance decays in a hydrodynamic approach to heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Akkelin, S V; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.064901

    2004-01-01

    A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase- space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase- space dens...

  18. Thrust Augmentation Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S.; Santoro, Robert J.; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust augmentation results of an ongoing study of pulse detonation engine driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE) setup with various ejector configurations. The PDE used in these experiments utilizes ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel, and an equi-molar mixture of oxygen and nitrogen as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. High fidelity thrust measurements were made using an integrated spring damper system. The baseline thrust of the PDE engine was first measured and agrees with experimental and modeling results found in the literature. Thrust augmentation measurements were then made for constant diameter ejectors. The parameter space for the study included ejector length, PDE tube exit to ejector tube inlet overlap distance, and straight versus rounded ejector inlets. The relationship between the thrust augmentation results and various physical phenomena is described. To further understand the flow dynamics, shadow graph images of the exiting shock wave front from the PDE were also made. For the studied parameter space, the results showed a maximum augmentation of 40%. Further increase in augmentation is possible if the geometry of the ejector is tailored, a topic currently studied by numerous groups in the field.

  19. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Babar Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion techniques has seen mitigation of some artifacts. We reformulate the problem by taking advantage of some of the developments from the field of Compressive Sensing. The seismic data is compressed at the sensor level by recording projections of the traces. We then process this compressed data directly to estimate the inverse data space. Due to the smaller number of data set we also gain in terms of computational complexity.

  20. About One Approach to Determine the Weights of the State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies methods of determining weight coefficients, also called coefficients of criteria importance in multiobjective optimization (MOO. It is assumed that these coefficients indicate a degree of individual criteria influence on the final selection (final or summary assessment: the more is coefficient, the greater is contribution of its corresponding criterion.Today in the framework of modern information systems to support decision making for various purposes a number of methods for determining relative importance of criteria has been developed. Among those methods we can distinguish a utility method, method of weighted power average; weighted median; method of matching clustered rankings, method of paired comparison of importance, etc.However, it should be noted that different techniques available for calculating weights does not eliminate the main problem of multicriteria optimization namely, the inconsistency of individual criteria. The basis for solving multicriteria problems is a fundamental principle of multi-criteria selection i.e. Edgeworth - Pareto principle.Despite a large number of methods to determine the weights, the task remains relevant not only for reasons of evaluations subjectivity, but also because of the mathematical aspects. Today, recognized is the fact that, for example, such a popular method as linear convolution of private criteria, essentially, represents one of the heuristic approaches and, applying it, you can have got not the best final choice. Carlin lemma reflects the limits of the method application.The aim of this work is to offer one of the methods to calculate the weights applied to the problem of dynamic system optimization, the quality of which is determined by the criterion of a special type, namely integral quadratic quality criterion. The main challenge relates to the method of state space, which in the literature also is called the method of analytical design of optimal controllers.Despite the

  1. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ2 the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ~ 0.015hMpc-1, 10% at k ~ 0.05hMpc-1 at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc-1 they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ4 term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc-1. For μ6 and μ8 we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc-1, shooting up by 2-3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc-1 and k < 0.4hMpc-1. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d Pss(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of Pss(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc-1 at 6-th order, but breaks down on smaller scales because the series is no longer perturbative. We explore resummation of the terms into

  2. Pathways to exploration: rationales and approaches for a U.S. program of human space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Committee on National Statistics; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; National Research Council

    2014-01-01

    .... Today the United States is the major partner in a massive orbital facility - the International Space Station - that is becoming the focal point for the first tentative steps in commercial cargo...

  3. Estimating health state utility values from discrete choice experiments--a QALY space model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Norman, Richard; Viney, Rosalie

    2014-09-01

    Using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) to estimate health state utility values has become an important alternative to the conventional methods of Time Trade-Off and Standard Gamble. Studies using DCEs have typically used the conditional logit to estimate the underlying utility function. The conditional logit is known for several limitations. In this paper, we propose two types of models based on the mixed logit: one using preference space and the other using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) space, a concept adapted from the willingness-to-pay literature. These methods are applied to a dataset collected using the EQ-5D. The results showcase the advantages of using QALY space and demonstrate that the preferred QALY space model provides lower estimates of the utility values than the conditional logit, with the divergence increasing with worsening health states. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Distance phenomena in high-dimensional chemical descriptor spaces: consequences for similarity-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Matthias; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2009-11-15

    Measuring the (dis)similarity of molecules is important for many cheminformatics applications like compound ranking, clustering, and property prediction. In this work, we focus on real-valued vector representations of molecules (as opposed to the binary spaces of fingerprints). We demonstrate the influence which the choice of (dis)similarity measure can have on results, and provide recommendations for such choices. We review the mathematical concepts used to measure (dis)similarity in vector spaces, namely norms, metrics, inner products, and, similarity coefficients, as well as the relationships between them, employing (dis)similarity measures commonly used in cheminformatics as examples. We present several phenomena (empty space phenomenon, sphere volume related phenomena, distance concentration) in high-dimensional descriptor spaces which are not encountered in two and three dimensions. These phenomena are theoretically characterized and illustrated on both artificial and real (bioactivity) data. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A covariant approach to general field space metric in multi-field inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2011-01-01

    We present a covariant formalism for general multi-field system which enables us to obtain higher order action of cosmological perturbations easily and systematically. The effects of the field space geometry, described by the Riemann curvature tensor of the field space, are naturally incorporated. We explicitly calculate up to the cubic order action which is necessary to estimate non-Gaussianity and present those geometric terms which have not yet known before.

  6. A covariant approach to general field space metric in multi-field inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Tanaka, Takahiro, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch, E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    We present a covariant formalism for general multi-field system which enables us to obtain higher order action of cosmological perturbations easily and systematically. The effects of the field space geometry, described by the Riemann curvature tensor of the field space, are naturally incorporated. We explicitly calculate up to the cubic order action which is necessary to estimate non-Gaussianity and present those geometric terms which have not yet been known before.

  7. Divining the Level of Corruption. A Bayesian State-Space Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Standaert

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a new methodological framework for combining indicators of corruption. The methodology of the World Governance Indicators is extended to fully make use of the time-structure present in corruption data. The resulting state-space framework is estimated using a Bayesian Gibbs sampler algorithm. The state-space framework holds many advantages from a practical, an estimation and a theoretical point of view. Most importantly, the indicator significantly increases data availabili...

