WorldWideScience

Sample records for augmented space approach

  1. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-01-01

    From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spa...

  2. Augmented spaces, a look beyond advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Andreea Căplescu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From billboards to urban screens and now to media facades, the augmentation of our cities has expanded, changing social behaviours and public space consumption. Smart buildings are being developed and, much like the smartphones, these hybrids are not only in sci-fi movies anymore. One of the main promoters of media facades and media architecture has been the advertising industry. But artists and designers showed the potential of different approaches, experimenting with digitally augmented spaces both indoors and outdoors. Going beyond the commercial aspect of being an advertising and branding tool, these hybrids offer a variety of uses. Questions of how and where we use them and how they can improve our life quality are discussed here emphasizing that we developed a media behaviour, adjusting our relation to the physical and information environments. I examine some of the most notable experiments outside of the advertising sphere, offering a base for future development of augmented spaces and opening the discussion over the language of new media architecture.

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties at rough and sharp transition metal–metal interfaces: An augmented space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The augmented space formalism (ASF) coupled with recursion method and a tight binding linear muffin-tin orbital basis has been applied to study the layerwise electronic and magnetic properties of (0 0 1) interfaces of body-centered cubic Fe/Ag and face centered cubic Co/Ag, Fe/Cu and Co/Cu. Three different thickness of interfaces are considered: mono, two and three layers of transition metals with metal substrates. Layers of an interface are considered disordered alloys with different degree of disorderedness due to interdiffusion of transition metal layer atoms and substrate atoms during growth process. We show that ASF is applicable to sharp interface also. Result of three layers of transition metal rough interface agrees well with available experimental result. - Highlights: • Study of rough interface of transition metals by augmented space formalism. • Same formalism is extended for nearly sharp interface. • Comparison is made for smooth, 1 layer and 4 layers roughed surfaces. • Layerwise magnetic moments and electronic properties are studied. • Rough interface with 3 layers of transition metals agrees with experiment

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties at rough and sharp transition metal–metal interfaces: An augmented space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, Priyadarshini [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Ganguli, Biplab, E-mail: biplabg@nitrkl.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008 (India); Mookerjee, Abhijit, E-mail: abhijit.mookerjee61@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD-III Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Presidency University, College Street, Kolkata (India); Lady Brabourne College, Suhrawardy Avenue, Kolkata (India)

    2015-05-01

    The augmented space formalism (ASF) coupled with recursion method and a tight binding linear muffin-tin orbital basis has been applied to study the layerwise electronic and magnetic properties of (0 0 1) interfaces of body-centered cubic Fe/Ag and face centered cubic Co/Ag, Fe/Cu and Co/Cu. Three different thickness of interfaces are considered: mono, two and three layers of transition metals with metal substrates. Layers of an interface are considered disordered alloys with different degree of disorderedness due to interdiffusion of transition metal layer atoms and substrate atoms during growth process. We show that ASF is applicable to sharp interface also. Result of three layers of transition metal rough interface agrees well with available experimental result. - Highlights: • Study of rough interface of transition metals by augmented space formalism. • Same formalism is extended for nearly sharp interface. • Comparison is made for smooth, 1 layer and 4 layers roughed surfaces. • Layerwise magnetic moments and electronic properties are studied. • Rough interface with 3 layers of transition metals agrees with experiment.

  5. An augmented space approach to the study of random ternary alloys: I. Electronic structure with uncorrelated disorder and short ranged order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Aftab; Mookerjee, Abhijit

    2009-05-01

    We present here a generalized augmented space recursive technique which includes the effects of diagonal and environmental disorder explicitly: an analytic, lattice translational invariant, multiple scattering theory for the study of short range ordering in random ternary alloys. Our generalized augmented space formalism includes atomic correlations over a finite cluster including short range order (SRO). We propose the augmented space recursion (ASR), a computationally fast and accurate technique which incorporates configuration fluctuations over a large local environment. We apply the formalism to a tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) study of stainless steel Fe80-xNixCr20 (x = 14 and 17). We have demonstrated the effects of short range ordering by calculating the configuration averaged density of states with and without SRO and with different kinds of cluster environment embedded in an averaged medium.

  6. An augmented space approach to the study of random ternary alloys: I. Electronic structure with uncorrelated disorder and short ranged order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a generalized augmented space recursive technique which includes the effects of diagonal and environmental disorder explicitly: an analytic, lattice translational invariant, multiple scattering theory for the study of short range ordering in random ternary alloys. Our generalized augmented space formalism includes atomic correlations over a finite cluster including short range order (SRO). We propose the augmented space recursion (ASR), a computationally fast and accurate technique which incorporates configuration fluctuations over a large local environment. We apply the formalism to a tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) study of stainless steel Fe80-xNixCr20 (x = 14 and 17). We have demonstrated the effects of short range ordering by calculating the configuration averaged density of states with and without SRO and with different kinds of cluster environment embedded in an averaged medium.

  7. Prototype Application of Portable Augmented Reality Technology for Enhancement of Space and Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For this project, several different augmentation techniques for locating ground articles from distance through an augmented live view were investigated....

  8. Mobile Cloud Computing: A Review on Smartphone Augmentation Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Gani, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones have recently gained significant popularity in heavy mobile processing while users are increasing their expectations toward rich computing experience. However, resource limitations and current mobile computing advancements hinder this vision. Therefore, resource-intensive application execution remains a challenging task in mobile computing that necessitates device augmentation. In this article, smartphone augmentation approaches are reviewed and classified in two main groups, name...

  9. Mobile Cloud Computing: A Review on Smartphone Augmentation Approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Abolfazli, Saeid; Gani, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Smartphones have recently gained significant popularity in heavy mobile processing while users are increasing their expectations toward rich computing experience. However, resource limitations and current mobile computing advancements hinder this vision. Therefore, resource-intensive application execution remains a challenging task in mobile computing that necessitates device augmentation. In this article, smartphone augmentation approaches are reviewed and classified in two main groups, namely hardware and software. Generating high-end hardware is a subset of hardware augmentation approaches, whereas conserving local resource and reducing resource requirements approaches are grouped under software augmentation methods. Our study advocates that consreving smartphones' native resources, which is mainly done via task offloading, is more appropriate for already-developed applications than new ones, due to costly re-development process. Cloud computing has recently obtained momentous ground as one of the major co...

  10. Topic Space: Rapid Prototyping a Mobile Augmented Reality Recommendation App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS Sparks! Ignition Grant, researchers from the University of Illinois Library designed and tested a mobile recommender app with augmented reality features. By embedding open source optical character recognition software into a “Topic Space” module, the augmented reality app can recognize call numbers on a book in the library and suggest relevant items that are not shelved nearby. Topic Space can also show users items that are normally shelved in the starting location but that are currently checked out. Using formative UX methods, grant staff shaped app interface and functionality through early user testing. This paper reports results of UX testing; a redesigned mobile interface, and provides considerations on the future development of personalized recommendation functionality.

  11. Space Launch System Implementation of Adaptive Augmenting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; Orr, Jeb S.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the complex structural dynamics, challenging ascent performance requirements, and rigorous flight certification constraints owing to its manned capability, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires a proven thrust vector control algorithm design with highly optimized parameters to provide stable and high-performance flight. On its development path to Preliminary Design Review (PDR), the SLS flight control system has been challenged by significant vehicle flexibility, aerodynamics, and sloshing propellant. While the design has been able to meet all robust stability criteria, it has done so with little excess margin. Through significant development work, an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm has been shown to extend the envelope of failures and flight anomalies the SLS control system can accommodate while maintaining a direct link to flight control stability criteria such as classical gain and phase margin. In this paper, the work performed to mature the AAC algorithm as a baseline component of the SLS flight control system is presented. The progress to date has brought the algorithm design to the PDR level of maturity. The algorithm has been extended to augment the full SLS digital 3-axis autopilot, including existing load-relief elements, and the necessary steps for integration with the production flight software prototype have been implemented. Several updates which have been made to the adaptive algorithm to increase its performance, decrease its sensitivity to expected external commands, and safeguard against limitations in the digital implementation are discussed with illustrating results. Monte Carlo simulations and selected stressing case results are also shown to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to increase the robustness of the integrated SLS flight control system.

  12. A New Approach to Video Augmentation%视频增强的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申杰

    2008-01-01

    A calibrationfree augmented reality based on the affine space is firstly formulated by a tensor method. This approach does not use the calibration parameters of the camera and the 3D locations of the environment’s object, and can realize the video augmentation.Meanwhile, an approach to resolving the occlusion problem in augmented reality is presented. The main ideas of video augmentation based on calibrationfree augmented reality and application examples are given in this paper. Its application is successful.%本文使用张量的方法推导了基于仿射空间的免标定增强现实方法,该方法不需要像机的标定参数和环境对象的3D位置信息就可实现视频增强.同时,本文也提出了在仿射空间解决增强现实中遮挡问题的新方法,给出了基于免标定增强现实的视频增强主要想法和应用实例.结果表明,这个方法是可行的.

  13. Mobile Platform Augmented Reality for Enhanced Operations on the International Space Station Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To develop an Augmented Reality system that runs on a small portable device to aid crew in routine maintenance activities by providing enhanced information and...

  14. An Augmented Lagrangian Approach for Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaosong

    2009-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used technique for data analysis and dimension reduction with numerous applications in science and engineering. However, the standard PCA suffers from the fact that the principal components (PCs) are usually linear combinations of all the original variables, and it is thus often difficult to interpret the PCs. To alleviate this drawback, various sparse PCA approaches were proposed in literature [15, 6, 17, 28, 8, 25, 18, 7, 16]. Despite success in achieving sparsity, some important properties enjoyed by the standard PCA are lost in these methods such as uncorrelation of PCs and orthogonality of loading vectors. Also, the total explained variance that they attempt to maximize can be too optimistic. In this paper we propose a new formulation for sparse PCA, aiming at finding sparse and nearly uncorrelated PCs with orthogonal loading vectors while explaining as much of the total variance as possible. We also develop a novel augmented Lagrangian method for solving a ...

  15. Augmented Reality spaces : museums and digital “heterotopias”

    OpenAIRE

    Kolosinska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Essay In my thesis I examine the differences between “space” and “place” and the human beings relationship to those concepts. Furthermore, I explore Foucault’s concept of “heterotopia” in depth, using the museum as an example. Defined by Foucault, a heterotopia is a space standing outside of its known place, a space of otherness capable of juxtaposing different sites and time within itself. Public places such as museums are great examples of how technology affects both space and the human bei...

  16. Augmenting the Funding Sources for Space Science and the ASTRO-1 Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The BoldlyGo Institute was formed in 2013 to augment the planned space science portfolio through philanthropically funded robotic space missions, similar to how some U.S. medical institutes and ground-based telescopes are funded. I introduce BoldlyGo's two current projects: the SCIM mission to Mars and the ASTRO-1 space telescope. In particular, ASTRO-1 is a 1.8-meter off-axis (unobscured) ultraviolet-visible space observatory to be located in a Lagrange point or heliocentric orbit with a wide-field panchromatic camera, medium- and high-resolution spectrograph, and high-contrast imaging coronagraph and/or an accompanying starshade/occulter. It is intended for the post-Hubble Space Telescope era in the 2020s, enabling unique measurements of a broad range of celestial targets, while providing vital complementary capabilities to other ground- and space-based facilities such as the JWST, ALMA, WFIRST-AFTA, LSST, TESS, Euclid, and PLATO. The ASTRO-1 architecture simultaneously wields great scientific power while being technically viable and affordable. A wide variety of scientific programs can be accomplished, addressing topics across space astronomy, astrophysics, fundamental physics, and solar system science, as well as being technologically informative to future large-aperture programs. ASTRO-1 is intended to be a new-generation research facility serving a broad national and international community, as well as a vessel for impactful public engagement. Traditional institutional partnerships and consortia, such as are common with private ground-based observatories, may play a role in the support and governance of ASTRO-1; we are currently engaging interested international organizations. In addition to our planned open guest observer program and accessible data archive, we intend to provide a mechanism whereby individual scientists can buy in to a fraction of the gauranteed observing time. Our next step in ASTRO-1 development is to form the ASTRO-1 Requirements Team

  17. Delambre-Gauss Formulas for Augmented, Right-Angled Hexagons in Hyperbolic 4-Space

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ser Peow; Zhang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We study the geometry of oriented right-angled hexagons in H^4, the hyperbolic 4-space, via Clifford numbers or quaternions. We show how to augment alternate sides of such a hexagon so that for the non-augmented sides, we can define quaternion half side-lengths whose angular parts are obtained from half the Euler angles associated to a certain orientation-preserving isometry of the Euclidean 3-space. This generalizes the complex half side-lengths of oriented right-angled hexagons in H^3. We also define appropriate complex half side-lengths for the augmented sides of the hexagon. We further explain how to geometrically read off the quaternion half side-lengths for a given oriented,augmented, right-angled hexagon in H^4. Our main result is a set of generalized Delambre-Gauss formulas for oriented, augmented, right-angled hexagons in H^4, involving the quaternion half side-lengths and the complex half side-lengths. We also show in the appendix how the same method gives Delambre-Gauss formulas for oriented right-...

  18. AugmentedForearm: Exploring the design space of a display-enhanced forearm

    OpenAIRE

    Olberding, Simon; Yeo, Kian Peen; Nanayakkara, Suranga; Steimle, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Recent technical advances allow traditional wristwatches to be equipped with high processing power. Not only do they allow for glancing at the time, but they also allow users to interact with digital information. However, the display space is very limited. Extending the screen to cover the entire forearm is promising. It allows the display to be worn similarly to a wristwatch while providing a large display surface. In this paper we present the design space of a display-augmented forearm, foc...

  19. Real-space grid implementation of the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    , and potentials allows for flexible boundary conditions, efficient multigrid algorithms for solving Poisson and Kohn-Sham equations, and efficient parallelization using simple real-space domain-decomposition. We use the PAW method to perform all-electron calculations in the frozen core approximation, with smooth......A grid-based real-space implementation of the projector augmented wave sPAWd method of Blöchl fPhys. Rev. B 50, 17953 s1994dg for density functional theory sDFTd calculations is presented. The use of uniform three-dimensional s3Dd real-space grids for representing wave functions, densities...

  20. Plant nanobionics approach to augment photosynthesis and biochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan Pablo; Landry, Markita P.; Faltermeier, Sean M.; McNicholas, Thomas P.; Iverson, Nicole M.; Boghossian, Ardemis A.; Reuel, Nigel F.; Hilmer, Andrew J.; Sen, Fatih; Brew, Jacqueline A.; Strano, Michael S.

    2014-04-01

    The interface between plant organelles and non-biological nanostructures has the potential to impart organelles with new and enhanced functions. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) passively transport and irreversibly localize within the lipid envelope of extracted plant chloroplasts, promote over three times higher photosynthetic activity than that of controls, and enhance maximum electron transport rates. The SWNT-chloroplast assemblies also enable higher rates of leaf electron transport in vivo through a mechanism consistent with augmented photoabsorption. Concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside extracted chloroplasts are significantly suppressed by delivering poly(acrylic acid)-nanoceria or SWNT-nanoceria complexes. Moreover, we show that SWNTs enable near-infrared fluorescence monitoring of nitric oxide both ex vivo and in vivo, thus demonstrating that a plant can be augmented to function as a photonic chemical sensor. Nanobionics engineering of plant function may contribute to the development of biomimetic materials for light-harvesting and biochemical detection with regenerative properties and enhanced efficiency.

  1. Augmentation and Maximization of Per-Capita Call Active Space Through Chorusing in Anuran Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James Henderson

    It is poorly understood why anuran males form choruses. Although various reasons have been proposed, empirical support is lacking. This study proposed, developed, and evaluated the chorus active space (CAS) augmentation theory, which states that anuran choruses are formed and organized so as to augment and maximize per-capita CAS beyond that which could be achieved by an isolated male. This study involved three phases. First, computer models of hypothetical choruses indicated that CAS, as defined, is necessarily augmented for chorusing males. These models provided the necessary information from which optimal interindividual distances (IIDs), corresponding to maximal CASs, could be estimated differentially for linear and planar chorus configurations. The second phase examined Acris crepitans and Hyla cinerea choruses for optimal intermale spacing. A. crepitans, which utilizes mixed chorus geometries (either linear or planar, depending on available resources), cannot optimize IID within any observed pond-type breeding site; however, observed spacing would be optimal along a stream bank, where chorusing often occurs, for a chorus population of 61, approximately the minimum value at which CAS characteristics are stabile. H. cinerea males, which form only planar choruses, space orders of magnitude closer than optimal. Suboptimal spacing in this species is understandable, considering the would-be size of an optimally spaced chorus. In the final phase of this study, a database of CAS-related data was compiled mostly from published sources and was examined for variable relationships predicted on the basis of CAS augmentation theory. The findings suggest that very few planar geometry species may maximize CAS; whereas, a much larger number of mixed geometry species, perhaps as well as linear geometry species, may maximize CAS. These findings loosely agree with the field study findings and suggest that CAS augmentation theory applies to at least a subset of anuran species and

  2. On augmented superfield approach to vector Schwinger model

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the techniques of Bonora-Tonin superfield formalism to derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST as well as (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for the (1+1)-dimensional (2D) bosonized vector Schwinger model. In the derivation of above symmetries, we invoke the (dual)-horizontality conditions as well as gauge and (anti-)co-BRST invariant restrictions on the superfields that are defined onto the $(2,2)$-dimensional supermanifold. We provide geometrical interpretation of the above nilpotent symmetries (and their corresponding charges). We also express the nilpotency and absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges within the framework of augmented superfield formalism.

  3. The satellite based augmentation system – EGNOS for non-precision approach global navigation satellite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej FELLNER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available First in the Poland tests of the EGNOS SIS (Signal in Space were conducted on 5th October 2007 on the flight inspection with SPAN (The Synchronized Position Attitude Navigation technology at the Mielec airfield. This was an introduction to a test campaign of the EGNOS-based satellite navigation system for air traffic. The advanced studies will be performed within the framework of the EGNOS-APV project in 2011. The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, is conducted according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. Definition of usefulness and certification of EGNOS as SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System in aviation requires thorough analyses of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability of SIS. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performance of EGNOS to analyze the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft. Location of the EGNOS monitoring station Rzeszów, located near Polish-Ukrainian border, being also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states is very useful for SIS tests in this area. According to current EGNOS programmed schedule, the project activities will be carried out with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow demonstrating the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications.

  4. Default Bayesian analysis for multi-way tables: a data-augmentation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Polson, Nicholas G

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a strategy for regularized estimation in multi-way contingency tables, which are common in meta-analyses and multi-center clinical trials. Our approach is based on data augmentation, and appeals heavily to a novel class of Polya-Gamma distributions. Our main contributions are to build up the relevant distributional theory and to demonstrate three useful features of this data-augmentation scheme. First, it leads to simple EM and Gibbs-sampling algorithms for posterior inference, circumventing the need for analytic approximations, numerical integration, Metropolis--Hastings, or variational methods. Second, it allows modelers much more flexibility when choosing priors, which have traditionally come from the Dirichlet or logistic-normal family. For example, our approach allows users to incorporate Bayesian analogues of classical penalized-likelihood techniques (e.g. the lasso or bridge) in computing regularized estimates for log-odds ratios. Finally, our data-augmentation scheme naturally sugg...

  5. Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner augmented spark igniter shutdown detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, C. E.; Mccay, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    Detonations were experienced in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner (FPB) augmented spark igniter (ASI) during engine cutoff. Several of these resulted in over pressures sufficient to damage the FPB ASI oxidizer system. The detonations initiated in the FPB ASI oxidizer line when residual oxidizer (oxygen) in the line mixed with backflowing fuel (hydrogen) and detonated. This paper reviews the damage history to the FPB ASI oxidizer system, an engineering assessment of the problem cause, a verification of the mechanisms, the hazards associated with the detonations, and the solution implemented.

  6. Ridge augmentation procedures in implant patients: a staged approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Chen; D. Buser; D. Wismeijer

    2014-01-01

    The ITI Treatment Guide series, a unique compendium of evidence-based treatment methods in implant dentistry in daily practice, written by renowned clinicians, provides a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic options. Using an illustrated step-by-step approach, the ITI Treatment Guide shows

  7. An Empirical Study on Tangible Augmented Reality Learning Space for Design Skill Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Xiangyu Wang

    2008-01-01

    Tangible augmented reality(TAR)technology opens a novel realm which integrates the computer-generated elements into the real word.Its applications into design education have been explored with a limi- tation to this entire area.TAR offers an innovative learning space by merging digital learning materials into the format of media with tools or objects which are direct parts of the physical space.It is therefore con- ceived that such combination opens new perspectives in teaching and learning.This paper presented and evaluated one TAR system to improve the pedagogical effectiveness of expedential and collaborative learn- ing process in urban design education.The results from the experiments were analyzed under a previously developed theoretical framework,which show that TAR can enhance the design activities in some collabora- tive work.

  8. A new approach for vibration control in large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An approach for augmenting vibration damping characteristics in space structures with large panels is presented. It is based on generation of bending moments rather than forces. The moments are generated using bimetallic strips, suitably mounted at selected stations on both sides of the large panels, under the influence of differential solar heating, giving rise to thermal gradients and stresses. The collocated angular velocity sensors are utilized in conjunction with mini-servos to regulate the control moments by flipping the bimetallic strips. A simple computation of the rate of dissipation of vibrational energy is undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Augmented paper maps: Exploring the design space of a mixed reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelke, Volker; Sester, Monika

    Paper maps and mobile electronic devices have complementary strengths and shortcomings in outdoor use. In many scenarios, like small craft sailing or cross-country trekking, a complete replacement of maps is neither useful nor desirable. Paper maps are fail-safe, relatively cheap, offer superior resolution and provide large scale overview. In uses like open-water sailing it is therefore mandatory to carry adequate maps/charts. GPS based mobile devices, on the other hand, offer useful features like automatic positioning and plotting, real-time information update and dynamic adaptation to user requirements. While paper maps are now commonly used in combination with mobile GPS devices, there is no meaningful integration between the two, and the combined use leads to a number of interaction problems and potential safety issues. In this paper we explore the design space of augmented paper maps in which maps are augmented with additional functionality through a mobile device to achieve a meaningful integration between device and map that combines their respective strengths.

  10. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach

    OpenAIRE

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2013-01-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of fou...

  11. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated. PMID:25920838

  12. ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Klemke, Roland; Kalz, Marco; Van Ulzen, Patricia; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science - Technology for learning across physical and virtual spaces, 18(15), 2143-2164.

  13. An implementation of core level spectroscopies in a real space Projector Augmented Wave density functional theory code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, M.P.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the implementation of K-shell core level spectroscopies (X-ray absorption (XAS), X-ray emission (XES), and X-ray photoemission (XPS)) in the real-space-grid-based Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) GPAW code. The implementation for XAS is based on the Haydock recursion method avoiding...

  14. Guided bone augmentation using ceramic space-maintaining devices: the impact of chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderud J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jonas Anderud,1,2 Peter Abrahamsson,2 Ryo Jimbo,1 Sten Isaksson,2 Erik Adolfsson,3 Johan Malmström,2 Yoshihito Naito,4 Ann Wennerberg1 1Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Maxillofacial Unit Halmstad, Region Halland, Halmstad, Sweden; 3Swedish Ceramic Institute, IVF, Mölndal, Sweden; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate histologically, whether vertical bone augmentation can be achieved using a hollow ceramic space maintaining device in a rabbit calvaria model. Furthermore, the chemistry of microporous hydroxyapatite and zirconia were tested to determine which of these two ceramics are most suitable for guided bone generation. 24 hollow domes in two different ceramic materials were placed subperiosteal on rabbit skull bone. The rabbits were sacrificed after 12 weeks and the histology results were analyzed regarding bone-to-material contact and volume of newly formed bone. The results suggest that the effect of the microporous structure of hydroxyapatite seems to facilitate for the bone cells to adhere to the material and that zirconia enhance a slightly larger volume of newly formed bone. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that ceramic space maintaining devices permits new bone formation and osteoconduction within the dome. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, zirconia, guided bone regeneration, GBR, histology, membrane

  15. Augmented Superfield Approach to Nilpotent Symmetries of the Modified Version of 2D Proca Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shukla

    2015-01-01

    and absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-BRST and (anti-co-BRST charges within the framework of augmented superfield formalism. This exercise leads to some novel observations which have, hitherto, not been pointed out in the literature within the framework of superfield approach to BRST formalism. For the sake of completeness, we also mention, very briefly, a unique bosonic symmetry, the ghost-scale symmetry, and discrete symmetries of the theory and show that the algebra of conserved charges provides a physical realization of the Hodge algebra (satisfied by the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry.

  16. Human-Robot Collaboration: A Literature Review and Augmented Reality Approach in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Green

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available NASA?s vision for space exploration stresses the cultivation of human-robotic systems. Similar systems are also envisaged for a variety of hazardous earthbound applications such as urban search and rescue. Recent research has pointed out that to reduce human workload, costs, fatigue driven error and risk, intelligent robotic systems will need to be a significant part of mission design. However, little attention has been paid to joint human-robot teams. Making human-robot collaboration natural and efficient is crucial. In particular, grounding, situational awareness, a common frame of reference and spatial referencing are vital in effective communication and collaboration. Augmented Reality (AR, the overlaying of computer graphics onto the real worldview, can provide the necessary means for a human-robotic system to fulfill these requirements for effective collaboration. This article reviews the field of human-robot interaction and augmented reality, investigates the potential avenues for creating natural human-robot collaboration through spatial dialogue utilizing AR and proposes a holistic architectural design for human-robot collaboration.

  17. Engaging Our School Teachers: an Augmented Reality (AR Approach to Continuous Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Holley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, teachers in the UK learn about behaviour management strategies from theoretical perspectives when training, through discussions with mentors, and by trial and error at their schools. Existing literature mainly focuses on such issues from the ‘adult’ viewpoint, not the voice of the child. This paper reports on work-in-progress developing a range of Augmented Reality (AR resources for these issues, drawing upon co-design research workshops with children from a Year 6 class (aged 10 in a UK Primary School. Our research informs approaches to classroom management by encouraging reflection and analysis of ‘critical incidents’ identified by the pupils, and explored by teachers in workshops through the medium of AR, giving a reality previously uncaptured in more traditional approaches. Our final resources will be a set of Open Education Resources (OER, offered to the wider community for reuse/repurposing for educational settings through a Creative Commons (cc licence.

  18. Augmented Superfield Approach to Nilpotent Symmetries of the Modified Version of 2D Proca Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, A; Malik, R P

    2013-01-01

    We derive the complete set of off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST), anti-BRST and (anti-)co-BRST symmetry transformations for all the fields of the modified version of two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca theory by exploiting the "augmented" superfield formalism where the (dual-)horizontality conditions and (dual-)gauge-invariant restrictions are exploited together. We capture the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST invariance of the Lagrangian density in the language of superfield formalism. We also express the nilpotency and absolute anticommutativity of the (anti-)BRST and (anti-)co-BRST charges within the framework of augmented superfield formalism. This exercise leads to some novel observations which have, hitherto, not been pointed out in the literature within the framework of superfield approach to BRST formalism. For the sake of completeness, we also mention, very briefly, a unique bosonic symmetry, the ghost-scale symmetry and discrete symmetries of the theory and ...

  19. Inference of hysteretic respiratory tumor motion from external surrogates: a state augmentation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to monitor tumor movement during radiotherapy. Respiration-induced motion affects tumors in the thorax and abdomen (in particular, those located in the lung region). For image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems, it is desirable to minimize imaging dose, so external surrogates are used to infer the internal tumor motion between image acquisitions. This process relies on consistent correspondence between the external surrogate signal and the internal tumor motion. Respiratory hysteresis complicates the external/internal correspondence because two distinct tumor positions during different breathing phases can yield the same external observation. Previous attempts to resolve this ambiguity often subdivided the data into inhale/exhale stages and restricted the estimation to only one of these directions. In this study, we propose a new approach to infer the internal tumor motion from external surrogate signal using state augmentation. This method resolves the hysteresis ambiguity by incorporating higher-order system dynamics. It circumvents the segmentation of the internal/external trajectory into different phases, and estimates the inference map based on all the available external/internal correspondence pairs. Optimization of the state augmentation is investigated. This method generalizes naturally to adaptive on-line algorithms

  20. Real-time prediction of respiratory motion based on a local dynamic model in an augmented space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.-M.; Jung, B.-H.; Ruan, D.

    2011-03-01

    Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver ablative radiation dose to the tumor target with minimal normal tissue exposure, by accounting for real-time target movement. In practice, prediction is usually necessary to compensate for system latency induced by measurement, communication and control. This work focuses on predicting respiratory motion, which is most dominant for thoracic and abdominal tumors. We develop and investigate the use of a local dynamic model in an augmented space, motivated by the observation that respiratory movement exhibits a locally circular pattern in a plane augmented with a delayed axis. By including the angular velocity as part of the system state, the proposed dynamic model effectively captures the natural evolution of respiratory motion. The first-order extended Kalman filter is used to propagate and update the state estimate. The target location is predicted by evaluating the local dynamic model equations at the required prediction length. This method is complementary to existing work in that (1) the local circular motion model characterizes 'turning', overcoming the limitation of linear motion models; (2) it uses a natural state representation including the local angular velocity and updates the state estimate systematically, offering explicit physical interpretations; (3) it relies on a parametric model and is much less data-satiate than the typical adaptive semiparametric or nonparametric method. We tested the performance of the proposed method with ten RPM traces, using the normalized root mean squared difference between the predicted value and the retrospective observation as the error metric. Its performance was compared with predictors based on the linear model, the interacting multiple linear models and the kernel density estimator for various combinations of prediction lengths and observation rates. The local dynamic model based approach provides the best performance for short to medium prediction lengths under relatively

  1. An Augmented Incomplete Factorization Approach for Computing the Schur Complement in Stochastic Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Petra, Cosmin G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scalable approach and implementation for solving stochastic optimization problems on high-performance computers. In this work we revisit the sparse linear algebra computations of the parallel solver PIPS with the goal of improving the shared-memory performance and decreasing the time to solution. These computations consist of solving sparse linear systems with multiple sparse right-hand sides and are needed in our Schur-complement decomposition approach to compute the contribution of each scenario to the Schur matrix. Our novel approach uses an incomplete augmented factorization implemented within the PARDISO linear solver and an outer BiCGStab iteration to efficiently absorb pivot perturbations occurring during factorization. This approach is capable of both efficiently using the cores inside a computational node and exploiting sparsity of the right-hand sides. We report on the performance of the approach on highperformance computers when solving stochastic unit commitment problems of unprecedented size (billions of variables and constraints) that arise in the optimization and control of electrical power grids. Our numerical experiments suggest that supercomputers can be efficiently used to solve power grid stochastic optimization problems with thousands of scenarios under the strict "real-time" requirements of power grid operators. To our knowledge, this has not been possible prior to the present work. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. A computationally efficient approach for hidden-Markov model-augmented fingerprint-based positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Tummala, Murali; McEachen, John

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient approach for mobile subscriber position estimation in wireless networks. A method of data scaling assisted by timing adjust is introduced in fingerprint-based location estimation under a framework which allows for minimising computational cost. The proposed method maintains a comparable level of accuracy to the traditional case where no data scaling is used and is evaluated in a simulated environment under varying channel conditions. The proposed scheme is studied when it is augmented by a hidden-Markov model to match the internal parameters to the channel conditions that present, thus minimising computational cost while maximising accuracy. Furthermore, the timing adjust quantity, available in modern wireless signalling messages, is shown to be able to further reduce computational cost and increase accuracy when available. The results may be seen as a significant step towards integrating advanced position-based modelling with power-sensitive mobile devices.

  3. An Augmented Discrete-Time Approach for Human-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peidong Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot collaboration (HRC is a key feature to distinguish the new generation of robots from conventional robots. Relevant HRC topics have been extensively investigated recently in academic institutes and companies to improve human and robot interactive performance. Generally, human motor control regulates human motion adaptively to the external environment with safety, compliance, stability, and efficiency. Inspired by this, we propose an augmented approach to make a robot understand human motion behaviors based on human kinematics and human postural impedance adaptation. Human kinematics is identified by geometry kinematics approach to map human arm configuration as well as stiffness index controlled by hand gesture to anthropomorphic arm. While human arm postural stiffness is estimated and calibrated within robot empirical stability region, human motion is captured by employing a geometry vector approach based on Kinect. A biomimetic controller in discrete-time is employed to make Baxter robot arm imitate human arm behaviors based on Baxter robot dynamics. An object moving task is implemented to validate the performance of proposed methods based on Baxter robot simulator. Results show that the proposed approach to HRC is intuitive, stable, efficient, and compliant, which may have various applications in human-robot collaboration scenarios.

  4. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave meth...

  5. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. S.; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-06-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual's segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive approach in evaluating segregation beyond the residential space. The entire activity spaces of individuals are taken into account with individuals serving as the building blocks of the analysis. The measurement principle is based upon the exposure dimension of segregation. The proposed measure reflects the exposure of individuals of a referenced group in a neighborhood to the populations of other groups that are found within the activity spaces of individuals in the referenced group. Using the travel diary data collected from the tri-county area in southeast Florida and the imputed racial-ethnic data, this paper demonstrates how the proposed segregation measurement approach goes beyond just measuring population distribution patterns in the residential space and can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of segregation by considering various socio-geographical spaces.

  6. Flight Testing of the Space Launch System (SLS) Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) Algorithm on an F/A-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Chris J.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Flight Mechanics and Analysis Division developed an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm for launch vehicles that improves robustness and performance on an as-needed basis by adapting a classical control algorithm to unexpected environments or variations in vehicle dynamics. This was baselined as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to partner with the SLS Program and the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) to flight test the AAC algorithm on a manned aircraft that can achieve a high level of dynamic similarity to a launch vehicle and raise the technology readiness of the algorithm early in the program. This document reports the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  7. An augmented space recursive method for the first principles study of concentration profiles at CuNi alloy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a first principle method for the calculation of effective cluster interactions for semi-infinite solid alloys required for the study of surface segregation and surface ordering on disordered surfaces. Our method is based on the augmented space recursion coupled with the orbital peeling method of Burke in the framework of the TB-LMTO. Our study of surface segregation in CuNi alloys demonstrates strong copper segregation and a monotonic concentration profile throughout the concentration range. (author). 35 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Electronic structure calculations with GPAW: a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkovaara, J.; Rostgaard, Carsten; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations have become an indispensable tool in many areas of materials science and quantum chemistry. Even though the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density-functional theory (DFT) simplifies the many-body problem significantly, one is still confronted with several numerical...... challenges. In this article we present the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method as implemented in the GPAW program package (https://wiki.fysik.dtu.dk/gpaw) using a uniform real-space grid representation of the electronic wavefunctions. Compared to more traditional plane wave or localized basis set...

  9. A learning performance study between the conventional approach and augmented reality textbook among secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Valarmathie; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Bakar, Juliana Aida Abu

    2016-08-01

    Malaysia is moving towards becoming a developed nation by 2020. As such, the need for adequate human resources in science-related fields is one of the requirements to achieve a developed nation status. Unfortunately, there is a downward trend in the number of students pursuing the science stream at the secondary school level. This paper introduces an enhanced science textbook using Augmented Reality (eSTAR) that is intended to motivate students to be interested in science. The eSTAR was implemented to provide a supplement to the conventional science teaching and learning methods in the secondary schools. A learning performance study with a control group was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the eSTAR for science learning among a sample of 140 Form Two secondary school students. The results indicate that the learning performance of the students in both groups had a significant difference in mean scores between the pre-test and post-test. Students using the eSTAR have a better score in the post-test and eventually resulted in a better learning performance compared to those who were exposed to the conventional science learning. Overall, the results show that the students benefited from the use of the conventional and eSTAR learning approaches.

  10. An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, Jörg; Diers, Martin; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Kamping, Sandra; Rance, Mariela; Maaß, Heiko; Flor, Herta

    2014-09-01

    Mirror training and movement imagery have been demonstrated to be effective in treating several clinical conditions, such as phantom limb pain, stroke-induced hemiparesis, and complex regional pain syndrome. This article presents an augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror and imagery treatment approaches for hand training. A head-mounted display equipped with cameras captures one hand held in front of the body, mirrors this hand, and displays it in real time in a set of four different training tasks: (1) flexing fingers in a predefined sequence, (2) moving the hand into a posture fitting into a silhouette template, (3) driving a "Snake" video game with the index finger, and (4) grasping and moving a virtual ball. The system records task performance and transfers these data to a central server via the Internet, allowing monitoring of training progress. We evaluated the system by having 7 healthy participants train with it over the course of ten sessions of 15-min duration. No technical problems emerged during this time. Performance indicators showed that the system achieves a good balance between relatively easy and more challenging tasks and that participants improved significantly over the training sessions. This suggests that the system is well suited to maintain motivation in patients, especially when it is used for a prolonged period of time. PMID:24338625

  11. Abordaje areolar en mamoplastia de aumento Areolar approach in augmentation mammaplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Castillo Delgado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La mamoplastia de aumento se ha consolidado como una cirugía segura, de rápida recuperación y con resultados predecibles e inmediatos. Las expectativas de las pacientes son cada vez mayores, exigiendo resultados naturales y sin estigmas quirúrgicos. Todas las vías de abordaje clásicas, para la colocación de implantes mamarios, dejan cicatrices visibles. En mujeres con areolas de diámetro grande, es posible emplear un abordaje dentro de la areola, que deja una cicatriz oculta en su unión con el pezón. Se describe la técnica y posteriormente se discuten sus indicaciones, ventajas y desventajas.Augmentation mammoplasty has gained acceptance as a safe surgical procedure with fast recovery and a readily predictable outcome. Increasing patient expectations impose demands on natural appearance without signs of surgery. All standard incision areas for insertion of implant leave visible scars. For women with large areolar diameter, it is possible to leave a hidden scar at the aerola-nipple junction by conducting an intra- areolar approach. The technique is described and its intended application and advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  12. An Augmented Reality Approach to Integrate Practical Activities in E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL KABTANE Hamada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the term E-learning was mentioned to any learning method that used electronic machine for the distribution. With the evolution and the apparition of the internet, the term e learning has been evolved and referred to the online courses. There are a lot of platform which serves to distribute and manage the learning content. In some domain learners need to use some equipment and useful product for purpose completing the image built in the theoretical part by the practical activity part. However, most of those platforms suffer from a lack in tools that offer practical activities for learners. Using videos, virtual laboratories or distance control of real equipment as solutions to solve this lack were proposed but still limited. The mixed reality as new technology promised to create a virtual environment where the learner is an actor and can interact with the virtual objects. This article present an approach for developing integrated E-learning systems, helping to carry out the practical work by establishing a virtual laboratory that all tools and products can be manipulated by learners and teachers like in real practical activity, based on an augmented reality system.

  13. Augmentation of Virtual Space Physics Observatory Services to Expand Data Access Capabilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquilent, Inc. proposes to support the effort of Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) by developing services to expand the VSPO search capabilities, developing...

  14. Augmented Human Engineering: A Theoretical and Experimental Approach to Human Systems Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fass, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the main issues for augmented human engineering: integrating the biological user's needs in its methodology for designing human-artefact systems integration requirements and specifications. To take into account biological, anatomical and physiological requirements we need a validated theoretical framework. We explain how to ground augmented human engineering on the Chauvet mathematical theory of integrative physiology as a fundamental framework for human system ...

  15. A New Hybrid Approach for Augmented Reality Maintenance in Scientific Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Martínez; Seppo Laukkanen; Jouni Mattila

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance in scientific facilities is a difficult issue, especially in large and hazardous facilities, due to the complexity of tasks and equipment. Augmented reality is a technology that has already shown great promise in the maintenance field. With the help of augmented reality applications, maintenance tasks can be carried out faster and more safely. The problem with current applications is that they are small-scale prototypes that do not easily scale to large facility maintenance applic...

  16. Augmentation of Block Truncation Coding based Image Retrieval by using Even and Odd Images with Sundry Colour Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H.B.Kekre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The augmentation to block truncation coding (BTC based image retrieval techniques using Even and Odd images with ten different colour spaces is the theme of work given in the paper. Here the original image is reflected across vertical axis to obtain the flip image, then even and odd images are obtained respectively by addition of original with flip and subtraction of flip from original. TheBTC is applied on original image, even image and odd image to get seven different combinational feature sets for content based image retrieval (CBIR techniques like original, even, odd, original & even, original & odd, even & odd and original & even & odd. Use of ten sundry colour spaces results into total seventy CBIR methods,For experimentation the generic image database having 1000 images spread across 11 categories is used. For each proposed CBIR technique 55 queries (5 per category are fired on the generic image database. To compare the performance of image retrieval techniques averageprecision and recall are computed of all queries. The results have shown the performance improvement (higher precision and recall values with these proposed colour- BTC methods. Instead of using just 6 feature vector in BTC, if we perform the image retrieval using the flipping technique wherein the feature vector is increased to 12 and 18,the performance also increases except in the case of normalized rgb colour space. Image flipping helps to improve the performance in all of luminance-chromaticity colour spaces (YUV, YIQ, LUV, Kekre’s YCgCb, YCbCr as well as non-luminance based colour spaces (XYZ,HSI,RGB,HSV in comparison of BTC applied on original image. Also overall YUV colour space proves to be the best in all colour spaces for proposed image flipping techniques. The second best performance is given by Kekre’s YCGCb colour space.

  17. Computing the dilation of edge-augmented graphs in metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be an undirected graph with n vertices embedded in a metric space. We consider the problem of adding a shortcut edge in G that minimizes the dilation of the resulting graph. The fastest algorithm to date for this problem has O(n4) running time and uses O(n2) space. We show how to...

  18. Augmented Reality Implementation Methods in Mainstream Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on different mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in th...

  19. Fiia: A Model-Based Approach to Engineering Collaborative Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Smith, J. David; Phillips, W. Greg; Graham, T. C. Nicholas

    Augmented reality systems often involve collaboration among groups of people. While there are numerous toolkits that aid the development of such augmented reality groupware systems (e.g., ARToolkit and Groupkit), there remains an enormous gap between the specification of an AR groupware application and its implementation. In this chapter, we present Fiia, a toolkit which simplifies the development of collaborative AR applications. Developers specify the structure of their applications using the Fiia modeling language, which abstracts details of networking and provides high-level support for specifying adapters between the physical and virtual world. The Fiia.Net runtime system then maps this conceptual model to a runtime implementation. We illustrate Fiia via Raptor, an augmented reality application used to help small groups collaboratively prototype video games.

  20. Approaches to space in game design research

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Steffen P.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution, we gather major academic and design approaches for explaining how space in games is constructed and how it constructs games, thereby defining the conceptual dimensions of gamespace. Each concept’s major inquiry is briefly discussed, iterated if applicable, as well as named. Thus, we conclude with an overview of the locative, the representational, the programmatic, the dramaturgical, the typological, the perspectivistic, the form-functional, and the form-emotive dimension...

  1. A phase space approach to energy densities in position space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of defining appropriate one-electron energy densities for electronic states of atoms, molecules and solids is not straightforward, so the authors have suggested a new approach based on the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics. One of the advantages of the approach is the comprehensive picture it gives of the field--another is that it leads to energy densities with optimal properties. For the kinetic energy density the authors have illustrated this by focusing on the local virial theorum which is not satisfied for other definitions. For the exchange eneergy density the authors have shown that the definition connects this density with an averaged exchange potential in a natural way

  2. Communicative Competence Inventory for Students Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication: A Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun-Ching; Douglas, Karen H.

    2014-01-01

    Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) represent a heterogonous group with complex communication needs. AAC--including aided communication means (e.g., pictures, devices) and unaided (e.g., signs, gestures)--is often used to support students who have difficulties with speech production, language comprehension, and…

  3. Revision Breast Augmentation at the Time of Cardiac Sarcoma Resection: The Importance of Pocket Control When Inframammary Approach Is Combined with Simultaneous Sternotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica F.; Kim, Min P.; Reardon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Sternotomy in patients with previous breast augmentation becomes an aesthetic challenge when an inframammary approach is utilized over the traditional midline skin incision. Although the inframammary fold approach offers a well-concealed scar when compared with the midline chest incision, patients with a history of previous breast augmentation are at risk for alteration of the anatomy leading to symmastia, implant malposition, and asymmetry. We present a case report of sternotomy and resection of a mediastinal perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with concomitant revision augmentation with silicone implants and SERI Scaffold. Our patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and a good cosmetic result 1 year after concomitant revision augmentation in conjunction with cardiac tumor resection. In conclusion, the authors feel that despite the difficulties in performing breast augmentation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery, it is possible to obtain good results. It is necessary to reinforce the repair with a mesh to recreate support and proper anatomy.

  4. Revision Breast Augmentation at the Time of Cardiac Sarcoma Resection: The Importance of Pocket Control When Inframammary Approach Is Combined with Simultaneous Sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica F; Kim, Min P; Reardon, Michael J; Ellsworth, Warren A

    2016-03-01

    Sternotomy in patients with previous breast augmentation becomes an aesthetic challenge when an inframammary approach is utilized over the traditional midline skin incision. Although the inframammary fold approach offers a well-concealed scar when compared with the midline chest incision, patients with a history of previous breast augmentation are at risk for alteration of the anatomy leading to symmastia, implant malposition, and asymmetry. We present a case report of sternotomy and resection of a mediastinal perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with concomitant revision augmentation with silicone implants and SERI Scaffold. Our patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and a good cosmetic result 1 year after concomitant revision augmentation in conjunction with cardiac tumor resection. In conclusion, the authors feel that despite the difficulties in performing breast augmentation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery, it is possible to obtain good results. It is necessary to reinforce the repair with a mesh to recreate support and proper anatomy. PMID:27257577

  5. Artificial intelligence for Space Station automation: Crew safety, productivity, autonomy, augmented capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Geldberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) R&D projects for the successful and efficient operation of the Space Station are described. The book explores the most advanced AI-based technologies, reviews the results of concept design studies to determine required AI capabilities, details demonstrations that would indicate the existence of these capabilities, and develops an R&D plan leading to such demonstrations. Particular attention is given to teleoperation and robotics, sensors, expert systems, computers, planning, and man-machine interface.

  6. Affordability Approaches for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Smith, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    The design and development of historical NASA Programs (Apollo, Shuttle and International Space Station), have been based on pre-agreed missions which included specific pre-defined destinations (e.g., the Moon and low Earth orbit). Due to more constrained budget profiles, and the desire to have a more flexible architecture for Mission capture as it is affordable, NASA is working toward a set of Programs that are capability based, rather than mission and/or destination specific. This means designing for a performance capability that can be applied to a specific human exploration mission/destination later (sometime years later). This approach does support developing systems to flatter budgets over time, however, it also poses the challenge of how to accomplish this effectively while maintaining a trained workforce, extensive manufacturing, test and launch facilities, and ensuring mission success ranging from Low Earth Orbit to asteroid destinations. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of Exploration Systems Directorate (ESD) in Washington, DC has been developing approaches to track affordability across multiple Programs. The first step is to ensure a common definition of affordability: the discipline to bear cost in meeting a budget with margin over the life of the program. The second step is to infuse responsibility and accountability for affordability into all levels of the implementing organization since affordability is no single person s job; it is everyone s job. The third step is to use existing data to identify common affordability elements organized by configuration (vehicle/facility), cost, schedule, and risk. The fourth step is to analyze and trend this affordability data using an affordability dashboard to provide status, measures, and trends for ESD and Program level of affordability tracking. This paper will provide examples of how regular application of this approach supports affordable and therefore sustainable human space exploration

  7. A generic approach for augmenting tactile diagrams with spatial non-speech sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ramloll, R.; Brewster, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Blind or visually impaired users typically access diagrams in the tactile medium. This paper describes TouchMelody, a system designed for augmenting such existing diagrams with 3D spatial auditory information to increase their usefulness, information content and reduce tactile clutter. The motivation for this system, an overview of its development and early experiences are presented. The two major technologies used are the Polhemus FASTRAK and the LakeDSP CP4 to facilitate the creation of a d...

  8. Determinants of International Tourism Demand for the Philippines: An Augmented Gravity Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Deluna, Roperto Jr; Jeon, Narae

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the determinants of international tourism demand for the Philippines.This study employed a double-log augmented form of gravity model estimated using the robust random effects model.Results revealed that tourist arrival in the Philippines are generally increasing from 2001 to 2012. Empirical estimation was conducted to determine factors affecting Philippine tourism demand. These factors include income, market size, and distance. Relative prices was also...

  9. Phygital public space approach: a case study in Volpiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Bazzanella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today an important challenge is opening: designing public spaces by taking into account the augmented meaning carried by “new digital citizen and users”. New ways of digital communication, a broader network of digital information and the open data naturally transform also the physical space into something new we can call “phygital” (Momentum 2012. The usual way to read urban spaces could be improved with new digital technology. How is the boundary between virtual and real?; what if people overcome easily these boundaries? The phygital spaces are not the common urban spaces as we usually think but a place-based network of interaction among people. Throughout a research experiment carried out by Polytechnic of Turin in collaboration with the Municipality of Volpiano (TO, this paper proposes a community planning strategy where people keep their central role and virtual interaction empower the design of a new sustainable city space.

  10. GyroWand: An Approach to IMU-Based Raycasting for Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié-Ramos, Juan David; Özacar, Kasim; Irani, Pourang P; Kitamura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays enable augmented reality (AR) applications that display virtual objects overlaid on the real world. At the core of this new generation of devices are low-cost tracking technologies that allow us to interpret users' motion in the real world in relation to the virtual content for the purposes of navigation and interaction. The advantages of pervasive tracking come at the cost of limiting interaction possibilities, however. To address these challenges the authors introduce GyroWand, a raycasting technique for AR HMDs using inertial measurement unit (IMU) rotational data from a handheld controller. PMID:26960031

  11. A pythagorean approach in Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Ji

    2006-01-01

    Let be a Banach space and let be the unit sphere of . Parameters , , , and , where and are introduced and studied. The values of these parameters in the spaces and function spaces are estimated. Among the other results, we proved that a Banach space with , or is uniform nonsquare; and a Banach space with , or has uniform normal structure.

  12. Adapting Information Through Tangible Augmented Reality Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Patrick; Martinez, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    Tangible augmented reality interfaces offer a hands on approach for examining objects and exploring the associated information. We describe two tangible augmented reality interfaces that can expose the adaptation of information presented to users about objects in augmented reality environments.

  13. An Approach to Improve Security on Clone of Mobile Device during Augmented Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asst. Prof Yash Dave

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of cloud computing is usage of cloud resource form anywhere i.e. mobility. Mobile cloud computing, new technology in the field of cloud computing enables cloud users to access cloud from their mobile devices (e.g. Laptops, PDA, Smartphone’s. Computation power and battery life is one of the major issues of these mobile devices. Now a day’s resource starved applications like online HD graphics games, multimedia, etc. needs more bandwidth and computation power that mobile device might not have. So to overcome this problem clones of mobile devices are created on cloud servers. This clone uses resources of the cloud servers. Using augmented execution all complex applications run in this clone and response is sent back to mobile device. This can save battery life for low configured mobile devices. This paper shows how to improve the synchronization between mobile device and clone to communicate more reliably in terms of improving security.

  14. Augmented postcard

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik , Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the examination of augmented reality technology, which allows us mixing real and virtual elements. Augmented reality is a relatively new technology which is becoming more widespread, thanks to a fairly reasonable price of smart phones. Here we presents the types of augmented reality, the necessary technology and their advantages and disadvantages, its current use in applications, and software for building augmented reality applications. The thesis is mainly focuse...

  15. Building Bridges Between the Virtual and Real: A Study of Augmented and Virtual Realities in the Museum Space and the Collaborations That Produce Them

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Katharine Rose

    2016-01-01

    Building Bridges Between the Virtual and Real utilizes interviews with content creators, technology developers, and museum personnel to detail the ways in which these parties have worked together to bring augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) experiences into the museum. With a brief summary of museological theory on the function of digital technologies in the museum and a survey of AR and VR experiences exhibited in museum space, this study is designed to facilitate and foster coll...

  16. Automatic localization of endoscope in intraoperative CT image: A simple approach to augmented reality guidance in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Sylvain; Nicolau, Stéphane A; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Doignon, Christophe; Marescaux, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    The use of augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery has been the subject of much research for more than a decade. The endoscopic view of the surgical scene is typically augmented with a 3D model extracted from a preoperative acquisition. However, the organs of interest often present major changes in shape and location because of the pneumoperitoneum and patient displacement. There have been numerous attempts to compensate for this distortion between the pre- and intraoperative states. Some have attempted to recover the visible surface of the organ through image analysis and register it to the preoperative data, but this has proven insufficiently robust and may be problematic with large organs. A second approach is to introduce an intraoperative 3D imaging system as a transition. Hybrid operating rooms are becoming more and more popular, so this seems to be a viable solution, but current techniques require yet another external and constraining piece of apparatus such as an optical tracking system to determine the relationship between the intraoperative images and the endoscopic view. In this article, we propose a new approach to automatically register the reconstruction from an intraoperative CT acquisition with the static endoscopic view, by locating the endoscope tip in the volume data. We first describe our method to localize the endoscope orientation in the intraoperative image using standard image processing algorithms. Secondly, we highlight that the axis of the endoscope needs a specific calibration process to ensure proper registration accuracy. In the last section, we present quantitative and qualitative results proving the feasibility and the clinical potential of our approach. PMID:26925804

  17. Measuring segregation: an activity space approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, David W. S.; Shaw, Shih-Lung

    2011-01-01

    While the literature clearly acknowledges that individuals may experience different levels of segregation across their various socio-geographical spaces, most measures of segregation are intended to be used in the residential space. Using spatially aggregated data to evaluate segregation in the residential space has been the norm and thus individual’s segregation experiences in other socio-geographical spaces are often de-emphasized or ignored. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehens...

  18. Space modification: an alternative approach to chemistry problems involving geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sequential simplex optimization algorithm has been translated into non-Euclidean space. A study of the algorithm in this space suggests that the path of convergence of the simplex depends on the properties of the space so that different convergence paths can be obtained even with the same starting points. The path of convergence approaches the path observed in Euclidean space as the metric constant of the hyperbolic space increases.

  19. SPACE Approach to Concrete's Space Structure and its Mechanical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.; Stroeven, M.

    2001-01-01

    Structural properties of particulate materials can be described in densities of the particle packing, more generally denoted as particle composition. Obviously, this global measure does not offer information on the way particles are mutually arranged in space. This is associated with particle config

  20. Adaptive Augmented Reality: Plasticity of Augmentations

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouaiel, Nehla; Cieutat, Jean-Marc; Jessel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience An augmented reality system is used to complete the real world with virtual objects (computer generated) so they seem to coexist in the same space as the real world. The concept of plasticity [4][5] was first introduced for Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It denotes the ability of an HCI interface to fit the context of use defined by the user, the environment and the platform. We believe that plasticity is a very important notion in the domain of augmented reality....

  1. A new approach to electromagnetism in anisotropic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu-Brinzei, Nicoleta; Siparov, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    Anisotropy of a space naturally leads to direction dependent electromagnetic tensors and electromagnetic potentials. Starting from this idea and using variational approaches and exterior derivative formalism, we extend some of the classical equations of electromagnetism to anisotropic (Finslerian) spaces. The results differ from the ones obtained by means of the known approach in [3], [4].

  2. Augmentation of major isoflavones in Glycine max L. through elicitor- mediated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Ramesh K.; Akitha Devi, Muthu K.; Parvatam, Giridhar; Ravishankar, Gokare A.

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone content in soybean seeds was enhanced by the elicitor-mediated approach under field conditions through the floral application of abiotic elicitors-salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and biotic elicitors-Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus. Among isoflavones, daidzein and glycitein were found to be highly responsive to elicitors, with an increase of 53.7% and 78.7%, respectively as compared to control. Highest total isoflavone content (1276.4 mg g–1 of seeds) was observed upon ...

  3. Augmenting the Floating Car Data Approach by Dynamic Indirect Traffic Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppe, Sten; Junghans, Marek; Haberjahn, Mathias; Christian, Troppenz

    2012-01-01

    An established approach for the mobile determination of traffic parameters is Floating Car Data (FCD) also known as Probe Vehicle Data. Floating cars are equipped with modules for positioning and transmitting the data to a processing unit. There, the data are processed to derive travel times, spatio-temporal traffic information, etc. The advantage of FCD is that there is no costly stationary infrastructure needed. The drawback is that only a fraction of the real traffic can be used as data ba...

  4. An innovative approach to space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Christine; Berinstain, Alain B.; Criswick, John

    1994-01-01

    At present, Canada does not have enough scientists to be competitive in the global economy, which is rapidly changing from a reliance on natural resources and industry to information and technology. Space is the final frontier and it is a multidisciplinary endeavor. It requires a knowledge of science and math, as well as non-science areas such as architecture and law. Thus, it can attract a large number of students with a diverse range of interests and career goals. An overview is presented of the space education program designed by Canadian Alumni of the International Space University (CAISU) to encourage students to pursue studies and careers in science and technology and to improve science literacy in Canada.

  5. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Hyung-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants d...

  6. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  7. Augmenting saturated LTP by broadly spaced episodes of theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal area CA1 of adult rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guan; Harris, Kristen M

    2014-10-15

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Recent interest in mechanisms underlying the advantage of spaced over massed learning has prompted investigation into the effects of distributed episodes of LTP induction. The amount of LTP induced in hippocampal area CA1 by one train (1T) of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in young Sprague-Dawley rats was further enhanced by additional bouts of 1T given at 1-h intervals. However, in young Long-Evans (LE) rats, 1T did not initially saturate LTP. Instead, a stronger LTP induction paradigm using eight trains of TBS (8T) induced saturated LTP in hippocampal slices from both young and adult LE rats as well as adult mice. The saturated LTP induced by 8T could be augmented by another episode of 8T following an interval of at least 90 min. The success rate across animals and slices in augmenting LTP by an additional episode of 8T increased significantly with longer intervals between the first and last episodes, ranging from 0% at 30- and 60-min intervals to 13-66% at 90- to 180-min intervals to 90-100% at 240-min intervals. Augmentation above initially saturated LTP was blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV). These findings suggest that the strength of induction and interval between episodes of TBS, as well as the strain and age of the animal, are important components in the augmentation of LTP. PMID:25057146

  8. Operator space approach to steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)

  9. Quantum mechanical observers: a phase space approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dance, M.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum mechanical observer might be describable as having a reference system that is a superposition of classical inertial reference frames. The present paper suggests a possible weighting function in such superpositions, determined by the product of the observer's wavefunction and the Fourier transform of the wavefunction at each point in phase space. This suggestion is made because each of these factors has a simple interpretation as a probability density amplitude. Other forms for the w...

  10. A Hilbert Space Approach to Variance Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Szechtman, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Elsevier Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science: Simulation, pp 259-289. In this chapter we explain variance reduction techniques from the Hilbert space standpoint, in the terminating simulation context. We use projection ideas to explain how variance is reduced, and to link different variance reduction techniques. Our focus is on the methods of control variates, conditional Monte Carlo, weighted Monte Carlo, stratification, and Latin hypercube sampling.

  11. A vector space approach to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hausner, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of geometry and linear algebra on each other receive close attention in this examination of geometry's correlation with other branches of math and science. In-depth discussions include a review of systematic geometric motivations in vector space theory and matrix theory; the use of the center of mass in geometry, with an introduction to barycentric coordinates; axiomatic development of determinants in a chapter dealing with area and volume; and a careful consideration of the particle problem. 1965 edition.

  12. Functional Approach to Phase Space Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Aringazin, A K

    1995-01-01

    We present BRST gauge fixing approach to quantum mechanics in phase space. The theory is obtained by $\\hbar$-deformation of the cohomological classical mechanics described by d=1, N=2 model. We use the extended phase space supplied by the path integral formulation with $\\hbar$-deformed symplectic structure.

  13. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  14. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. The current career limit is 400 rem to the blood forming organs. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation effects and this will be taken into account. In 1973 a committee of the National Research Council made a separate study of HZE particle effects and it was concluded that the attendant risks did not pose a hazard for low inclination near-earth orbit missions. Since that time work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 26 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  15. Partial Differential Equations A unified Hilbert Space Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to a solution theory for linear partial differential equations developed in a Hilbert space setting based on a Sobolev Lattice structure, a simple extension of the well established notion of a chain (or scale) of Hilbert spaces. Thefocus on a Hilbert space setting is a highly adaptable and suitable approach providing a more transparent framework for presenting the main issues in the development of a solution theory for partial differential equations.This global point of view is takenby focussing on the issues involved in determining the appropriate func

  16. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne;

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  17. Augmented Reality for Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Georgsen, Marianne;

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. So far, however, most research has looked at the technology itself – and AR has been used primarily for commercial purposes. As a learning tool, AR supports an inquiry-based approach to science education with a high level of student...... involvement. The AR-sci-project (Augmented Reality for SCIence education) addresses the issue of applying augmented reality in developing innovative science education and enhancing the quality of science teaching and learning....

  18. Mirror contamination in space I: approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krijger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive model that can be employed to describe and correct for degradation of (scan mirrors and diffusers in satellite instruments that suffer from changing optical UV-VIS properties during their operational lifetime. As trend studies become more important, so does the importance to understand and correct for this degradation. This is the case not only with respect to the transmission of the optical components, but also with respect to wavelength, polarisation or scan-angle-effects. Our hypothesis is that mirrors in-flight suffer from the deposition of a thin absorbing layer of contaminant, which slowly builds up over time. We describe this with the Mueller matrix formalism and Fresnel equations for thin multi-layer contamination films. Special care is taken to avoid the confusion often present in earlier publications concerning Mueller matrix calculus with out of plane reflections. The method can be applied to any UV-VIS satellite instrument, and in any orbit, both low and geostationary. We illustrate and verify our approach on the optical behaviour of the multiple scan mirrors of SCIAMACHY (on board of ENVISAT.

  19. Mirror contamination in space I: approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijger, J. M.; Snel, R.; van Harten, G.; Rietjens, J. H. H.; Aben, I.

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive model that can be employed to describe and correct for degradation of (scan) mirrors and diffusers in satellite instruments that suffer from changing optical UV-VIS properties during their operational lifetime. As trend studies become more important, so does the importance to understand and correct for this degradation. This is the case not only with respect to the transmission of the optical components, but also with respect to wavelength, polarisation or scan-angle-effects. Our hypothesis is that mirrors in-flight suffer from the deposition of a thin absorbing layer of contaminant, which slowly builds up over time. We describe this with the Mueller matrix formalism and Fresnel equations for thin multi-layer contamination films. Special care is taken to avoid the confusion often present in earlier publications concerning Mueller matrix calculus with out of plane reflections. The method can be applied to any UV-VIS satellite instrument, and in any orbit, both low and geostationary. We illustrate and verify our approach on the optical behaviour of the multiple scan mirrors of SCIAMACHY (on board of ENVISAT).

  20. Lip augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick J; Hilger, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Lip augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years as a reflection of cultural trends emphasizing youth and beauty. Techniques to enhance the appearance of the lips have evolved with advances in biotechnology. An understanding of lip anatomy and aesthetics forms the basis for successful results. We outline the pertinent anatomy and aesthetics of the preoperative evaluation. A summary of various filler materials available is provided. Augmentation options include both injectable and open surgical techniques. The procedures and materials currently favored by the authors are described in greater detail. PMID:15034811

  1. Point patterns occurring on complex structures in space and space-time: An alternative network approach

    CERN Document Server

    Eckardt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach of analyzing possibly multitype point patterns in space and space-time that occur on network structures, and introduces several different graph-related intensity measures. The proposed formalism allows to control for processes on undirected, directional as well as partially directed network structures and is not restricted to linearity or circularity.

  2. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in term...

  3. a Web Service Approach for Linking Sensors and Cellular Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikdag, U.

    2013-09-01

    More and more devices are starting to be connected to the Internet. In the future the Internet will not only be a communication medium for people, it will in fact be a communication environment for devices. The connected devices which are also referred as Things will have an ability to interact with other devices over the Internet, i.) provide information in interoperable form and ii.) consume /utilize such information with the help of sensors embedded in them. This overall concept is known as Internet-of- Things (IoT). This requires new approaches to be investigated for system architectures to establish relations between spaces and sensors. The research presented in this paper elaborates on an architecture developed with this aim, i.e. linking spaces and sensors using a RESTful approach. The objective is making spaces aware of (sensor-embedded) devices, and making devices aware of spaces in a loosely coupled way (i.e. a state/usage/function change in the spaces would not have effect on sensors, similarly a location/state/usage/function change in sensors would not have any effect on spaces). The proposed architecture also enables the automatic assignment of sensors to spaces depending on space geometry and sensor location.

  4. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  5. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  7. Phase-space approach to multi-population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Budko, Neil V

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous deterministic dynamics of multiple populations described by a large set of ODE's is considered in the phase space of population sizes and ODE's parameters. The problem is formulated as a multidimensional phase-space conservation law and is solved explicitly for non-interacting multi-population models. Solutions for populations competing for a limited resource and populations with migration are obtained by simple iterative methods. The proposed approach also allows considering phase-space interaction between populations, which is intractable by other methods.

  8. Radioisotopes and vertebral augmentation: Dosimetric analysis of a novel approach for the treatment of malignant compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a major cause of morbidity and debilitating pain, often results from secondary tumor metastases to the skeleton. Vertebral augmentation is a palliative technique developed to treat VCFs and involves the injection of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to augment the fractured vertebral body. The authors investigate the feasibility of radionuclide therapy coupled with vertebral augmentation to treat both the tumor metastases and VCFs. Six therapeutic radioisotopes, uniformly mixed in a PMMA bolus, were investigated for their dosimetric properties. Methods and materials: The MCNP5 Monte Carlo computer code was used to characterize the therapeutic dosimetric distribution within a cortical bone phantom for a 1 mm radial bolus of isotope-infused PMMA. Based on these data, the minimum activity required for a therapeutic treatment was calculated. Results: The dosimetry from beta emitting Y-90, P-32, and Ho-166 decreased to 10% of its maximum therapeutic dose (R10%) after traveling 1.20 mm, 1.03 mm, and 0.97 mm, respectively, through cortical bone. Low photon energy I-125 had a slightly larger calculated R10% of 1.32 mm. Although F-18 and Tc-99m exhibited a more uniform distribution (R10% = 1.72 mm and 1.94 mm, respectively), the lower dosimetric gradients resulted in significantly greater therapeutic implant activities relative to the other isotopes studied in this report. Conclusions: Radionuclide therapy coupled with vertebral augmentation is shown to be a feasible technique for the treatment of secondary skeletal metastases and its resulting side effects. Future studies will include a full clinical investigation to determine optimal treatment isotope(s)

  9. "Did the Credit Crunch in Japan Affect Household Welfare? An Augmented Euler Equation Approach Using Type 5 Tobit Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuyuki Sawada; Kazumitsu Nawata; Masako Ii; Jeong-Joon Lee

    2007-01-01

    We investigate whether the credit crunch in Japan affected household welfare and the manner in which it did. We augment the theoretical framework of a consumption Euler equation with endogenous credit constraints and estimate it with household panel data for 1993-1999, generating several empirical findings. First, a small portion of the people faced credit constraints in Japan before and after the financial crisis in 1997. Accordingly, our results reject the standard consumption Euler equatio...

  10. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Besser, R.; Hejduk, M.

    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for screening against the high accuracy catalog, then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is a primary source of state estimate uncertainty, and drag is directly governed by space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times, and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag), giving rise to several questions. Does a change in space weather make a close approach safer or riskier? Might performing a maneuver make the approach worse due to uncertainty in predicted location at a given time? What if there are errors in the predicted timing or magnitude of the space weather event? Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of drag perturbations on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction can become riskier or less risky. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag coefficient of the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the effect is likely to have on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, all of the observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  11. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad

    2000-01-01

    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.