  8. Ways toward a European Vocational Education and Training Space: A "Bottom-Up" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blings, Jessica; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to concentrate on bottom-up approaches in order to promote a European vocational education and training (VET) concept. The overall aim of this article is to demonstrate that sophisticated approaches still have a chance of becoming common practice in European countries. Design/methodology/approach: The centre of the…

  9. Modern approach to an old technique: Narrative revision of techniques used to locate the epidural space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogly, N; Guasch Arévalo, E; Kollmann Camaiora, A; Alsina Marcos, E; García García, C; Gilsanz Rodríguez, F

    2017-10-01

    Since the first description of the epidural technique during the 1920s, the continuous progress of knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the epidural space has allowed the development of different techniques to locate this space while increasing both the safety and efficacy of the procedure. The most common techniques used today are based on the two main characteristics of the epidural space: the difference in distensibility between the ligamentum flavum and the epidural space, and the existence of negative pressure within the epidural space. However, over recent years, technological advances have allowed the development of new techniques to locate the epidural space based on other physical properties of tissues. Some are still in the experimental phase, but others, like ultrasound-location have reached a clinical phase and are being used increasingly in daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Object detection with DoG scale-space: a multiple kernel learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilufar, Sharmin; Ray, Nilanjan; Zhang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Difference of Gaussians (DoG) scale-space for an image is a significant way to generate features for object detection and classification. While applying DoG scale-space features for object detection/classification, we face two inevitable issues: dealing with high dimensional data and selecting/weighting of proper scales. The scale selection process is mostly ad-hoc to date. In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel learning (MKL) method for both DoG scale selection/weighting and dealing with high dimensional scale-space data. We design a novel shift invariant kernel function for DoG scale-space. To select only the useful scales in the DoG scale-space, a novel framework of MKL is also proposed. We utilize a 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) in the MKL optimization problem for sparse weighting of scales from DoG scale-space. The optimized data-dependent kernel accommodates only a few scales that are most discriminatory according to the large margin principle. With a 2-norm SVM this learned kernel is applied to a challenging detection problem in oil sand mining: to detect large lumps in oil sand videos. We tested our method on several challenging oil sand data sets. Our method yields encouraging results on these difficult-to-process images and compares favorably against other popular multiple kernel methods.

  11. EEG source space analysis of the supervised factor analytic approach for the classification of multi-directional arm movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy Handiru, Vikram; Vinod, A. P.; Guan, Cuntai

    2017-08-01

    Objective. In electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for motor control tasks the conventional practice is to decode motor intentions by using scalp EEG. However, scalp EEG only reveals certain limited information about the complex tasks of movement with a higher degree of freedom. Therefore, our objective is to investigate the effectiveness of source-space EEG in extracting relevant features that discriminate arm movement in multiple directions. Approach. We have proposed a novel feature extraction algorithm based on supervised factor analysis that models the data from source-space EEG. To this end, we computed the features from the source dipoles confined to Brodmann areas of interest (BA4a, BA4p and BA6). Further, we embedded class-wise labels of multi-direction (multi-class) source-space EEG to an unsupervised factor analysis to make it into a supervised learning method. Main Results. Our approach provided an average decoding accuracy of 71% for the classification of hand movement in four orthogonal directions, that is significantly higher (>10%) than the classification accuracy obtained using state-of-the-art spatial pattern features in sensor space. Also, the group analysis on the spectral characteristics of source-space EEG indicates that the slow cortical potentials from a set of cortical source dipoles reveal discriminative information regarding the movement parameter, direction. Significance. This study presents evidence that low-frequency components in the source space play an important role in movement kinematics, and thus it may lead to new strategies for BCI-based neurorehabilitation.

  12. Dynamics stability derivatives of space shuttle orbiter obtained from wind-tunnel and approach and landing flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground facility measurements, the aerodynamic design data book values, and the dynamic damping derivatives extracted from the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing flight tests. The comparison covers an angle of attack range from 2 deg to 10 deg at subsonic Mach numbers. The parameters of pitch, yaw, and roll damping, as well as the yawing moment due to rolling velocity and rolling moment due to yawing velocity are compared.

  13. Applying the Tuple Space-Based Approach to the Simulation of the Caspases, an Essential Signalling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas-García, Maura; González-Pérez, Pedro Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death plays a crucial role in development and homeostasis. This process is driven by mitochondrial permeabilization and activation of caspases. In this paper we adopt a tuple spaces-based modelling and simulation approach, and show how it can be applied to the simulation of this intracellular signalling pathway. Specifically, we are working to explore and to understand the complex interaction patterns of the caspases apoptotic and the mitochondrial role. As a first approximatio...

  14. Anterior transversalis fascia approach versus preperitoneal space approach for inguinal hernia repair in residents in northern China: study protocol for a prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qing; Zhang, De-wei; Yang, Da-ye; Li, Hong-wu; Wei, Shi-bo; Yang, Liang; Yang, Fu-quan; Zhang, Shao-jun; Wu, Yao-qiang; An, Wei-de; Dai, Zhong-shu; Jiang, Hui-yong; Wang, Fu-rong; Qiao, Shi-feng; Li, Hang-yu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Many surgical techniques have been used to repair abdominal wall defects in the inguinal region based on the anatomic characteristics of this region and can be categorised as ‘tension’ repair or ‘tension-free’ repair. Tension-free repair is the preferred technique for inguinal hernia repair. Tension-free repair of inguinal hernia can be performed through either the anterior transversalis fascia approach or the preperitoneal space approach. There are few large sample, randomised controlled trials investigating the curative effects of the anterior transversalis fascia approach versus the preperitoneal space approach for inguinal hernia repair in patients in northern China. Methods and analysis This will be a prospective, large sample, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial. Registration date is 1 December 2016. Actual study start date is 6 February 2017. Estimated study completion date is June 2020. A cohort of over 720 patients with inguinal hernias will be recruited from nine institutions in Liaoning Province, China. Patient randomisation will be stratified by centre to undergo inguinal hernia repair via the anterior transversalis fascia approach or the preperitoneal approach. Primary and secondary outcome assessments will be performed at baseline (prior to surgery), predischarge and at postoperative 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 1 year and 2 years. The primary outcome is the incidence of postoperative chronic inguinal pain. The secondary outcome is postoperative complications (including rates of wound infection, haematoma, seroma and hernia recurrence). Ethics and dissemination This trial will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and supervised by the institutional review board of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University (approval number 2015–027). All patients will receive information about the trial in verbal and written forms and will give informed consent before enrolment. The results will

  15. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains.