  12. Prediction of free air space in initial composting mixtures by a statistical design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2013-10-15

    Free air space (FAS) is a physical parameter that can play an important role in composting processes to maintain favourable aerobic conditions. Aiming to predict the FAS of initial composting mixtures, specific materials proportions ranged from 0 to 1 were tested for a case study comprising industrial potato peel, which is characterized by low air void volume, thus requiring additional components for its composting. The characterization and prediction of FAS for initial mixtures involving potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks (set A) or sawdust (set B) was accomplished by means of an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design approach. The experimental data were fitted to second order Scheffé polynomials. Synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixture proportions in the FAS response were identified from the surface and response trace plots in the FAS response. Moreover, a good agreement was achieved between the model predictions and supplementary experimental data. Moreover, theoretical and empirical approaches for estimating FAS available in literature were compared with the predictions generated by the mixture design approach. This study demonstrated that the mixture design methodology can be a valuable tool to predict the initial FAS of composting mixtures, specifically in making adjustments to improve composting processes containing primarily potato peel. PMID:23722176

  13. The comparative experience of axillary and areola incision retromammary space augmentation mammoplasty%腋窝与乳晕切口乳腺后间隙隆乳术对比体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寅

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of axillary and areola incision retromammary space augmentation mammoplasty.Methods patients with axillary incision retromammary space augmentation mammoplasty (30 cases) and areola incision retromammary space augmentation mammoplasty (30 cases) were selected, investigate the advantages and disadvantages of them.Results The comparison of two kinds of methods, postoperative effect had no significant difference between.Conclusion Axillary incision retromammary space augmentation mammoplasty, no injury risk of Mammary duct, without a periareolar scar, is a good operation mode.%目的:探讨腋窝入路与乳晕入路行乳腺后间隙假体隆乳术的优缺点.方法:选取腋窝入路与乳晕入路行乳腺后间隙假体隆乳术患者各30例,对比其优缺点.结果:两种手术方式,术后乳房形态、手感、乳房活动度无明显差别.结论:腋窝入路的乳腺后间隙假体隆乳术,无乳腺导管损伤的风险,无乳晕瘢痕,对于难以接受乳晕切口的患者来说,是一个良好的手术方式

  14. An object correlation and maneuver detection approach for space surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object correlation and maneuver detection are persistent problems in space surveillance and maintenance of a space object catalog. We integrate these two problems into one interrelated problem, and consider them simultaneously under a scenario where space objects only perform a single in-track orbital maneuver during the time intervals between observations. We mathematically formulate this integrated scenario as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. In this work, we propose a novel approach to solve the MAP estimation. More precisely, the corresponding posterior probability of an orbital maneuver and a joint association event can be approximated by the Joint Probabilistic Data Association (JPDA) algorithm. Subsequently, the maneuvering parameters are estimated by optimally solving the constrained non-linear least squares iterative process based on the second-order cone programming (SOCP) algorithm. The desired solution is derived according to the MAP criterions. The performance and advantages of the proposed approach have been shown by both theoretical analysis and simulation results. We hope that our work will stimulate future work on space surveillance and maintenance of a space object catalog. (research papers)

  15. Augmentation mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-five cases of breast implants have been reviewed. Two categories of abnormalities were identified: those involving the implant itself and those within the breast parenchyma. Complications of the implant itself include leakage, fibrous capsular contraction, traumatic rupture, displacement, and collapse. Concomitant breast parenchymal abnormalities include breast carcinoma, cysts, solid masses, and clusters of microcalcifications. Mammographic technique is critical and often involves manual settings and special views. Mammography and US in conjunction with physical examination play an important role in detecting breast pathology in the augmented breast

  16. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  17. Interactive and Immersive Practices; Critical Spatial Practices. The Augmented Reality of the Exhibition Space Pratiques interactives et immersives ; pratiques spatiales critiques. La réalité augmentée de l’espace d’exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mariani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of installations, as well as immersive and interactive spaces, in both art and science museums has accustomed the public to heightened interactivity, leading to a better understanding of social, natural and scientific phenomena. These spatial systems have also paved the way for the production of innovative environments within exhibition design. This article aims to present a brief overview of the origins of immersive and sensory practices at work in contemporary museums, and to evaluate the potential of these processes to generate critical thinking in the visitor. A concise description of the evolution of the operational and intellectual premise of these museums and their changing practices demonstrates the transformations that have occurred, their modalities, and their application in selected works, notably: The Weather Project by Olafur Eliasson presented at Tate Modern London; Diller + Scofidio’s media pavilion, Blur Building, in Yverdon-les-Bains in Switzerland; and the exhibition Sense of the City at the Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal.La multiplication d’installations, d’espaces immersifs et interactifs dans les musées d’art et ensuite dans les musées de sciences, a accoutumé le public à interactivité augmentée favorisant la compréhension de phénomènes sociaux, naturels ou scientifiques. Ces systèmes spatiaux ont ainsi frayé la voie au développement de techniques de scénarisation environnementales. L’article vise à présenter succinctement les origines des pratiques immersives et sensorielles à l’œuvre dans l’espace muséal contemporain et à présenter le potentiel de ces processus à engendrer une réflexion, un raisonnement critique chez le visiteur. Une courte description de l’évolution des postures opérationnelles et intellectuelles du musée et de ces pratiques permettra d’en retracer la transformation, les modalités et l’application dans des œuvres, notamment l

  18. An integrated mission planning approach for the Space Exploration Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses a fully integrated energy-based approach to mission planning which is needed if the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is to succeed. Such an approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI and provide an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness through technology spin-offs and through the resulting early return on investment. Integrated planning and close interagency cooperation must occur if the SEI is to achieve its goal of expanding the human presence into the solar system and be an affordable endeavor. An energy-based mission planning approach gives each mission planner the needed power, yet preserves the individuality of mission requirements and objectives while reducing the concessions mission planners must make. This approach may even expand the mission options available and enhance mission activities

  19. A Functional Approach to the Heat Kernel in Curved Space

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, L

    1996-01-01

    The heat kernel $M_{xy} = $ is of central importance when studying the propagation of a scalar particle in curved space. It is quite convenient to analyze this quantity in terms of classical variables by use of the quantum mechanical path integral; regrettably it is not entirely clear how this path integral can be mathematically well defined in curved space. An alternate approach to studying the heat kernel in terms of classical variables was introduced by Onofri. This technique is shown to be applicable to problems in curved space; an unambiguous expression for $M_{xy}$ is obtained which involves functional derivatives of a classical quantity. We illustrate how this can be used by computing $M_{xx}$ to lowest order in the curvature scalar R.

  20. Nuclear pairing within a configuration-space Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Mark; Volya, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclei play a decisive role in determining nuclear drip lines, binding energies, and many collective properties. In this work a new configuration-space Monte Carlo (CSMC) method for treating nuclear pairing correlations is developed, implemented, and demonstrated. In CSMC the Hamiltonian matrix is stochastically generated in Krylov subspace, resulting in the Monte Carlo version of Lanczos-like diagonalization. The advantages of this approach over other techniques are discussed; the absence of the fermionic sign problem, probabilistic interpretation of quantum-mechanical amplitudes, and ability to handle truly large-scale problems with defined precision and error control are noteworthy merits of CSMC. The features of our CSMC approach are shown using models and realistic examples. Special attention is given to difficult limits: situations with nonconstant pairing strengths, cases with nearly degenerate excited states, limits when pairing correlations in finite systems are weak, and problems when the relevant configuration space is large.

  1. Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for creating space transportation architectures that are affordable, productive, and sustainable. The architectural scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive, and also affordable throughout its life cycle. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper follows up previous work by using a structured process to derive examples of conceptual architectures that integrate a number of advanced concepts and technologies. The examples are not intended to provide a near-term alternative architecture to displace current near-term design and development activity. Rather, the examples demonstrate an approach that promotes early investments in advanced system concept studies and trades (flight and ground), as well as in advanced technologies with the goal of enabling highly affordable, productive flight and ground space transportation systems.

  2. Space, Growth and Technology: an Integrated Dynamic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Orlando

    2004-01-01

    Economic phenomena are interrelated. From a growth perspective, time analysis concerning the choices of present and future consumption and the choices between the allocation of scientific resources should be combined with a space analysis regarding the dissemination of economic activity through geographical locations. This paper intends to present such an integrated approach under a simple endogenous growth model. The determinants of growth are, on one hand, the decisions about how to allocat...

  3. Remarks on the Configuration Space Approach to Spin-Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Lega, A F

    2010-01-01

    The angular momentum operators for a system of two spin-zero indistinguishable particles are constructed, using Isham's Canonical Group Quantization method. This mathematically rigorous method provides a hint at the correct definition of (total) angular momentum operators, for arbitrary spin, in a system of indistinguishable particles. The connection with other configuration space approaches to spin-statistics is discussed, as well as the relevance of the obtained results in view of a possible alternative proof of the spin-statistics theorem.

  4. Space charge polarization induced augmented in vitro bioactivity of piezoelectric (Na,K) NbO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Yamada, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-09-01

    The present study reports the influence of chemical and electrical treatments (CET) of Li-modified sodium potassium niobate [Li0.06(Na0.5K0.5)0.94NbO3, LNKN] piezo-biomaterial on in vitro bioactivity. The chemical treatment of LNKN substrate was performed by Ti sputtering, followed by immersion in NaOH aqueous solution for various time durations and subsequently, the heat treatment. The chemically treated LNKN substrates were then corona poled. The in vitro biomineralization study suggested that the integrated effect of chemical as well as electrical treatments of LNKN piezoceramics stimulates the early stage apatite crystallization as compared to that of the mere chemical treatment. To reveal the mechanism of polarization on crystal formation, the thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC) were measured before and after the chemically as well as electrically treated substrates being soaked in simulated body fluid for various time durations. It has been observed that the release of surface charge in the low temperature region (˜60 °C) has significant effect on apatite formation and growth. The surface charge density decreases with increase in the soaking period and hence, the influence of surface charge on apatite crystallization can be realized. The dielectric relaxation in the low frequency region as well as TSDC analysis suggests that the space charge polarization is dominant polarization mechanism in the CET piezo-biomaterial.

  5. Space Missions Trade Space Generation and Assessment Using JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) Team Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Borden, Chester; Spilker, Thomas; Smythe, William; Lock, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The JPL Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) capability is a novel collaborative team-based approach to generate new mission architectures, explore broad trade space options, and conduct architecture-level analyses. RMA studies address feasibility and identify best candidates to proceed to further detailed design studies. Development of RMA first began at JPL in 2007 and has evolved to address the need for rapid, effective early mission architectural development and trade space exploration as a precursor to traditional point design evaluations. The RMA approach integrates a small team of architecture-level experts (typically 6-10 people) to generate and explore a wide-ranging trade space of mission architectures driven by the mission science (or technology) objectives. Group brainstorming and trade space analyses are conducted at a higher level of assessment across multiple mission architectures and systems to enable rapid assessment of a set of diverse, innovative concepts. This paper describes the overall JPL RMA team, process, and high-level approach. Some illustrative results from previous JPL RMA studies are discussed.

  6. A Study on User-Centered Approach to Design an Augmented Reality Maintenance Support System in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants (NPPs), as the plants become more reliable and complex, their inspection, maintenance and repair become increasingly challenging problems, and this requires many well experienced and well trained maintenance crew. On the other hands, reduction of life cycle costs of the plants is strongly required, and many crews are required to take charge of various kinds of devices, including their unfamiliar ones. Their task must be done under the strong time pressure of rigid maintenance schedule. This may cause human errors even by even the well experienced crews. Maintenance processes are both very important to guarantee quality for safety and often quite cumbersome. In the case of nuclear power plants, such processes usually demand access to documentation such as technical manuals, either in traditional paper form or electronic form. This is especially important where and when the procedures are performed infrequently. These considerations lead to considering Augmented Reality (AR) systems as an alternative to paper-based systems

  7. Optical Approach to Augment Current Float Sensing Method of Determining Cryogen Fluid Height Within a Tank Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research, a small technology development company, has teamed with the University of Southern Mississippi Instrument and Cryogenics Research...

  8. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  9. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A.; Iurino, A.; Settanni, G.; Andrisani, A.; Stifanelli, P. F.; Larizza, P.; Mazzia, F.; Mininni, R. M.; Tangaro, S.; Bellotti, R.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  10. Incidence of and Factors Associated with Sinus Membrane Perforation During Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using the Reamer Drilling Approach: A Double-Center Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Monje-Gil, Florencio; Burgueño, Miguel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Raúl; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary sinus membrane perforation has been reported as the most common intraoperative complication during sinus augmentation, potentially leading to postoperative infection and consequent loss of graft or even implant failure. Numerous anatomical factors have been demonstrated to affect membrane tearing. However, careful use of proper instrumentation, such as a reamer, seems to play an important role in minimizing the incidence of these complications. Hence, the aim of the present study was to (1) investigate the reliability of reamer drilling for lateral window preparation; (2) examine the incidence of membrane perforation; and (3) study the factors that might influence membrane perforation. Results from this study showed the safety and effectiveness of using a reamer to perform lateral window approach sinus augmentation. The sinus membrane perforation rate was found to be 12.5%. A slightly higher perforation rate was noted in thinner maxillary lateral walls (< 1.25 mm). The authors concluded that reamer drilling is a safe and effective alternate technique for opening the lateral window wall when the lateral wall thickness is ≥ 1.25mm. PMID:27333013

  11. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  12. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; McBeth, Rafe A.; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA (Z , β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA (Z , β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA (Z , β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The

  13. Quality factors for space radiation: A new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, Thomas B; Heilbronn, Lawrence H; Townsend, Lawrence W; McBeth, Rafe A; de Wet, Wouter

    2014-04-01

    NASA has derived new models for radiological risk assessment based on epidemiological data and radiation biology including differences in Relative Biological Effectiveness for leukemia and solid tumors. Comprehensive approaches were used to develop new risk cross sections and the extension of these into recommendations for risk assessment during space missions. The methodology relies on published data generated and the extensive research initiative managed by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) and reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences. This resulted in recommendations for revised specifications of quality factors, QNASA(Z,β) in terms of track structure concepts that extend beyond LET alone. The new paradigm for quality factors placed demands on radiation monitoring procedures that are not satisfied by existing dosimetry systems or particle spectrometers that are practical for space exploration where mass, volume, band width and power consumption are highly constrained. We have proposed a new definition of quality factors that relaxes the requirements for identifying charge, Z, and velocity, β, of the incident radiation while still preserving the functional form of the inherent risk functions. The departure from the exact description of QNASA(Z,β) is that the revised values are new functions of LET for solid cancers and leukemia. We present the motivation and process for developing the revised quality factors. We describe results of extensive simulations using GCR distributions in free space as well as the resulting spectra of primary and secondary particles behind aluminum shields and penetration through water. In all cases the revised dose averaged quality factors agreed with those based on the values obtained using QNASA(Z,β). This provides confidence that emerging technologies for space radiation dosimetry can provide real time measurements of dose and dose equivalent while satisfying constraints on size, mass, power and bandwidth. The revised

  14. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  15. A novel approach for biomechanical spine analysis: Mechanical response of vertebral bone augmentation by kyphoplasty to stabilise thoracolumbar burst fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaneau, A; Vendeuvre, T; Saget, M; Doumalin, P; Dupré, J C; Brémand, F; Hesser, F; Couvertier, M; Brèque, C; Maxy, P; Roulaud, M; Monlezun, O; Rigoard, P

    2016-06-01

    Kyphoplasty has been shown as a well-established technique for spinal injuries. This technique allows a vertebral bone augmentation with a reduction of morbidity and does not involve any adjacent segment immobilisation. There is a lack of biomechanical information resulting in major gaps of knowledge such as: the evaluation of the "quality" of stabilisation provided by kyphoplasty as a standalone procedure in case of unstable fracture. Our objective is to analyse biomechanical response of spine segments stabilised by Kyphoplasty and PMMA cement after experiencing burst fractures. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric spine specimens constituted by five vertebra (T11-L3) and four disks were tested. A specific loading setup has been developed to impose pure moments corresponding to loadings of flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Tests were performed on each specimen in an intact state and post kyphoplasty following a burst fracture. Strain measurements and motion variations of spinal unit are measured by a 3D optical method. Strain measurements on vertebral bodies after kyphoplasty shows a great primary stabilisation. Comparisons of mobility and angles variations between the intact and post kyphoplasty states do not highlight significant difference. Percutaneous kyphoplasty offers a good primary stability in case of burst fracture. Kinematics analysis during physiological movements shows that this stabilisation solution preserve disk mobility in each adjacent spinal unit. PMID:26896762

  16. a Vector Space Approach to Spatial Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Unnikrishna S.

    Array processing for spatial spectrum estimation is reexamined from the vector space viewpoint with the objective of finding a common framework within which the various known superresolution estimators may be compared. Based on the experience with eigenstructure methods, which are ideal in the sense that they asymptotically yield unbiased estimates and have infinite resolving power for point sources, a generic form for an ideal spectrum estimator is proposed. Within this context it is shown that the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) method is an exact realization and the well known superresolution estimators, such as the Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM) of Capon and the Linear Prediction Method (LPM), are approximate realizations of this form. Further, this formulation is shown to suggest ways to modify both MLM and LPM so as to achieve asymptotically ideal performance for point sources. In the case of estimated covariance matrices the compensation for the improved performance is shown to be the requirement of larger number of samples compared to the eigenstructure based methods. The question of how to deploy the array elements for improved performance, in terms of the ability of the array to detect and resolve a larger number of sources than conventionally possible, is addressed. A study related to the statistical properties of the estimator of the unknown angles of arrival is reported. This includes a general result based on Cramer-Rao bound, and specific analyses for various superresolution techniques. A test based on higher powers of the eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix is derived to estimate the number of point sources present in the data. This test is found to be useful even when the number of array elements is less than the number of point sources and is applied to the augmentation technique where negative eigenvalues are encountered. Other results include determination of the sensitivity of the eigenstructure based techniques on element

  17. Exploring the optimum approach to the use of CT densitometry in a randomised placebo-controlled study of augmentation therapy in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parr, David G; Dirksen, Asger; Piitulainen, Eeva; Deng, Chunqin; Wencker, Marion; Stockley, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    lung assessment. The EXAcerbations and CT scan as Lung Endpoints (EXACTLE) trial aimed to clarify the optimum approach to the use of CT densitometry data for the assessment of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy on the progression of emphysema in AAT deficiency (AATD). METHODS: Patients with...... AATD (n = 77) were randomised to weekly infusions of 60 mg/kg human AAT (Prolastin) or placebo over 2 to 2.5 years. Lung volume was included as a covariate in an endpoint analysis and a comparison was made of different CT densitometric indices (15th percentile lung density [PD15], mean lung density...... analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as 'Antitrypsin (AAT) to Treat Emphysema in AAT-Deficient Patients'; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00263887....

  18. L1 Adaptive Control Augmentation System with Application to the X-29 Lateral/Directional Dynamics: A Multi-Input Multi-Output Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brian Joseph; Burken, John J.; Xargay, Enric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an L(sub 1) adaptive control augmentation system design for multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems in the presence of unmatched uncertainties which may exhibit significant cross-coupling effects. A piecewise continuous adaptive law is adopted and extended for applicability to multi-input multi-output systems that explicitly compensates for dynamic cross-coupling. In addition, explicit use of high-fidelity actuator models are added to the L1 architecture to reduce uncertainties in the system. The L(sub 1) multi-input multi-output adaptive control architecture is applied to the X-29 lateral/directional dynamics and results are evaluated against a similar single-input single-output design approach.

  19. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  20. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  1. Augmented Reality in Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented...

  2. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  3. Developing a space network interface simulator: The NTS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrzak, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used to redevelop the Network Control Center (NCC) Test System (NTS), a hardware and software facility designed to make testing of the NCC Data System (NCCDS) software efficient, effective, and as rigorous as possible prior to operational use. The NTS transmits and receives network message traffic in real-time. Data transfer rates and message content are strictly controlled and are identical to that of the operational systems. NTS minimizes the need for costly and time-consuming testing with the actual external entities (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and the White Sands Ground Terminal). Discussed are activities associated with the development of the NTS, lessons learned throughout the project's lifecycle, and resulting productivity and quality increases.

  4. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  5. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  6. Religion and Communication Spaces. A Semio-pragmatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Odin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the reflection initiated in his book The Spaces of Communication, Roger Odin suggests a new distinction between physical communication spaces and mental communication spaces (spaces that we have inside us. The suggestion is exemplified by three film analyses dedicated to the relationships between religion and communication.

  7. Novel Approaches to Cellular Transplantation from the US Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Research in the treatment of type I diabetes is entering a new era that takes advantage of our knowledge in an ever increasing variety of scientific disciplines. Some may originate from very diverse sources, one of which is the Space Program at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Space Program contributes to diabetes-related research in several treatment modalities. As an ongoing effort for medical monitoring of personnel involved in space exploration activities NASA and the extramural scientific community investigate strategies for noninvasive estimation of blood glucose levels. Part of the effort in the space protein crystal growth program is high-resolution structural analysis insulin as a means to better understand the interaction with its receptor and with host immune components and as a basis for rational design of a "better" insulin molecule. The Space Program is also developing laser technology for potential early cataract detection as well as a noninvasive analyses for addressing preclinical diabetic retinopathy. Finally, NASA developed an exciting cell culture system that affords some unique advantages in the propagation and maintenance of mammalian cells in vitro. The cell culture system was originally designed to maintain cell suspensions with a minimum of hydrodynamic and mechanical sheer while awaiting launch into microgravity. Currently the commercially available NASA bioreactor (Synthecon, Inc., Houston, TX) is used as a research tool in basic and applied cell biology. In recent years there is continued strong interest in cellular transplantation as treatment for type I diabetes. The advantages are the potential for successful long-term amelioration and a minimum risk for morbidity in the event of rejection of the transplanted cells. The pathway to successful application of this strategy is accompanied by several substantial hurdles: (1) isolation and propagation of a suitable uniform donor cell population; (2) management of

  8. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerla, F.

    2002-01-01

    , who can use it to prepare their lessons, retrieve information and organize the didactic material in order to support their lessons. We think it important to use a user centered "psychology" based on UM: we have to know the needs and expectations of the students. Our intent is to use usability tests not just to prove the site effectiveness and clearness, but also to investigate aesthetical preferences of children and young people. Physics, mathematics, chemistry are just some of the difficult learning fields connected with space technologies. Space culture is a potentially never-ending field, and our scope will be to lead students by hand in this universe of knowledge. This paper will present MARS activities in the framework of the above methodologies aimed at implementing a web based approach to integrate space culture and education. The activities are already in progress and some results will be presented in the final paper.

  9. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  10. Brighter eyes: combined upper cheek and tear trough augmentation: a systematic approach utilizing two complementary hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rebecca; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Arlene M; Park, Kelly; Sato, Mauricio; Dubina, Meghan; Alam, Murad

    2012-09-01

    Non-surgical rejuvenation of the periorbital-cheek complex can be effectively and safely accomplished using a combination of two hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers with distinct viscosities. We present a series of 21 patients with mild to moderate tear trough deformities who were treated with concomitant injection of two dermal fillers (Restylane® and Perlane®). Procedural technique entailed micro-depot injections of the finer viscosity HA into the sub-muscular plane along the orbital rim followed by manual massage. Secondly, injections of the thicker, more firm HA were placed in the sub-muscular and/or deep dermal spaces in the upper malar and lateral zygomatic areas and in the medial aspect of the temporal fossa. On average 0.5 mL Restylane and 0.5 mL Perlane were used per side. Statistically significant improvement in modified Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores was seen at 20 weeks. Overall improvement in modified Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale scores occurred in 20 out of 21 patients. Mean patient satisfaction scores increased by 2 grades relative to baseline. Patients' self-reported overall mean improvement was 2.23, indicating moderate (26% to 50%) to good (51% to 75%) improvement. Side effects were limited to transient bruising and swelling. No patients required dissolution of injectant with hyaluronidase. Overall, this combination filler procedure was found to produce both statistically significant and clinically apparent improvement and was associated with an extremely high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:23135653

  11. RFIDice - Augmenting Tabletop Dice with RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Langheinrich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Augmented dice allow players of tabletop games to have the result of a roll be automatically recorded by a computer, e.g., for supporting strategy games. We have built a set of three augmented-dice-prototypes based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology, which allows us to build robust, cheap, and small augmented dice. Using a corresponding readout infrastructure and a sample application, we have evaluated our approach and show its advantages over other dice augmentation methods discussed in the literature.

  12. Large deviations for Hilbert space valued Wiener processes: a sequence space approach

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Andreas; Imkeller, Peter; Perkowski, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Ciesielski's isomorphism between the space of alpha-H\\"older continuous functions and the space of bounded sequences is used to give an alternative proof of the large deviation principle for Wiener processes with values in Hilbert space.

  13. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  14. An Open and Holistic Approach for Geo and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Bernd; Seelus, Christoph; Neher, Günther; Toshihiko, Iyemori; Yatagai, Akiyo; Koyama, Yukinobu; Murayama, Yasuhiro; King, Todd; Hughes, Steve; Fung, Shing; Galkin, Ivan; Hapgood, Mike; Belehaki, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Geo and space sciences thus far have been very successful, even often an open, cross-domain and holistic approach did not play an essential role. But this situation is changing rapidly. The research focus is shifting into more complex, non-linear and multi-domain specified phenomena, such as e.g. climate change or space environment. This kind of phenomena only can be understood step by step using the holistic idea. So, what is necessary for a successful cross-domain and holistic approach in geo and space sciences? Research and science in general become more and more dependent from a rich fundus of multi-domain data sources, related context information and the use of highly advanced technologies in data processing. Such buzzword phrases as Big Data and Deep Learning are reflecting this development. Big Data also addresses the real exponential growing of data and information produced by measurements or simulations. Deep Learning technology may help to detect new patterns and relationships in data describing high sophisticated natural phenomena. And further on, we should not forget science and humanities are only two sides of the same medal in the continuing human process of knowledge discovery. The concept of Open Data or in particular the open access to scientific data is addressing the free and open availability of -at least publicly founded and generated- data. The open availability of data covers the free use, reuse and redistribution of data which have been established with the formation of World Data Centers already more than 50 years ago. So, we should not forget, the foundation for open data is the responsibility of the individual scientist up until the big science institutions and organizations for a sustainable management of data. Other challenges are discovering and collecting the appropriate data, and preferably all of them or at least the majority of the right data. Therefore a network of individual or even better institutional catalog-based and at least

  15. A Lattice-Theoretic Approach to Multigranulation Approximation Space

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli He; Yanhong She

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we mainly investigate the equivalence between multigranulation approximation space and single-granulation approximation space from the lattice-theoretic viewpoint. It is proved that multigranulation approximation space is equivalent to single-granulation approximation space if and only if the pair of multigranulation rough approximation operators ( Σ i = 1 n R i ¯ , Σ i = 1 n R i _ ) forms an order-preserving Galois connection, if and only if the collection of lower (resp., upp...

  16. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  17. Augmented Reality in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric P A

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss p...

  18. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  19. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  20. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent r...

  1. Challenges in Individualizing Drug Dosage for Intensive Care Unit Patients: Is Augmented Renal Clearance What We Really Want to Know? Some Suggested Management Approaches and Clinical Software Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliffe, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Acutely ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients often have large apparent volumes of distribution of drugs and, because of this, their drug clearance (CL) is usually also increased. 'Augmented renal Cl' is a current issue in the management of drug therapy for acutely ill and unstable ICU patients; however, Cl, the product of volume and the rate constant for excretion, describes only a theoretical volume of drug cleared per unit of time. Information of the actual rate of movement of the drug itself is obscured. It is suggested that the most useful clinical information is given by describing drug volume and elimination rate constant separately. This also permits better understanding of the patient's separate issues of fluid balance and drug elimination, especially when dialysis, renal replacement therapy, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be used, and facilitates management of these two important separate clinical issues. Optimal management of drug therapy also requires optimal methods embodied in clinical software to describe drug behavior in these highly unstable patients, and considerably more data than for ordinary patients. The interacting multiple model (IMM) clinical software facilitates management of both fluid balance and drug therapy in these unstable patients. Illustrative cases are discussed, and new monitoring and management strategies are suggested. Like other ICU skills, physicians need to learn optimal tools for managing drug therapy in the ICU. Further work should help evaluate these new approaches. PMID:26914772

  2. The COOLSUN triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water

    OpenAIRE

    Facão, Jorge; Lobato, António; Baldo, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the COOLSUN project a triple-technology approach to reach high solar fractions for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water preparation is being developed. The three core components are a thermo fluid with a low environmental impact and a boiling point above 200 °C, a high efficient adsorption chiller, and an advanced controller. System simulations modelling the transient behaviour of the entire application, i.e. building, hot water preparation and space hea...

  3. An MDO augmented value-based systems engineering approach to holistic design decision-making: A satellite system case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Hanumanthrao

    The design of large scale complex engineered systems (LSCES) involves hundreds or thousands of designers making decisions at different levels of an organizational hierarchy. Traditionally, these LSCES are designed using systems engineering methods and processes, where the preferences of the stakeholder are flowed down the hierarchy using requirements that act as surrogates for preference. Current processes do not provide a system level guidance to subsystem designers. Value-Driven Design (VDD) offers a new perspective on complex system design, where the value preferences of the stakeholder are communicated directly through a decomposable value function, thereby providing a mechanism for improved system consistency. Requirements-based systems engineering approaches do not offer a mathematically rigorous way to capture the couplings present in the system. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) was specifically developed to address couplings in both analysis and optimization thereby enabling physics-based consistency. MDO uses an objective function with constraints but does not provide a way to formulate the objective function. Current systems engineering processes do not provide a mathematically sound way to make design decisions when designers are faced with uncertainties. Designers tend to choose designs based on their preferences towards risky/uncertain designs, and past research has shown that there needs to be a consistency in risk preferences to enable design decisions that are consistent with stakeholder's desires. This research exploits the complimentary nature of VDD, MDO and Decision Analysis (DA) to enable consistency in communication of system preferences, consistency in physics and consistency in risk preferences. The role of VDD in this research is in formulating a value function for true preferences, whereas the role of MDO is to capture couplings and enable optimization using the value function, and the role of DA is to enable consistent design

  4. Space-time approach to commercial property prices valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Larraz Iribas; Jose Maria Montero Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    There exists three ways of approaching real estate prices: the cost approach, the market data approach and the income capitalization approach. In this article, we propose an improvement of the market data approach that takes into account the spatial component. In particular, we propose a modified market data approach based on interpolation, being the structure of the spatial correlation between the prices of properties the main factor to obtain the weights. Interpolation methods have been wid...

  5. Space-time approach to commercial property prices valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Larraz Iribas, Beatriz; Montero Lorenzo, Jose Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There exists three ways of approaching real estate prices: the cost approach, the market data approach and the income capitalization approach. In this article, we propose an improvement of the market data approach that takes into account the spatial component. In particular, we propose a modified market data approach based on interpolation, being the structure of the spatial correlation between the prices of properties the main factor to obtain the weights. Interpolation ...

  6. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  7. Decomposing Large Inverse Problems with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach: Application to Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Travel Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.

  8. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  9. Sensor Fusion for Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Fredrik; Schön, Thomas; Hol, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    The problem of estimating the position and orientation (pose) of a camera is approached by fusing measurements from inertial sensors (accelerometers and rate gyroscopes) and a camera. The sensor fusion approach described in this contribution is based on nonlinear filtering using the measurements from these complementary sensors. This way, accurate and robust pose estimates are available for the primary purpose of augmented reality applications, but with the secondary effect of reducing comput...

  10. On a certain approach to quantum homogeneous spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kasprzak, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition of a quantum homogeneous space of a locally compact quantum group. We show that classically it reduces to the notion of a homogeneous spaces. On the quantum level our definition goes beyond the quotient case. It provides a framework which, besides the Vaes' quotient of a locally compact quantum group by its closed quantum subgroup (our main motivation) is also compatible with, generically non-quotient, quantum homogeneous spaces of a compact quantum group studied by P....

  11. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  12. New approaches for mixed reality in urban environments: the CINeSPACE project

    OpenAIRE

    Shapshak, Mans

    2009-01-01

    The CINeSPACE (www.cinespace.eu) project allows tourists to access the rich cultural heritage of urban environments by literally morphing the user into the past through the use of multimedia archives. Tourists use the device which includes both a PDA type of device with a GIS interface displayed on a touch screen to help the user navigate and select multimedia content, and video binoculars to create the augmented reality effects. In addition to this mode of interaction, a survey of Mixed Real...

  13. ESA's approach to nuclear power sources for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power sources for space (NPS) are, according to current physics knowledge, the only power source option for some classes of space missions. Europe has successfully used nuclear power sources for space exploration missions (e.g. Huygens lander on Titan, Ulysses spacecraft). While some small-scale study and development efforts have been undertaken at national level during the past 40 years, these did not go beyond study and early prototype designing level. In the light of further European integration and European ambitions in space, an independent working group involving European institutional stakeholders has discussed options and proposed coherent European positions concerning the safety, use and development of NPS technology in Europe. This paper presents safety aspects and options as identified by this European Working Group and ongoing related ESA (European Space Agency) activities in this field. (authors)

  14. Space commerce in a global economy - Comparison of international approaches to commercial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Kleber, Peter

    1992-01-01

    A historical perspective, current status, and comparison of national government/commercial space industry relationships in the United States and Europe are presented. It is noted that space technology has been developed and used primarily to meet the needs of civil and military government initiatives. Two future trends of space technology development include new space enterprises, and the national drive to achieve a more competitive global economic position.

  15. A Phenomenological Approach to 10-Dimension Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A presentation of the fundamental interactions of physics based upon the assumption of extra dimensions of space-time is given. The usual space-time is a 4-d curved hyper surface, whose local symmetry is the Lorentz group, which can be immerged inside a larger flat 10-d space. The particles are not strictly confined on the surface and have some presence in an external domain, quite small with respect to their extension in the usual space-time. In every point of the 4-d orbital space, the orthogonal 6-d internal space is supposed to be invariant under a real symmetry group. Through simple assumptions about the geometry of that internal space, two possibilities appear for classifying the particle states, corresponding to two types of particles: (i) hadrons, which undergo a gauge field associated with a real group GH(6), subgroup of SO(6) and isomorphous to SU(3); that field is identified with the strong interaction, and (ii) leptons which undergo another gauge field associated with a real group GL(6) subgroup o...

  16. A VECTOR SPACE MODEL FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL: A MATLAB APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vinay Chavan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By and large, three classic framework models have been used in the process of retrieving information: Boolean, Vector Space and Probabilistic. Boolean model is a light weight model which matches the query with precise semantics. Because of its boolean nature, results may be tides, missing partial matching, while on the contrary,vector space model, considering term-frequency, inverse document frequency measures, achieves utmost relevancy in retrieving documents in information retrieval. This paper implements and discusses the issues of information retrieval system with vector space model using MATLAB on Cranfield data collection of aerodynamics domain.

  17. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  18. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-09-01

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

  19. Approaches to the utilization of space for CO2 research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P.; Aronson, J.; Brecher, A.; Csigi, K.; Mcarthur, R.

    1985-01-01

    A system study of the potential of space technology to monitor climate changes and improve the understanding of the coupling beteen CO2 and cloud cover is summarized. The basis for the study is scientific data requirements pertinent to the U.S. Department of Energy's CO2 Research Program. The capabilities of space-based sensor systems are matched to meet these requirements. New sensor system concepts are identified, including a Space Shuttle-launched recalibration package to provide for continuity of measurement and recalibration between satellites, a high-orbit radiation budget satellite, or parallax sensor to measure cloud altitude, a passive method for the direct measurements of CO2 and a high-altitude powered platform to monitor select regional parameters. Space-based sensor systems that could be the development focus for the time frames of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 years are recommended.

  20. Stochastic Inflation:The Quantum Phase Space Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Salman

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a quantum mechanical phase space picture is constructed for coarse-grained free quantum fields in an inflationary Universe. The appropriate stochastic quantum Liouville equation is derived. Explicit solutions for the phase space quantum distribution function are found for the cases of power law and exponential expansions. The expectation values of dynamical variables with respect to these solutions are compared to the corresponding cutoff regularized field theoretic results (we ...

  1. Design and Implementation of Intelligent Space: a Component Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Intelligent robot systems are developed by integration of mechatronics and software technologies. However, the systems are getting more complicated since the cooperation of various types of robots is necessary to realize advanced services for users. Therefore, the system integration becomes an important issue. In order to realize a flexible and scalable system, Intelligent Space (iSpace) is implemented using RT (robot technology) middleware. First we discussed the component design of the info...

  2. Autonomy for Active Space Debris Removal: Research Issues and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    PETERS, Susanne; Förstner, Roger; Fiedler, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    Even though the infinite vastness of the universe is an accepted theory, apparently infinity ends when it comes to orbits surrounding the Earth. This was a hard lesson to learn when Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 collided in the low Earth orbit in February 2009. Not at least due to this event, the threat of uncontrolled objects in space is subject to a series of activities for the stabilization of the space environment. Besides improved collision propagation and mitigation measurements currently ...

  3. Causal phase-space approach to fermion theories understood through Clifford algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Wigner-Moyal phase-space approach is developed for the Dirac and Feynman-Gell-Mann equations. The role of spinors as primitive elements of the spacetime and phase-space Clifford algebras is emphasized. A conserved phase-space current is constructed. (orig.)

  4. Confronting an augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna,; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial...

  5. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prochazka, David; Stencl, Michael; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using...

  6. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru

    2015-09-25

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested. - Highlights: • Electrodynamics of fractal media is described by non-integer dimensional spaces. • Applications of the fractal Gauss's and Ampere's laws are suggested. • Fractal Poisson equation, equation for fractal stream of charges are considered.

  7. Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David; Popelka, Ondrej; Stastny, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality have undergone considerable improvement in past years. Many special techniques and hardware devices were developed, but the crucial breakthrough came with the spread of intelligent mobile phones. This enabled mass spread of augmented reality applications. However mobile devices have limited hardware capabilities, which narrows down the methods usable for scene analysis. In this article we propose an augmented reality application which is using cloud computing to enable using of more complex computational methods such as neural networks. Our goal is to create an affordable augmented reality application suitable which will help car designers in by 'virtualizing' car modifications.

  8. Space fusion energy conversion using a field reversed configuration reactor: A new technical approach for space propulsion and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.; Miley, George H.; Santarius, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The fusion energy conversion design approach, the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) - when burning deuterium and helium-3, offers a new method and concept for space transportation with high energy demanding programs, like the Manned Mars Mission and planetary science outpost missions require. FRC's will increase safety, reduce costs, and enable new missions by providing a high specific power propulsion system from a high performance fusion engine system that can be optimally designed. By using spacecraft powered by FRC's the space program can fulfill High Energy Space Missions (HESM) in a manner not otherwise possible. FRC's can potentially enable the attainment of high payload mass fractions while doing so within shorter flight times.

  9. Context-Augmented Robotic Interaction Layer (CARIL) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today, as humans reach beyond the earth to near and deep space, there is obvious and urgent need to augment the capabilities of human astronauts and (ground-)...

  10. Reflective pattern-based approach to collaborative media space management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Wayne; Georganas, Nicolas D.

    1998-12-01

    The role of traditional multimedia systems has been to disseminate information. The advent of media spaces, however, offers an increased potential in terms of presentation as well as facilitating a natural and intuitive environment for interpersonal communication. Combined with Computer Supported Cooperative Work technologies, these shared, media-rich environments offer a natural basis for distributed collaboration through a seamless blend of presentational, conversational and interactive multimedia. The resulting notion underlies the definition of a collaborative media space in which users interact with each other through the experience and manipulation of shared media. The integration of such a diverse array of entities presents many challenges, ranging from the need to support a variety of media types to managing how objects in such a system interact. Indeed, a primary consideration with such system is the coordination (including both causal and temporal synchronization) of entities within the space. This work addresses how to facilitate media space design by employing a pattern-based meta-level architecture and management infrastructure in which reflection is used to isolate system-level issues such as behavioral coordination from low-level, media-specific computation. The architectural framework and its underlying topology are illustrated along with the model's application to a distance education system.

  11. Quantitative approach to measuring the cerebrospinal fluid space with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Hartwich, P.

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the subarachnoid space by using an independent CT evaluation unit is described. The normal values have been calculated for patients, according to age, and three examples are presented demonstrating reversible decrease of brain volume in patients suffering anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism.

  12. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  13. A novel combined surgical approach to vertical alveolar ridge augmentation with titanium mesh, resorbable membrane, and rhPDGF-BB: a retrospective consecutive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, Akiyoshi; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Moroi, Hidetada

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical outcomes and histologic findings of vertical ridge augmentation using a combination of titanium mesh, resorbable collagen membrane, and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB). Nineteen patients were included, and autogenous bone and anorganic bovine bone particles were used. The bone graft was mixed with rhPDGF-BB and loaded onto the bony defect up to the level of the adjacent alveolar crest. A pre-adapted titanium mesh was placed over the grafted region and covered with a resorbable collagen membrane, leaving no areas of the grafted region exposed. Seventeen patients exhibited good soft tissue healing. Postoperative flap dehiscence occurred relatively early in the healing period in one patient, whereas the covering collagen membrane was exposed during the later phase of the healing period in another. During reentry surgery for removal of the titanium mesh, three patients with favorable soft and hard tissue healing underwent bone biopsies for histologic evaluation of the augmented tissue just below the titanium mesh. The mean vertical height of augmented bone was 8.6 ± 4.0 mm. This report demonstrates the remarkable efficacy of guided bone regeneration using a combination of titanium mesh, resorbable collagen membrane, and rhPDGF for vertical ridge augmentation, thus expanding the indications for implant therapy and allowing recovery of the three-dimensional esthetic architecture in a severely absorbed alveolar ridge. PMID:23820701

  14. Embodied Space: a Sensorial Approach to Spatial Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Maria João

    2009-03-01

    A reflection is presented on the significance of the role of the body in the interpretation and future creation of spatial living structures. The paper draws on the body as cartography of sensorial meaning that includes vision, touch, smell, hearing, orientation and movement to discuss possible relationships with psychological and sociological parameters of 'sensorial space'. The complex dynamics of body-space is further explored from the standpoint of perceptual variables such as color, light, materialities, texture and their connections with design, technology, culture and symbology. Finally, the paper discusses the integration of knowledge and experimentation in the design of future habitats where body-sensitive frameworks encompass flexibility, communication, interaction and cognitive-driven solutions.

  15. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  16. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  17. On the density distribution across space : a probabilistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ilenia Epifani, Ilenia; Nicolini, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a Bayesian parametric framework to tackle the accessibility problem across space in urban theory. Adopting continuous variables in a probabilistic setting we are able to associate with the distribution density to the Kendall's tau index and replicate the general issues related to the role of proximity in a more general context. In addition, by referring to the Beta and Gamma distribution, we are able to introduce a differentiation feature in each spatial unit with...

  18. On the density distribution across space: a probabilistic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ilenia Epifani; Rosella Nicolini

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at providing a Bayesian parametric framework to tackle the accessibility problem across space in urban theory. Adopting continuous variables in a probabilistic setting we are able to associate with the distribution density to the Kendall's tau index and replicate the general issues related to the role of proximity in a more general context. In addition, by referring to the Beta and Gamma distribution, we are able to introduce a differentiation feature in each spatial unit with...

  19. The STEREO Mission: A New Approach to Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, michael L.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in July 2006, a new capability will exist for both real-time space weather predictions and for advances in space weather research. Whereas previous spacecraft monitors of the sun such as ACE and SOH0 have been essentially on the sun-Earth line, the STEREO spacecraft will be in 1 AU orbits around the sun on either side of Earth and will be viewing the solar activity from distinctly different vantage points. As seen from the sun, the two spacecraft will separate at a rate of 45 degrees per year, with Earth bisecting the angle. The instrument complement on the two spacecraft will consist of a package of optical instruments capable of imaging the sun in the visible and ultraviolet from essentially the surface to 1 AU and beyond, a radio burst receiver capable of tracking solar eruptive events from an altitude of 2-3 Rs to 1 AU, and a comprehensive set of fields and particles instruments capable of measuring in situ solar events such as interplanetary magnetic clouds. In addition to normal daily recorded data transmissions, each spacecraft is equipped with a real-time beacon that will provide 1 to 5 minute snapshots or averages of the data from the various instruments. This beacon data will be received by NOAA and NASA tracking stations and then relayed to the STEREO Science Center located at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland where the data will be processed and made available within a goal of 5 minutes of receipt on the ground. With STEREO's instrumentation and unique view geometry, we believe considerable improvement can be made in space weather prediction capability as well as improved understanding of the three dimensional structure of solar transient events.

  20. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  1. The space of state vectors: A hyperfinite approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a version of the formalism of Dirac based on nonstandard analysis, allowing us to deal with state vectors and operators using the resources of finite-dimensional linear algebra. The space of state vectors is a nonstandard Hilbert space with hyperfinite dimension, which includes all square-integrable functions, together with vectors representing states of definite position or momentum. Every vector is normalizable, even when its norm is infinite. Observables are represented by Hermitian operators, which are always (hyper)bounded and defined on the whole space. The connection with the standard theory is established by postulating the existence of 'hyper-observables' and nonstandard states. Each observable in the usual sense appears as a kind of standard-scale approximation of some hyper-observable. We show that the probabilistic predictions are consistent with those of the standard theory. Consistency extends to time evolution, in the sense that if an initial nonstandard state is 'near-standard', then the state after a finite time shall be infinitely near the standard state obtained through the Schroedinger equation

  2. The Virtuality and Reality of Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Yeon Ma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This thesis explores the creative possibilities and implications of Augmented Reality, not just as a specific technology of computer science, but as one of high technologies that influence people’s perception and even the concepts of the real and the virtual. For a broader definition of Augmented Reality which has a unique status between virtual environment and real environment, the virtuality and the reality of Augmented Reality are discussed in an interdisciplinary context such as arts, philosophy, and film and animation studies. This approach is rooted in the belief that theory of new media ought to traverse and encompass all realms of academic categories.

  3. Augmenting the Web through Open Hypermedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, a...... otherwise structure Web pages, as they see fit. The paper further discusses the possibilities of the concept through the description of various experiments performed with an implementation of the framework, the Arakne Environment......Based on an overview of Web augmentation and detailing the three basic approaches to extend the hypermedia functionality of the Web, the author presents a general open hypermedia framework (the Arakne framework) to augment the Web. The aim is to provide users with the ability to link, annotate, and...

  4. Learning the Task Management Space of an Aircraft Approach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Joseph; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty

    2014-01-01

    Validating models of airspace operations is a particular challenge. These models are often aimed at finding and exploring safety violations, and aim to be accurate representations of real-world behavior. However, the rules governing the behavior are quite complex: nonlinear physics, operational modes, human behavior, and stochastic environmental concerns all determine the responses of the system. In this paper, we present a study on aircraft runway approaches as modeled in Georgia Tech's Work Models that Compute (WMC) simulation. We use a new learner, Genetic-Active Learning for Search-Based Software Engineering (GALE) to discover the Pareto frontiers defined by cognitive structures. These cognitive structures organize the prioritization and assignment of tasks of each pilot during approaches. We discuss the benefits of our approach, and also discuss future work necessary to enable uncertainty quantification.

  5. Path integral approach for superintegrable potentials on spaces of non-constant curvature. Pt. 2. Darboux spaces DIII and DIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second paper on the path integral approach of superintegrable systems on Darboux spaces, spaces of non-constant curvature. We analyze in the spaces DIII and DIV five respectively four superintegrable potentials, which were first given by Kalnins et al. We are able to evaluate the path integral in most of the separating coordinate systems, leading to expressions for the Green functions, the discrete and continuous wave-functions, and the discrete energy-spectra. In some cases, however, the discrete spectrum cannot be stated explicitly, because it is determined by a higher order polynomial equation. We show that also the free motion in Darboux space of type III can contain bound states, provided the boundary conditions are appropriate. We state the energy spectrum and the wave-functions, respectively. (orig.)

  6. A Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term Augmented Reality (AR refers to a set of technologies and devices able to enhance and improve human perception, thus bridging the gap between real and virtual space. Physical and artificial objects are mixed together in a hybrid space where the user can move without constraints. This mediated reality is spread in our everyday life: work, study, training, relaxation, time spent traveling are just some of the moments in which you can use AR applications.This paper aims to provide an overview of current technologies and future trends of augmented reality as well as to describe the main application domains, outlining benefits and open issues.

  7. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  8. Suburbs of space, suburbs of existence: the approach to the town of Pope Francis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ranaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Pope who comes from a megacities. Ideas and reflections on Pope Francis and the surrounding areas. His approach “globalized” to the church, evangelization, and about the spaces of the power in the city.

  9. A Novel Approach of Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative approach to overcome the infrared signal detection difficulties.  In this investigation, a Periodical Poled MgO Lithium Niobate...

  10. Getting the Green Light: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Space Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, G. M.; Kazeminejad, B.

    2004-12-01

    Effective space traffic management is an important challenge, especially in the context of the increasing number of space objects in Earth orbit. With more launches planned in the near future, the need for an effective system of space traffic management cannot be over-stated. This paper provides a crucible for the fusion of scientific and legal approaches to space traffic management during launch, in orbit and during re-entry. It takes an innovative viewpoint via an interdisciplinary review of scientific and legal issues relating to space traffic management. It first analyzes existing mechanisms for space traffic management. It will then make a comparative analysis of the mechanisms and general principles of space law, and the scientific standards and recommended practices for space traffic management. The purpose of this paper is to cross-fertilize ideas between the legal and institutional mechanisms for the management of space traffic and the technical, navigational and surveillance devices of space vehicles. It aims for a critical hybridization and harmonization of existing and nascent scientific technology with the existing legal and institutional mechanisms for space traffic management. This paper will then propose a framework for more effective space traffic management. This framework comprises an aggregate of scientific and legal standards with present technical capabilities. This proposed framework strives for the execution of an effective and efficient system of international space traffic management.

  11. NASA's Approach to Critical Risks for Extended Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Planetary Robotic and Human Spaceflight Exploration Humans are exposed to a great variety of hazards in the space environment. These include the effects of weightlessness, radiation, isolation and confinement, altered day-night cycles, and others. These inherent hazards have both physiological and behavioral consequences. The adaptive capabilities of humans in these situations is remarkable, and often exceed our expectations. However, the demanding environment and challenging operational pace can push some of these adaptive processes to their limits. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is tasked with mitigating the most serious of these effects on human health, safety, and performance, in long-duration space flight. This can involve the development and deployment of physiological countermeasures, better understanding of the physiological alterations and avoidance of exacerbating situations, inputs to the design of future spacecraft to minimize risks, and in some cases the awareness that some level of risk might have to be accepted based on the resulting consequences and their likelihood. HRP has identified a few areas that are of special concern due to their severity, lack of understanding of underlying causes, or potential for negative impact on health or performance. Some of these areas are visual impairment possibly due to increased intracranial pressure, behavioral and performance problems due to sleep deficits and isolation, and acute and chronic effects of radiation. These problems can, if not addressed, be expected to increase on longer and more distant missions. The evidence from spaceflight, laboratory, and analog studies that supports the selection of the most critical risks will be discussed. Current and planned research programs that address these risks, and their anticipated outcomes, will also be described.

  12. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  13. An Approach to Distributed State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Petrucci, Laure

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach and associated computer tool support for conducting distributed state space exploration for Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs). The distributed state space exploration is based on the introduction of a coordinating process and a number of worker processes. The worker processes...... Tools. This makes the distributed state space exploration and analysis largely transparent to the analyst. We illustrate the use of the developed tool on an example....

  14. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  15. Comparison of Mouse Brain DTI Maps Using K-space Average, Image-space Average, or No Average Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Mei, Jennifer; Tuel, Keelan

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is achieved by collecting a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). Signal averaging of multiple repetitions can be performed in the k-space (k-avg) or in the image space (m-avg) to improve the image quality. Alternatively, one can treat each acquisition as an independent image and use all of the data to reconstruct the DTI without doing any signal averaging (no-avg). To compare these three approaches, in this study, in vivo DTI data was collected from five ...

  16. Transmandibular approach to polycentric recurrent pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, A; Jovanović, M; Said, M; Vlastarakou, V; Galea, J; Littlejohn, Gingell M

    2005-01-01

    Surgery for tumors of the parapharyngeal space PPS) requires adequate exposure to identify and protect vital structures. Thus transcervical and transcervical-transparotid approaches to the PPS may be enhanced by mandibulotomy for better visualisation. We have chosen this approach with single mandibulotomy just in front of foramen mentale and without lip incision. We present a 39 years old male who was undergone surgery for policentric recurrency of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parapharyngeal space. PMID:16813005

  17. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  18. Augmented sculptures: what you see is not what you see

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of Augmented Reality Technologies enhances our ability to perceive a location with additional 3D visual elements. A point of interest becomes meta-constructed with addition of extended layers via augmented space elements. Augmented Reality presents us a virtually enriched version of a visually noticeable reality world which already exists and can easily be seen. In this article, in addition to questioning the representative existence of the art object in the work of art called “What ...

  19. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent results. Decreasing the scar length to an absolute minimum ensures higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:19554159

  20. Momentum space approach to microscopic effects in elastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic non-relativistic first-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is studied in some detail. Momentum-space calculations have been performed for a number of different target nucli at proton energies above approx.100 MeV and these microscopic predictions are compared with experimental cross section, analyzing power, and spin-rotation function data. The input to these calculations consists of the free on-shell nucleon-nucleon t-matrix, its non-local and off-shell structure, the treatment of the full-folding integral, and target densities obtained from electron scattering. Off-shell and non-local effects, as well as various factorization approximations, are studied. The sensitivity to uncertainies in the off-shell extension of the t-matrix, within the context of the Love-Franey model, is explicitly displayed. Similarly, uncertainties due to non-localities and incomplete knowledge of nuclear densities are shown. Explicit calculations using the t-matrix of Love and Franey indicate that these effects play significant roles only for relatively large angles (THETA less than or equal to 600) and/or lower energies (approx.150 MeV). These studies reinforce the conclusion that the lack of agreement between such first-order predictions and the data for spin observable at small angles arises from a physical effect not included in the non-relativistic first-order theory, rather than from any uncertainty in the calculation or in its input. 31 references

  1. Postreduction Breast Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, David A.; Doft, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most breast reduction patients are highly satisfied after surgery. However, there is a subset of women who seek breast augmentation years later to restore lost volume chiefly associated with weight loss and postpartum changes. Breast shape and overall aesthetics are often revised at the same time. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 2 surgeons’ experiences with post-reduction breast augmentation. Twenty patients were identified between 2002 and 2014. An in-depth chart...

  2. Marketing and Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this diploma thesis is to identify the usage of augmented reality in contemporary marketing practice and the expectations of marketers for the future use. This will be achieved by conducting a quantitative and qualitative research among existing creative and advertising companies. Secondary goal is introducing the concept of augmented reality from the theoretical point of view and also description of potential utilization based on known examples. The tools for the practical p...

  3. Augmented Reality im Techniktraining

    OpenAIRE

    Schack, Thomas; Heinen, Thomas; Hermann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren wurden in Bereichen wie Robotik, Telemanipulation und Militär neue Technologien entwickelt, die als Augmented Reality (Erweiterte Realität) (Milgram et al., 1994) bezeichnet werden. Durch Augmented Reality wird die Leistungs fähigkeit der beteiligten Menschen nachweisbar unterstützt. Dabei wird die Realität eines Agenten computergestützt mit virtueller Information - auf visueller, akustischer oder taktiler Basis - in Echtzeit überlagert (erweitert). Die wesentliche Eig...

  4. Confronting an augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hedberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and suggest that they be used as drivers for research into effective educational applications of augmented reality. We discuss how multi-modal, sensorial augmentation of reality links to existing theories of education and learning, focusing on ideas of cognitive dissonance and the confrontation of new realities implied by exposure to new and varied perspectives. We also discuss connections with broader debates brought on by the social and cultural changes wrought by the increased digitalisation of our lives, especially the concept of the extended mind. Rather than offer a prescription for augmentation, our intention is to throw open debate and to provoke deep thinking about what interacting with and creating an augmented reality might mean for both teacher and learner.

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Design Approach and Play Value of Outoodr Play Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, H; Lowe, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports research that explores the relationship between approaches to the ‘design’ of outdoor play spaces and the play value of these spaces. The paper starts by explaining that there is an assumption that an outdoor space in the Kit, Fence, Carpet (KFC) style provides fewer opportunities for play than spaces designed in a more natural way. To test this hypothesis an evaluation tool is developed that draws upon a range of academic literature. The tool includes three dimensions of P...

  6. Trial and Error: A new Approach to Space-Bounded Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ameur, F.; Fischer, Paul; Hoeffgen, H.-U.;

    1996-01-01

    A pac-learning algorithm is d-space bounded, if it stores at most d examples from the sample at any time. We characterize the d-space learnable concept classes. For this purpose we introduce the compression parameter of a concept class 𝒞 and design our trial and error learning algorithm. We...... show: 𝒞 is d-space learnable if and only if the compression parameter of 𝒞 is at most d. This learning algorithm does not produce a hypothesis consistent with the whole sample as previous approaches, for example, by Floyd, who presents consistent space bounded learning algorithms, but has to...

  7. Super's Life-Span, Life-Space Approach and Its Outlook for Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Edwin L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the major elements of a lifespan, life-space approach to career development. Looks at the origins of these elements and briefly describes their evolution. Suggests five categories of possible future refinements in this approach so as to enhance theory building, testing, and synthesizing this model's applicability. (RJM)

  8. Review of passive heat transfer augmentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewan, A.; Mahanta, P.; Sumithra Raju, K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Suresh Kumar, P. [Indian Institute of technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Oocean Engineering and Naval Architecture

    2004-12-01

    Heat transfer augmentation techniques (passive, active or a combination of passive and active methods) are commonly used in areas such as process industries, heating and cooling in evaporators, thermal power plants, air- conditioning equipment, refrigerators, radiators for space vehicles, automobiles, etc. Passive techniques, where inserts are used in the flow passage to augment the heat transfer rate, are advantageous compared with active techniques, because the insert manufacturing process is simple and these techniques can be easily employed in an existing heat exchanger. In design of compact heat exchangers, passive techniques of heat transfer augmentation can play an important role if a proper passive insert configuration can be selected according to the heat exchanger working condition (both flow and heat transfer conditions). In the past decade, several studies on the passive techniques of heat transfer augmentation have been reported. The present paper is a review on progress with the passive augmentation techniques in the recent past and will be useful to designers implementing passive augmentation techniques in heat exchange. Twisted tapes, wire coils, ribs, fins, dimples, etc., are the most commonly used passive heat transfer augmentation tools. In the present paper, emphasis is given to works dealing with twisted tapes and wire coils because, according to recent studies, these are known to be economic heat transfer augmentation tools. The former insert is found to be suitable in a laminar flow regime and the latter is suitable for turbulent flow. The thermohydraulic behaviour of an insert mainly depends on the flow conditions (laminar or turbulent) apart from the insert configurations. The present review is organized in five different sections: twisted tape in laminar flow; twisted tape in turbulent flow; wire coil in laminar flow; wire coil in turbulent flow; other inserts such as ribs, fins, dimples, etc. (author)

  9. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  10. Controller design approaches for large space structures using LQG control theory. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S. M.; Groom, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents several approaches for the design of reduced order controllers for large space structures. These approaches are shown to be based on LQG control theory and include truncation, modified truncation regulators and estimators, use of higher order estimators, selective modal suppression, and use of polynomial estimators. Further, the use of direct sensor feedback, as opposed to a state estimator, is investigated for some of these approaches. Finally, numerical results are given for a long free beam.

  11. CZAS I PRZESTRZEN W PSYCHOTERAPII – UJECIE PROBLEMOWE [TIME AND SPACE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY - PROBLEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleszcz-Szczyrba, Renata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents theoretical considerations on the time and space in psychotherapy. Attempt was made to examine these two dimensions from different perspectives. Focused on the physical and non–physical aspects of time in psychotherapy, which are connected with time perspective, temporal orientation, dynamics, and specific “bilocation in time” that may occur during the therapeutic process, especially some of them. Also discussed whether it is observable and non–observable spaces in psychotherapy – space of place, space of the therapeutic relationship, space of problems and associated with them solution spaces. Finally, consideration was also the problem of spacetime in psychotherapy, its dynamic and correlations. The article is an attempt to approach problematic theoretical issues relating to psychotherapy and provides a counterbalance to the relatively more numerous studies of a systemic nature. This is a kind of reflection, discussion, polemics, and new view for an old things in psychotherapy.

  12. Augmenting saturated LTP by broadly spaced episodes of theta-burst stimulation in hippocampal area CA1 of adult rats and mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Guan; Harris, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is a model system for studying cellular mechanisms of learning and memory. Recent interest in mechanisms underlying the advantage of spaced over massed learning has prompted investigation into the effects of distributed episodes of LTP induction. The amount of LTP induced in hippocampal area CA1 by one train (1T) of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in young Sprague-Dawley rats was further enhanced by additional bouts of 1T given at 1-h intervals. However,...

  13. Surgical combined approach for alveolar ridge augmentation with titanium mesh and rhPDGF-BB: a 3-year clinical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Nicola; De Lorenzi, Marco; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report the clinical outcomes and histologic findings of vertical ridge augmentation using a combination of titanium mesh and recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB). Two patients were included, and anorganic bovine bone particles were used. The bone graft was mixed with rhPDGF-BB and loaded onto the bony defect up to the level of the adjacent alveolar crest. A preadapted titanium mesh was placed over the grafted region; no areas of the grafted region were exposed. Postoperative healing was without complications. During reentry surgery for removal of the titanium mesh, all implants could be placed according to the prosthetic design. This report demonstrates the remarkable efficacy of guided bone regeneration using a combination of titanium mesh and rhPDGF for vertical ridge augmentation, thus expanding the indications for implant therapy and allowing recovery of the three-dimensional esthetic architecture in a severely resorbed alveolar ridge. PMID:25738343

  14. Digital Illumination for Augmented Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Zollmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual studio technology plays an important role for modern television productions. Blue-screen matting is a common technique for integrating real actors or moderators into computer generated sceneries. Augmented reality offers the possibility to mix real and virtual in a more general context. This article proposes a new technological approach for combining real studio content with computer-generated information. Digital light projection allows a controlled spatial, temporal, chrominance and luminance modulation of illumination opening new possibilities for TV studios.

  15. Augmenting computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  16. Space ecosynthesis: An approach to the design of closed ecosystems for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Averner, M. M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of closed ecological systems for the regeneration of wastes, air, and water is discussed. It is concluded that such systems, if they are to be used for the support of humans in space, will require extensive mechanical and physico-chemical support. The reason for this is that the buffering capacity available in small systems is inadequate, and that natural biological and physical regulatory mechanisms rapidly become inoperative. It is proposed that mathematical models of the dynamics of a closed ecological system may provide the best means of studying the initial problems of ecosystem closure. A conceptual and mathematical model of a closed ecosystem is described which treats the biological components as a farm, calculates the rates of flow of elements through the system by mass-balance techniques and control theory postulates, and can evaluate the requirements for mechanical buffering activities. It is suggested that study of the closure of ecosystems can significantly aid in the establishment of general principles of ecological systems.

  17. Transferencia de calor incrementada en espacios anulares con elementos helicoidales insertados//Review of augmentation techniques for heat transfer coefficient in annular spaces using helical elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert‐González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia de calor incrementada por métodos pasivos se emplea en diversosintercambiadores de calor de alta efectividad. El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue la evaluación del estado de las investigaciones en el campo de la transferencia de calor mejorada en espacios anulares, a partir del empleo de elementos turbulizadores helicoidales como técnicas pasivas. La revisión se centró en el empleo de láminas helicoidales y espirales, la obtención de ecuaciones de correlación del coeficiente de transferencia de calor incrementado, el coeficiente de fricción y la evaluación que se realiza de este proceso por parte de diferentes autores. El análisis crítico permitió realizar valoraciones integradas y recomendar sobre los aspectos que podrían ser analizados en el futuro en esta temática.Palabras claves: transferencia de calor incrementada, láminas helicoidales, espirales, espacios anulares, métodos pasivos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe transfer enhancement by passive methods is used in several heat exchanger of high effectiveness. The objective of the presented work was the evaluation of the state of the investigations in heat transfer enhancement in annular spaces, from the employment of elements helical. The revision was centered in the employment of twisted tape and wire coil in spiral, the equations of correlation obtained of the coefficient of transfer of increased heat, the coefficient of friction and the evaluation that was carried out of this process on the part of different authors. From the critical analysis of the published results, the authors recommend on the topics that can be analyzed in the future in this area.Key words: heat transfer enhancement, twisted tape, helical springs, annular spaces, passive methods.

  18. Real-Time Augmented Reality for Image-Guided Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to design, develop, and study a new approach to interventional image guidance based on augmented reality visualization – the merging of real and virtual images. This work broadly reviews and categorizes all preliminary augmented reality prototype systems for interventional image guidance. A novel augmented reality setup is introduced and engineered for interventional guidance tasks, integrating pre-operative imaging, namely CT and MRI, as well as real-time ultrasound...

  19. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  20. Coupled mode space approach for the simulation of realistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Gianluca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    A coupled mode space approach within the nonequiibriurn Green's function formalism is presented, which allows to perform simulations of realistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) with no spatial symmetry. Computing :time is significantly reduced with respect to the real space ap)roach, since only few modes are needed in order to obtain accurate results. The advantage of the method increases with increasing nanotube diameter, and is a factor of 20 in computing time for a (25...

  1. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  2. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  3. Augmented reality som wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR-applikat......Artiklen omhandler design og implementering af Augmented Reality (AR) i form af en wearable i sygeplejerskeuddannelsens anatomiundervisning, mere specifikt undervisning i lungeanatomi og respiration, med fokus på potentialer for visuel læring. Projektet undersøger, hvordan en udviklet AR...

  4. Aircraft Control Augmentation and Health Monitoring Using FADS Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research proposal is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of an innovative architecture comprising control augmentation and on-line health monitoring...

  5. Handling Occlusions for Robust Augmented Reality Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidi Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Augmented Reality applications, the human perception is enhanced with computer-generated graphics. These graphics must be exactly registered to real objects in the scene and this requires an effective Augmented Reality system to track the user's viewpoint. In this paper, a robust tracking algorithm based on coded fiducials is presented. Square targets are identified and pose parameters are computed using a hybrid approach based on a direct method combined with the Kalman filter. An important factor for providing a robust Augmented Reality system is the correct handling of targets occlusions by real scene elements. To overcome tracking failure due to occlusions, we extend our method using an optical flow approach to track visible points and maintain virtual graphics overlaying when targets are not identified. Our proposed real-time algorithm is tested with different camera viewpoints under various image conditions and shows to be accurate and robust.

  6. Constrained variational approach for energy derivatives in Intermediate Hamiltonian Fock-space coupled-cluster theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fock-space multi-reference coupled cluster theory is an efficient method for electronic structure of nearly degenerate cases. However, it suffers from the intruder state problem for large model space. The intermediate Hamiltonian formulation eliminates intruder state problem and helps in the convergence of equations. In this paper we have implemented intermediate Hamiltonian approach in Fock-space coupled cluster method for the response properties. We test our method for the dipole moments of doublet radicals. We report dipole moments of CN, SF and NS radicals.

  7. CCSDS - An approach to the definition of common standards for space data and information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Edward P.; Honvault, Claude

    1990-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) was formed in 1982 to develop common space system data structures, protocols, and interfaces which would facilitate mutual international support and interoperability. It soon emerged that CCSDS's activities exerted synergistic forces on systems development efforts. Currently, CCSDS is composed of both member-status and observer-status agencies; while only one member agency is admitted from any one country, multiple additional agencies may participate as observers. CCSDS recommendations to date have identified a common architectural approach for the handling and processing of space data.

  8. Direct Time-Domain-Based Approach for Study of Space-Vector Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Stankovic, A.M.

    Direct time-do main-based approach, which is characterized by the simplicity and clarity, is proposed for the study and design of space-vector based methods of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) for standard voltage source inverters for adjustable speed motor drives. This approach is based on the detailed...... consideration of switching state sequences of three-phase inverter (with the corresponding duty-cycles), which are integrated characteristics of space vector PWM schemes and versions. It also permits providing of synchronization of output voltage waveforms and improvement of computational effectiveness of...

  9. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  10. A GOCE-only global gravity field model by the space-wise approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migliaccio, Federica; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea;

    2011-01-01

    filter along the orbit to reduce the noise variance and correlation before gridding the data. In the first release of the space-wise approach, based on a period of about two months, some prior information coming from existing gravity field models entered into the solution especially at low degrees and...... gravity field model has been computed by applying the space-wise approach to eight months of GOCE orbit and gradiometer data. The results are presented and discussed in this paper, also comparing them with respect to the previous solution.......The global gravity field model computed by the spacewise approach is one of three official solutions delivered by ESA from the analysis of the GOCE data. The model consists of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients and the corresponding error covariance matrix. The main idea behind this approach...

  11. Collaborative augmented reality environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Christensen, Michael; Grønbæk, Kaj;

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Manufaktur, a prototype of a concept and infrastructure that goes beyond the classical CVE systems toward a collaborative augmented reality environment, where users? documents and objects appear as live representations in a 3D workspace. Manufaktur supports collaborative...

  12. Augmented Reality og kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Kirkedahl Lysholm

    2013-01-01

    Museerne står overfor at skulle omfavne den digitale kultur i håndteringen af den store mængde viden, institutionerne repræsenterer. Augmented Reality-systemer forbinder ved hjælp af moderne teknologi det virtuelle med det virkelige, og kan derfor synes som en oplagt anvendelsesmulighed i...

  13. A Bayesian approach to the ICH Q8 definition of design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John J

    2008-01-01

    Manufacturers of pharmaceuticals and biopharmaceuticals are facing increased regulatory pressure to understand how their manufacturing processes work and to be able to quantify the reliability and robustness of their manufacturing processes. In particular, the ICH Q8 guidance has introduced the concept of design space. The ICH Q8 defines design space as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality." However, relatively little has been put forth to date on how to construct a design space from data composed of such variables. This study presents a Bayesian approach to design space based upon a type of credible region first appearing in Peterson's work.This study considers the issues of constructing a Bayesian design space, design space reliability, the inclusion of process noise variables, and utilization of prior information, as well as an outline for organizing information about a design space so that manufacturing engineers can make informed changes as may be needed within the design space. PMID:18781528

  14. Pure Laparoscopic Augmentation Ileocystoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Rebouças

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. Presentation A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190mL with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O. Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully. The patient was placed in the exaggerated Trendelenburg position. A four-port transperitoneal technique was used. A segment of ileum approximately 15-20cm was selected and divided with its pedicle. The ileal anastomosis and creation of ileal U-shaped plate were performed laparoscopically, without staplers. Bladder mobilization and longidutinal cystotomy were performed. Enterovesical anastomosis was done with continuous running suture. A suprapubic cystostomy was placed through a 5mm trocar. Results The total operative time was 335 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient developed ileus in the early days, diet acceptance after the fourth day and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. The urethral catheter was removed after 2 weeks. At 6-month follow-up, a cystogram showed a significant improvement in bladder capacity. The patient adhered well to clean intermittent self-catheterization and there was no report for febrile infections

  15. State-space approach for evaluating the soil-plant-atmosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using as examples one sugarcane and one forage oat experiment, both carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, this chapter presents recent state-space approaches used to evaluate the relation between soil and plant properties. A contrast is made between classical statistics methodologies that do not take into account the sampling position coordinates, and the more recently used methodologies which include the position coordinates, and allow a better interpretation of the field-sampled data. Classical concepts are first introduced, followed by spatially referenced methodologies like the autocorrelation function, the cross correlation function, and the state-space approach. Two variations of the state-space approach are given: one emphasizes the evolution of the state system while the other based on the bayesian formulation emphasizes the evolution of the estimated observations. It is concluded that these state-space analyses using dynamic regression models improve data analyses and are therefore recommended for analyzing time and space data series related to the performance of a given soil-plant-atmosphere system. (author)

  16. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  17. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (SΔE). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or SΔE's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space

  18. Space-time trajectories of wind power generation: Parameterized precision matrices under a Gaussian copula approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastu, Julija; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on generating space-time trajectories of wind power generation, consisting of paths sampled from high-dimensional joint predictive densities, describing wind power generation at a number of contiguous locations and successive lead times. A modelling approach taking advantage of...

  19. Truncated Hilbert space approach to the 2d $\\phi^{4}$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z

    2015-01-01

    We apply the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the two dimensional $\\phi^{4}$ theory in finite volume. We focus on the broken phase and determine the finite size spectrum of the model numerically. We compare these results against semi-classical analysis and the Bethe-Yang spectrum.

  20. Electronic transport through nanowires: a real-space finite-difference approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomyakov, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Nanoelectronics is a fast developing ¯eld. Therefore understanding of the electronic transport at the nanoscale is currently of great interest. This thesis "Electronic transport through nanowires: a real-space ¯nite-difference approach" aims at a general theoretical treatment of coherent electronic

  1. CLASSING APPROACH TO ANALYZING THE INVESTMENT SPACE OF SILK INDUSTRY OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Madjidov, Shakhrukh; Ibragimova, Sabokhat

    2015-01-01

    In the article the results of verification were brought which were dedicated for cluster approach and analyzing the investment space of silk industry of Uzbekistan. In particular the purpose of investment’s direction to the main capital of silk industry in corresponding class while proceeding from closeness to manual forces and raw material resources.