  16. Freegaming: Mobile, Collaborative, Adaptive and Augmented Exergaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Görgü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the obesity epidemic that plagues many societies remains an outstanding public health issue. One innovative approach to addressing this problem is Exergaming. A combination of Exercise and Gaming, the objective is to motivate people participate in exercise regimes, usually in their home environment. In this article a more holistic interpretation of this exercise paradigm is proposed. Freegaming augments Exergaming in a number of key dimensions but especially through the promotion of games in outdoor mobile contexts and within a social environment. The design and implementation of a platform for Freegaming is described and illustrated through the description of a sample game.

  17. Approach to develop space solar power as a new energy system for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, Makoto [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The idea of space solar power proposed by Glaser was explained as a set of a solar power station in geostationary earth orbit to transmit microwave power and a ground station to receive the microwave power. Most of the ideas and concepts since Glaser used the same context. On the other hand, Collins et al. introduced the concept of microwave `fuel` to assess the commercial relations of power from space, in which space solar power stations are considered to sell microwave power to any unspecified rectenna. This concept changed the theoretical context of `power from space` to an industrial and economic relation of producers and buyers of an industrial product. This new context has been applied to the SPS 2000 conceptual study. As a result, if 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission is used, each rectenna can be planned and engineered independently from the space sector by local users, especially in developing countries, who are familiar with such activities as introducing solar energy systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Multivariate approach to quantitative analysis of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their natural enemy populations at different cotton spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, José B.; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Dos S. Dias, Carlos T.; Brugger, Bruno P.; S. Lira, Aline Cristina; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Zanuncio, José C.

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between pests and natural enemies using multivariate analysis on cotton in different spacing has not been documented yet. Using multivariate approaches is possible to optimize strategies to control Aphis gossypii at different crop spacings because the possibility of a better use of the aphid sampling strategies as well as the conservation and release of its natural enemies. The aims of the study were (i) to characterize the temporal abundance data of aphids and its natural enemies using principal components, (ii) to analyze the degree of correlation between the insects and between groups of variables (pests and natural enemies), (iii) to identify the main natural enemies responsible for regulating A. gossypii populations, and (iv) to investigate the similarities in arthropod occurrence patterns at different spacings of cotton crops over two seasons. High correlations in the occurrence of Scymnus rubicundus with aphids are shown through principal component analysis and through the important role the species plays in canonical correlation analysis. Clustering the presence of apterous aphids matches the pattern verified for Chrysoperla externa at the three different spacings between rows. Our results indicate that S. rubicundus is the main candidate to regulate the aphid populations in all spacings studied.

  19. The Soft Stowage® catalog: A new approach to procuring space qualified hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The patented Soft Stowage® Human Space Logistics System had already proven itself within the Shuttle system of reusable carriers where it has been used extensively to transport cargo both up to and down from the Russian Mir Space Station. For the International Space Station (ISS) however, Boeing wanted to offer a seamless product line that offered launch/landing and orbital stowage hardware, as well as associated integration services that reduce the time, documentation, and cost of transporting goods between earth and earth orbit. To meet that objective Boeing developed a comprehensive Soft Stowage® commercial catalog that offers both fixed pricing and delivery of standard items six weeks from order. The ability to obtain modular stowage accommodation elements through a standardized catalog promises to significantly reduce the cost and time to get payload to orbit. To date, Boeing's Soft Stowage® Catalog has supported delivery of over 600 elements to Spacelab, SPACEHAB, ISS and other payload customers. .

  20. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  1. State-space models - from the EM algorithm to a gradient approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Slow convergence is observed in the EM algorithm for linear state-space models. We propose to circumvent the problem by applying any off-the-shelf quasi-Newton-type optimizer, which operates on the gradient of the log-likelihood function. Such an algorithm is a practical alternative due to the fact...... that the exact gradient of the log-likelihood function can be computed by recycling components of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method in three relevant instances of the linear state-space model. In high signal-to-noise ratios, where EM is particularly...

  2. Foundation plate on the elastic half-space, deterministic and probabilistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between the foundation plate and subgrade can be described by different mathematical - physical model. Elastic foundation can be modelled by different types of models, e.g. one-parametric model, two-parametric model and a comprehensive model - Boussinesque (elastic half-space had been used. The article deals with deterministic and probabilistic analysis of deflection of the foundation plate on the elastic half-space. Contact between the foundation plate and subsoil was modelled using contact elements node-node. At the end the obtained results are presented.

  3. Comprehensible visualization for augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkofen, Denis; Mendez, Erick; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    This article presents interactive visualizations to support the comprehension of spatial relationships between virtual and real world objects for Augmented Reality (AR) applications. To enhance the clarity of such relationships we discuss visualization techniques and their suitability for AR. We apply them on different AR applications with different goals, e.g. in X-Ray vision or in applications which draw a user's attention to an object of interest. We demonstrate how Focus and Context (F+C) visualizations are used to affect the user's perception of hidden or nearby objects by presenting contextual information in the area of augmentation. We discuss the organization and the possible sources of data for visualizations in Augmented Reality and present cascaded and multi level F+C visualizations to address complex, cluttered scenes that are inevitable in real environments. This article also shows filters and tools to interactively control the amount of augmentation. It compares the impact of real world context preserving to a pure virtual and uniform enhancement of these structures for augmentations of real world imagery. Finally this paper discusses the stylization of sparse object representations for AR to improve X-Ray vision.