  2. Perturbation theory approach for the power spectrum: from dark matter in real space to massive haloes in redshift space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the accuracy of Eulerian perturbation theory for describing the matter and galaxy power spectra in real and redshift space in light of future observational probes for precision cosmology. Comparing the analytical results with a large suite of N-body simulations (160 independent boxes of 13.8 (Gpc/h)3 volume each, which are publicly available), we find that re-summing terms in the standard perturbative approach predicts the real-space matter power spectrum with an accuracy of ∼<2% for k ≤ 0.20 h/Mpc at redshifts z∼<1.5. This is obtained following the widespread technique of writing the resummed propagator in terms of 1-loop contributions. We show that the accuracy of this scheme increases by considering higher-order terms in the resummed propagator. By combining resummed perturbation theories with several models for the mappings from real to redshift space discussed in the literature, the multipoles of the dark-matter power spectrum can be described with sub-percent deviations from N-body results for k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<1. As a consequence, the logarithmic growth rate, f, can be recovered with sub-percent accuracy on these scales. Extending the models to massive dark-matter haloes in redshift space, our results describe the monopole term from N-body data within 2% accuracy for scales k ≤ 0.15 h/Mpc at z∼<0.5; here f can be recovered within < 5% when the halo bias is known. We conclude that these techniques are suitable to extract cosmological information from future galaxy surveys

  3. Two approaches in scanner-printer calibration: colorimetric space-based vs. “closed-loop&rdquo

    OpenAIRE

    Ostromoukhov, V.; Hersch, R. D.; Peraire, C. (C.); Emmel, P.; Amidror, I.

    1994-01-01

    Studies two different table-based approaches for the calibration of electronic imaging systems. The first approach, which is the classical one, uses the device-independent CIE-XYZ colorimetric space as an intermediate standard space. Input and output devices such as scanners, displays and printers are calibrated separately with respect to the objective CIE-XYZ space. The calibration process requires establishing a 3D mapping between a scanner's device-dependent RGB space and a device-independ...

  4. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part I: A linear graph approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermohydraulic simulation codes are increasingly making use of graphical design interfaces. The user can quickly and easily design a thermohydraulic system by placing symbols on the screen resembling system components. These components can then be connected to form a system representation. Such system models may then be used to obtain detailed simulations of the physical system. Usually this kind of simulation models are too complex and not ideal for control system design. Therefore, a need exists for automated techniques to extract lumped parameter models useful for control system design. The goal of this first paper, in a two part series, is to propose a method that utilises a graphical representation of a thermohydraulic system, and a lumped parameter modelling approach, to extract state space models. In this methodology each physical domain of the thermohydraulic system is represented by a linear graph. These linear graphs capture the interaction between all components within and across energy domains – hydraulic, thermal and mechanical. These linear graphs are analysed using a graph-theoretic approach to derive reduced order state space models. These models capture the dominant dynamics of the thermohydraulic system and are ideal for control system design purposes. The proposed state space model extraction method is demonstrated by considering a U-tube system. A non-linear state space model is extracted representing both the hydraulic and thermal domain dynamics of the system. The simulated state space model is compared with a Flownex® model of the U-tube. Flownex® is a validated systems thermal-fluid simulation software package. - Highlights: • A state space model extraction methodology based on graph-theoretic concepts. • An energy-based approach to consider multi-domain systems in a common framework. • Allow extraction of transparent (white-box) state space models automatically. • Reduced order models containing only independent state variables

  5. An integrated mission approach to the space exploration initiative will ensure success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direction of the American space program, as defined by President Bush and the National Commission on Space, is to expand human presence into the solar system. Landing an American on Mars by the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing is the goal. This challenge has produced a level of excitement among young Americans not seen for nearly three decades. The exploration and settlement of the space frontier will occupy the creative thoughts and energies of generations of Americans well into the next century. The return of Americans to the moon and beyond must be viewed as a national effort with strong public support if it is to become a reality. Key to making this an actuality is the mission approach selected. Developing a permanent presence in space requires a continual stepping outward from Earch in a logical progressive manner. If we seriously plan to go and to stay, then not only must we plan what we are to do and how we are to do it, we must address the logistic support infrastructure that will allow us to stay there once we arrive. A fully integrated approach to mission planning is needed if the Space exploration Initiative (SEI) is to be successful. Only in this way can a permanent human presence in space be sustained. An integrated infrastructure approach would reduce the number of new systems and technologies requiring development. The resultant horizontal commonality of systems and hardware would reduce the direct economic impact of SEI while an early return on investment through technology spin-offs would be an economic benefit by greatly enhancing our international technical competitiveness. If the exploration, development, and colonization of space is to be affordable and acceptable, careful consideration must be given to such things as ''return on investment'' and ''commercial product potential'' of the technologies developed

  6. Strategies and Innovative Approaches for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The real and potential impacts of space weather have been well documented, yet neither the required research and operations programs, nor the data, modeling and analysis infrastructure necessary to develop and sustain a reliable space weather forecasting capability for a society are in place. The recently published decadal survey "Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society" presents a vision for the coming decade and calls for a renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in space weather and climatology. New resources are imperative. Particularly in the current fiscal environment, implementing a responsible strategy to address these needs will require broad participation across agencies and innovative approaches to make the most of existing resources, capitalize on current knowledge, span gaps in capabilities and observations, and focus resources on overcoming immediate roadblocks.

  7. Arithmetic gravity and Yang-Mills theory: An approach to adelic physics via algebraic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This work is a dissertation thesis written at the WWU Muenster (Germany), supervised by Prof. Dr. Raimar Wulkenhaar. We present an approach to adelic physics based on the language of algebraic spaces. Relative algebraic spaces X over a base S are considered as fundamental objects which describe space-time. This yields a formulation of general relativity which is covariant with respect to changes of the chosen domain of numbers S. With regard to adelic physics the choice of S as an excellent Dedekind scheme is of interest (because this way also the finite prime spots, i.e. the p-adic degrees of freedom are taken into account). In this arithmetic case, it turns out that X is a Neron model. This enables us to make concrete statements concerning the structure of the space-time described by X. Furthermore, some solutions of the arithmetic Einstein equations are presented. In a next step, Yang-Mills gauge fields are incorporated.

  8. Augmentation Mammaplasty in Asian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming-Huei; Huang, Jung-Ju

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid economic development of Southeast Asia, the demand for cosmetic surgery has increased rapidly. Breast augmentation is among the most frequently performed cosmetic procedures. However, breast augmentation still has “bad press” in Southeast Asia because of not so distant catastrophes caused by direct liquid silicone injection and “Amazing Gel” augmentations. Asian patients have special characteristics that need to be taken into consideration when performing breast augmentation. T...

  9. Asteroid Redirect Mission concept: A bold approach for utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Brophy, John R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of natural resources from asteroids is an idea that is older than the Space Age. The technologies are now available to transform this endeavor from an idea into reality. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is a mission concept which includes the goal of robotically returning a small Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) or a multi-ton boulder from a large NEA to cislunar space in the mid-2020s using an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle and currently available technologies. The paradigm shift enabled by the ARM concept would allow in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to be used at the human mission departure location (i.e., cislunar space) versus exclusively at the deep-space mission destination. This approach drastically reduces the barriers associated with utilizing ISRU for human deep-space missions. The successful testing of ISRU techniques and associated equipment could enable large-scale commercial ISRU operations to become a reality and enable a future space-based economy utilizing processed asteroidal materials. This paper provides an overview of the ARM concept and discusses the mission objectives, key technologies, and capabilities associated with the mission, as well as how the ARM and associated operations would benefit humanity's quest for the exploration and settlement of space.

  10. Augmented Lagrangian formulation of orbital-free density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an Augmented Lagrangian formulation and its real-space implementation for non-periodic Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory (OF-DFT) calculations. In particular, we rewrite the constrained minimization problem of OF-DFT as a sequence of minimization problems without any constraint, thereby making it amenable to powerful unconstrained optimization algorithms. Further, we develop a parallel implementation of this approach for the Thomas–Fermi–von Weizsacker (TFW) kinetic energy functional in the framework of higher-order finite-differences and the conjugate gradient method. With this implementation, we establish that the Augmented Lagrangian approach is highly competitive compared to the penalty and Lagrange multiplier methods. Additionally, we show that higher-order finite-differences represent a computationally efficient discretization for performing OF-DFT simulations. Overall, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation and implementation are both efficient and robust by studying selected examples, including systems consisting of thousands of atoms. We validate the accuracy of the computed energies and forces by comparing them with those obtained by existing plane-wave methods

  11. A Declarative Design Approach to Modeling Traditional and Non-Traditional Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Lucy M.

    The space system design process is known to be laborious, complex, and computationally demanding. It is highly multi-disciplinary, involving several interdependent subsystems that must be both highly optimized and reliable due to the high cost of launch. Satellites must also be capable of operating in harsh and unpredictable environments, so integrating high-fidelity analysis is important. To address each of these concerns, a holistic design approach is necessary. However, while the sophistication of space systems has evolved significantly in the last 60 years, improvements in the design process have been comparatively stagnant. Space systems continue to be designed using a procedural, subsystem-by-subsystem approach. This method is inadequate since it generally requires extensive iteration and limited or heuristic-based search, which can be slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate. The use of a declarative design approach can potentially address these inadequacies. In the declarative programming style, the focus of a problem is placed on what the objective is, and not necessarily how it should be achieved. In the context of design, this entails knowledge expressed as a declaration of statements that are true about the desired artifact instead of explicit instructions on how to implement it. A well-known technique is through constraint-based reasoning, where a design problem is represented as a network of rules and constraints that are reasoned across by a solver to dynamically discover the optimal candidate(s). This enables implicit instantiation of the tradespace and allows for automatic generation of all feasible design candidates. As such, this approach also appears to be well-suited to modeling adaptable space systems, which generally have large tradespaces and possess configurations that are not well-known a priori. This research applied a declarative design approach to holistic satellite design and to tradespace exploration for adaptable space systems. The

  12. The transareolar incision for breast augmentation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompatscher, Peter; Schuler, Christine; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Of the various possible incisions for breast augmentation, the transareolar access has gained only limited popularity. The potential side effects of this incision are said to be altered nipple sensation, impaired lactation, an increased rate of infections with capsular fibrosis, well visible scar formation with hypopigmentation, and the need for an additional access in case a breast ptosis correction should prove necessary at a later date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to judge advantages and limitations of transareolar breast augmentation, and to verify whether the reluctant attitude toward this surgical approach is justified. A sample of 18 patients with a transareolar, retropectoral breast augmentation was selected for a retrospective evaluation. The suitability of the technique in general was examined together with early postoperative complications, sensory changes, and late complications on the basis of an evaluation system for cosmetic surgical results. The study showed that only women with an areolar diameter of 3.5 cm or more without pronounced breast ptosis were suitable for the transareolar access. No early infections were noted. The rate of capsular fibrosis was 11%. Two years after breast augmentation, 16 women (89%) judged their breast sensation to be normal, but objective assessment showed that mean pressure and vibration sensation were moderately compromised in all parts of the breast. The scars were of good quality, with very little hypopigmentation. With appropriate patient selection, respecting the advantages and limitations, the transareolar incision has its definite place among the different incisions for breast augmentation. PMID:15164231

  13. Key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fu; Du, Qingyun; Wu, Xueling

    2008-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a growing research area in virtual reality and generates a composite view for the user. It is combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. About 80 percent information in the real world is related with spatial location. The combination of Geographical information system (GIS) and AR technologies would promote the development of outdoor AR systems, and also would explore a new research direction for GIS. The key technologies of outdoor augmented reality GIS, including basic tracking methods, display devices, typical applications and registration processes, are discussed. In indoor augmented reality's closed environments the tracking of position and head orientation as well as the presentation of information is much more unproblematic than the same task in an outdoor environment. The main application task of outdoor augmented reality GIS is the presentation of information to a user while moving through an unknown region. The system helps to detect automatically objects in sight of a person who need its information. It compares the conventional solutions of 3D registration with, while it discusses their algorithm procedure to basic parameters to give out their advantages and disadvantages at different condition. While affine transformation approach uses the idea of computer graphics and vision technology for reference. Its accuracy is mainly based on the precision and speed of scene feature point extracted from natural or artificial feature.

  14. Augmenting Clozapine With Sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Emborg, Charlotte; Gydesen, Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    study design was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study including patients with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision schizophrenia (F20.0-F20.3) and treated with clozapine for at least 6 months who had not achieved sufficient response. Patients were...... Inventory, fasting glucose, lipids, and electrocardiogram. Clozapine augmentation with sertindole was not superior to placebo regarding total score or subscale score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Clinical Global Impression, World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief, or Drug Attitude...... Inventory. No increased adverse effects compared with placebo were found. Four patients randomized to sertindole experienced a significant worsening of psychosis, and 2 of them required psychiatric admission. Metabolic parameters were unchanged during the study, but augmentation of clozapine with sertindole...

  15. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  16. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    environment and methodology, with associated laboratories that uses lean development methods and creativity-enhancing processes to invent and develop new solutions for space exploration. This paper will discuss the Swamp Works approach to developing space mining and resource extraction systems and the vision of space development it serves. The ultimate goal of the Swamp Works is to expand human civilization into the solar system via the use of local resources utilization. By mining and using the local resources in situ, it is conceivable that one day the logistics supply train from Earth can be eliminated and Earth independence of a space-based community will be enabled.

  17. Rectilinear-motion space inversion-based detection approach for infrared dim air targets with variable velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianlei; Shi, Zelin; Yin, Jian; Liu, Yunpeng; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-03-01

    Dim targets are extremely difficult to detect using methods based on single-frame detection. Radiation accumulation is one of the effective methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A detection approach based on radiation accumulation is proposed. First, a location space and a motion space are established. Radiation accumulation operation, controlled by vectors from the motion space, is applied to the original image space. Then, a new image space is acquired where some images have an improved SNR. Second, quasitargets in the new image space are obtained by constant false-alarm ratio judging, and location vectors and motion vectors of quasitargets are also acquired simultaneously. Third, the location vectors and motion vectors are mapped into the two spaces, respectively. Volume density function is defined in the motion space. Location extremum of the location space and volume density extremum of motion space will confirm the true target. Finally, actual location of the true target in the original image space is obtained by space inversion. The approach is also applicable to detect multiple dim targets. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate the approach is superior to compared approaches on detection probability and false alarm probability.

  18. Astronaut Ross Approaches Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O'Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission's primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross, perched on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) approaches the erected ACCESS. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  19. Approaches in the determination of plant nutrient uptake and distribution in space flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyenga, A. G.; Forsman, A.; Stodieck, L. S.; Hoehn, A.; Kliss, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effective growth and development of vascular plants rely on the adequate availability of water and nutrients. Inefficiency in either the initial absorption, transportation, or distribution of these elements are factors which impinge on plant structure and metabolic integrity. The potential effect of space flight and microgravity conditions on the efficiency of these processes is unclear. Limitations in the available quantity of space-grown plant material and the sensitivity of routine analytical techniques have made an evaluation of these processes impractical. However, the recent introduction of new plant cultivating methodologies supporting the application of radionuclide elements and subsequent autoradiography techniques provides a highly sensitive investigative approach amenable to space flight studies. Experiments involving the use of gel based 'nutrient packs' and the radionuclides calcium-45 and iron-59 were conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94. Uptake rates of the radionuclides between ground and flight plant material appeared comparable.

  20. Researching on Hawking Effect in a Kerr Space Time via Open Quantum System Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild or a de Sitter spacetime can be understood as the manifestation of thermalization phenomena in the framework of an open quantum system. Through examining the time evolution of a detector interacting with vacuum massless scalar fields, it is found that the detector would spontaneously excite with a probability the same as the thermal radiation at Hawking temperature. Following the proposals, the Hawking effect in a Kerr space time is investigated in the framework of an open quantum systems. It is shown that Hawking effect of the Kerr space time can also be understood as the the manifestation of thermalization phenomena via open quantum system approach. Furthermore, it is found that near horizon local conformal symmetry plays the key role in the quantum effect of the Kerr space time

  1. A Near-Term Quantum Computing Approach for Hard Computational Problems in Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N; Knysh, Sergey I; Williams, Colin P; Johnson, Mark W; Thom, Murray C; Macready, William G; Pudenz, Kristen L

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we show how to map a sampling of the hardest artificial intelligence problems in space exploration onto equivalent Ising models that then can be attacked using quantum annealing implemented in D-Wave machine. We overview the existing results as well as propose new Ising model implementations for quantum annealing. We review supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms for classification and clustering with applications to feature identification and anomaly detection. We introduce algorithms for data fusion and image matching for remote sensing applications. We overview planning problems for space exploration mission applications and algorithms for diagnostics and recovery with applications to deep space missions. We describe combinatorial optimization algorithms for task assignment in the context of autonomous unmanned exploration. Finally, we discuss the ways to circumvent the limitation of the Ising mapping using a "blackbox" approach based on ideas from probabilistic computing. In this ...

  2. An analytical approach to space charge distortion for time projection chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the possible ion feedback and also the primary ionization of high multiplicity events result in accumulation of static charge inside the gas volume (space charge). This charge introduces electrical field distortions and modifies the cluster trajectory along the drift path, affecting the tracking performance of the detector. In order to calculate the track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution in the TPC, the Green's function for a TPC geometry was worked out. Three different representations were derived which, if combined, lead to fast converging expressions for every electric field component within a coaxial cavity. This analytic approach finally permits accurate predictions of track distortions due to an arbitrary space charge distribution by solving the Langevin equation. Furthermore, the inclusion of the magnetic field map allows to study the necessary corrections of the Lorentz angle due to the non-parallelism of the E and B fields within the TPC drift volume. (author)

  3. A NEW FUZZY LOGIC BASED SPACE VECTOR MODULATION APPROACH ON DIRECT TORQUE CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Korkmaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The induction motors are indispensable motor types for industrial applications due to its wellknown advantages. Therefore, many kind of control scheme are proposed for induction motors over the past years and direct torque control has gained great importance inside of them due to fast dynamic torque response behavior and simple control structure. This paper suggests a new approach on the direct torque controlled induction motors, Fuzzy logic based space vector modulation, to overcome disadvantages of conventional direct torque control like high torque ripple. In the proposed approach, optimum switching states are calculated by fuzzy logic controller and applied by space vector pulse width modulator to voltage source inverter. In order to test and compare the proposed DTC scheme with conventional DTC scheme simulations, in Matlab/Simulink, have been carried out in different speed and load conditions. The simulation results showed that a significant improvement in the dynamic torque and speed responses when compared to the conventional DTC scheme.

  4. Formulation space search approach for the teacher/class timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetov Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well known NP-hard teacher/class timetabling problem. Variable neighborhood search and tabu search heuristics are developed based on idea of the Formulation Space Search approach. Two types of solution representation are used in the heuristics. For each representation we consider two families of neighborhoods. The first family uses swapping of time periods for teacher (class timetable. The second family bases on the idea of large Kernighan-Lin neighborhoods. Computation results for difficult random test instances show high efficiency of the proposed approach. .

  5. Interactive learning environments in augmented reality technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wojciechowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of creation of learning environments based on augmented reality (AR is considered. The concept of AR is presented as a tool for safe and cheap experimental learning. In AR learning environments students may acquire knowledge by personally carrying out experiments on virtual objects by manipulating real objects located in real environments. In the paper, a new approach to creation of interactive educational scenarios, called Augmented Reality Interactive Scenario Modeling (ARISM, is mentioned. In this approach, the process of building learning environments is divided into three stages, each of them performed by users with different technical and domain knowledge. The ARISM approach enables teachers who are not computer science experts to create AR learning environments adapted to the needs of their students.

  6. An economic analysis of a commercial approach to the design and fabrication of a space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, Z.; Been, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses a commercial approach to the design and fabrication of an economical space power system. With the advent of the space shuttle, steps can be taken to back away from the presently used space qualified approach in order to reduce cost of space hardware by incorporating, where possible, commercial design, fabrication, and quality assurance methods. Cost reductions are projected through the conceptual design of a 2 kW space power system built with the capability for having serviceability. The approach to system costing that has been used takes into account both the constraints of operation in space and commercial production engineering approaches. The cost of this power system reflects a variety of cost/benefit tradeoffs that would reduce system cost as a function of system reliability requirements, complexity, and the impact of rigid specifications. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication and reliability and quality assurance cost estimates are detailed.

  7. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  8. Space-time adaptive approach to variational data assimilation using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souopgui, Innocent; Wieland, Scott A.; Yousuff Hussaini, M.; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on one of the main challenges of 4-dimensional variational data assimilation, namely the requirement to have a forward solution available when solving the adjoint problem. The issue is addressed by considering the time in the same fashion as the space variables, reformulating the mathematical model in the entire space-time domain, and solving the problem on a near optimal computational mesh that automatically adapts to spatio-temporal structures of the solution. The compressed form of the solution eliminates the need to save or recompute data for every time slice as it is typically done in traditional time marching approaches to 4-dimensional variational data assimilation. The reduction of the required computational degrees of freedom is achieved using the compression properties of multi-dimensional second generation wavelets. The simultaneous space-time discretization of both the forward and the adjoint models makes it possible to solve both models either concurrently or sequentially. In addition, the grid adaptation reduces the amount of saved data to the strict minimum for a given a priori controlled accuracy of the solution. The proposed approach is demonstrated for the advection diffusion problem in two space-time dimensions.

  9. Real space Eliashberg approach to charge order of electrons coupled to dynamic antiferromagnetic fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Johannes; Sachdev, Subir(Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA)

    2015-01-01

    We study charge ordered solutions for fermions on a square lattice interacting with dynamic antiferromagnetic fluctuations. Our approach is based on real space Eliashberg equations which are solved self-consistently. We first show that the antiferromagnetic fluctuations can induce arc features in the spectral functions, as spectral weight is suppressed at the hot spots; however, no real pseudogap is generated. At low temperature spontaneous charge order with a $d$-form factor can be stabilize...

  10. Study of nuclear pairing with Configuration-Space Monte-Carlo approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lingle, Mark; Volya, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclei play a decisive role in determining nuclear drip-lines, binding energies, and many collective properties. In this work a new Configuration-Space Monte-Carlo (CSMC) method for treating nuclear pairing correlations is developed, implemented, and demonstrated. In CSMC the Hamiltonian matrix is stochastically generated in Krylov subspace, resulting in the Monte-Carlo version of Lanczos-like diagonalization. The advantages of this approach over other techniques are d...

  11. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  12. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  13. A Programmatic and Engineering Approach to the Development of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Wayne J., Jr.; Ballard, Rick O.; Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    With the announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration on January 14, 2004, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear thermal propulsion. Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions; however, the cost to develop a nuclear thermal rocket engine system is uncertain. Key to determining the engine development cost will be the engine requirements, the technology used in the development and the development approach. The engine requirements and technology selection have not been defined and are awaiting definition of the Mars architecture and vehicle definitions. The paper discusses an engine development approach in light of top-level strategic questions and considerations for nuclear thermal propulsion and provides a suggested approach based on work conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to support planning and requirements for the Prometheus Power and Propulsion Office. This work is intended to help support the development of a comprehensive strategy for nuclear thermal propulsion, to help reduce the uncertainty in the development cost estimate, and to help assess the potential value of and need for nuclear thermal propulsion for a human Mars mission.

  14. A nucleus-dependent valence-space approach to nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Stroberg, S R; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Bogner, S K; Roth, R; Schwenk, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a nucleus-dependent valence-space approach for calculating ground and excited states of nuclei, which generalizes the shell-model in-medium similarity renormalization group to an ensemble reference with fractionally filled orbitals. Because the ensemble is used only as a reference, and not to represent physical states, no symmetry restoration is required. This allows us to capture 3N forces among valence nucleons with a valence-space Hamiltonian specifically targeted to each nucleus of interest. Predicted ground-state energies from carbon through nickel agree with results of other large-space ab initio methods, generally to the 1\\% level. In addition, we show that this new approach is required in order to obtain convergence for nuclei in the upper $p$ and $sd$ shells. Finally, we address the $1^+$/$3^+$ ground-state inversion problem in $^{22}\\text{Na}$ and $^{46}\\text{V}$. This approach extends the reach of ab initio nuclear structure calculations to essentially all light- and medium-mass nuclei.

  15. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  16. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  17. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible

  18. Sensors for Location-Based Augmented Reality the Example of Galileo and Egnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Alain; Henriques, José; Stricker, Didier

    2016-06-01

    Augmented Reality has long been approached from the point of view of Computer Vision and Image Analysis only. However, much more sensors can be used, in particular for location-based Augmented Reality scenarios. This paper reviews the various sensors that can be used for location-based Augmented Reality. It then presents and discusses several examples of the usage of Galileo and EGNOS in conjonction with Augmented Reality.

  19. SENSORS FOR LOCATION-BASED AUGMENTED REALITY THE EXAMPLE OF GALILEO AND EGNOS

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Alain; Henriques, José; Stricker, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Augmented Reality has long been approached from the point of view of Computer Vision and Image Analysis only. However, much more sensors can be used, in particular for location-based Augmented Reality scenarios. This paper reviews the various sensors that can be used for location-based Augmented Reality. It then presents and discusses several examples of the usage of Galileo and EGNOS in conjonction with Augmented Reality.

  20. Graphical user interface concepts for tactical augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenta, Chris; Murphy, Anne; Hinton, Jeremy; Cook, James; Sherrill, Todd; Snarski, Steve

    2010-04-01

    Applied Research Associates and BAE Systems are working together to develop a wearable augmented reality system under the DARPA ULTRA-Vis program†. Our approach to achieve the objectives of ULTRAVis, called iLeader, incorporates a full color 40° field of view (FOV) see-thru holographic waveguide integrated with sensors for full position and head tracking to provide an unobtrusive information system for operational maneuvers. iLeader will enable warfighters to mark-up the 3D battle-space with symbologic identification of graphical control measures, friendly force positions and enemy/target locations. Our augmented reality display provides dynamic real-time painting of symbols on real objects, a pose-sensitive 360° representation of relevant object positions, and visual feedback for a variety of system activities. The iLeader user interface and situational awareness graphical representations are highly intuitive, nondisruptive, and always tactically relevant. We used best human-factors practices, system engineering expertise, and cognitive task analysis to design effective strategies for presenting real-time situational awareness to the military user without distorting their natural senses and perception. We present requirements identified for presenting information within a see-through display in combat environments, challenges in designing suitable visualization capabilities, and solutions that enable us to bring real-time iconic command and control to the tactical user community.

  1. Learning in Earth and space science: a review of conceptual change instructional approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Reece; Tomas, Louisa; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2016-03-01

    In response to calls for research into effective instruction in the Earth and space sciences, and to identify directions for future research, this systematic review of the literature explores research into instructional approaches designed to facilitate conceptual change. In total, 52 studies were identified and analyzed. Analysis focused on the general characteristics of the research, the conceptual change instructional approaches that were used, and the methods employed to evaluate the effectiveness of these approaches. The findings of this review support four assertions about the existing research: (1) astronomical phenomena have received greater attention than geological phenomena; (2) most studies have viewed conceptual change from a cognitive perspective only; (3) data about conceptual change were generated pre- and post-intervention only; and (4) the interventions reviewed presented limited opportunities to involve students in the construction and manipulation of multiple representations of the phenomenon being investigated. Based upon these assertions, the authors recommend that new research in the Earth and space science disciplines challenges traditional notions of conceptual change by exploring the role of affective variables on learning, focuses on the learning of geological phenomena through the construction of multiple representations, and employs qualitative data collection throughout the implementation of an instructional approach.

  2. Astronomy and Space Science Olympiads in Israel - A Different Approach to Conducting the Contests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidav, M.

    2001-09-01

    On 22 March 2001, the final stage of the 7th annual Israeli Astronomy and Space Science Olympiads took place at Tel Aviv University. More than 400(!) young contestants, aged 15-17 years of age, participated in the first stage, a written test with questions covering various areas in astronomy and space sciences. Only 89 contestants progressed to the second stage, which included both multiple-choice and open-ended questions. The top five contestants went on to the final stage. The final and most exciting stage of all the Olympiads (attendance is open to the public) includes three rounds. In the first and third rounds, contestants are confronted with typical open and closed questions, similar to those used in most such competitions. In the second round, however, several different approaches have been implemented by us over the years. One of these approaches not only enabled us to examine the contestants' knowledge, but also was interesting to the audience. This approach required us to compose a short article about astronomical phenomena, with about 15 errors deliberately planted in each text. The contestants were requested to detect as many errors as they could. In this demonstration, we will illustrate this approach by means of one of these articles, about pulsars and a question from the 3rd round.

  3. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler <= 125.000 DKK), der af haft som sit formål at afprøve et unikt samarbejde omkring udforskningen af nye teknikker til augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  4. Rendering methods for augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has become a promising and fast-growing application of computer graphics over the course of the last years. Augmented reality systems overlay computer-generated graphical information over the view of the real world. Several main research challenges can be identified in the field of augmented reality. These are the design of advanced display devices (e.g., head-mounted displays), camera tracking, system design, user interaction, and rendering. While a major part of the p...

  5. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni eDi Pino; Angelo eMaravita; Loredana eZollo; Eugenio eGuglielmelli; Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentati...

  6. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentat...

  7. Augmented Sustainability Measures for Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey; Nick Hanley; Karen Turner; Dugald Tinch

    2003-01-01

    We estimate and compare two empirical measures of the weak sustainability of an economy for the first time: the change in augmented green net national product (GNNP), and the interest on augmented genuine savings (GS). Yearly calculations are given for each measure for Scotland during 1992-99. Augmentation means including, using projections to 2020, production possibilities enabled by exogenous technical progress or changing terms of trade. In passing, we clarify the treatment of environmenta...

  8. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  9. Primary osteosynthesis augmented with autologous bone graft with total knee arthroplasty in patients with stress fractures of medial femoral condyle with knee osteoarthritis: a cost effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Indrajit Shah

    2016-06-01

    Results: Mean follow-up was 7.0 years. All patients showed statistically significant improvement in their WOMAC total scores (p <0.05. Stress fractures united with good knee alignment. All patients had recovered full range of motion with no pain at the time of final follow-up. No adverse events were noted in any of the patient treated. Conclusions: The present approach is a successful procedure for the elderly population with an arthritic knee with stress fracture of medial femoral condyle. Return to pre-morbid level of functional activity occurs very swiftly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2408-2412

  10. Thermoelectric Generators on Satellites—An Approach for Waste Heat Recovery in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian von Lukowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental radiation in space (from the Sun, etc. and operational thermal loads result in heat flows inside the structure of satellites. Today these heat flows remain unused and are collected, transported to a radiator and emitted to space to prevent the satellite from overheating, but they hold a huge potential to generate electrical power independently of solar panels. Thermoelectric generators are a promising approach for such applications because of their solid state characteristics. As they do not have any moving parts, they do not cause any vibrations in the satellite. They are said to be maintenance-free and highly reliable. Due to the expected small heat flows modern devices based on BiTe have to be considered, but these devices have no flight heritage. Furthermore, energy harvesting on space systems is a new approach for increasing the efficiency and reliability. In this paper, different systems studies and applications are discussed based some experimental characterisation of the electrical behaviour and their dependence on thermal cycles and vibration.

  11. Toward natural fiducials for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchin, Paul; Martinez, Kirk

    2005-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) requires a mapping between the camera(s) and the world, so that virtual objects can be correctly registered. Current AR applications either use pre-prepared fiducial markers or specialist equipment or impose significant constraints on lighting and background. Each of these approaches has significant drawbacks. Fiducial markers are susceptible to loss or damage, can be awkward to work with and may require significant effort to prepare an area for Augmented interaction. Use of such markers may also present an imposition to non-augmented observers, especially in environments such as museums or historical landmarks. Specialist equipment is expensive and not universally available. Lighting and background constraints are often impractical for real-world applications. This paper presents initial results in using the palm of the hand as a pseudo-fiducial marker in a natural real-world environment, through colour, feature and edge analysis. The eventual aim of this research is to enable fiducial marker cards to be dispensed with entirely in some situations in order to allow more natural interaction in Augmented environments. Examples of this would be allowing users to "hold" virtual 3D objects in the palm of their hand or use gestures to interact with virtual objects.

  12. Free vascularised fibula in augmenting allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free vascularised fibula has been widely used for various reconstructive purposes. Fibula is the longest expendable source of cortical bone. It can be used to augment megalength allograft in limb salvage surgery. We are reporting two cases of segmental vascularised free fibula flap used to augment the allograft following wide resection of locally advanced limb tumours. Two cases of advanced skeletal malignancy were resected and reconstructed. A megalength allograft and a free vascularised segmental fibula flap were used in each case. The early outcome was excellent. There was no flap failure and both patients regained good limb mobility. Traditionally the treatment of locally advanced limb malignancy was amputation or desarticulation. Limb salvage surgery has spared patient from this mutilating procedures. The availability of endoprosthesis and allograft allowed extensive resection and subsequent reconstruction. The allograft, had significant associated complications such as infection, delayed union, fracture and resorption despite its advantages. Augmenting this allograft with a segmental vascularised free fibula flap will circumvent these potential complications. The allograft offers initial stability, strength and support while the vascularised fibula provide late stability. The segmental osteocutanceous fibula will hopefully induced accelerated osteogenesis. In out refinements of this technique we incorporated megalength allograft with multiple segmental cortical osteotomies of the free fibula flap. The early result of this new approach is very promising. Segmental osteocutaneous free vascularised fibula flap used in the augmentation of allograft potentially provide an attractive solution to minimize complications of megalength allograft in the limb salvage surgery

  13. A novel variable selection approach that iteratively optimizes variable space using weighted binary matrix sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/. PMID:25083512

  14. Quadratic programming-based approach for autonomous vehicle path planning in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Han, Jianda; Wu, Huaiyu

    2012-07-01

    Path planning for space vehicles is still a challenging problem although considerable progress has been made over the past decades. The major difficulties are that most of existing methods only adapt to static environment instead of dynamic one, and also can not solve the inherent constraints arising from the robot body and the exterior environment. To address these difficulties, this research aims to provide a feasible trajectory based on quadratic programming(QP) for path planning in three-dimensional space where an autonomous vehicle is requested to pursue a target while avoiding static or dynamic obstacles. First, the objective function is derived from the pursuit task which is defined in terms of the relative distance to the target, as well as the angle between the velocity and the position in the relative velocity coordinates(RVCs). The optimization is in quadratic polynomial form according to QP formulation. Then, the avoidance task is modeled with linear constraints in RVCs. Some other constraints, such as kinematics, dynamics, and sensor range, are included. Last, simulations with typical multiple obstacles are carried out, including in static and dynamic environments and one of human-in-the-loop. The results indicate that the optimal trajectories of the autonomous robot in three-dimensional space satisfy the required performances. Therefore, the QP model proposed in this paper not only adapts to dynamic environment with uncertainty, but also can satisfy all kinds of constraints, and it provides an efficient approach to solve the problems of path planning in three-dimensional space.