  4. Primary pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: biomechanical analysis of pedicle fixation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burval, Daniel J; McLain, Robert F; Milks, Ryan; Inceoglu, Serkan

    2007-05-01

    Pedicle screw pullout testing in osteoporotic and control human cadaveric vertebrae, comparing augmented and control vertebrae. To compare the pullout strengths of pedicle screws fixed in osteoporotic vertebrae using polymethyl methacrylate delivered by 2 augmentation techniques, a standard transpedicular approach and kyphoplasty type approach. Pedicle screw instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine carries an increased risk of screw loosening, pullout, and fixation failure. Osteoporosis is often cited as a contraindication for pedicle screw fixation. Augmentation of the vertebral pedicle and body using polymethyl methacrylate may improve fixation strength and construct survival in the osteoporotic vertebrae. While the utility of polymethyl methacrylate has been demonstrated for salvage of screws that have been pulled out, the effect of the cement technique on pullout strength in osteoporotic vertebrae has not been previously studied. Thirteen osteoporotic and 9 healthy human lumbar vertebrae were tested. All specimens were instrumented with pedicle screws using a uniform technique. Osteoporotic pedicles were augmented with polymethyl methacrylate using either a kyphoplasty type technique or a transpedicular augmentation technique. Screws were tested in a paired testing array, randomly assigning the augmentation techniques to opposite sides of each vertebra. Pullout to failure was performed either primarily or after a 5000-cycle tangential fatigue conditioning exposure. After testing, following screw removal, specimens were cut in the axial plane through the center of the vertebral body to inspect the cement distribution. Pedicle screws placed in osteoporotic vertebrae had higher pullout loads when augmented with the kyphoplasty technique compared to transpedicular augmentation (1414 +/- 338 versus 756 +/- 300 N, respectively; P cycling. Pedicle screw augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate improves the initial fixation strength and fatigue strength of

  5. Utilizing Social Bookmarking Tag Space for Web Content Discovery: A Social Network Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Social bookmarking has gained popularity since the advent of Web 2.0. Keywords known as tags are created to annotate web content, and the resulting tag space composed of the tags, the resources, and the users arises as a new platform for web content discovery. Useful and interesting web resources can be located through searching and browsing based…

  6. Designing with Space Syntax : A configurative approach to architectural layout, proposing a computational methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an

  7. A large-space shell-model approach to the ground state properties of 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, K.; Lipparini, E.

    1991-05-01

    We perform a large-space shell-model calculation of the non-local one-body density of 16O which takes into account the two-particle-two-hole correlations in the ground state. An application is done to a simultaneous study of the matter and momentum distributions and the occupation numbers of particle levels.

  8. Creating Learning Spaces through Collaboration: How One Library Refined Its Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert; Stuart, Crit

    2009-01-01

    Georgia Tech Library has undergone two learning space renovations in the past six years, with a third in 2009. This work is grounded in techniques that elicit user input. Library staff hope one day to completely renovate the entire 220,000-square-foot main library facility. Until that day arrives, library staff are making incremental improvements…

  9. A Data Analysis Approach for Diagnosing Malfunctioning in Domestic Space Heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, S.

    Around one third of worldwide energy usage is for the residential section and 60% of the energy consumption in this domestic area is for space heating. Therefore, monitoring and controlling this part of energy usage can have a major effect on the overall energy consumption and also on the emission

  10. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  11. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based...

  12. Towards Exploring Vast MPSoC Mapping Design Spaces using a Bias-Elitist Evolutionary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quan, W.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of optimally mapping a set of tasks onto a set of given heterogeneous processors for maximal throughput has been known, in general, to be NP-complete. Previous research has shown that Genetic Algorithms (GA) typically are a good choice to solve this problem when the solution space is

  13. Calibration of the OLFAR space-based radio telescope using an alternating least squares approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Pieter Karel Anton; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2016-01-01

    Radio astronomy below 30 MHz has never been properly performed because the ionosphere inhibits this on Earth. The Orbiting Low-Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to build a radio telescope consisting of 50 or more nano-satellites in space, forming a swarm-like array. The

  14. A non-linear state space approach to model groundwater fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendrecht, W.L.; Heemink, A.W.; Geer, F.C. van; Gehrels, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A non-linear state space model is developed for describing groundwater fluctuations. Non-linearity is introduced by modeling the (unobserved) degree of water saturation of the root zone. The non-linear relations are based on physical concepts describing the dependence of both the actual

  15. Analysis of Approaches to the Near-Earth Orbit Cleanup from Space Debris of the Size Below10 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Maiorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are a lot of concepts aimed at space debris removal from the near-Earth orbits being under way at different stages of detailed engineering and design. As opposed to large-size space debris (upper-stages, rocket bodies, non-active satellites, to track the small objects of space debris (SOSD, such as picosatellites, satellite fragments, pyrotechnic devices, and other items less than 10 cm in size, using the ground stations is, presently, a challenge.This SOSD feature allows the authors to propose the two most rational approaches, which use, respectively, a passive and an active (prompt maneuverable space vehicles (SV and appropriate schematic diagrams for their collection:1 Passive scheme – space vehicle (SV to be launched into an orbit is characterized by high mathematical expectation of collision with a large amount of SOSD and, accordingly, by high probability to be captured using both active or the passive tools. The SV does not execute any maneuvers, but can be equipped with a propulsion system required for orbit’s maintenance and correction and also for solving the tasks of long-range guidance.2 Active scheme – the SV is to be launched into the target or operating orbit and executes a number of maneuvers to capture the SOSD using both active and passive tools. Thus, such a SV has to be equipped with a rather high-trust propulsion system, which allows the change of its trajectory and also with the guidance system to provide it with target coordinates. The guidance system can be built on either radio or optical devices, it can be installed onboard the debris-removal SV or onboard the SV which operates as a supply unit (if such SVs are foreseen.The paper describes each approach, emphasizes advantages and disadvantages, and defines the cutting-edge technologies to be implemented.

  16. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  17. Augmented reality som wearable technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    “How Augmented reality can facilitate learning in visualizing human anatomy “ At this station I demonstrate how Augmented reality can be used to visualize the human lungs in situ and as a wearable technology which establish connection between body, image and technology in education. I will show...... the potential of Augmented reality increasing students level of understanding, interaction and engagement with the object. I will demonstrate the technology and show you the human lungs in your body and the future perspectives of the technology. Organization: developed in collaboration with Mie Buhl, Professor...... MSO, Aalborg University, Copenhagen. Annette Rahn, MSc, senior lecturer and teacher in anatomy and physiology at the School of Nursing, VIA Health- and Welfare Technology, VIA University College....

  18. Forskning indenfor Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahn, Annette

    Oplæg vil tage udgangspunkt i en artikel (vedhæftet) som er udgivet i december 2015 i tidsskriftet Læring og Medier (LOM) samt et paper, som skal præsenteres ved en konference i maj. Der vil være særligt fokus på metoden omkring design-based-research-approach, samt at være deltagende i eget forsk...