  15. Space-Hotel Early Bird - An Educational and Public Outreach Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01

    education and public outreach can be combined and how a cooperation among an association, the industry and academia can work successfully. Representatives of the DGLR and the academia developed a method to spread space related knowledge in a short time to a motivated working group. The project was a great success in the sense to involve other disciplines in space related topics by interdisciplinary work and in the sense of public and educational outreach. With more than 2.3 million contacts the DGLR e.V. promoted space and the vision of living (in) space to the public. The task of the paper is mainly to describe the approach and the experience made related to the organization, lectures, financing and outreach efforts in respect to similar future international outreach activities, which are planned for the 54th International Astronautical Congress in Bremen/Germany. www.spacehotel.org

  16. Semiclassical shell-structure moment of inertia within the phase-space approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gorpinchenko, D V; Bartel, J; Blocki, J P

    2014-01-01

    The moment of inertia for nuclear collective rotations was derived within the semiclassical approach based on the cranking model and the Strutinsky shell-correction method by using the non-perturbative periodic-orbit theory in the phase space variables. This moment of inertia for adiabatic (statistical-equilibrium) rotations can be approximated by the generalized rigid-body moment of inertia accounting for the shell corrections of the particle density. A semiclassical phase-space trace formula allows to express quite accurately the shell components of the moment of inertia in terms of the free-energy shell corrections for integrable and partially chaotic Fermi systems, in good agreement with the quantum calculations.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation Approaches Developed for Material Characterization in Aeronautics and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Kautz, Harold E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Martin, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches were developed or tailored for characterizing advanced material systems. The emphasis was on high-temperature aerospace propulsion applications. The material systems included monolithic ceramics, superalloys, and high-temperature composites. In the aeronautics area, the major applications were cooled ceramic plate structures for turbine applications, gamma-TiAl blade materials for low-pressure turbines, thermoelastic stress analysis for residual stress measurements in titanium-based and nickel-based engine materials, and acousto-ultrasonics for creep damage assessment in nickel-based alloys. In the space area, applications consisted of cooled carbon-carbon composites for gas generator combustors and flywheel rotors composed of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites for energy storage on the International Space Station.

  18. A New Approach to Space Situational Awareness using Small Ground-Based Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Chen, Cliff S.

    2014-12-01

    This report discusses a new SSA approach evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that may lead to highly scalable, small telescope observing stations designed to help manage the growing space surveillance burden. Using the methods and observing tools described in this report, the team was able to acquire and track very faint satellites (near Pluto’s apparent brightness). Photometric data was collected and used to correlate object orbital position as a function of atomic clock-derived time. Object apparent brightness was estimated by image analysis and nearby star calibration. The measurement performance was only limited by weather conditions, object brightness, and the sky glow at the observation site. In the future, these new SSA technologies and techniques may be utilized to protect satellite assets, detect and monitor orbiting debris fields, and support Outer Space Treaty monitoring and transparency.

  19. A tow concept for the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The tow concept provides the means for evaluating the orbiter aerodynamic performance and handling qualities in the same configuration as expected in actual space shuttle flight operation. A Boeing 747-100 aircraft has engine-out capability to tow the orbiter to an altitude that permits a safe orbiter approach and landing. The tow concept also provides a means for conducting a comprehensive ground test program before proceeding into the actual ALT flight operations. The implementation of the tow concept requires only a minor structural modification in the nose section of the orbiter vehicle; requires minor modifications in the 747 cargo bay; and makes use of those orbiter onboard systems installed in the ALT orbiter vehicle. The 747 wake turbulence does not constitute a problem for the orbiter during take-off or climb to altitude. The impact that the tow concept would have on the cost and schedule of the space shuttle program was not evaluated in this study.

  20. A two-dimensional space-time kinetics model using the adiabatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional space-time kinetics code, based on the adiabatic method is described. In this approach, the space, energy and time dependent flux is factorized into an amplitude factor and a shape function, the latter being assumed to be slowly varying in time as compared to the former. Further, one does not distinguish between the shapes of delayed and prompt neutron sources. The shape function is calculated at selected times by solving numerically a multigroup static eigen-value diffusion equation by the finite difference method. Between two consecutive time-steps, the point kinetics equations are solved by Cohen's method. Feedback is introduced through changes in cross-sections. With the changed cross-sections, the static calculation is repeated. The cycle is repeated till convergence is achieved in reactivity and temperatures. The code was tested against a typical fast reactor benchmark. The results agree well with those obtained elsewhere. (auth.)

  1. Combined Neuropeptide S and D-Cycloserine Augmentation Prevents the Return of Fear in Extinction-Impaired Rodents: Advantage of Dual versus Single Drug Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Verena; Murphy, Conor; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Muigg, Patrick; Neumann, Inga D.; Whittle, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite its success in treating specific anxiety disorders, the effect of exposure therapy is limited by problems with tolerability, treatment resistance, and fear relapse after initial response. The identification of novel drug targets facilitating fear extinction in clinically relevant animal models may guide improved treatment strategies for these disorders in terms of efficacy, acceleration of fear extinction, and return of fear. Methods: The extinction-facilitating potential of neuropeptide S, D-cycloserine, and a benzodiazepine was investigated in extinction-impaired high anxiety HAB rats and 129S1/SvImJ mice using a classical cued fear conditioning paradigm followed by extinction training and several extinction test sessions to study fear relapse. Results: Administration of D-cycloserine improved fear extinction in extinction-limited, but not in extinction-deficient, rodents compared with controls. Preextinction neuropeptide S caused attenuated fear responses in extinction-deficient 129S1/SvImJ mice at extinction training onset and further reduced freezing during this session. While the positive effects of either D-cycloserine or neuropeptide S were not persistent in 129S1/SvImJ mice after 10 days, the combination of preextinction neuropeptide S with postextinction D-cycloserine rendered the extinction memory persistent and context independent up to 5 weeks after extinction training. This dual pharmacological adjunct to extinction learning also protected against fear reinstatement in 129S1/SvImJ mice. Conclusions: By using the potentially nonsedative anxiolytic neuropeptide S and the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine to facilitate deficient fear extinction, we provide here the first evidence of a purported efficacy of a dual over a single drug approach. This approach may render exposure sessions less aversive and more efficacious for patients, leading to enhanced protection from fear relapse in the long term. PMID:26625894

  2. Temporal Coherence Strategies for Augmented Reality Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jacob Boesen; Tatzqern, Markus; Madsen, Claus B; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kalkofen, Denis

    2016-04-01

    Temporal coherence of annotations is an important factor in augmented reality user interfaces and for information visualization. In this paper, we empirically evaluate four different techniques for annotation. Based on these findings, we follow up with subjective evaluations in a second experiment. Results show that presenting annotations in object space or image space leads to a significant difference in task performance. Furthermore, there is a significant interaction between rendering space and update frequency of annotations. Participants improve significantly in locating annotations, when annotations are presented in object space, and view management update rate is limited. In a follow-up experiment, participants appear to be more satisfied with limited update rate in comparison to a continuous update rate of the view management system. PMID:26780810

  3. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  5. Augmented fish health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Historically, all agencies involved with fish health in the Columbia Basin were conducting various levels of fish health monitoring, pathogen screening and collection. The goals of this project were; to identify, develop and implement a standardized level of fish health methodologies, develop a common data collection and reporting format in the area of artificial production, evaluate and monitor water quality, improve communications between agencies and provide annual evaluation of fish health information for production of healthier smolts. This completion report will contain a project evaluation, review of the goals of the project, evaluation of the specific fish health analyses, an overview of highlights of the project and concluding remarks. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Beyond the Desert 2002, Accelerator, Non--Accelerator and Space Approaches in the New Millenium

    OpenAIRE

    Kleingrothaus, H. V. Klapdor

    2004-01-01

    The third conference on particle physics beyond the Standard Model (BEYOND THE DESERT'02 - Accelerator, Non-accelerator and Space Approaches) was held during 2--7 June, 2002 at the Finish town of Oulu, almost at the northern Arctic Circle. It was the first of the BEYOND conference series held outside Germany (CERN Courier March 2003, pp. 29-30). Traditionally the Scientific Programme of BEYOND conferences, brought into life in 1997 (see CERN Courier, November 1997, pp.16-18), covers almost al...

  7. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  8. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  9. Cosmology with quantum matter and a classical gravitational field: the approach of configuration-space ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Reginatto, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    I consider the formulation of hybrid cosmological models that consists of a classical gravitational field interacting with a quantized massive scalar field in the formalism of ensembles on configuration space. This is a viable approach that provides an alternative to semiclassical gravity. I discuss a particular, highly nonclassical solution in two approximations, minisuperspace and spherically-symmetric midisuperspace. In both cases, the coupling of the quantum scalar field and classical gravitational field leads to a cosmological model which has a quantized radius of the universe.

  10. Kinetic Rate Kernels via Hierarchical Liouville-Space Projection Operator Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-05-19

    Kinetic rate kernels in general multisite systems are formulated on the basis of a nonperturbative quantum dissipation theory, the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) formalism, together with the Nakajima-Zwanzig projection operator technique. The present approach exploits the HEOM-space linear algebra. The quantum non-Markovian site-to-site transfer rate can be faithfully evaluated via projected HEOM dynamics. The developed method is exact, as evident by the comparison to the direct HEOM evaluation results on the population evolution. PMID:26757138

  11. Augmenting the Stability of OB Dump by Using Fly Ash: A Geo Technical Approach to Sustainably Manage OB Dump at Jharia Coal Field, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Gupta*

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is mainly focused over the possible utilization of fly ash along with OB dump to enhance the stability of OB dump and thus provide a sustainable approach for better waste management of both these materials simultaneously. Instability of coal mine overburden (OB dumps is an important problem in most of the coal mines like Jharia coalfields in India. This is mainly occurring due to sliding nature of the rock material, lack of vegetation etc. Numbers of Environmental and health issues are associated with these unstable OB dumps. As it may easily flow with running water can contaminate the nearby water resource as well as carbonaceous content of the dump causes air pollution due to simultaneous combustion. On the other hand management of coal ash that is produced from thermal plants is also an important task. Dumping of fly ash in open may cause number of environmental problems. Various geotechnical and physical parameters such as particle size analysis, specific gravity, density, and friction angle/cohesion test have been performed to check the stability of OB dump and to analyze impacts of fly ash utilization to stabilize the OB dump.

  12. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  13. Oxytocin and the augmentation of labor : Human and medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P

    1993-12-01

    At least a third of the women giving birth in the United States receive intravenous oxytocin for the induction and augmentation of labor. The problem of inactive or ineffective labor remains a major challenge for birth attendants, midwives, and physicians who practice obstetrics. Before the discovery of oxytocin, traditional approaches to augmentation ranged from magical and folk interventions to extensive bloodletting. Despite its wide use the effectiveness of oxytocin augmentation has not been well studied, and current research raises new questions about its effect on the brain. PMID:24214403

  14. The color-vision approach to emotional space: cortical evoked potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucsein, W; Schaefer, F; Sokolov, E N; Schröder, C; Furedy, J J

    2001-01-01

    A framework for accounting for emotional phenomena proposed by Sokolov and Boucsein (2000) employs conceptual dimensions that parallel those of hue, brightness, and saturation in color vision. The approach that employs the concepts of emotional quality. intensity, and saturation has been supported by psychophysical emotional scaling data gathered from a few trained observers. We report cortical evoked potential data obtained during the change between different emotions expressed in schematic faces. Twenty-five subjects (13 male, 12 female) were presented with a positive, a negative, and a neutral computer-generated face with random interstimulus intervals in a within-subjects design, together with four meaningful and four meaningless control stimuli made up from the same elements. Frontal, central, parietal, and temporal ERPs were recorded from each hemisphere. Statistically significant outcomes in the P300 and N200 range support the potential fruitfulness of the proposed color-vision-model-based approach to human emotional space. PMID:11666042

  15. Study of nuclear pairing with Configuration-Space Monte-Carlo approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lingle, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclei play a decisive role in determining nuclear drip-lines, binding energies, and many collective properties. In this work a new Configuration-Space Monte-Carlo (CSMC) method for treating nuclear pairing correlations is developed, implemented, and demonstrated. In CSMC the Hamiltonian matrix is stochastically generated in Krylov subspace, resulting in the Monte-Carlo version of Lanczos-like diagonalization. The advantages of this approach over other techniques are discussed; the absence of the fermionic sign problem, probabilistic interpretation of quantum-mechanical amplitudes, and ability to handle truly large-scale problems with defined precision and error control, are noteworthy merits of CSMC. The features of our CSMC approach are shown using models and realistic examples. Special attention is given to difficult limits: situations with non-constant pairing strengths, cases with nearly degenerate excited states, limits when pairing correlations in finite systems are weak, and pr...

  16. Implementation of an Open-Scenario, Long-Term Space Debris Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bron; Yang Yang, Fan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacalioglu, Arif Goktug; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a status update on the implementation of a flexible, long-term space debris simulation approach. The motivation is to build a tool that can assess the long-term impact of various options for debris-remediation, including the LightForce space debris collision avoidance concept that diverts objects using photon pressure [9]. State-of-the-art simulation approaches that assess the long-term development of the debris environment use either completely statistical approaches, or they rely on large time steps on the order of several days if they simulate the positions of single objects over time. They cannot be easily adapted to investigate the impact of specific collision avoidance schemes or de-orbit schemes, because the efficiency of a collision avoidance maneuver can depend on various input parameters, including ground station positions and orbital and physical parameters of the objects involved in close encounters (conjunctions). Furthermore, maneuvers take place on timescales much smaller than days. For example, LightForce only changes the orbit of a certain object (aiming to reduce the probability of collision), but it does not remove entire objects or groups of objects. In the same sense, it is also not straightforward to compare specific de-orbit methods in regard to potential collision risks during a de-orbit maneuver. To gain flexibility in assessing interactions with objects, we implement a simulation that includes every tracked space object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and propagates all objects with high precision and variable time-steps as small as one second. It allows the assessment of the (potential) impact of physical or orbital changes to any object. The final goal is to employ a Monte Carlo approach to assess the debris evolution during the simulation time-frame of 100 years and to compare a baseline scenario to debris remediation scenarios or other scenarios of interest. To populate the initial simulation, we use the entire space

  17. A study of magnetism in disordered Pt-Mn, Pd-Mn and Ni-Mn alloys: an augmented space recursion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we shall study three binary alloy systems, one constituent of which is Mn. The other constituents are chosen from a particular column of the periodic table: Ni(3d), Pt (4d) and Pd (5d). As we go down the column, the d-bands become wider, discouraging spin-polarization. In a disordered alloy, the situation becomes more complicated, as the exchange interaction between two atoms is environment dependent. We shall compare and contrast their magnetic behaviour using robust electronic structure techniques. In all three alloy systems conjectures are made to explain experimental data. In this paper we shall examine whether there is any basis to these conjectures. (paper)

  18. Third International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel is Approaching Reality» (Successful Event in Difficult Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusevych Tetiana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the presentations of participants of III International Scientific and Practical Conference «Space Travel – approaching reality», held on 6–7 November 2014 in Kharkiv, Ukraine

  19. Path integral approach for superintegrable potentials on spaces of non-constant curvature. Pt. 1. Darboux spaces DI and DII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the Feynman path integral technique is applied for superintegrable potentials on two-dimensional spaces of non-constant curvature: these spaces are Darboux spaces DI and DII, respectively. On DI there are three and on DII foru such potentials, respectively. We are able to evaluate the path integral in most of the separating coordinate systems, leading to expressions for the Green functions, the discrete and continuous wave-functions, and the discrete energy-spectra. In some cases, however, the discrete spectrum cannot be stated explicitly, because it is either determined by a transcendental equation involving parabolic cylinder functions (Darboux space I), or by a higher order polynomial equation. The solutions on DI in particular show that superintegrable systems are not necessarily degenerate. We can also show how the limiting cases of flat space (Constant curvature zero) and the two-dimensional hyperboloid (constant negative curvature) emerge. (Orig.)

  20. A unified approach for numerical calculation of space-dependent kinetic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified numerical method based on the factorization approach is developed to solve the space-dependent neutron kinetic equation. Various numerical methods for solving the space-dependent kinetic equation have been developed so far. These methods can be classified into two categories, i.e., the direct and the factorization methods. The factorization method is known as an effective numerical method. In the present study, a new factorization method named the multigrid amplitude function (MAF) method is developed. Unlike the improved quasi-static (IQS) method, an independent amplitude function is assigned for each spatial region and energy group in the MAF method. The MAF method is a generalization of conventional methods, e.g., the frequency transform, IQS, and Theta methods. To evaluate the amplitude function in the MAF method, the time-dependent coarse-mesh finite difference (TCMFD) method is developed. The MAF method is implemented into a space-dependent kinetic code on the basis of the analytical polynomial nodal method. In order to verify the effectiveness of the MAF method, the TWIGL, Langenbuch, Maurer, and Werner (LMW), and Laboratorium fur Reaktorregelung and Anlagensicherung (LRA) benchmark problems are analyzed. The calculation results show the effectiveness of the present method. (author)

  1. The systems approach for applying artificial intelligence to space station automation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Vernon L.

    1985-12-01

    The progress of technology is marked by fragmentation -- dividing research and development into ever narrower fields of specialization. Ultimately, specialists know everything about nothing. And hope for integrating those slender slivers of specialty into a whole fades. Without an integrated, all-encompassing perspective, technology becomes applied in a lopsided and often inefficient manner. A decisionary model, developed and applied for NASA's Chief Engineer toward establishment of commercial space operations, can be adapted to the identification, evaluation, and selection of optimum application of artificial intelligence for space station automation -- restoring wholeness to a situation that is otherwise chaotic due to increasing subdivision of effort. Issues such as functional assignments for space station task, domain, and symptom modules can be resolved in a manner understood by all parties rather than just the person with assigned responsibility -- and ranked by overall significance to mission accomplishment. Ranking is based on the three basic parameters of cost, performance, and schedule. This approach has successfully integrated many diverse specialties in situations like worldwide terrorism control, coal mining safety, medical malpractice risk, grain elevator explosion prevention, offshore drilling hazards, and criminal justice resource allocation -- all of which would have otherwise been subject to "squeaky wheel" emphasis and support of decision-makers.

  2. A reciprocal space approach for locating symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrixson, T.

    1990-09-21

    A method for determining the location and possible existence of symmetry elements in Patterson superposition maps has been developed. A comparison of the original superposition map and a superposition map operated on by the symmetry element gives possible translations to the location of the symmetry element. A reciprocal space approach using structure factor-like quantities obtained from the Fourier transform of the superposition function is then used to determine the best'' location of the symmetry element. Constraints based upon the space group requirements are also used as a check on the locations. The locations of the symmetry elements are used to modify the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition function to give an approximation of the structure factors, which are then refined using the EG relation. The analysis of several compounds using this method is presented. Reciprocal space techniques for locating multiple images in the superposition function are also presented, along with methods to remove the effect of multiple images in the Fourier transform coefficients of the superposition map. In addition, crystallographic studies of the extended chain structure of (NHC{sub 5}H{sub 5})SbI{sub 4} and of the twinning method of the orthorhombic form of the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} are presented. 54 refs.

  3. The Hilbert space of the Chern-Simons theory on a cylinder: a loop quantum gravity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a laboratory for loop quantum gravity, we consider the canonical quantization of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory on a noncompact space with the topology of a cylinder. Working within the loop quantization formalism, we define at the quantum level the constraints appearing in the canonical approach and completely solve them, thus constructing a gauge and diffeomorphism invariant physical Hilbert space for the theory. This space turns out to be infinite dimensional, but separable.

  4. Mobile Camera as a Human Vision in Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Edmund Ng Gaip Weng; Rehman Ullah Khan; Shahren Ahmad Zaidi Adruce; Oon Yin Bee

    2013-01-01

    The real world objects can be recognized by using marker based and marker-less augmented reality systems. Mostly, the previous developers used markers based augmented reality systems. However, those systems actually hide the reality and it was also difficult to keep the markers everywhere. Furthermore, the previous marker-less approaches use client-server architecture, which is drastically affected by network latency. Smartphone camera is matured enough that it can recognize real world object...

  5. Adaptive fuzzy approach to modeling of operational space for autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilek, Petr; Gupta, Madan M.

    1998-10-01

    Robots operating in an unstructured environment need high level of modeling of their operational space in order to plan a suitable path from an initial position to a desired goal. From this perspective, operational space modeling seems to be crucial to ensure a sufficient level of autonomy. In order to compile the information from various sources, we propose a fuzzy approach to evaluate each unit region on a grid map by a certain value of transition cost. This value expresses the cost of movement over the unit region: the higher the value, the more expensive the movement through the region in terms of energy, time, danger, etc. The approach for modeling, proposed in this paper, employs fuzzy granulation of information on various terrain features and their combination based on a fuzzy neural network. In order to adapt to the changing environmental conditions, and to improve the validity of constructed cost maps on-line, the system can be endowed with learning abilities. The learning subsystem would change parameters of the fuzzy neural network based decision system by reinforcements derived from comparisons of the actual cost of transition with the cost obtained from the model.

  6. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Simon

    2013-08-13

    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state-space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models of residential buildings. Quantitative measures are provided of the standard deviation of concentration and exposure within a range of residential multizone buildings. Ratios of the maximum short term concentrations and exposures to single zone building estimates are also provided for the same buildings. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Resolving kinematic redundancy with constraints using the FSP (Full Space Parameterization) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution method is presented for the motion planning and control of kinematically redundant serial-link manipulators in the presence of motion constraints such as joint limits or obstacles. Given a trajectory for the end-effector, the approach utilizes the recently proposed Full Space Parameterization (FSP) method to generate a parameterized expression for the entire space of solutions of the unconstrained system. At each time step, a constrained optimization technique is then used to analytically find the specific joint motion solution that satisfies the desired task objective and all the constraints active during the time step. The method is applicable to systems operating in a priori known environments or in unknown environments with sensor-based obstacle detection. The derivation of the analytical solution is first presented for a general type of kinematic constraint and is then applied to the problem of motion planning for redundant manipulators with joint limits and obstacle avoidance. Sample results using planar and 3-D manipulators with various degrees of redundancy are presented to illustrate the efficiency and wide applicability of constrained motion planning using the FSP approach

  8. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2008-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a two-pronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills. Methods: A mentor works with an operator throughout the training flow. Inserted into the training flow are guided-discussion sessions and on-the-job observation opportunities focusing on specific SFRM skills, including: situational leadership, conflict management, stress management, cross-cultural awareness, self care and team care while on-console, communication, workload management, and situation awareness. The mentor and operator discuss the science and art behind the skills, cultural effects on skills applications, recognition of good and bad skills applications, recognition of how skills application changes subtly in different situations, and individual goals and techniques for improving skills. Discussion: This mentoring program provides an additional means of transferring SFRM knowledge compared to traditional CRM training programs. Our future endeavors in training SFRM skills (as well as other organization s) may benefit from adding team performance skills mentoring. This paper

  9. Extending peripersonal space representation without tool-use: evidence from a combined behavioural-computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stimuli from different sensory modalities occurring on or close to the body are integrated in a multisensory representation of the space surrounding the body, i.e. peripersonal space (PPS. PPS dynamically modifies depending on experience, e.g. it extends after using a tool to reach far objects. However, the neural mechanism underlying PPS plasticity after tool use is largely unknown. Here we use a combined computational-behavioural approach to propose and test a possible mechanism accounting for PPS extension. We first present a neural network model simulating audio-tactile representation in the PPS around one hand. Simulation experiments showed that our model reproduced the main property of PPS neurons, i.e. selective multisensory response for stimuli occurring close to the hand. We used the neural network model to simulate the effects of a tool-use training. In terms of sensory inputs, tool use was conceptualized as a concurrent tactile stimulation from the hand, due to holding the tool, and an auditory stimulation from the far space, due to tool-mediated action. Results showed that after exposure to those inputs, PPS neurons responded also to multisensory stimuli far from the hand. The model thus suggests that synchronous pairing of tactile hand stimulation and auditory stimulation from the far space is sufficient to extend PPS, such as after tool-use. Such prediction was confirmed by a behavioural experiment, where we used an audio-tactile interaction paradigm to measure the boundaries of PPS representation. We found that PPS extended after synchronous tactile-hand stimulation and auditory-far stimulation in a group of healthy volunteers. Control experiments both in simulation and behavioural settings showed that asynchronous tactile and auditory inputs did not change PPS. We conclude by proposing a biological-plausible model to explain plasticity in PPS representation after tool-use, supported by computational and behavioural data.

  10. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  11. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Amer; Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  12. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics with full wave functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter E Blöchl; Clemens J Först; Johannes Schimpl

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction to the projector augmented wave method is given and recent developments are reviewed. The projector augmented wave method is an all-electron method for efficient ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with full wave functions. It extends and combines the traditions of existing augmented wave methods and the pseudopotential approach. Without sacrificing efficiency, the PAW method avoids transferability problems of the pseudopotential approach and it has been valuable to predict properties that depend on the full wave functions.

  13. Zion Augmented Reality Application (ZARA): An Augmented Heritage Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Odland, Johannes Johannesen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation and development of a virtual heritage application that employs augmented reality to disseminate a model of the Zion castle. The developed system is a flexible prototype that leverages several open source frameworks and applications.

  14. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  15. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  16. Understanding augmented reality concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality is not a technology. Augmented reality is a medium. Likewise, a book on augmented reality that only addresses the technology that is required to support the medium of augmented reality falls far short of providing the background that is needed to produce, or critically consume augmented reality applications. One reads a book. One watches a movie. One experiences augmented reality. Understanding Augmented Reality addresses the elements that are required to create compelling augmented reality experiences. The technology that supports

  17. Augmenting painted architectures for communicating cultural heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Sdegno; Silvia Masserano; Denis Mior; Paola Cochelli; Eleonora Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a research under development at the University of Trieste to analyze a painted architecture by Paolo Veronese and to present the results using AR systems (Augmented Reality Systems). The canvas was painted in 1573 and it is now at the Gallerie dell’Accademia Museum in Venice. The aim of the research was to transform a two-dimensional work of art in a three dimensional one, allowing all the visitors of a museum to enter the space of the representation and perceive it in a mo...

  18. An approach to ground based space surveillance of geostationary on-orbit servicing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert (Lauchie); Ellery, Alex

    2015-07-01

    On Orbit Servicing (OOS) is a class of dual-use robotic space missions that could potentially extend the life of orbiting satellites by fuel replenishment, repair, inspection, orbital maintenance or satellite repurposing, and possibly reduce the rate of space debris generation. OOS performed in geostationary orbit poses a unique challenge for the optical space surveillance community. Both satellites would be performing proximity operations in tight formation flight with separations less than 500 m making atmospheric seeing (turbulence) a challenge to resolving a geostationary satellite pair when viewed from the ground. The two objects would appear merged in an image as the resolving power of the telescope and detector, coupled with atmospheric seeing, limits the ability to resolve the two objects. This poses an issue for obtaining orbital data for conjunction flight safety or, in matters pertaining to space security, inferring the intent and trajectory of an unexpected object perched very close to one's satellite asset on orbit. In order to overcome this problem speckle interferometry using a cross spectrum approach is examined as a means to optically resolve the client and servicer's relative positions to enable a means to perform relative orbit determination of the two spacecraft. This paper explores cases where client and servicing satellites are in unforced relative motion flight and examines the observability of the objects. Tools are described that exploit cross-spectrum speckle interferometry to (1) determine the presence of a secondary in the vicinity of the client satellite and (2) estimate the servicing satellite's motion relative to the client. Experimental observations performed with the Mont Mégantic 1.6 m telescope on co-located geostationary satellites (acting as OOS proxy objects) are described. Apparent angular separations between Anik G1 and Anik F1R from 5 to 1 arcsec were observed as the two satellites appeared to graze one another. Data

  19. Augmenter of liver regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Chandrashekhar R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ‘Augmenter of liver regeneration’ (ALR (also known as hepatic stimulatory substance or hepatopoietin was originally found to promote growth of hepatocytes in the regenerating or injured liver. ALR is expressed ubiquitously in all organs, and exclusively in hepatocytes in the liver. ALR, a survival factor for hepatocytes, exhibits significant homology with ERV1 (essential for respiration and viability protein that is essential for the survival of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ALR comprises 198 to 205 amino acids (approximately 22 kDa, but is post-translationally modified to three high molecular weight species (approximately 38 to 42 kDa found in hepatocytes. ALR is present in mitochondria, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Mitochondrial ALR may be involved in oxidative phosphorylation, but also functions as sulfhydryl oxidase and cytochrome c reductase, and causes Fe/S maturation of proteins. ALR, secreted by hepatocytes, stimulates synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide in Kupffer cells via a G-protein coupled receptor. While the 22 kDa rat recombinant ALR does not stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, the short form (15 kDa of human recombinant ALR was reported to be equipotent as or even stronger than TGF-α or HGF as a mitogen for hepatocytes. Altered serum ALR levels in certain pathological conditions suggest that it may be a diagnostic marker for liver injury/disease. Although ALR appears to have multiple functions, the knowledge of its role in various organs, including the liver, is extremely inadequate, and it is not known whether different ALR species have distinct functions. Future research should provide better understanding of the expression and functions of this enigmatic molecule.

  20. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our "effective augmentation" algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. "Effective augmentation" is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  1. Mersiline mesh in premaxillary augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant. PMID:15959688

  2. The periareolar approach management of postoperative complication of breast augmentation by injected polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel%经乳晕切口治疗聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶注射隆乳术后并发症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巍; 刘长松; 王涛; 陈伟华

    2011-01-01

    探讨聚丙烯酰胺水凝胶(PAHG)注射隆乳术后并发症及治疗方法.方法:自2003年7月~ 2009年5月,我科共收治PAHG注射隆乳术后患者67例,年龄32 ~ 50岁,均为双侧注射,术前常规行乳腺彩超和MRI检查,明确注射层次和周围组织浸润等情况.术中采用乳晕下缘切口,直视下取出注射物,根据肌肉的完整程度、有无感染以及注射物残留情况决定是否进行Ⅰ期乳房假体置入手术,其中有28例患者Ⅰ期置入乳房假体.结果:本组患者随访6个月~2年,所有患者术前症状基本消失,无假体疝出、感染、切口裂开、双侧乳房不对称等并发症出现,治疗效果良好.结论:经乳晕切口行PAHG取出术可最大程度的取出注射物,可在直视下了解周围组织破坏程度,决定乳房假体置入时机,可取得良好的治疗效果.%Objective To investigate postoperative complications of breast augmentation by injected polyacrylamide hydrophilic gel (PAHG) and discuss treatment through the periareolar approach. Methods From July 2003 to May 2009.67 patients with bilateral breast augmentation by injected PAHG underwent operation in our department, The age of patients ranged from 32 to 50 years.Ultrasound and MRI were performed before operation to show the distribution of PAHG and the tissue infiltration around the PAHG.The fillers were removed under direct vision through the periareolar approach.According to the muscle integrity, infection and PAHG residue, whether breast implants were implanted at the same stage was determined,and the breast implantation operation were performed in 28 patients. Results The patients were followed up for 6 months to 2 years.The symptoms before operation disappeared in ail patients , there was no complication of implant hernia, infection,wound disruption, or asymmetry. Conclusions The PAHG can be removed mostly and the degree of histoclasia can be known under direct vision.and the time for breast implantion

  3. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  4. Classical and quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems: An extended complex phase space approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Kaushal

    2009-08-01

    Certain aspects of classical and quantum mechanics of complex Hamiltonian systems in one dimension investigated within the framework of an extended complex phase space approach, characterized by the transformation = 1 + 2, = 1 + 2, are revisited. It is argued that Carl Bender inducted $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry in the studies of complex power potentials as a particular case of the present general framework in which two additional degrees of freedom are produced by extending each coordinate and momentum into complex planes. With a view to account for the subjective component of physical reality inherent in the collected data, e.g., using a Chevreul (hand-held) pendulum, a generalization of the Hamilton’s principle of least action is suggested.

  5. Truncated Hilbert Space Approach for the 1+1D phi^4 Theory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    (an informal seminar, not a regular string seminar) We used the massive analogue of the truncated conformal space approach to study the broken phase of the 1+1 dimensional scalar phi^4 model in finite volume, similarly to the work by S. Rychkov and L. Vitale. In our work, the finite size spectrum was determined numerically using an effective eigensolver routine, which was followed by a simple extrapolation in the cutoff energy. We analyzed both the periodic and antiperiodic sectors. The results were compared with semiclassical and Bethe-Yang results as well as perturbation theory. We obtained the coupling dependence of the infinite volume breather and kink masses for moderate couplings. The results fit well with semiclassics and perturbative estimations, and confirm the conjecture of Mussardo that at most two neutral excitations can exist in the spectrum. We believe that improving our method with the renormalization procedure of Rychkov et al. enables to measure further interesting quantities such as decay ra...

  6. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  7. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented

  8. Simultaneous breast augmentation and mastopexy

    OpenAIRE

    Whidden, Peter G

    2003-01-01

    The results of combining breast augmentation and mastopexy are less predictable than those associated with mastopexy or augmentation mammoplasty alone. A method of breast skin envelope reduction is presented that allows the surgeon performing mastopexy to preview the final breast shape before committing to skin resection. This method, first described in 1978, has proven to be technically versatile and reproducible, and applicable not only to moderate (second degree) and severe (third degree) ...

  9. A multifractal approach to space-filling recovery for PET quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A new image-based methodology is developed for estimating the apparent space-filling properties of an object of interest in PET imaging without need for a robust segmentation step and used to recover accurate estimates of total lesion activity (TLA). Methods: A multifractal approach and the fractal dimension are proposed to recover the apparent space-filling index of a lesion (tumor volume, TV) embedded in nonzero background. A practical implementation is proposed, and the index is subsequently used with mean standardized uptake value (SUV mean) to correct TLA estimates obtained from approximate lesion contours. The methodology is illustrated on fractal and synthetic objects contaminated by partial volume effects (PVEs), validated on realistic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET simulations and tested for its robustness using a clinical 18F-fluorothymidine PET test–retest dataset. Results: TLA estimates were stable for a range of resolutions typical in PET oncology (4–6 mm). By contrast, the space-filling index and intensity estimates were resolution dependent. TLA was generally recovered within 15% of ground truth on postfiltered PET images affected by PVEs. Volumes were recovered within 15% variability in the repeatability study. Results indicated that TLA is a more robust index than other traditional metrics such as SUV mean or TV measurements across imaging protocols. Conclusions: The fractal procedure reported here is proposed as a simple and effective computational alternative to existing methodologies which require the incorporation of image preprocessing steps (i.e., partial volume correction and automatic segmentation) prior to quantification

  10. Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met.

  11. Reliability Analysis of a 3-Machine Power Station Using State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WasiuAkande Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high-integrity fault-tolerant systems, the ability to account for repairs of partially failed (but still operational systems become increasingly important. This paper presents a systemic method of determining the reliability of a 3-machine electric power station, taking into consideration the failure rates and repair rates of the individual component (machine that make up the system. A state-space transition process for a 3-machine with 23 states was developed and consequently, steady state equations were generated based on Markov mathematical modeling of the power station. Important reliability components were deduced from this analysis. This research simulation was achieved with codes written in Excel® -VBA programming environment. System reliability using state space approach proofs to be a viable and efficient technique of reliability prediction as it is able to predict the state of the system under consideration. For the purpose of neatness and easy entry of data, Graphic User Interface (GUI was designed.