  19. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  20. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  1. Quality by Design approach in the development of a magnetic transducer for biomedical measurements: preliminary results on Design Space configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, D. R.; Monteiro, E. C.; Rivero, A. M.; Fortaleza, L. G. S.; Barbosa, C. R. H.; Velázquez, D. R. T.; Silva, E. C.; Gusmão, L. A. P.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of Quality by Design (QbD) has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry since 2004, changing the focus on inspections to embrace greater control in the manufacturing process. This new approach contributed to lower production costs and higher quality of medicines. This work discusses the first steps towards the implementation of a QbD approach aimed at ensuring the quality of a biomedical device under development. This device will be applied as a non-magnetic metallic foreign body localization system for surgical removal guidance. It should be highlighted that a new approach was used to define the Design Space, based on fuzzy logic rather than the typical statistical techniques.

  2. Construction of Interactive Teaching System for Course of Mechanical Drawing Based on Mobile Augmented Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching aim of Mechanical Drawing is to cultivate the students' graphics interpreting ability, plotting ability, inter-space imagination and innovation ability. For engineering students in China Universities, Mechanical Drawing course with the characteristics of 3D and 2D inter-space transformation, is often difficult to master. The ordinary dull teaching method is not enough for stimulating students’ spatial imagination capability, interest in learning, and cannot meet teachers’ teaching needs to explain complicated graphs relationships. In this paper, we design an interactive teaching system based on mobile augmented reality to improve the learning efficiency of Mechanical Drawing course. To check the effect of the proposed system, we carried out a case study of course teaching of Mechanical Drawing. The results demonstrate that the class for which interactive teaching system based on mobile augmented reality technology was adopted is significantly superior to the class for which the ordinary dull teaching approach was adopted with regard to the degree of proficiency of course key and difficult points content,spatial imagination capability, students’ interest in learning and study after class, especially in respect of students’ learning interest and spatial imagination capability.

  3. APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED AND VIRTUAL REALITY IN RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX PRESENTATION, CASE STUDY: ENERGOPROJEKT SUNNYVILLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEJIC Petar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of residential complex project presentations involves the use of a printed poster or elaborate on which the building is presented by using of two-dimensional drawings and images. The main traditional approach problem is the presentation of three-dimensional space on two-dimensional paper. The main focus of this paper is the development of contemporary, mobile systems for residential complex presentations which will be presented on a case study of “Energoprojekt Sunnyville” using a method of virtual and augmented reality. This approach enables easier and better understanding of all types of architectural objects and urban complex, allowing the user intuitive spatial overview of architectural work.

  4. Augmented reality for anatomical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rhys Gethin; John, Nigel William; Delieu, John Michael

    2010-03-01

    The use of Virtual Environments has been widely reported as a method of teaching anatomy. Generally such environments only convey the shape of the anatomy to the student. We present the Bangor Augmented Reality Education Tool for Anatomy (BARETA), a system that combines Augmented Reality (AR) technology with models produced using Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology, to provide the student with stimulation for touch as well as sight. The principal aims of this work were to provide an interface more intuitive than a mouse and keyboard, and to evaluate such a system as a viable supplement to traditional cadaver based education.

  5. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swenson, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...

  6. Modeling solar cell degradation in space: a comparison of the NRL displacement damage dose and the JPL equivalent fluence approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, S.R. [SFA Inc., Largo, MD (United States); Summers, G.P. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Walters, R.J.; Xapsos, M.A. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Burke, E.A.

    2001-07-01

    The method for predicting solar cell degradation in space radiation environments developed recently at the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is compared in detail with the earlier method developed at the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Although both methods are similar, the key difference is that in the NRL approach, the energy dependence of the damage coefficients is determined from a calculation of the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) and requires relatively few experimental measurements, whereas in the JPL method the damage coefficients have to be determined using an extensive set of experimental measurements. The end result of the NRL approach is a determination of a single characteristic degradation curve for a cell technology, which is measured against displacement damage dose rather than fluence. The end-of-life (EOL) cell performance for a particular mission can be read from the characteristic curve once the displacement damage dose for the mission has been determined. In the JPL method, the end result is a determination of the equivalent 1 MeV electron fluence, which would cause the same level of degradation as the actual space environment. The two approaches give similar results for GaAs/Ge solar cells, for which a large database exists. Because the NRL method requires far less experimental data than the JPL method, it is more readily applied to emerging cell technologies for which extensive radiation measurements are not available. The NRL approach is being incorporated into a code named SAVANT by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center. The predictions of SAVANT are shown to agree closely with actual space data for GaAs/Ge and CuInSe{sub 2} cells flown on the Equator-S mission. (author)

  7. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto

    2018-02-09

    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and non-systematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modelling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and, according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step by step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Display technologies for augmented reality in medical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Ulrich; Winkler, Alexander

    2018-02-20

    One of the main challenges for modern surgery is the effective use of the many available imaging modalities and diagnostic methods. Augmented reality systems can be used in the future to blend patient and planning information into the view of surgeons, which can improve the efficiency and safety of interventions. In this article we present five visualization methods to integrate augmented reality displays into medical procedures and the advantages and disadvantages are explained. Based on an extensive literature review the various existing approaches for integration of augmented reality displays into medical procedures are divided into five categories and the most important research results for each approach are presented. A large number of mixed and augmented reality solutions for medical interventions have been developed as research prototypes; however, only very few systems have been tested on patients. In order to integrate mixed and augmented reality displays into medical practice, highly specialized solutions need to be developed. Such systems must comply with the requirements with respect to accuracy, fidelity, ergonomics and seamless integration into the surgical workflow.

  9. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  10. Phase-space approach to solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J

    2012-08-17

    We propose a method for solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation based on the von Neumann (vN) lattice of phase space Gaussians. By incorporating periodic boundary conditions into the vN lattice [F. Dimler et al., New J. Phys. 11, 105052 (2009)], we solve a longstanding problem of convergence of the vN method. This opens the door to tailoring quantum calculations to the underlying classical phase space structure while retaining the accuracy of the Fourier grid basis. The method has the potential to provide enormous numerical savings as the dimensionality increases. In the classical limit, the method reaches the remarkable efficiency of one basis function per one eigenstate. We illustrate the method for a challenging two-dimensional potential where the Fourier grid method breaks down.