  12. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  13. Scattering in quantum field theory: the M.P.S.A. approach in complex momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this course, we intend to show how 'Many-Particle Structure Analysis' (M.P.S.A.) can be worked out in the standard field-theoretical framework, by using integral relations in complex momentum space involving 'l-particle irreducible kernels'. The ultimate purpose of this approach is to obtain the best possible knowledge of the singularities (location, nature, type of ramification) and of the ambient holomorphy (or meromorphy) domains of the n-point Green functions and scattering amplitudes, and at the same time to derive analytic structural equations for them which display the global organization of these singularities. The generation of Landau singularities for integrals and Fredholm resolvents, taken on cycles in complex space, will be explained on the basis of the Picard-Lefschetz formula (presented and used in simple situations). Among various results described, we present and analyse a structural equation for the six-point function (and for the 3 → 3 particle scattering function), valid in a domain containing the three-particle normal threshold

  14. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alain [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 # 502, 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  15. Two-dimensional affective space: a new approach to orienting the axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, David J; Meyer, John P

    2009-04-01

    What are the constructs that underlie affective experiences? Some authors have suggested Valence and Activation, whereas others have suggested Positive Activation and Negative Activation-both approaches are represented by different axis orientations in traditional two-mode (People x Adjectives) factor analysis. The authors provide new evidence for this debate by using three-mode (People x Adjectives x Occasions) parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis to determine the appropriate axes (and hence constructs) for representing affective experiences. Unlike traditional factor analysis, with PARAFAC different orientations of the axes fit the data differently so it is possible to determine the best fitting axes. In Study 1, the authors assessed the extent to which the PARAFAC procedure was able recover the axes defining a two-dimensional factor space under different conditions. In both Study 2 (N = 112) and Study 3 (N = 349), undergraduate students rated their emotional states on a variety of occasions. The best fitting axes for two-dimensional affective space were Valence and Activation in both studies. Exploration of higher dimensional solutions in Study 3 revealed a three-factor solution that, in addition to an activation factor, supported the separation of positive and negative emotions. PMID:19348534

  16. Space-time-wavelength mapping: a new approach for electronic control of optical tweezers

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Shah; Zhao, Qiancheng; Atasever, Tuva; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach for electronic control of optical tweezers. The key technique, called 'space-time-wavelength mapping', involves time-domain modulation which is translated onto spatial domain by diffraction and enables direct control of location and polarity of force hot-spots created by Lorentz force (gradient force). In this study 150 fs optical pulses are dispersed in time and space to achieve a focused elliptical beam that is ~20 {\\mu}m long and ~2 {\\mu}m wide. In order to manipulate the intensity gradient along the beam at the focal spot, we use an electro-optic modulator to modulate power spectral distribution of the femtosecond beam after temporal dispersion. The electro-optic modulator is supplied with a chosen RF waveform that dictates the manipulation of the power spectral distribution. By choosing the appropriate RF waveform, it is possible to create force fields for cell stretching and compression as well as multiple hot spots (of > 200 pN force) for attractive or repulsive forces. We pre...

  17. A modified approach for change detection using change vector analysis in posterior probability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, S. A.; Vidal, A.; Bentounes, H. A.

    2015-04-01

    The multispectral and multitemporal data coming from satellites allow us to extract valuable spatiotemporal change. Consequently, Earth surface change detection analysis has been used in the past to monitor land cover changes caused by different reasons. Several techniques have been used for that purpose and change vector analysis (CVA) has been frequently employed to carry out automatic spatiotemporal information extraction. This work describes a modified methodology based on Supervised Change Vector Analysis in Posterior probability Space (SCVAPS) with the final aim of obtaining a change detection map in Blida, Algeria. The proposed technique is a Modified version of Supervised Change Vector Analysis Posterior probability Space (MSCVAPS) and it is applied at the same region that the original technique studied in the literature. The classical Maximum Likelihood classifier is the selected method for supervised classification since it provides good properties in the posterior probability map. An improved method for threshold determination based on Double Flexible Pace Search (DFPS) is proposed in this work and it is employed to obtain the most adequate threshold value. Then, the MSCVAPS approach is evaluated by two cases study of the land cover change detection in the region of Blida, Algeria, and in the region of Shunyi District, Beijing, China, using a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper images and pair of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper images, respectively. The final evaluation is given by the overall accuracy of changed and unchanged pixels and the kappa coefficient. The results show that the modified approach gives excellent results using the same area of study that was selected in the literature.

  18. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  19. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF AERONAUTICAL LOCAL SATELLITE AUGMENTATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojce Ilcev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper introduces development and implementation of new Local Satellite AugmentationSystem as an integration component of the Regional Satellite Augmentation System (RSAS employingcurrent and new Satellite Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS for improvement of the AirTraffic Control (ATC and Air Traffic Management (ATM and for enhancement safety systems includingtransport security and control of flights in all stages, airport approaching, landing, departures and allmovements over airport surface areas. The current first generation of the Global Navigation Satellite SystemGNSS-1 applications are represented by fundamental military solutions for Position, Velocity and Time ofthe satellite navigation and determination systems such as the US GPS and Russian GLONASS (Former-USSR requirements, respectively. The establishment of Aeronautical CNS is also discussed as a part ofGlobal Satellite Augmentation Systems of GPS and GLONASS systems integrated with existing and futureRSAS and LSAS in airports areas. Specific influence and factors related to the Comparison of the Currentand New Aeronautical CNS System including the Integration of RSAS and GNSS solutions are discussedand packet of facts is determined to maximize the new satellite Automatic Dependent Surveillance System(ADSS and Special Effects of the RSAS Networks. The possible future integration of RSAS and GNSS andthe common proposal of the satellite Surface Movement Guidance and Control are presented in thechangeless ways as of importance for future enfacements of ATC and ATM for any hypothetical airportinfrastructure.Keywords: ADSS, ATC, ATM, CNS, GSAS, LRAS, RSAS, SMGC, Special Effects of RSAS.

  1. Application of a Systems Engineering Approach to Support Space Reactor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, approximately 25 Russian and 12 U.S. engineers and technicians were involved in the transport, assembly, inspection, and testing of over 90 tons of Russian equipment associated with the Thermionic System Evaluation Test (TSET) Facility. The entire Russian Baikal Test Stand, consisting of a 5.79 m tall vacuum chamber and related support equipment, was reassembled and tested at the TSET facility in less than four months. In November 1992, the first non-nuclear operational test of a complete thermionic power reactor system in the U.S. was accomplished three months ahead of schedule and under budget. A major factor in this accomplishment was the application of a disciplined top-down systems engineering approach and application of a spiral development model to achieve the desired objectives of the TOPAZ International Program (TIP). Systems Engineering is a structured discipline that helps programs and projects conceive, develop, integrate, test and deliver products and services that meet customer requirements within cost and schedule. This paper discusses the impact of Systems Engineering and a spiral development model on the success of the TOPAZ International Program and how the application of a similar approach could help ensure the success of future space reactor development projects

  2. A space-angle DGFEM approach for the Boltzmann radiation transport equation with local angular refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kópházi, József; Lathouwers, Danny

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the discretization of the radiation transport equation is presented, based on a discontinuous Galerkin method in space and angle that allows for local refinement in angle where any spatial element can support its own angular discretization. To cope with the discontinuous spatial nature of the solution, a generalized Riemann procedure is required to distinguish between incoming and outgoing contributions of the numerical fluxes. A new consistent framework is introduced that is based on the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. The resulting numerical fluxes for the various possible cases where neighboring elements have an equal, higher or lower level of refinement in angle are derived based on tensor algebra and the resulting expressions have a very clear physical interpretation. The choice of discontinuous trial functions not only has the advantage of easing local refinement, it also facilitates the use of efficient sweep-based solvers due to decoupling of unknowns on a large scale thereby approaching the efficiency of discrete ordinates methods with local angular resolution. The approach is illustrated by a series of numerical experiments. Results show high orders of convergence for the scalar flux on angular refinement. The generalized Riemann upwinding procedure leads to stable and consistent solutions. Further the sweep-based solver performs well when used as a preconditioner for a Krylov method.

  3. A minimum state multibody/FEM approach for modeling flexible orbiting space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisculli, A.; Gasbarri, P.

    2015-05-01

    In the past the deployment of space structures has widely been analyzed by using multibody formulations. The two leading approaches are usually based on the Newton-Euler (NE) formulation and Euler-Lagrange (EL) formulation. Both of them present advantages and drawbacks. The ideal approach for describing multi-body systems can be represented by a combination between NE and EL formulations. This can be obtained by considering the NE formulation for assembling the equation of motion and then by defining the ODE governing equations with the use of a minimum set of variables. In this paper the authors present a mixed NE/EL formulation suitable for synthesizing optimal control strategies during the deploying maneuvers of robotic arms or solar arrays. The proposed method has two main characteristics: (i) the reference frame, which all the bodies motions are referred to, is a floating reference frame attached to the orbiting base platform body; (ii) it leads to a more organic formulation which makes a shifting from the NE to the EL formulations possible, through the use of a Jacobian matrix. In the present work this mixed formulation is derived to describe a fully elastic multi-body spacecraft. Furthermore the presented formulation, complemented with gravity, gravity gradient and generalized gravitational modal forces, will be used to study the dynamic behavior of an orbiting manipulator with flexible appendages. Finally a Reaction Null/Jacobian Transpose control strategy will be applied to control and deploy the robotic arms to grasp an orbiting flexible spacecraft.

  4. MetaTree: augmented reality narrative explorations of urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ruth; Margolis, Todd; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Mendelowitz, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    As cities world-wide adopt and implement reforestation initiatives to plant millions of trees in urban areas, they are engaging in what is essentially a massive ecological and social experiment. Existing air-borne, space-borne, and fieldbased imaging and inventory mechanisms fail to provide key information on urban tree ecology that is crucial to informing management, policy, and supporting citizen initiatives for the planting and stewardship of trees. The shortcomings of the current approaches include: spatial and temporal resolution, poor vantage point, cost constraints and biological metric limitations. Collectively, this limits their effectiveness as real-time inventory and monitoring tools. Novel methods for imaging and monitoring the status of these emerging urban forests and encouraging their ongoing stewardship by the public are required to ensure their success. This art-science collaboration proposes to re-envision citizens' relationship with urban spaces by foregrounding urban trees in relation to local architectural features and simultaneously creating new methods for urban forest monitoring. We explore creating a shift from overhead imaging or field-based tree survey data acquisition methods to continuous, ongoing monitoring by citizen scientists as part of a mobile augmented reality experience. We consider the possibilities of this experience as a medium for interacting with and visualizing urban forestry data and for creating cultural engagement with urban ecology.

  5. Unpower aerocraft augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at designing the unpower aerocraft attitude control system in a simple and practical way,the guaranteed cost control is adopted.To eliminate the steady-error,a novel tracking control approach-augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is proposed.Firstly,the unpower aerocraft is modeled as a linear system with norm bounded parameter uncertain,then the linear matrix inequality based state feedback gnaranteed cost control law is combined with the augmented state feedback tracking control from a new point of view.The sufficient condition of the existence of the augmented state feedback tracking guaranteed cost control is derived and converted to the feasible problem of the linear matrix inequality.Finally,the proposed approach is applied to a specified unpower aerocraft.The six dimensions of freedom simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective and feasible.

  6. Natural heat transfer augmentation in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of non condensable gas pressure and steam pressure in the wet well gas space. Since there are no active systems for heat removal in the wet well, energy transmitted to the wet well gas space, by a variety of means, must be removed by passive heat transfer to the walls and suppression pool (SP). The cold suppression pool located below the hotter gas space provides a stable configuration in which convection currents are suppressed thus limiting heat and mass transfer between the gas space and pool. However, heat transfer to the walls results in natural circulation currents that can augment the heat and mass transfer to the pool surface. Using a simplified model, parametric studies are carried out to show that augmentation of the order of magnitude expected can significantly impact the heat and mass transfer to the pool. Additionally a review of available literature in the area of augmentation and mixed convection of this type is presented and indicates the need for additional experimental work in order to develop adequate models for heat and mass transfer augmentation in the configuration of a BWR suppression pool. (author)

  7. Applying the system engineering approach to devise a master’s degree program in space technology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Tabeshian, Maryam; Taheran Vernoosfaderani, Mahsa

    2010-11-01

    Although more than half a century is passed since space technology was first developed, developing countries are just beginning to enter the arena, focusing mainly on educating professionals. Space technology by itself is an interdisciplinary science, is costly, and developing at a fast pace. Moreover, a fruitful education system needs to remain dynamic if the quality of education is the main concern, making it a complicated system. This paper makes use of the System Engineering Approach and the experiences of developed countries in this area while incorporating the needs of the developing countries to devise a comprehensive program in space engineering at the Master's level. The needs of the developing countries as regards space technology education may broadly be put into two categories: to raise their knowledge of space technology which requires hard work and teamwork skills, and to transfer and domesticate space technology while minimizing the costs and maximizing its effectiveness. The requirements of such space education system, which include research facilities, courses, and student projects are then defined using a model drawn from the space education systems in universities in North America and Europe that has been modified to include the above-mentioned needs. Three design concepts have been considered and synthesized through functional analysis. The first one is Modular and Detail Study which helps students specialize in a particular area in space technology. Second is referred to as Integrated and Interdisciplinary Study which focuses on understanding and development of space systems. Finally, the third concept which has been chosen for the purpose of this study, is a combination of the other two, categorizing the required curriculum into seven modules, setting aside space applications. This helps students to not only specialize in one of these modules but also to get hands-on experience in a real space project through participation in summer group

  8. Freegaming: Mobile, Collaborative, Adaptive and Augmented Exergaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Görgü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the obesity epidemic that plagues many societies remains an outstanding public health issue. One innovative approach to addressing this problem is Exergaming. A combination of Exercise and Gaming, the objective is to motivate people participate in exercise regimes, usually in their home environment. In this article a more holistic interpretation of this exercise paradigm is proposed. Freegaming augments Exergaming in a number of key dimensions but especially through the promotion of games in outdoor mobile contexts and within a social environment. The design and implementation of a platform for Freegaming is described and illustrated through the description of a sample game.

  9. Real-space density functional theory on graphical processing units: computational approach and comparison to Gaussian basis set methods

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code Octopus, can reach a su...

  10. A novel approach to the identification of urban sprawl patches based on the scaling of geographic space

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xintao; Jiang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to identifying urban sprawl patches based on the statistics of blocks and natural cities under the principle of scaling of geographic space. Blocks are the minimum cycles decomposed from a road network and the important geographic elements in the process of urbanization. Scaling of geographic space refers to the phenomenon that small geographic objects are far more numerous than large ones. In this study, the measurements of block area, morphology and st...

  11. Real-space grids and the Octopus code as tools for the development of new simulation approaches for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Xavier; De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Oliveira, Micael J T; Alberdi-Rodriguez, Joseba; Varas, Alejandro; Theophilou, Iris; Helbig, Nicole; Verstraete, Matthieu; Stella, Lorenzo; Nogueira, Fernando; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Castro, Alberto; Marques, Miguel A L; Rubio, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Real-space grids are a powerful alternative for the simulation of electronic systems. One of the main advantages of the approach is the flexibility and simplicity of working directly in real space where the different fields are discretized on a grid, combined with competitive numerical performance and great potential for parallelization. These properties constitute a great advantage at the time of implementing and testing new physical models. Based on our experience with the Octopus code, in this article we discuss how the real-space approach has allowed for the recent development of new ideas for the simulation of electronic systems. Among these applications are approaches to calculate response properties, modeling of photoemission, optimal control of quantum systems, simulation of plasmonic systems, and the exact solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for low-dimensionality systems.

  12. Real-space local polynomial basis for solid-state electronic-structure calculations: A finite-element approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to solid-state electronic-structure calculations based on the finite-element method. In this method, the basis functions are strictly local, piecewise polynomials. Because the basis is composed of polynomials, the method is completely general and its convergence can be controlled systematically. Because the basis functions are strictly local in real space, the method allows for variable resolution in real space; produces sparse, structured matrices, enabling the effective use of iterative solution methods; and is well suited to parallel implementation. The method thus combines the significant advantages of both real-space-grid and basis-oriented approaches and so promises to be particularly well suited for large, accurate ab initio calculations. We develop the theory of our approach in detail, discuss advantages and disadvantages, and report initial results, including electronic band structures and details of the convergence of the method. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Summer school in the field of Space Technologies: A novel approach for teenage education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolea, Paul; Vladut Dascal, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the main practical aspects regarding the organization of a summer school in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. This one-week summer school is aimed for education of teenagers between 12 and 16 years. Currently, the summer school reached its third edition. During this educational activities some especially designed prototype equipments were used with the main purpose of educating adolescents towards a scientific career in the field of Space Technologies and Radio Science. The main equipments and associated experiments are presented as follows: 1. A teaching purpose radio telescope emphasizing the working principle of professional radio telescopes. The experiments were focused on scanning the sky for identifying the positions of geostationary satellites and the Sun. 2. A weather satellite reception equipment used for downloading real-time APT (Automatic Picture Transmission) weather data from NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather satellite fleet. The visual images were used for emphasizing the clouds and cloud systems over Europe. 3. A prototype equipment for receiving electromagnetic waves in the field of VLF (Very Low Frequency) with the purpose of analyzing the electromagnetic radio frequency spectrum. The main emphasized phenomenons in the VLF band (3 kHz - 30 kHz) are related to radio transmitters, electrical discharges in the atmosphere (lightning) and the electromagnetic pollution. 4. An equipment designed for initiating teenagers in the field of radio communication. This equipment was used for transmission and reception of images and sound over a distance of few kilometers, by using high-gain directional antennas. 5. Other sets of experiments were undertaken with the main purpose of mapping the countryside area in which the experiments had taken place. For this activity GPS devices were used. This paper may be considered a practical guideline for those who want to attract young students towards a

  14. Phase-space densities and effects of resonance decays in a hydrodynamic approach to heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase-space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase-space density at each space point decreases rapidly during the system's expansion. We found that, unlike the particle density, the average phase-space density has no direct link to the freeze-out criterion and final thermodynamic parameters, being connected rather to the initial phase-space density of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  15. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  16. Cloud-Based Augmentation for Mobile Devices: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Open Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazli, Saeid; Sanaei, Zohreh; Ahmed, Ejaz; Gani, Abdullah; Buyya, Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Cloud-based Mobile Augmentation (CMA) approaches have gained remarkable ground from academia and industry. CMA is the state-of-the-art mobile augmentation model that employs resource-rich clouds to increase, enhance, and optimize computing capabilities of mobile devices aiming at execution of resource-intensive mobile applications. Augmented mobile devices envision to perform extensive computations and to store big data beyond their intrinsic capabilities with least footprint and vu...

  17. Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675

  18. A trading-space-for-time approach to probabilistic continuous streamflow predictions in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the implications of potential future climatic conditions for hydrologic services and hazards is a crucial and current science question. The common approach to this problem is to force a hydrologic model, calibrated on historical data or using a priori parameter estimates, with future scenarios of precipitation and temperature. Recent studies suggest that the climatic regime of the calibration period is reflected in the resulting parameter estimates and that the model performance can be negatively impacted if the climate for which projections are made is significantly different from that during calibration. We address this issue by introducing a framework for probabilistic streamflow predictions in a changing climate wherein we quantify the impact of climate on model parameters. The strategy extends a regionalization approach (used for predictions in ungauged basins by trading space-for-time to account for potential parameter variability in a future climate that is beyond the historically observed one. The developed methodology was tested in five US watersheds located in dry to wet climates using synthetic climate scenarios generated by increasing the historical mean temperature from 0 to 8 °C and by changing historical mean precipitation from −30 % to +40 % of the historical values. Validation on historical data shows that changed parameters perform better if future streamflow differs from historical by more than 25 %. We found that the thresholds of climate change after which the streamflow projections using adjusted parameters were significantly different from those using fixed parameters were 0 to 2 °C for temperature change and −10 % to 20 % for precipitation change depending upon the aridity of the watershed. Adjusted parameter sets simulate a more extreme watershed response for both high and low flows.

  19. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  20. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  1. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  2. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems Part I: a linear graph approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space represen...

  3. Relative position and pose measurement approach of specific operation site of space non-cooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Li, Ronghua; Huang, Jianming

    2015-12-01

    In order to achieve the rendezvous and capture of the space non-cooperative target, the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target must be resolved. Since the marker is not installed into the non-cooperative target and there is no inter satellite link to transfer the information, so it is very difficult to measure the relative position and pose measurement of non-cooperative target. The solar array connecting frame of non-cooperative targets have their characters and are easy to capture, so the position and pose measurement of specific operation site of non-cooperative target based on stereo vision has been studied in this paper. The method composed of image acquiring, image filtering, edge detection, feature extraction and relative pose measurement. Finally, the relative position and attitude parameters of the solar wing connection were obtained and provided to the control system. The results of simulation and ground verification show that the algorithm is accurate and effective, and can satisfy the technical requirements of the on orbit operation. The measurement approach can be used for engineering implementation.

  4. Truncated conformal space approach for perturbed Wess–Zumino–Witten SU(2)k models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline the application of the truncated conformal space approach (TCSA) to perturbations of SU(2)k Wess–Zumino–Witten theories. As examples of this methodology, we consider two distinct perturbations of SU(2)1 and one of SU(2)2. SU(2)1 is first perturbed by its spin-1/2 field, a model which is equivalent to the sine-Gordon model at a particular value of its coupling β. The sine-Gordon spectrum is correctly reproduced as well as the corresponding finite-size corrections. We next study SU(2)1 with a marginal current–current perturbation. The TCSA results can be matched to perturbation theory within an appropriate treatment of the UV divergences. We find however that these results do not match field theoretic computations on the same model performed with a Lorentz invariant regulator. Finally, we consider SU(2)2 perturbed by its spin-1 field, which is equivalent to three decoupled massive Majorana fermions. In this case as well the TCSA reproduces accurately the known spectrum

  5. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Okumura, Teppei [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: zvlah@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) Université de Genéve, Genéve (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  6. Momentum-space approach to nuclear reaction studies: opportunities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of momentum-space three- and four-body scattering equations to the description of nuclear reactions involving systems of three and four nucleons is reviewed, and major achievements and challenges are identified. The calculations include realistic state-of-the-art interactions between nucleon pairs, together with the Coulomb interaction between protons. The effect of including three- and four-nucleon forces is discussed. Further calculations are shown involving the study of nuclear reactions where three-body degrees of freedom play a significant role. These studies involve not just an attempt to describe data in terms of a full three-body model that is solved numerically in a converged way, but also to use this exact framework to validade and test the accuracy of approximate reaction methods such as continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC), distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA), plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA) and the Glauber multiple scattering approach. These comparisons are able to teach researchers under which conditions approximate methods can be used to extract important structural information about exotic nuclei. Prospects and challenges are discussed. (paper)

  7. Different Approaches for Ensuring Performance/Reliability of Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, R. David; Sandor, Mike; Agarwal, Shri; Moor, Andrew F.; Cooper, Kim A.

    2000-01-01

    Engineers within the commercial and aerospace industries are using trade-off and risk analysis to aid in reducing spacecraft system cost while increasing performance and maintaining high reliability. In many cases, Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components, which include Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs), are candidate packaging technologies for spacecrafts due to their lower cost, lower weight and enhanced functionality. Establishing and implementing a parts program that effectively and reliably makes use of these potentially less reliable, but state-of-the-art devices, has become a significant portion of the job for the parts engineer. Assembling a reliable high performance electronic system, which includes COTS components, requires that the end user assume a risk. To minimize the risk involved, companies have developed methodologies by which they use accelerated stress testing to assess the product and reduce the risk involved to the total system. Currently, there are no industry standard procedures for accomplishing this risk mitigation. This paper will present the approaches for reducing the risk of using PEMs devices in space flight systems as developed by two independent Laboratories. The JPL procedure involves primarily a tailored screening with accelerated stress philosophy while the APL procedure is primarily, a lot qualification procedure. Both Laboratories successfully have reduced the risk of using the particular devices for their respective systems and mission requirements.

  8. Zero-Content Augmented Caches

    OpenAIRE

    Dusser, Julien; Piquet, Thomas; Seznec, André

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that some applications manipulate large amounts of null data. Moreover these zero data often exhibit high spatial locality. On some applications more than 20\\% of the data accesses concern null data blocks. Representing a null block in a cache on a standard cache line appears as a waste of resources. In this paper, we propose the Zero-Content Augmented cache, the ZCA cache. A ZCA cache consists of a conventional cache augmented with a specialized cache for memorizing null...

  9. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  10. Use of Mapping and Spatial and Space-Time Modeling Approaches in Operational Control of Aedes aegypti and Dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Lars; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this review paper are to 1) provide an overview of how mapping and spatial and space-time modeling approaches have been used to date to visualize and analyze mosquito vector and epidemiologic data for dengue; and 2) discuss the potential for these approaches to be included as routine activities in operational vector and dengue control programs. Geographical information system (GIS) software are becoming more user-friendly and now are complemented by free mapping software that prov...

  11. Ground-state phase-space structures of two-dimensional ±J spin glasses: A network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Wang, Feng; Han, Yilong

    2015-06-01

    We illustrate a complex-network approach to study the phase spaces of spin glasses. By mapping the whole ground-state phase spaces of two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson bimodal (±J) spin glasses exactly into networks for analysis, we discovered various phase-space properties. The Gaussian connectivity distribution of the phase-space networks demonstrates that both the number of free spins and the visiting frequency of all microstates follow the Gaussian distribution. The spectra of phase-space networks are Gaussian, which is proven to be exact when the system is infinitely large. The phase-space networks exhibit community structures. By coarse graining to the community level, we constructed a network representing the entropy landscape of the ground state and discovered its scale-free property. The phase-space networks exhibit fractal structures, as a result of the rugged entropy landscape. Moreover, we show that the connectivity distribution, community structures, and fractal structures change drastically at the ferromagnetic-to-glass phase transition. These quantitative measurements of the ground states provide new insight into the study of spin glasses. The phase-space networks of spin glasses share a number of common features with those of lattice gases and geometrically frustrated spin systems and form a new class of complex networks with unique topology. PMID:26172689

  12. Space commerce in a global economy: Comparison of US and Australian approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States and Australia are among the 20 or more nations of the world having industries currently engaging in some form of space commerce. As a matter of national policy, the United States has encouraged private investment and involvement in space activities since 1984, when the Congress declared it in the best interest of the Nation that NASA '...seek and encourage to the maximum extent possible, the fullest commercial use of space.' Australia's space policy, announced in 1986, has the objective of encouraging greater involvement by industry in space research and development, and the development of commercial space activities. This paper discusses the underlying policies, current status, and prospects for the future of commercial space business activities in the two countries.

  13. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping...

  14. Modelling trends in climatic time series using the state space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Marko; Kyrölä, Erkki

    2014-05-01

    A typical feature of an atmospheric time series is that they are not stationary but exhibit both slowly varying and abrupt changes in the distributional properties. These are caused by external forcing such as changes in the solar activity or volcanic eruptions. Further, the data sampling is often nonuniform, there are data gaps, and the uncertainty of the observations can vary. When observations are combined from various sources there will be instrument and retrieval method related biases. The differences in sampling lead to uncertainties, also. Dynamic regression with state space representation of the underlying processes provides flexible tools for these challenges in the analysis. By explicitly allowing for variability in the regression coefficients we let the system properties change in time. This change in time can be modelled and estimated, also. Furthermore, the use of unobservable state variables allows modelling of the processes that are driving the observed variability, such as seasonality or external forcing, and we can explicitly allow for some modelling error. The state space approach provides a well-defined hierarchical statistical model for assessing trends defined as long term background changes in the time series. The modelling assumptions can be evaluated and the method provides realistic uncertainty estimates for the model based statements on the quantities of interest. We show that a linear dynamic model (DLM) provides very flexible tool for trend and change point analysis in time series. Given the structural parameters of the model, the Kalman filter and Kalman smoother formulas can be used to estimate the model states. Further, we provide an efficient way to account for the structural parameter uncertainty by using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. Then, the trend related statistics can be estimated by simulating realizations of the estimated processes with fully quantified uncertainties. This presentation will provide a

  15. Real-Space Density Functional Theory on Graphical Processing Units: Computational Approach and Comparison to Gaussian Basis Set Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code Octopus, can reach a sustained performance of up to 90 GFlops for a single GPU, representing a significant speed-up when compared to the CPU version of the code. Moreover, for some systems, our implementation can outperform a GPU Gaussian basis set code, showing that the real-space approach is a competitive alternative for DFT simulations on GPUs. PMID:26589153

  16. Real-space density functional theory on graphical processing units: computational approach and comparison to Gaussian basis set methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the application of graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate real-space density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To make our implementation efficient, we have developed a scheme to expose the data parallelism available in the DFT approach; this is applied to the different procedures required for a real-space DFT calculation. We present results for current-generation GPUs from AMD and Nvidia, which show that our scheme, implemented in the free code OCTOPUS, can reach a sustained performance of up to 90 GFlops for a single GPU, representing an important speed-up when compared to the CPU version of the code. Moreover, for some systems our implementation can outperform a GPU Gaussian basis set code, showing that the real-space approach is a competitive alternative for DFT simulations on GPUs.

  17. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and...

  18. Flow of Fractal Fluid in Pipes: Non-Integer Dimensional Space Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2015-01-01

    Using a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space we consider a Poiseuille flow of an incompressible viscous fractal fluid in the pipe. Fractal fluid is described as a continuum in non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of the Navier-Stokes equations for non-integer dimensional space, its solution for steady flow of fractal fluid in a pipe and corresponding fractal fluid discharge are suggested.

  19. Connection between Fermionic Strings and Quantum Gravity States -- A loop space approach

    CERN Document Server

    Botelho, Luiz C L

    2009-01-01

    We present physical arguments based on loop space representations for Dirac/Klein gordon determinants that some suitable Fermionic String Ising models at the critical point and defined on the space-time base manifold are formal quantum states of the gravitational field when quantized in the Ashtekar-Sen connection canonical formalism .These results complements our previous Loop Space studies on the subject (Random surface representation for Einstein quantum gravity, Phys.Rev.D52,6941 (1995))

  20. SpecSwap RMC: A novel reverse Monte Carlo approach using a discrete configuration space and pre-computed properties

    CERN Document Server

    Leetmaa, Mikael; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel approach to reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling, SpecSwap-RMC, which makes use of pre-computed property data from a discrete configuration space replacing atomistic moves with swap moves of contributions to a sample-set representing the average, or summed property. The approach is particularly suitable for disordered systems and properties which require significant computer time to compute. We demonstrate the approach by fitting jointly and separately the EXAFS signal and x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of ice Ih using as SpecSwap sample-set 80 configurations from a space of 1382 local structures with associated pre-computed spectra. As an additional demonstration we compare SpecSwap and FEFFIT fits of EXAFS data on crystalline copper finding excellent agreement.

  1. A Nanotechnology Approach to Lightweight Multifunctional Polyethylene Composite Materials for Use Against the Space Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polyethylene-based composite materials are under consideration as multifunctional structural materials, with the expectation that they can provide radiation...

  2. A Case Study Model for Augmentative and Alternative Communication Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Katya

    2006-01-01

    Case studies are an accepted method for reporting treatment outcomes. However, to be useful and authentic, a systematic and principled approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting case data must be observed. This paper proposes a basic case study format for documenting augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention to ensure…

  3. Augmented reality and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    ZÍTKOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This thesis combines topic of augmented reality with tourism. For analyzing the state of the use of augmented reality was composed case studies. It was created product, which is called Guide to mobile phone.

  4. Keeping It Real: Revisiting a Real-Space Approach to Running Ensembles of Cosmological N-body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In setting up initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations there are, fundamentally, two choices: either maximizing the correspondence of the initial density field to the assumed fourier-space clustering or, instead, matching to the real-space clustering. As a stringent test of both approaches, I perform ensembles of simulations using power law models and exploit the self-similarity of these initial conditions to quantify the accuracy of the results. Originally proposed by Pen 1997 and implemented by Sirko 2005, I show that the real-space motivated approach, which allows the DC mode to vary, performs well in exhibiting the expected self-similar behavior in the mean xi(r) and P(k) and in both methods this behavior extends below the scale of the initial mean interparticle spacing. I also test the real-space method with simulations of a simplified, powerlaw model for baryon acoustic oscillations, again with success, and mindful of the need to generate mock catalogs using simulations I show extensive po...

  5. A Vector Approach to Euclidean Geometry: Vector Spaces and Affine Geometry, Volume 1. Teacher's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Herbert E.; Szabo, Steven

    This is the teacher's edition of a text for the first year of a two-year high school geometry course. The course bases plane and solid geometry and trigonometry on the fact that the translations of a Euclidean space constitute a vector space which has an inner product. Volume 1 deals largely with affine geometry, and the notion of dimension is…

  6. Trial and Error: A new Approach to Space-Bounded Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ameur, F.; Fischer, Paul; Hoeffgen, H.-U.;

    1996-01-01

    A pac-learning algorithm is d-space bounded, if it stores at most d examples from the sample at any time. We characterize the d-space learnable concept classes. For this purpose we introduce the compression parameter of a concept class 𝒞 and design our trial and error learning algorithm. We ...

  7. Considering Race and Space: Mapping Developmental Approaches for Providing Culturally Responsive Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roland W.; Wood, Gerald K.; Witherspoon, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory essay critically examines how social relations structure the production of space on a college campus. In particular, we analyze how the organization of one particular site--the student advising office at a southeastern university--calls attention to the relationship between race and space in ways that re-inscribe narrow…

  8. Augmented Reality for Multi-disciplinary Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangyu; Rui

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for multi-disciplinary collaboration. Tangible Augmented Reality has been raised as one of suitable systems for design collaboration. Furthermore, it emphasizes the advantages of Tangible Augmented Reality to illustrate the needs for integrating the Tangible User Interfaces and Augmented Reality Systems.

  9. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  10. Augmented reality usage for prototyping speed up

    CERN Document Server

    Stastny, Jiri; Koubek, Tomas; Landa, Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the article describes our approach for solution of this problem by means of Augmented Reality. The merging of the real world model and digital objects allows streamline the work with the model and speed up the whole production phase significantly. The main advantage of augmented reality is the possibility of direct manipulation with the scene using a portable digital camera. Also adding digital objects into the scene could be done using identification markers placed on the surface of the model. Therefore it is not necessary to work with special input devices and lose the contact with the real world model. Adjustments are done directly on the model. The key problem of outlined solution is the ability of identification of an object within the camera picture and its replacement with the digital object. The second part of the article is focused especially on the identification of exact position and orientation of the marker within the picture. The identification marker is generalized into the tr...

  11. Phase-space densities and effects of resonance decays in a hydrodynamic approach to heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Akkelin, S V; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.064901

    2004-01-01

    A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase- space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase- space dens...

  12. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  13. Augmented Reality in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swenson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits and chall......Augmented reality (AR) holds great promise as a learning tool. However, most extant studies in this field have focused on the technology itself. The poster presents findings from the first stage of the AR-sci project addressing the issue of applying AR for educational purposes. Benefits...... and challenges related to AR enhancing student learning in science in lower secondary school were identified by expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries in a Delphi survey. Findings were condensed in a framework to categorize educational AR designs....

  14. Processing Approach of Non-linear Adjustment Models in the Space of Non-linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaokui; ZHU Qing; SONG Chengfang

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the mathematic features of non-linear models and discusses the processing way of non-linear factors which contributes to the non-linearity of a nonlinear model. On the basis of the error definition, this paper puts forward a new adjustment criterion, SGPE.Last, this paper investigates the solution of a non-linear regression model in the non-linear model space and makes the comparison between the estimated values in non-linear model space and those in linear model space.

  15. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion techniques has seen mitigation of some artifacts. We reformulate the problem by taking advantage of some of the developments from the field of Compressive Sensing. The seismic data is compressed at the sensor level by recording projections of the traces. We then process this compressed data directly to estimate the inverse data space. Due to the smaller number of data set we also gain in terms of computational complexity.

  16. Invariant-Based Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A calibration-free augmented reality based on affine invariant is firstly formulated by tensor method. This approach does not use the calibration parameters of the camera and the 3D locations of the environment’s object, and can realize the augmentation of virtual objects. Meanwhile, a new approach to resolving occlusion problem in augmented reality is presented. Based on an arm-optimized implementation of  the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm developed by David Lowe and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm, the point correspondences in any two views are determined. According to the invariant for two views and these point correspondences, the occluding contours can be transferred to any views, so the occlusion is resolved. Some typical experiments show that the approach of invariant-based augmented reality is feasible on mobile phones. 