  11. Approaching environmental health disparities and green spaces: an ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Viniece; Gaither, Cassandra Johnson

    2015-02-10

    Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation's leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  12. Radio metric direction finding - A new approach to deep space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, W. G.; Curkendall, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explores an alternate technique for the determination of the angular position and velocity of deep-space probes, wherein the two-way range and Doppler measurements are abandoned for large portions of the mission in favor of differential one-way measurements. The spacecraft employs a wideband beacon rather than a coherent transponder, and differential measurements of one-way range and perhaps range rate are made between the spacecraft and each of three tracking stations. Advantages include the following: (1) Range measurements do not require the long horizon-to-horizon Doppler passes, so that the tracking stations can be released to support other functions of the deep space network. (2) Improved accuracy in the angular coordinates of the spacecraft can be obtained. (3) The need for an uplink is eliminated. A system implementation of the concept is developed that appears economically feasible and achieves a 0.05 microrad baseline accuracy

  13. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  14. A new approach for the sequence spaces of fuzzy level sets with the partial metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Kadak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the classical sets of sequences of fuzzy numbers by using partial metric which is based on a partial ordering. Some elementary notions and concepts for partial metric and fuzzy level sets are given. In addition, several necessary and sufficient conditions for partial completeness are established by means of fuzzy level sets. Finally, we give some illustrative examples and present some results between fuzzy and partial metric spaces.

  15. A Computational Approach to Extinction Events in Chemical Reaction Networks with Discrete State Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent work of M.D. Johnston et al. has produced sufficient conditions on the structure of a chemical reaction network which guarantee that the corresponding discrete state space system exhibits an extinction event. The conditions consist of a series of systems of equalities and inequalities on the edges of a modified reaction network called a domination-expanded reaction network. In this paper, we present a computational implementation of these conditions written in Python and apply the prog...

  16. Communication: phase space approach to laser-driven electronic wavepacket propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Norio; Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J

    2012-07-07

    We propose a phase space method to propagate a quantum wavepacket driven by a strong external field. The method employs the periodic von Neumann basis with biorthogonal exchange recently introduced for the calculation of the energy eigenstates of time-independent quantum systems [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press) [e-print arXiv:1201.2299v1

  17. Assessment of air space size characteristics by intercept (chord) measurement: an accurate and efficient stereological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lars; Weibel, Ewald R; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen G; Weinstein, Felix V; Ochs, Matthias

    2010-02-01

    The mean linear intercept (chord) length (L(m)) is a useful parameter of peripheral lung structure as it describes the mean free distance in the air spaces. It is often misinterpreted as a measure of "alveolar size," and its estimation is fraught with a number of pitfalls. We present two methods for the accurate estimation of L(m): 1) the indirect method, which derives L(m) from the volume-to-surface ratio of air spaces estimated by point counting methods, and 2) the direct method, which uses a set of random intercepts and calculates L(m) from their frequency distribution, for which we introduce a new and accurate method. Both methods are efficient and, with proper precautions, unbiased. The meaning of L(m) is assessed in two different examples. In a physiological study, the effect of different inflation levels is studied, showing that L(m) critically depends on lung inflation. In an experimental study on emphysema-like changes in a genetic mouse model, the effect of heterogeneity of air space size is assessed; these results are obtained partly because of differences in lung volume due to altered recoil in the emphysematous lungs. In conclusion, although L(m) is not a robust parameter of internal lung structure because it crucially depends on lung volume, it is still a valid measure for which accurate and efficient methods are available that yield additional parameters such as size distribution or alveolar surface area.

  18. A Description Of Space Relations In An NLP Model: The ABBYY Compreno Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Leontyev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is devoted to a formal analysis of the space category and, especially, to questions bound with the presentation of space relations in a formal NLP model. The aim is to demonstrate how linguistic and cognitive problems relating to spatial categorization, definition of spatial entities, and the expression of different locative senses in natural languages can be solved in an artificial intelligence system. We offer a description of the locative groups in the ABBYY Compreno formalism – an integral NLP framework applied for machine translation, semantic search, fact extraction, and other tasks based on the semantic analysis of texts. The model is based on a universal semantic hierarchy of the thesaurus type and includes a description of all possible semantic and syntactic links every word can attach. In this work we define the set of semantic locative relations between words, suggest different tools for their syntactic presentation, give formal restrictions for the word classes that can denote spaces, and show different strategies of dealing with locative prepositions, especially as far as the problem of their machine translation is concerned.

  19. Exploring the evolution of London's street network in the information space: A dual approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A. Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We study the growth of London's street network in its dual representation, as the city has evolved over the past 224 years. The dual representation of a planar graph is a content-based network, where each node is a set of edges of the planar graph and represents a transportation unit in the so-called information space, i.e., the space where information is handled in order to navigate through the city. First, we discuss a novel hybrid technique to extract dual graphs from planar graphs, called the hierarchical intersection continuity negotiation principle. Then we show that the growth of the network can be analytically described by logistic laws and that the topological properties of the network are governed by robust log-normal distributions characterizing the network's connectivity and small-world properties that are consistent over time. Moreover, we find that the double-Pareto-like distributions for the connectivity emerge for major roads and can be modeled via a stochastic content-based network model using simple space-filling principles.

  20. Modeling subjective evaluation of soundscape quality in urban open spaces: An artificial neural network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Kang, Jian

    2009-09-01

    This research aims to explore the feasibility of using computer-based models to predict the soundscape quality evaluation of potential users in urban open spaces at the design stage. With the data from large scale field surveys in 19 urban open spaces across Europe and China, the importance of various physical, behavioral, social, demographical, and psychological factors for the soundscape evaluation has been statistically analyzed. Artificial neural network (ANN) models have then been explored at three levels. It has been shown that for both subjective sound level and acoustic comfort evaluation, a general model for all the case study sites is less feasible due to the complex physical and social environments in urban open spaces; models based on individual case study sites perform well but the application range is limited; and specific models for certain types of location/function would be reliable and practical. The performance of acoustic comfort models is considerably better than that of sound level models. Based on the ANN models, soundscape quality maps can be produced and this has been demonstrated with an example.

  1. An Ensemble Approach to Extreme Space Weather Event Probability -- A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, S.; Fronczyk, K.; McCarron, E.; Pratt, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    An extreme space weather event has the potential to disrupt or damage infrastructure systems and technologies that many societies rely on for economic and social wellbeing. Space weather events occur regularly, but extreme events occur less frequently with only several historical examples over the last 160 years. During the past decade, published works have (1) forensically examined the physical characteristics of the extreme historical events; and (2) discussed the probability or return rate of select extreme geomagnetic disturbances, including the 1859 Carrington event. Here we present an analysis of several of these studies. We created a unified statistical framework to visualize previous analyses, and developed a model from an ensemble using statistical methods. We look at geomagnetic disturbance probability across multiple return periods. We discuss what the most likely 100-year extreme event (a parameter of interest to policy makers and planners) and the return period for other extreme historical events. We discuss the current state of these analyses, their utility to policy makers and planners, the current limitations (in data and understanding) when compared to other hazards, and the gaps that need to be filled to enhance space weather risk assessments.