  17. Ways toward a European Vocational Education and Training Space: A "Bottom-Up" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blings, Jessica; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to concentrate on bottom-up approaches in order to promote a European vocational education and training (VET) concept. The overall aim of this article is to demonstrate that sophisticated approaches still have a chance of becoming common practice in European countries. Design/methodology/approach: The centre of the…

  18. Psychotherapy Augmentation through Preconscious Priming

    OpenAIRE

    Borgeat, François; O’Connor, Kieron; Amado, Danielle; St-Pierre-Delorme, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy. Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36-weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioral therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming conditi...

  19. Psychotherapy augmentation through preconscious priming

    OpenAIRE

    Francois eBorgeat; Kieron eO'Connor; Danielle eAmado; Marie-Eve eSt-Pierre-Delorme

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that repeated preconscious (masked) priming of personalized positive cognitions could augment cognitive change and facilitate achievement of patients’ goals following a therapy.Methods: Twenty social phobic patients (13 women) completed a 36 weeks study beginning by 12 weeks of group behavioural therapy. After the therapy, they received 6 weeks of preconscious priming and 6 weeks of a control procedure in a randomized cross-over design. The Priming condition ...

  20. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    OpenAIRE

    Jussi Rämö; Vesa Välimäki

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality audio (ARA) combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ...

  1. Augmented Reality based Factory Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Pentenrieder, Katharina

    2009-01-01

    Today’s factory planning relies on the methods and tools of the Digital Factory to meet shortened product life cycles and the resulting demand for fast and flexible reengineering. However, the Digital Factory and the real production plants are often not consistent, due to incomplete or missing digital data. Augmented Reality can serve as an intuitive interface here. The technology combines real and virtual information by integrating virtual planning data seamlessly with views of the real fact...

  2. Sensor Fusion for Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hol, Jeroen; Schön, Thomas; Gustafsson, Fredrik; Slycke, Per

    2007-01-01

    In Augmented Reality (AR), the position and orientation of the camera have to be estimated with high accuracy and low latency. This nonlinear estimation problem is studied in the present paper. The proposed solution makes use of measurements from inertial sensors and computer vision. These measurements are fused using a Kalman filtering framework, incorporating a rather detailed model for the dynamics of the camera. Experiments show that the resulting filter provides good estimates of the cam...

  3. MRI analysis after augmentation mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze MRI appearance after augmentation mammoplasty, and to assess the clinical value. Methods: Sixty-three cases with augmentation mammoplasty were imaged by MR scanner. MR imaging features of silicone implant and injected implant were analyzed respectively. Results 80 breasts in 40 patients were with polyacrylamide hydrogel injection. In 50 breasts, the implants were shown as irregular gel in mammary gland, pectoralis muscle, and subcutaneous tissue. Auto-fat injection in both side of breast was performed in 7 cases. Among them, fibrofatty mass was detected in 12 breasts, fat- fluid interface was seen in 6 breasts, and fat in pectoralis major was revealed in 6 breasts. Silicone implant in both side of breast was performed in 16 cases. 2 breasts in 2 ease were detected as saline-filled implants with intracapsular rupture. 14 eases were with silicone gel-filled implants, among them, 4 breasts were found to have extracapsular rupture and 10 breasts intracapsular rupture. Conclusion: MRI is a perfect method in accessing the patients with augmentation mammoplasty. (authors)

  4. Aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong Tai

    2015-01-01

    Cranioplasty for only aesthetic reasons has not been commonly performed to date. However, recently there has been a new focus by the public on a more aesthetically pleasing head shape with frequent patient requests for purely aesthetic contouring of the occiput, an important definer of cosmetic head shape. For example, in Asia, where the normal cranial shape is mesocephalic or brachycephalic and often with a planar occiput, requests for its aesthetic correction are increasingly common. Accordingly, the author developed a minimally invasive occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate. In this study, the indications for aesthetic occiput contouring were planar occiput, left-right asymmetric occiput, and grooved occiput. Under local anesthesia, soft methylmethacrylate is subperiosteally inserted through a small incision (about 5-cm length), manually and precisely contoured in situ through the scalp to the desired occipital shape. All is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a quick recovery is the case. Between March 2007 and October 2013, 959 patients received such aesthetic occiput augmentation. The mean follow-up period was 49 months (range, 3-84 months). Nearly all patients were satisfied with the outcome, and complications were very rare. Only 5 patients (0.5%) needed additional corrective procedures. The author has concluded that aesthetic occiput augmentation using methylmethacrylate yields consistent, predictable, and satisfactory results. Additional long-term follow-up is required for a final conclusion, however. PMID:25569386

  5. A Kinematic Approach to Determining the Optimal Actuator Sensor Architecture for Space Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Boning, Peggy; Dubowsky, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous space robots will be required for such future missions as the construction of large space structures and repairing disabled satellites. These robots will need to be precisely controlled. However, factors such as manipulator joint/actuator friction and spacecraft attitude control thruster inaccuracies can substantially degrade control system performance. Sensor-based control algorithms can be used to mitigate the effects of actuator error, but sensors can add substantially to a spac...

  6. A hierarchical decomposition approach to retail shelf space management and assortment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Irion, J.; J-C Lu; F A Al-Khayyal; Y-C Tsao

    2011-01-01

    Shelf management is a crucial task in retailing. Because of the large number of products found in most retail stores (sometimes more than 60 000), current shelf space management models can only solve sub-problems of the overall store optimization problem, since the size of the complete optimization problem would be prohibitively large. Consequently, an optimal allocation of store shelf space to products has not yet been achieved. We show that a hierarchical decomposition technique, consisting...

  7. Research and Education in Basic Space Science: The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Naimiy, H. M. K.; Celebre, C. P.; Chamcham, K.; de Alwis, H. S. P.; de Carias, M. C. P.; Haubold, H. J.; Boggino, A. E. Troche

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency is holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of the worldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countries of Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean (Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt, Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits of the workshops and the strengthenin...

  8. Fixed functional space maintainer: novel aesthetic approach for missing maxillary primary anterior teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Vikram; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand

    2013-01-01

    The first-line treatment of non-restorable traumatically injured or carious deciduous teeth is extraction which may be a curse for the future dentition as well as social activity of a child. Various therapeutic modalities from removable partial dentures to fixed space maintainer can be used for replacement of such lost teeth. Two types of fixed aesthetic space maintainers for replacing premature loss of maxillary deciduous incisors in 4-year-old children are discussed.

  9. A covariant approach to general field space metric in multi-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a covariant formalism for general multi-field system which enables us to obtain higher order action of cosmological perturbations easily and systematically. The effects of the field space geometry, described by the Riemann curvature tensor of the field space, are naturally incorporated. We explicitly calculate up to the cubic order action which is necessary to estimate non-Gaussianity and present those geometric terms which have not yet been known before

  10. CZAS I PRZESTRZEN W PSYCHOTERAPII – UJECIE PROBLEMOWE [TIME AND SPACE IN PSYCHOTHERAPY - PROBLEM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Kleszcz-Szczyrba, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The article presents theoretical considerations on the time and space in psychotherapy. Attempt was made to examine these two dimensions from different perspectives. Focused on the physical and non–physical aspects of time in psychotherapy, which are connected with time perspective, temporal orientation, dynamics, and specific “bilocation in time” that may occur during the therapeutic process, especially some of them. Also discussed whether it is observable and non–observable spaces ...

  11. An adaptive brain actuated system for augmenting rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Roset, Scott A.; Gant, Katie; Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    For people living with paralysis, restoration of hand function remains the top priority because it leads to independence and improvement in quality of life. In approaches to restore hand and arm function, a goal is to better engage voluntary control and counteract maladaptive brain reorganization that results from non-use. Standard rehabilitation augmented with developments from the study of brain-computer interfaces could provide a combined therapy approach for motor cortex rehabilitation an...

  12. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  13. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality: Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  14. Tracking for Outdoor Mobile Augmented Reality : Further development of the Zion Augmented Reality Application

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tor Egil Riegels

    2008-01-01

    This report deals with providing tracking to an outdoor mobile augmented reality system and the Zion Augmented Reality Application. ZionARA is meant to display a virtual recreation of a 13th century castle on the site it once stood through an augmented reality Head Mounted Display. Mobile outdoor augmented/mixed reality puts special demands on what kind of equipment is practical. After briefly evaluating the different existing tracking methods, a solution based on GPS and an augmented inertia...

  15. Building a quality culture in the Office of Space Flight: Approach, lessons learned and implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. Shannon

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach and lessons learned by the Office of Space Flight (OSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in its introduction of quality. In particular, the experience of OSF Headquarters is discussed as an example of an organization within NASA that is considering both the business and human elements of the change and the opportunities the quality focus presents to improve continuously. It is hoped that the insights shared will be of use to those embarking upon similar cultural changes. The paper is presented in the following parts: the leadership challenge; background; context of the approach to quality; initial steps; current initiatives; lessons learned; and implications for the future.

  16. Solving Integrable Broer-Kaup Equations in (2+1)-Dimensional Spaces via an Improved Variable Separation Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Sheng; LUO Cheng-Xin; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Starting from Backlund transformation and using Cole-Hopf transformation, we reduce the integrable Broer-Kaup equations in (2+1)-dimensional spaces to a simple linear evolution equation with two arbitrary functions of {x,t} and {y,t} in this paper. And we can obtain some new solutions of the original equations by investigating the simple nonlinear evolution equation, which include the solutions obtained by the variable separation approach.

  17. Mobile Indoor Augmented Reality. Exploring applications in hospitality environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardos Barbolla, Ana M.; Casar Corredera, Jose Ramon; Cano García, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is been increasingly used in mobile devices. Most of the available applications are set to work outdoors, mainly due to the availability of a reliable positioning system. Nevertheless, indoor (smart) spaces offer a lot of opportunities of creating new service concepts. In particular, in this paper we explore the applicability of mobile AR to hospitality environments (hotels and similar establishments). From the state-of-the-art of technologies and applications, a portfo...

  18. Augmented Lagrangian Method for Constrained Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Staszczak, A.; Stoitsov, M.; Baran, A.; W. Nazarewicz

    2010-01-01

    The augmented Lagrangiam method (ALM), widely used in quantum chemistry constrained optimization problems, is applied in the context of the nuclear Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the self-consistent constrained Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (CHFB) variant. The ALM allows precise calculations of multidimensional energy surfaces in the space of collective coordinates that are needed to, e.g., determine fission pathways and saddle points; it improves accuracy of computed derivatives with re...

  19. TOWARDS ENHANCING SOLUTION SPACE DIVERSITY IN MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION: A HYPERVOLUME-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyab Tahernezhadiani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is an important notion in multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs and a lot ofresearchers have investigated this issue by means of appropriate methods. However most of evolutionarymulti-objective algorithms have attempted to take control on diversity in the objective space only andmaximized diversity of solutions (population on Pareto- front. Nowadays due to importance of Multiobjectiveoptimization in industry and engineering, most of the designers want to find a diverse set ofPareto-optimal solutions which cover as much as space in its feasible regain of the solution space. Thispaper addresses this issue and attempt to introduce a method for preserving diversity of non-dominatedsolution (i.e. Pareto-set in the solution space. This paper introduces the novel diversity measure as a firsttime, and then this new diversity measure is integrated efficiently into the hypervolume based Multiobjectivemethod. At end of this paper we compare the proposed method with other state-of-the-artalgorithms on well-established test problems. Experimental results show that the proposed methodoutperforms its competitive MOEAs respect to the quality of solution space criteria and Pareto-setapproximation.

  20. Approach to develop space solar power as a new energy system for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, Makoto [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The idea of space solar power proposed by Glaser was explained as a set of a solar power station in geostationary earth orbit to transmit microwave power and a ground station to receive the microwave power. Most of the ideas and concepts since Glaser used the same context. On the other hand, Collins et al. introduced the concept of microwave `fuel` to assess the commercial relations of power from space, in which space solar power stations are considered to sell microwave power to any unspecified rectenna. This concept changed the theoretical context of `power from space` to an industrial and economic relation of producers and buyers of an industrial product. This new context has been applied to the SPS 2000 conceptual study. As a result, if 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission is used, each rectenna can be planned and engineered independently from the space sector by local users, especially in developing countries, who are familiar with such activities as introducing solar energy systems. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Time-dependent generalized-active-space configuration-interaction approach to photoionization dynamics of atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, S.; Sørensen, L. K.; Madsen, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a wave-function-based method to solve the time-dependent many-electron Schrödinger equation with special emphasis on strong-field ionization phenomena. The theory builds on the configuration-interaction (CI) approach supplemented by the generalized-active-space concept from quantum chemistry. The latter allows for a controllable reduction in the number of configurations in the CI expansion by imposing restrictions on the active orbital space. The method is similar to the recently formulated time-dependent restricted-active-space CI method [D. Hochstuhl and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053424 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.053424]. We present details of our implementation and address convergence properties with respect to the active spaces and the associated account of electron correlation in both ground-state and excitation scenarios. We apply the time-dependent generalized-active-space CI theory to strong-field ionization of polar diatomic molecules and illustrate how the method allows us to uncover a strong correlation-induced shift of the preferred direction of emission of photoelectrons.

  2. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains. PMID:22402683

  3. Augmenting Usability: Cultural Elicitation in HCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Souleymane Boundaouda; Oyugi, Cecilia; Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Smith, Andy

    This paper offers context and culture elicitation in an inter-cultural and multi-disciplinary setting of ICT design. Localised usability evaluation (LUE) is augmented with a socio-technical evaluation tool (STEM) as a methodological approach to expose and address issues in a collaborative ICT design within the Village e-Science for Life (VeSeL) project in rural Kenya. The paper argues that designers need to locally identify context and culture in situ and further explicate their implications through the design process and at the global level. Stakeholders' context, culture, decisions, agendas, expectations, disciplines and requirements need to be locally identified and globally evaluated to ensure a fit for purpose solution.

  4. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  5. A Simple Approach for Synthesis of TAPO-11 Molecular Sieve with Controllable Space Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming LIU; Huan Yan ZHANG; Hai Jiao ZHANG; Hai Hong WU; Peng WU; Ming Yuan HE

    2006-01-01

    A TAPO-11 molecular sieve with the space group Icm2 was synthesized successfully.The samples with different space group were controlled simply only by adjusting the crystallization temperature (CT) in the hydrothermal system. In the system of gel with a molar composition of 0.7R: xTiO2: P2O5: Al2O3: 30H2O, where x is 0.01-0.10 and the R is a mixture of di-n-propylamine and diisopropylamine as templates. When CT was between 150-160℃, the calcined sample showed the space group of Icm2, while it showed Pna21 at CTlarger than 190℃.The characterizations of UV-Vis and FT-IR confirmed that Ti was incorporated into the AEL framework successfully.

  6. CCSDS - An approach to the definition of common standards for understanding space-related data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Manfred; Sawyer, Don; Smith, Gene

    1990-01-01

    International cooperation for space data projects requires common data processing goals and unique data exchange mechanisms. The absence of standards has led to project unique interface definitions and special software on diverse systems. To address this problem, CCSDS Panel 2 is creating a set of standards to support self description of data using standard structures. The proposed standard data interchange mechanism - the Standard Formatted Data Unit (SFDU) - reduces information loss in data transfers, increases automated information exchange, and extends the lifetime of data. Data interchange structures, languages, and services are being developed with necessary control functions to provide these benefits. A set of recommendations for agency review has been issued this year to be the basis for future data exchange and to enhance access to older mission data sets. Space agencies and other space data handling facilities are being encouraged to implement the SFDU concept for ongoing and planned projects.

  7. Unified matrix approach to the description of phase-space rotators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitin, Andrey V

    2016-03-01

    In optics, the rotation of a phase-space can be realized via light propagation through both an inhomogeneous medium with a radial gradient of refractive index and two special kinds of mirror-symmetrical optical systems suggested by Lohmann. Although light propagation through Lohmann's systems is described in terms of matrix optics, light propagation through the gradient-index medium is traditionally described as a solution of the wave equation. The difference in these descriptions hinders the understanding of the phase-space rotators. Fortunately, there is a matrix description of light propagation through a gradient-index medium too. A general description of the phase-space rotators is presented, which can be used to treat light propagation through both Lohmann's systems and the gradient-index medium in a unified matrix manner. PMID:26974609

  8. The World is not Enough. Augmenting playgrounds for Mobile Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The talk looks at today’s educational situation and motivates reasons to combine gaming and learning. Various developments from the fields of context-modeling and contextualization approaches, information brokering, federated learning environments, personalization, serious games and augmented realit

  9. Grafting Acoustic Instruments and Signal Processing: Creative Control and Augmented Expressivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Freed, Adrian

    explore interesting new timbres. Models can include everything from various violin bodies to guitars, sitars with their sympathetic strings, and even physically impossible acoustic bodies. The development also presents several practical approaches to sensor augmentation and gestural playing techniques...

  10. Control Space Analysis of Three-Degree Decelerating Approaches at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.M.A.; In 't Veld, A.C.; De Leege, A.M.P.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Amsterdam Schiphol Airport currently uses a Continuous Descent Approach during night time operations only, due to reduced runway capacity caused by unpredictable individual aircraft behavior. The Three-Degree Decelerating Approach (TDDA) has been developed to increase predictability and runway capac

  11. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  12. A quantitative approach to measuring the cerebrospinal fluid space with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring the subarachnoid space by using an independent CT evaluation unit is described. The normal values have been calculated for patients, according to age, and three examples are presented demonstrating reversible decrease of brain volume in patients suffering anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism. (orig.)

  13. Space Weathering: A Proposed Laboratory Approach to Explaining the Sulfur Depletion on Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, M. A.; Kracher, A.; Sears, D. W. G.; Cassidy, W.; Hapke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Space weathering is the cumulative effect of physical and chemical changes that occur to substances exposed on the exterior of body void of an atmosphere [1], in this case the regolith on asteroid Eros. It is only recently that the scientific community has accepted the theory first developed in the mid- 1970s by Hapke and his colleagues of how space weathering occurs. The theory [1] asserts that optical and magnetic effects, first studied on moon rocks and lunar regolith, are caused by submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe), smaller than the wavelength of light in vapor deposit coatings, on regolith grains, and in agglutinates. This vapor is generated by solar wind and micrometeorite impacts and does not require additional heating, melting, or a reducing environment to produce space weathering. One of the major finds of the first detailed reconnaissance of an asteroid by the NEAR Shoemaker mission was that the surface of Eros was essentially chondritic yet showed major depletions in sulfur [2, 3]. Here we propose space weathering sputtering experiments that may contribute to the explanation of sulfur depletion on asteroid Eros.

  14. An effective approach to reducing strategy space for maintenance optimisation of multistate series–parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance optimisation of series–parallel systems is a research topic of practical significance. Nevertheless, a cost-effective maintenance strategy is difficult to obtain due to the large strategy space for maintenance optimisation of such systems. The heuristic algorithm is often employed to deal with this problem. However, the solution obtained by the heuristic algorithm is not always the global optimum and the algorithm itself can be very time consuming. An alternative method based on linear programming is thus developed in this paper to overcome such difficulties by reducing strategy space of maintenance optimisation. A theoretical proof is provided in the paper to verify that the proposed method is at least as effective as the existing methods for strategy space reduction. Numerical examples for maintenance optimisation of series–parallel systems having multistate components and considering both economic dependence among components and multiple-level imperfect maintenance are also presented. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method is more effective than the existing methods in removing inappropriate maintenance strategies of multistate series–parallel systems. - Highlights: • A new method using linear programming is developed to reduce the strategy space. • The effectiveness of the new method for strategy reduction is theoretically proved. • Imperfect maintenance and economic dependence are considered during optimisation

  15. Linear State-Space Identification of Interconnected Systems: A structured approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Tapia, P.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, three novel state-space identification algorithms for linear interconnected systems are proposed. The computational complexity and the topology reconstruction of the interconnected system are addressed. Possible applications of this theory can be found in Biology, Economics, Transpor

  16. International Space Station Logistics Approach: Partnership and Dialog for a Successful Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, Natalie

    2000-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate trends and challenges for establishing a successful partnership in a multi-cultural Logistics environment. The U.S. - Russian relationship in the field of space studies is used as the model for this inquiry. Case studies of culture specific responses to a variety of Logistics situations developed during the initial phase of this cooperation are discussed.

  17. Designing with Space Syntax: A configurative approach to architectural layout, proposing a computational methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an i

  18. Space-charge-limited currents: An E-infinity Cantorian approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zmeškal, O.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Weiter, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2007), s. 143-158. ISSN 0960-0779 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/036; GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : space charge * fractal * charge injection Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2007

  19. The TEF modeling and analysis approach to advance thermionic space power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermionics space power systems have been proposed as advanced power sources for future space missions that require electrical power levels significantly above the capabilities of current space power systems. The Defense Special Weapons Agency close-quote s (DSWA) Thermionic Evaluation Facility (TEF) is carrying out both experimental and analytical research to advance thermionic space power technology to meet this expected need. A Modeling and Analysis (M ampersand A) project has been created at the TEF to develop analysis tools, evaluate concepts, and guide research. M ampersand A activities are closely linked to the TEF experimental program, providing experiment support and using experimental data to validate models. A planning exercise has been completed for the M ampersand A project, and a strategy for implementation was developed. All M ampersand A activities will build on a framework provided by a system performance model for a baseline Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) concept. The system model is composed of sub-models for each of the system components and sub-systems. Additional thermionic component options and model improvements will continue to be incorporated in the basic system model during the course of the program. All tasks are organized into four focus areas: 1) system models, 2) thermionic research, 3) alternative concepts, and 4) documentation and integration. The M ampersand A project will provide a solid framework for future thermionic system development. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Graphical Programming: A systems approach for telerobotic servicing of space assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satellite servicing is in many ways analogous to subsea robotic servicing in the late 1970's. A cost effective, reliable, telerobotic capability had to be demonstrated before the oil companies invested money in deep water robot serviceable production facilities. In the same sense, aeronautic engineers will not design satellites for telerobotic servicing until such a quantifiable capability has been demonstrated. New space servicing systems will be markedly different than existing space robot systems. Past space manipulator systems, including the Space Shuttle's robot arm, have used master/slave technologies with poor fidelity, slow operating speeds and most importantly, in-orbit human operators. In contrast, new systems will be capable of precision operations, conducted at higher rates of speed, and be commanded via ground-control communication links. Challenges presented by this environment include achieving a mandated level of robustness and dependability, radiation hardening, minimum weight and power consumption, and a system which accommodates the inherent communication delay between the ground station and the satellite. There is also a need for a user interface which is easy to use, ensures collision free motions, and is capable of adjusting to an unknown workcell (for repair operations the condition of the satellite may not be known in advance). This paper describes the novel technologies required to deliver such a capability

  1. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  2. CALOCUBE: an approach to high-granularity and homogenous calorimetry for space based detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future space experiments dedicated to the observation of high-energy gamma and cosmic rays will increasingly rely on a highly performing calorimetry apparatus, and their physics performance will be primarily determined by the geometrical dimensions and the energy resolution of the calorimeter deployed. Thus it is extremely important to optimize its geometrical acceptance, the granularity, and its absorption depth for the measurement of the particle energy with respect to the total mass of the apparatus which is the most important constraint for a space launch. The proposed design tries to satisfy these criteria while staying within a total mass budget of about 1.6 tons. Calocube is a homogeneous calorimeter instrumented with Cesium iodide (CsI) crystals, whose geometry is cubic and isotropic, so as to detect particles arriving from every direction in space, thus maximizing the acceptance; granularity is obtained by filling the cubic volume with small cubic CsI crystals. The total radiation length in any direction is more than adequate for optimal electromagnetic particle identification and energy measurement, whilst the interaction length is at least suficient to allow a precise reconstruction of hadronic showers. Optimal values for the size of the crystals and spacing among them have been studied. The design forms the basis of a three-year R and D activity which has been approved and financed by INFN. An overall description of the system, as well as results from preliminary tests on particle beams will be described

  3. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  4. Ultrasound guided robotic biopsy using augmented reality and human-robot cooperative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freschi, C; Troia, E; Ferrari, V; Megali, G; Pietrabissa, A; Mosca, F

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-guided biopsy is a proficient mininvasive approach for tumors staging but requires very long training and particular manual and 3D space perception abilities of the physician, for the planning of the needle trajectory and the execution of the procedure. In order to simplify this difficult task, we have developed an integrated system that provides the clinician two types of assistance: an augmented reality visualization allows accurate and easy planning of needle trajectory and target reaching verification; a robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom force sensor allows the precise positioning of the needle holder and allows the clinician to adjust the planned trajectory (cooperative control) to overcome needle deflection and target motion. Preliminary tests have been executed on an ultrasound phantom showing high precision of the system in static conditions and the utility and usability of the cooperative control in simulated no-rigid conditions. PMID:19963882

  5. Short-term wind speed prediction using an unscented Kalman filter based state-space support vector regression approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid modeling method is proposed for short-term wind speed forecasting. • Support vector regression model is constructed to formulate nonlinear state-space framework. • Unscented Kalman filter is adopted to recursively update states under random uncertainty. • The new SVR–UKF approach is compared to several conventional methods for short-term wind speed prediction. • The proposed method demonstrates higher prediction accuracy and reliability. - Abstract: Accurate wind speed forecasting is becoming increasingly important to improve and optimize renewable wind power generation. Particularly, reliable short-term wind speed prediction can enable model predictive control of wind turbines and real-time optimization of wind farm operation. However, this task remains challenging due to the strong stochastic nature and dynamic uncertainty of wind speed. In this study, unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is integrated with support vector regression (SVR) based state-space model in order to precisely update the short-term estimation of wind speed sequence. In the proposed SVR–UKF approach, support vector regression is first employed to formulate a nonlinear state-space model and then unscented Kalman filter is adopted to perform dynamic state estimation recursively on wind sequence with stochastic uncertainty. The novel SVR–UKF method is compared with artificial neural networks (ANNs), SVR, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive integrated with Kalman filter (AR-Kalman) approaches for predicting short-term wind speed sequences collected from three sites in Massachusetts, USA. The forecasting results indicate that the proposed method has much better performance in both one-step-ahead and multi-step-ahead wind speed predictions than the other approaches across all the locations

  6. Hybrid Planning: Task-Space Control and Sampling-Based Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Haschke, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach to motion planning for redundant robots, which combines a powerful control framework with a sampling-based planner. We argue that a suitably chosen task controller already manages a huge amount of trajectory planning work. However, due to its local approach to obstacle avoidance, it may get stuck in local minima. Therefore we augment it with a globally acting planner, which operates in a lower-dimensional search space, thus circumventing the curse of dimensionalit...

  7. Time-based Spacing for 4D Approaches using Speed-Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, P.M.A.; De Vos, K.; Borst, C; Van Paassen, M.M.; de Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Two of the major projects in ATM development, SESAR and NextGen, both fore- cast the use of 4D trajectories as an intermediate phase in the development of full Performance Based Trajectories. Using 4D trajectories, the full positional and time coordinates of the aircraft are known throughout the planned trajectory. During approach, when reduced separation minimums are applied, the accuracy of this profile is most important to ensure a safe approach to the runway. One implementation of 4D appr...

  8. A numerical based design approach for automotive space frame structures considering their crash behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, Anuja Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering techniques (CAE) are extensively used for designing car body structures. However, their success depends on the accuracy of input data used in the analysis. This poses restrictions on their use in concept design phase of the car body, as the accuracy and availability of input data is limited during this phase. This thesis develops a knowledge-based design approach to address these challenges. It also demonstrates the application of this approach for conceptual design...

  9. Methods of Helium Injection and Removal for Heat Transfer Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Harlan; Kegley, Jeff; Bourdreaux, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    While augmentation of heat transfer from a test article by helium gas at low pressures is well known, the method is rarely employed during space simulation testing because the test objectives usually involve simulation of an orbital thermal environment. Test objectives of cryogenic optical testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Cryogenic Facility (XRCF) have typically not been constrained by orbital environment parameters. As a result, several methods of helium injection have been utilized at the XRCF since 1999 to decrease thermal transition times. A brief synopsis of these injection (and removal) methods including will be presented.

  10. Crimes Scenes as Augmented Reality, off-screen, online and offline

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne-Marit

    2008-01-01

    Our field of investigation is site specific realism in crimefiction and spatial production as media specific features.We analyze the (re)production of crime scenes in respectivelycrime series, computer games and tourist practice,and relate this to the ideas of augmented reality. Using a distinctionbetween places as locations situated in the physicalworld and spaces as imagined or virtuallocations as our point of departure, this paper investigates how placesin various ways have become augmente...

  11. Wavelet Compressed PCA Models for Real-Time Image Registration in Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cooper

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of augmented reality (AR has shown great promise in enhancing medical training and diagnostics via interactive simulations. This paper presents a novel method to perform accurate and inexpensive image registration (IR utilizing a pre-constructed database of reference objects in conjunction with a principal component analysis (PCA model. In addition, a wavelet compression algorithm is utilized to enhance the speed of the registration process. The proposed method is used to perform registration of a virtual 3D heart model based on tracking of an asymmetric reference object. The results indicate that the accuracy of the method is dependent upon the extent of asymmetry of the reference object which required inclusion of higher order principal components in the model. A key advantage of the presented IR technique is the absence of a restart mechanism required by the existing approaches while allowing up to six orders of magnitude compression of the modeled image space. The results demonstrate that the method is computationally inexpensive and thus suitable for real-time augmented reality implementation.

  12. Improving the Modeling of Hydrogen Solubility in Heavy Oil Cuts Using an Augmented Grayson Streed (AGS Approach Modélisation améliorée de la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes lourdes par l’approche de Grayson Streed Augmenté (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Grayson Streed (GS method [Grayson H.G. and Streed C.W. (1963 6th World Petroleum Congress , Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 19-26 June, pp. 169-181] is often used by the industry for calculating hydrogen solubility in petroleum fluids. However, its accuracy becomes very bad when very heavy fluids are considered. An improvement is proposed in this work, based on a Flory-augmented activity coefficient model. Hydrogen solubilities in n-alkanes from n−C7 up to n−C36 have been investigated and a decreasing Henry constant with molecular weight is evidenced. The analysis of the Henry constant behaviour with molecular weight suggests a simple improvement to the model, using a Flory entropic contribution, thus keeping its predictive character. This improvement led to the necessity of refitting a number of fundamental hydrogen parameters. The resulting model behaves better for heavy components and for aromatics. The petroleum fractions evaluated with the Augmented Grayson-Streed (AGS model are taken from Cai et al. [Cai H.Y. et al. (2001 Fuel 80, 1055-1063] and Lin et al. [Lin H.M. et al. (1981 Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 20, 2, 253-256]. The importance of the petroleum fluid characterization is stressed. A sensitivity analysis has shown that the solubility parameter has a much larger effect than the other parameters: great care must be taken at calculating that property. The predictions of hydrogen solubility in petroleum fractions and in coal liquids were improved compared with the Grayson Streed model, resulting in an Absolute Average Deviation (AAD of 30% for AGS model compared to 55% for Grayson-Streed model, in the range of 80-380°C and 6.3-258.9 bar. La méthode de Grayson Streed (GS [Grayson H.G. and Streed C.W. (1963 6th World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 19-26 June, pp. 169-181] est souvent préconisée dans l’industrie pour calculer la solubilité de l’hydrogène dans des coupes pétrolières. Il se fait

  13. Approaching Environmental Health Disparities and Green Spaces: An Ecosystem Services Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viniece Jennings

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities occur when adverse health conditions are unequal across populations due in part to gaps in wealth. These disparities continue to plague global health. Decades of research suggests that the natural environment can play a key role in sustaining the health of the public. However, the influence of the natural environment on health disparities is not well-articulated. Green spaces provide ecosystem services that are vital to public health. This paper discusses the link between green spaces and some of the nation’s leading health issues such as obesity, cardiovascular health, heat-related illness, and psychological health. These associations are discussed in terms of key demographic variables—race, ethnicity, and income. The authors also identify research gaps and recommendations for future research.

  14. A perturbative approach to the redshift space power spectrum: beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya to find the SPT kernels. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to the third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate its application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.

  15. A Perturbative Approach to the Redshift Space Power Spectrum: Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We develop a code to produce the power spectrum in redshift space based on standard perturbation theory (SPT) at 1-loop order. The code can be applied to a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models using a recently proposed numerical method by A.Taruya. This includes Horndeski's theory with a general potential, which accommodates both chameleon and Vainshtein screening mechanisms and provides a non-linear extension of the effective theory of dark energy up to third order. Focus is on a recent non-linear model of the redshift space power spectrum which has been shown to model the anisotropy very well at relevant scales for the SPT framework, as well as capturing relevant non-linear effects typical of modified gravity theories. We provide consistency checks of the code against established results and elucidate it's application within the light of upcoming high precision RSD data.

  16. Research and Education in Basic Space Science The Approach Pursued in the UN/ESA Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Naimiy, H M K; Chamcham, K; de Alwis, S P; De Carias, M C P; Haubold, H J; Boggino, A E T

    2000-01-01

    Since 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agencyis holding annually a workshop on basic space science for the benefit of theworldwide development of astronomy. These workshops have been held in countriesof Asia and the Pacific (India, Sri Lanka), Latin America and the Caribbean(Costa Rica, Colombia, Honduras), Africa (Nigeria), Western Asia (Egypt,Jordan), and Europe (Germany, France). Additional to the scientific benefits ofthe workshops and the strengthening of international cooperation, the workshopslead to the establishment of astronomical telescope facilities in Colombia,Egypt, Honduras, Jordan, Morocco, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, andUruguay. The annual UN/ESA Workshops continue to pursue an agenda to networkthese astronomical telescope facilities through similar research and educationprogrammes. Teaching material and hands-on astrophysics material has beendeveloped for the operation of such astronomical telescope facilities in anuniversity environment.

  17. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  18. Time-dependent generalized-active-space configuration-interaction approach to photoionization dynamics of atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Bauch, Sebastian; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2014-01-01

    We present a wave-function based method to solve the time-dependent many-electron Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE) with special emphasis on strong-field ionization phenomena. The theory builds on the configuration-interaction (CI) approach supplemented by the generalized-active-space (GAS) concept from quantum chemistry. The latter allows for a controllable reduction in the number of configurations in the CI expansion by imposing restrictions on the active orbital space. The method is similar to the recently formulated time-dependent restricted-active-space (TD-RAS) CI method [D. Hochstuhl, and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. A 86, 053424 (2012)]. We present details of our implementation and address convergence properties with respect to the active spaces and the associated account of electron correlation in both ground state and excitation scenarios. We apply the TD-GASCI theory to strong-field ionization of polar diatomic molecules and illustrate how the method allows us to uncover a strong correlation-induced shift of ...

  19. Opening My Voice, Claiming My Space: Theorizing the Possibilities of Postcolonial Approaches to Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana A. Pathak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which postcoloniality and autoethnography can be integrated to create a space of scholarly inquiry that disrupts the colonialist enterprise prevalent in the academy. By utilizing González's four ethics of postcolonial ethnography, this essay presents an ethics for postcolonial autoethnography as a mode to build a body of scholarly research that disrupts scientific imperialism.

  20. Linearized Navier-Stokes equations in R3: an approach in weighted Sobolev spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amrouche, Ch.; Meslameni, M.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 901-916. ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : generalized Oseen equations * weighted Sobolev spaces * generalized solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.567, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticlesnew.jsp?paperID=9871