  2. Approaches to automatic parameter fitting in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline: An exploratory parameter space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christian; Nattkemper, Tim; Palmisano, Ralf; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and diagnosis in medicine and biology often require the assessment of a large amount of microscopy image data. Although on the one hand, digital pathology and new bioimaging technologies find their way into clinical practice and pharmaceutical research, some general methodological issues in automated image analysis are still open. Methods: In this study, we address the problem of fitting the parameters in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline. We propose to fit the parameters of the pipeline's modules with optimization algorithms, such as, genetic algorithms or coordinate descents, and show how visual exploration of the parameter space can help to identify sub-optimal parameter settings that need to be avoided. Results: This is of significant help in the design of our automatic parameter fitting framework, which enables us to tune the pipeline for large sets of micrographs. Conclusion: The underlying parameter spaces pose a challenge for manual as well as automated parameter optimization, as the parameter spaces can show several local performance maxima. Hence, optimization strategies that are not able to jump out of local performance maxima, like the hill climbing algorithm, often result in a local maximum. PMID:23766941

  3. Approaches to automatic parameter fitting in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline: An exploratory parameter space analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Held

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and diagnosis in medicine and biology often require the assessment of a large amount of microscopy image data. Although on the one hand, digital pathology and new bioimaging technologies find their way into clinical practice and pharmaceutical research, some general methodological issues in automated image analysis are still open. Methods: In this study, we address the problem of fitting the parameters in a microscopy image segmentation pipeline. We propose to fit the parameters of the pipeline′s modules with optimization algorithms, such as, genetic algorithms or coordinate descents, and show how visual exploration of the parameter space can help to identify sub-optimal parameter settings that need to be avoided. Results: This is of significant help in the design of our automatic parameter fitting framework, which enables us to tune the pipeline for large sets of micrographs. Conclusion: The underlying parameter spaces pose a challenge for manual as well as automated parameter optimization, as the parameter spaces can show several local performance maxima. Hence, optimization strategies that are not able to jump out of local performance maxima, like the hill climbing algorithm, often result in a local maximum.

  4. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  5. The status of augmented reality in laparoscopic surgery as of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Sylvain; Nicolau, Stéphane A; Soler, Luc; Doignon, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    This article establishes a comprehensive review of all the different methods proposed by the literature concerning augmented reality in intra-abdominal minimally invasive surgery (also known as laparoscopic surgery). A solid background of surgical augmented reality is first provided in order to support the survey. Then, the various methods of laparoscopic augmented reality as well as their key tasks are categorized in order to better grasp the current landscape of the field. Finally, the various issues gathered from these reviewed approaches are organized in order to outline the remaining challenges of augmented reality in laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Numerical Approach to Estimate the Ballistic Coefficient of Space Debris from TLE Orbital Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkeliunas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is full of space debris, which consist of spent rocket stages, old satellites and fragments from explosions and collisions. As of 2009, more than 21,000 orbital debris larger than 10 cm are known to exist], and while it is hard to track anything smaller than that, the estimated population of particles between 1 and 10 cm in diameter is approximately 500,000, whereas small as 1 cm exceeds 100 million. These objects orbit Earth with huge kinetic energies speeds usually exceed 7 kms. The shape of their orbit varies from almost circular to highly elliptical and covers all LEO, a region in space between 160 and 2,000 km above sea level. Unfortunately, LEO is also the place where most of our active satellites are situated, as well as, International Space Station (ISS) and Hubble Space Telescope, whose orbits are around 400 and 550 km above sea level, respectively.This poses a real threat as debris can collide with satellites and deal substantial damage or even destroy them.Collisions between two or more debris create clouds of smaller debris, which are harder to track and increase overall object density and collision probability. At some point, the debris density couldthen reach a critical value, which would start a chain reaction and the number of space debris would grow exponentially. This phenomenon was first described by Kessler in 1978 and he concluded that it would lead to creation of debris belt, which would vastly complicate satellite operations in LEO. The debris density is already relatively high, as seen from several necessary debris avoidance maneuvers done by Shuttle, before it was discontinued, and ISS. But not all satellites have a propulsion system to avoid collision, hence different methods need to be applied. One of the proposed collision avoidance concepts is called LightForce and it suggests using photon pressure to induce small orbital corrections to deflect debris from colliding. This method is very efficient as seen from

  7. Modular Curriculum Approach (MCA) for teaching of introductory physics: Tablet PCs and flexible instructional space to stimulate active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon; Kosheleva, Yelena

    2011-03-01

    Modular Curriculum Approach is an innovative model designed at McMurry University and adopted for teaching of introductory physics courses. In MCA, traditional lab/lecture structure is converted into a system of flexible instructional modules, with lecture, lab, and discussion being merged into one technologically and collaboratively rich experience. Different elements are integrated with Tablet PCs as a single unifying platform to improve continuity among module components. A technology suite incorporated with tablets includes: Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response systems, data acquisition systems, and tablet-based note-taking tools. The MCA has been further reinforced by creating a new instructional space with movable partitions, allowing for easy transformation between lecture and lab modes. The space is supportive of small peer- group activities with easy-to-reconfigure table clusters, multiple white and black board surfaces, multiple TVs and projection screens.

  8. Multiple Model-Based Synchronization Approaches for Time Delayed Slaving Data in a Space Launch Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inherent characteristics of the flight mission of a space launch vehicle (SLV, which is required to fly over very large distances and have very high fault tolerances, in general, SLV tracking systems (TSs comprise multiple heterogeneous sensors such as radars, GPS, INS, and electrooptical targeting systems installed over widespread areas. To track an SLV without interruption and to hand over the measurement coverage between TSs properly, the mission control system (MCS transfers slaving data to each TS through mission networks. When serious network delays occur, however, the slaving data from the MCS can lead to the failure of the TS. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose multiple model-based synchronization (MMS approaches, which take advantage of the multiple motion models of an SLV. Cubic spline extrapolation, prediction through an α-β-γ filter, and a single model Kalman filter are presented as benchmark approaches. We demonstrate the synchronization accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed MMS approaches using the Monte Carlo simulation with the nominal trajectory data of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I.

  9. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...

  10. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  11. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the Enterprise Computing System (ECS) of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended ECSs which applies a model-driven design and development approach augmented with

  12. Agulhas Current variability determined from space: a multi-sensor approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouault, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available with the Agulhas Current also provides an ideal natural laboratory for testing and developing new remote sensing products. 2 1.2. OBJECTIVES AND APPROACH 1.2 Objectives and approach The Agulhas Current system is a challenging environment for remote sensing...];Bryden et al. [2005]). Statistical and time-series analysis of suitable remotely sensed data will be used to test the hypothesis that Natal Pulses dominate the variability of the Agulhas Current. Is there a seasonal cycle in the Agulhas Current...

  13. A GOCE-only global gravity field model by the space-wise approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliaccio, Federica; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    degrees; the second is an internally computed GOCE-only prior model to be used in place of the official quick-look model, thus removing the dependency on EIGEN5C especially in the polar gaps. Once the procedure to obtain a GOCE-only solution has been outlined, a new global gravity field model has been......The global gravity field model computed by the spacewise approach is one of three official solutions delivered by ESA from the analysis of the GOCE data. The model consists of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients and the corresponding error covariance matrix. The main idea behind this approach...

  14. Scale relativity and fractal space-time a new approach to unifying relativity and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nottale, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey of the development of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time. It suggests an original solution to the disunified nature of the classical-quantum transition in physical systems, enabling the basis of quantum mechanics on the principle of relativity, provided this principle is extended to scale transformations of the reference system. In the framework of such a newly generalized relativity theory (including position, orientation, motion and now scale transformations), the fundamental laws of physics may be given a general form that unifies

  15. Complex Permittivity Measurements of Textiles and Leather in a Free Space: An Angular-Invariant Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kapilevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the complex permittivity measurements of textiles and leathers in a free space at 330 GHz. The destructive role of the Rayleigh scattering effect is considered and the angular-invariant limit for an incidence angle has been found out experimentally within 25–30 degrees. If incidence angle exceeds this critical parameter, the uncertainty caused by the Rayleigh scattering is drastically increased preventing accurate measurements of the real and imaginary parts of a bulky material. The phenomenon must be taken into consideration in predicting shielding effectiveness of materials covering hidden object in concealed threat detection with millimeter-wave radar systems.

  16. A novel approach for the diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia based on phase space reconstruction of ECG

    CERN Document Server

    Koulaouzidis, George; Cappiello, Grazia; Mazomenos, Evangelos B; Maharatna, Koushik; Morgan, John

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias comprise a group of disorders which manifest clinically in a variety of ways from ventricular premature beats (VPB) and no sustained ventricular tachycardia (in healthy subjects) to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia in patients with and/or without structural heart disease. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) are the most common electrical mechanisms for cardiac arrest. Accurate and automatic recognition of these arrhythmias from electrocardiography (ECG) is a crucial task for medical professionals. The purpose of this research is to develop a new index for the differential diagnosis of normal sinus rhythm (SR) and ventricular arrhythmias, based on phase space reconstruction (PSR).

  17. AN EFFECTIVE MULTI-CLUSTERING ANONYMIZATION APPROACH USING DISCRETE COMPONENT TASK FOR NON-BINARY HIGH DIMENSIONAL DATA SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Arun Shalin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is a process of grouping elements together, designed in such a way that the elements assigned to similar data points in a cluster are more comparable to each other than the remaining data points in a cluster. During clustering certain difficulties related when dealing with high dimensional data are ubiquitous and abundant. Works concentrated using anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces failed to address the problem related to dimensionality reduction during the inclusion of non-binary databases. In this work we study methods for dimensionality reduction for non-binary database. By analyzing the behavior of dimensionality reduction for non-binary database, results in performance improvement with the help of tag based feature. An effective multi-clustering anonymization approach called Discrete Component Task Specific Multi-Clustering (DCTSM is presented for dimensionality reduction on non-binary database. To start with we present the analysis of attribute in the non-binary database and cluster projection identifies the sparseness degree of dimensions. Additionally with the quantum distribution on multi-cluster dimension, the solution for relevancy of attribute and redundancy on non-binary data spaces is provided resulting in performance improvement on the basis of tag based feature. Multi-clustering tag based feature reduction extracts individual features and are correspondingly replaced by the equivalent feature clusters (i.e. tag clusters. During training, the DCTSM approach uses multi-clusters instead of individual tag features and then during decoding individual features is replaced by corresponding multi-clusters. To measure the effectiveness of the method, experiments are conducted on existing anonymization method for high dimensional data spaces and compared with the DCTSM approach using Statlog German Credit Data Set. Improved tag feature extraction and minimum error rate compared to conventional anonymization

  18. State-Space Modeling and Performance Analysis of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Based on a Model Predictive Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bassi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in wind energy technologies have led wind turbines from fixed speed to variable speed operation. This paper introduces an innovative version of a variable-speed wind turbine based on a model predictive control (MPC approach. The proposed approach provides maximum power point tracking (MPPT, whose main objective is to capture the maximum wind energy in spite of the variable nature of the wind’s speed. The proposed MPC approach also reduces the constraints of the two main functional parts of the wind turbine: the full load and partial load segments. The pitch angle for full load and the rotating force for the partial load have been fixed concurrently in order to balance power generation as well as to reduce the operations of the pitch angle. A mathematical analysis of the proposed system using state-space approach is introduced. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the performance of the wind turbine with the MPC approach is improved compared to the traditional PID controller in both low and high wind speeds.

  19. Augmented kludge waveforms for detecting extreme-mass-ratio inspirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Moore, Christopher J.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2017-08-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important class of source for the future space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA. Detecting signals from EMRIs will require waveform models that are both accurate and computationally efficient. In this paper, we present the latest implementation of an augmented analytic kludge (AAK) model, publicly available at https://github.com/alvincjk/EMRI_Kludge_Suite as part of an EMRI waveform software suite. This version of the AAK model has improved accuracy compared to its predecessors, with two-month waveform overlaps against a more accurate fiducial model exceeding 0.97 for a generic range of sources; it also generates waveforms 5-15 times faster than the fiducial model. The AAK model is well suited for scoping out data analysis issues in the upcoming round of mock LISA data challenges. A simple analytic argument shows that it might even be viable for detecting EMRIs with LISA through a semicoherent template bank method, while the use of the original analytic kludge in the same approach will result in around 90% fewer detections.

  20. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion