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Sample records for auger snails terebridae

  1. Correlating molecular phylogeny with venom apparatus occurrence in Panamic auger snails (Terebridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandë Holford

    Full Text Available Central to the discovery of neuroactive compounds produced by predatory marine snails of the superfamily Conoidea (cone snails, terebrids, and turrids is identifying those species with a venom apparatus. Previous analyses of western Pacific terebrid specimens has shown that some Terebridae groups have secondarily lost their venom apparatus. In order to efficiently characterize terebrid toxins, it is essential to devise a key for identifying which species have a venom apparatus. The findings presented here integrate molecular phylogeny and the evolution of character traits to infer the presence or absence of the venom apparatus in the Terebridae. Using a combined dataset of 156 western and 33 eastern Pacific terebrid samples, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on analyses of 16S, COI and 12S mitochondrial genes. The 33 eastern Pacific specimens analyzed represent four different species: Acus strigatus, Terebra argyosia, T. ornata, and T. cf. formosa. Anatomical analysis was congruent with molecular characters, confirming that species included in the clade Acus do not have a venom apparatus, while those in the clade Terebra do. Discovery of the association between terebrid molecular phylogeny and the occurrence of a venom apparatus provides a useful tool for effectively identifying the terebrid lineages that may be investigated for novel pharmacological active neurotoxins, enhancing conservation of this important resource, while providing supplementary information towards understanding terebrid evolutionary diversification.

  2. Records of Auger shells (Negastropoda: Terebridae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.; Haridevi, C.K.

    : Neogastropoda Family : Terebridae Genus : Terebra 1) Terebra subulata (Linnaeus, 1758) The shells were collected from North Bay and Aberdeen jetty. They were common on the coralline sandy beaches of the islands. The shell grows to 160 mm. Totally 19 whorls were.... 6 Seshaiyana Vol.14 No.1 (2006) Measurements: Length ? 95 mm; Width of body whorl - 15 mm Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. 2) Terebra hectica (Linnaeus, 1758) Specimens were collected from the Aberdeen jetty and Wandoor Marine Park. The shell...

  3. The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holford Mandë

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Conoidea superfamily, comprised of cone snails, terebrids, and turrids, is an exceptionally promising group for the discovery of natural peptide toxins. The potential of conoidean toxins has been realized with the distribution of the first Conus (cone snail drug, Prialt (ziconotide, an analgesic used to alleviate chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients. Cone snail toxins (conotoxins are highly variable, a consequence of a high mutation rate associated to duplication events and positive selection. As Conus and terebrids diverged in the early Paleocene, the toxins from terebrids (teretoxins may demonstrate highly divergent and unique functionalities. Recent analyses of the Terebridae, a largely distributed family with more than 300 described species, indicate they have evolutionary and pharmacological potential. Based on a three gene (COI, 12S and 16S molecular phylogeny, including ~50 species from the West-Pacific, five main terebrid lineages were discriminated: two of these lineages independently lost their venom apparatus, and one venomous lineage was previously unknown. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships within the Terebridae aids in effectively targeting divergent lineages with novel peptide toxins. Preliminary results indicate that teretoxins are similar in structure and composition to conotoxins, suggesting teretoxins are an attractive line of research to discover and develop new therapeutics that target ion channels and receptors. Using conotoxins as a guideline, and innovative natural products discovery strategies, such as the Concerted Discovery Strategy, the potential of the Terebridae and their toxins are explored as a pioneering pharmacological resource.

  4. The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puillandre, Nicolas; Holford, Mandë

    2010-01-01

    The Conoidea superfamily, comprised of cone snails, terebrids, and turrids, is an exceptionally promising group for the discovery of natural peptide toxins. The potential of conoidean toxins has been realized with the distribution of the first Conus (cone snail) drug, Prialt (ziconotide), an analgesic used to alleviate chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients. Cone snail toxins (conotoxins) are highly variable, a consequence of a high mutation rate associated to duplication events and positive selection. As Conus and terebrids diverged in the early Paleocene, the toxins from terebrids (teretoxins) may demonstrate highly divergent and unique functionalities. Recent analyses of the Terebridae, a largely distributed family with more than 300 described species, indicate they have evolutionary and pharmacological potential. Based on a three gene (COI, 12S and 16S) molecular phylogeny, including ~50 species from the West-Pacific, five main terebrid lineages were discriminated: two of these lineages independently lost their venom apparatus, and one venomous lineage was previously unknown. Knowing the phylogenetic relationships within the Terebridae aids in effectively targeting divergent lineages with novel peptide toxins. Preliminary results indicate that teretoxins are similar in structure and composition to conotoxins, suggesting teretoxins are an attractive line of research to discover and develop new therapeutics that target ion channels and receptors. Using conotoxins as a guideline, and innovative natural products discovery strategies, such as the Concerted Discovery Strategy, the potential of the Terebridae and their toxins are explored as a pioneering pharmacological resource. PMID:20849634

  5. Evolution of the Toxoglossa Venom Apparatus as Inferred by Molecular Phylogeny of the Terebridae

    OpenAIRE

    Holford, Mandë; Puillandre, Nicolas; Terryn, Yves; Cruaud, Corinne; Olivera, Baldomero; Bouchet, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Toxoglossate marine gastropods, traditionally assigned to the families Conidae, Terebridae, and Turridae, are one of the most populous animal groups that use venom to capture their prey. These marine animals are generally characterized by a venom apparatus that consists of a muscular venom bulb and a tubular venom gland. The toxoglossan radula, often compared with a hypodermic needle for its use as a conduit to inject toxins into prey, is considered a major anatomical breakthrough that assist...

  6. Differential auger spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Myron; Varma, Matesh Narayan; Anne, Joshi

    1976-06-22

    Differential Auger spectroscopy method for increasing the sensitivity of micro-Auger spectroanalysis of the surfaces of dilute alloys, by alternately periodically switching an electron beam back and forth between an impurity free reference sample and a test sample containing a trace impurity. The Auger electrons from the samples produce representative Auger spectrum signals which cancel to produce an Auger test sample signal corresponding to the amount of the impurity in the test samples.

  7. Auger Physicists visit CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Visit at CERN P5 CMS in the experimental cavern Alan Watson, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Leeds; Jim Cronin, Nobel Laureate, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Chicago; Jim Virdee, CMS Former Spokesperson, Imperial College; Jim Matthews, Auger Co-Spokesperson, Louisiana State University

  8. The Terebridae and teretoxins: Combining phylogeny and anatomy for concerted discovery of bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Holford Mandë; Puillandre Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Conoidea superfamily, comprised of cone snails, terebrids, and turrids, is an exceptionally promising group for the discovery of natural peptide toxins. The potential of conoidean toxins has been realized with the distribution of the first Conus (cone snail) drug, Prialt (ziconotide), an analgesic used to alleviate chronic pain in HIV and cancer patients. Cone snail toxins (conotoxins) are highly variable, a consequence of a high mutation rate associated to duplication events and...

  9. Drill-auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Bratisheva, L.L.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The author proposes a drill-auger with a drilling platform, a sectional auger-bit with a drilling-bit crown, a rotational mechanism, and a feed mechanism with vertical chain grippers. Borehole drilling operations are made more effective by drilling from a single drill platform attitude for the entirety of the auger-bit length (which is equal to the screw length). The chain teeth protrude from the auger to a diameter equal to the height of the teeth. The rotary mechanism is platform mounted with two symmetrically deployed rollers having teeth capable of kinematically interfacing with the auger teeth. The feed mechanism consists of a hydraulic jack deployed between the vertical chain protrusion and the auxiliary grippers which are themselves attached in a hinge-like fashion to the hydraulic-jack cylinder and are capable of interfacing with sections of the auger stem.

  10. From Mollusks to Medicine: A Venomics Approach for the Discovery and Characterization of Therapeutics from Terebridae Peptide Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Verdes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms comprise a diversity of peptide toxins that manipulate molecular targets such as ion channels and receptors, making venom peptides attractive candidates for the development of therapeutics to benefit human health. However, identifying bioactive venom peptides remains a significant challenge. In this review we describe our particular venomics strategy for the discovery, characterization, and optimization of Terebridae venom peptides, teretoxins. Our strategy reflects the scientific path from mollusks to medicine in an integrative sequential approach with the following steps: (1 delimitation of venomous Terebridae lineages through taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses; (2 identification and classification of putative teretoxins through omics methodologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics; (3 chemical and recombinant synthesis of promising peptide toxins; (4 structural characterization through experimental and computational methods; (5 determination of teretoxin bioactivity and molecular function through biological assays and computational modeling; (6 optimization of peptide toxin affinity and selectivity to molecular target; and (7 development of strategies for effective delivery of venom peptide therapeutics. While our research focuses on terebrids, the venomics approach outlined here can be applied to the discovery and characterization of peptide toxins from any venomous taxa.

  11. From Mollusks to Medicine: A Venomics Approach for the Discovery and Characterization of Therapeutics from Terebridae Peptide Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdes, Aida; Anand, Prachi; Gorson, Juliette; Jannetti, Stephen; Kelly, Patrick; Leffler, Abba; Simpson, Danny; Ramrattan, Girish; Holford, Mandë

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms comprise a diversity of peptide toxins that manipulate molecular targets such as ion channels and receptors, making venom peptides attractive candidates for the development of therapeutics to benefit human health. However, identifying bioactive venom peptides remains a significant challenge. In this review we describe our particular venomics strategy for the discovery, characterization, and optimization of Terebridae venom peptides, teretoxins. Our strategy reflects the scientific path from mollusks to medicine in an integrative sequential approach with the following steps: (1) delimitation of venomous Terebridae lineages through taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses; (2) identification and classification of putative teretoxins through omics methodologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics; (3) chemical and recombinant synthesis of promising peptide toxins; (4) structural characterization through experimental and computational methods; (5) determination of teretoxin bioactivity and molecular function through biological assays and computational modeling; (6) optimization of peptide toxin affinity and selectivity to molecular target; and (7) development of strategies for effective delivery of venom peptide therapeutics. While our research focuses on terebrids, the venomics approach outlined here can be applied to the discovery and characterization of peptide toxins from any venomous taxa. PMID:27104567

  12. Coincidence Auger spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penent, F. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France) and DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France)]. E-mail: penent@ccr.jussieu.fr; Lablanquie, P. [LURE, Universite Paris Sud, 91898 Orsay (France); Hall, R.I. [DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France); Palaudoux, J. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France); Ito, K. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); IMS, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Aoto, T. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Eland, J.H.D. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-15

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) are (with X-ray emission spectroscopy, XES) powerful analytical tools for material science and gas phase studies. However, the interpretation of Auger spectra can be very difficult due to the number and complexity of the involved processes. A deeper analysis, that allows a better understanding of relaxation processes following inner shell ionization, is possible with coincidence Auger spectroscopy. This method gives a new insight into electron correlation and allows disentangling of complex Auger electron spectra. In this paper, we present some examples related to gas phase coincidence Auger electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The detection in coincidence of an Auger electron with a threshold photoelectron presents two main advantages which are good energy resolution and high coincidence count rates. This technique has also provided new results on double Auger decay processes. A further qualitative breakthrough has been made with the development of a new experimental set-up based on a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. This opens up the field of multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy and allows a most detailed analysis with characterization of all possible decay pathways following inner shell ionization.

  13. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  14. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  15. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  16. Auger spectroscopy and surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Pierre Auger reported on his observations of low energy electrons associated with core-ionised atoms in cloud chamber experiments. He was able to correctly identify the mechanism for their production, and such electrons are now known as Auger electrons. Typically Auger electrons have energies in the range 10 eV to 2 keV. The short distance that such low energy electrons travel in solids ensures that Auger electrons come from the surface layers. The data generated by the AES technique are complex. There are at least three electrons involved in the process, and there are many possible configurations for the atom. These possibilities led to spectra that are not readily interpreted in detail. Theory lags behind experiment in this area. In principle, it should be possible to find information about the chemical environment of atoms from Auger spectra. While there are clear changes in spectral lineshapes, there is no simple way to go from the spectra to an understanding of the chemical bonding of the atom. There are a number of experiments currently underway which aim to improve our understanding of the Auger process. Synchrotron experiments with tunable energy x-rays are providing new insight. Experiments that use positrons to excite Auger emission have also produced further recent understanding. Coincidence experiments between photoelectrons and Auger electrons have also made recent advances. Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy reduces the complexity of Auger spectra by only counting those electrons that occur as a consequence of selected ionizations. The effect is to reduce the complexity of the spectra, and to isolate processes that are often clouded by the simultaneous occurrence of other effects. (author)

  17. Bore-auger servo-mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bolotov, N.L.; Kiselev, Ye.I.; Opal' ko, L.L.; Podubniy, V.I.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyy, Yu.F.

    1980-06-06

    A bore-auger servo-mechanism is proposed for a drilling machine. This unit consists of a drilling bit, an auger boring section with a screw-type surface, upper and lower cutting disks, mounted onto the supports between the main auger sections, and a linear auger section with lateral ties. In order to simplify construction, the upper cutting disk is equipped with its own auger bits, both below and above the disks, thus facilitating interaction with the screw-type surface of the auger sections.

  18. El proyecto AUGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, A.

    Hace ya más de 30 años en Volcano Ranch, EE.UU., un extenso chubasco cósmico (ECC) fue detectado con energía en exceso de 1020 eV. Desde entonces, observatorios ubicados en Haverah Park del Reino Unido, Yakutsk de Rusia, AGASA de Japón y Dugway de EE.UU. también han observado ECC con energías mayores que 1020 eV. Poco se sabe de dichos rayos, y en particular cuál es la naturaleza del primario, de dónde provienen, y cómo son acelerados, pero su naturaleza ultrarelativista excluye la mayoría de las respuestas dejando sólo algunas plausibles de ser investigadas experimentalmente. Grupos de científicos de 20 países están trabajando con el fin de construir dos arreglos de detectores gigantes, uno en cada hemisferio a lo largo de 3000 km2 c/u. Dichas dimensiones son necesarias debido al flujo estimado de 1 rayo cósmico/centuria/km2/sr. La sede del Observatorio del Sur es la Argentina. El proyecto fue nombrado Pierre Auger en conmemoración del célebre físico francés que detectó por primera vez chubascos cósmicos en 1938. El proyecto focaliza su interés en rayos cósmicos con energías mayores que 1020 eV.

  19. Quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song Bin

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear quantum-beat pump-probe Auger spectroscopy is introduced by discussing a relatively simple four-level model system. We consider a coherent wave packet involving two low-lying states that was prepared by an appropriate pump pulse. This wave packet is subsequently probed by a weak, time-delayed probe pulse with nearly resonant coupling to a core-excited state of the atomic or molecular system. The resonant Auger spectra are then studied as a function of the duration of the probe pulse and the time delay. With a bandwidth of the probe pulse approaching the energy spread of the wave packet, the Auger yields and spectra show quantum beats as a function of pump-probe delay. An analytic theory for the quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy will be presented, which allows for the reconstruction of the wave packet by analyzing the delaydependent Auger spectra. The possibility of extending this method to a more complex manifold of electronic and vibrational energy levels is also discussed.

  20. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  1. Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

    2012-05-01

    The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm.

  2. 30 CFR 77.1503 - Augering equipment; overhead protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1503 Augering equipment; overhead protection. (a) Auger machines which are exposed to highwall hazards, together with all those parts of any coal elevating conveyors... connecting or disconnecting auger sections under a highwall, at least one person shall be assigned to...

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  4. The Snail Takes a Walk with Me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜鸣; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 I'm a snake. Today God gives me a job-I should take a walk with the snail. The snail moves too slowly. I have to scare him. He looks at me, full of shame. I am very angry. I pull him, and even kick.The snail cries, so he stops walking. I feel quite helpless.

  5. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  6. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  7. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  8. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  9. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.

  10. Molluscicide control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Pereira de Souza

    1995-01-01

    A review of the methodology recommended by the World Health Organization for the use of molluscicides for the control of snail vectors of schistosomiasis is presented. Discussion of the principle molluscicides used, their advantages and disadvantages, the techniques and equipment required for their application and evaluation of effect as well as the biological control of snails is included.

  11. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  12. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  13. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  14. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhenry-Yvon Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  15. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  17. Modeling freshwater snail habitat suitability and areas of potential snail-borne disease transmission in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, Aslak; Kabatereine, N B;

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS-based modeling of an intermediate host snail species environmental requirements using known occurrence records can provide estimates of its spatial distribution. When other data are lacking, this can be used as a rough spatial prediction of potential snail...... Uganda, environmental data and the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) to map the potential distribution of snail species known to act as intermediate hosts of several human and animal parasites. The results suggest that large areas of Uganda are suitable habitats for many of these snail...

  18. Auger electron appearance potential spectrum of Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons are accelerated onto a solid polycrystalline Ni surface. These primary electrons interact with the surface to produce one of two phenomena: x-ray fluorescence, or Auger electron emission. Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy (AEAPS) is a process by which the Auger component of the secondary electron flux is analysed to extract qualitative information about the electronic structure of the empty conduction band states. In AEAPS, the threshold behavior of the Auger transitions is examined by taking the first derivative of the secondary electron current with respect to the incident electron energy using the potential modulation technique. Width of the empty band, degree of localization of the conduction band wave functions, overlapping of the 3d band with the 4s, and satellite phenomena are among the important parameters ascertainable by AEAPS. The present AEAPS measurements of L3 levels of Ni are compared with the reported data from Soft X-ray Appear nce Potential Spectroscopy (SXAPS) of Ni. SXAPS is a complimentary process of AEAPS in that it examines the secondary xray fluorescence from the surface in much the same way as AEAPS examines the total electron yield. AEAPS, used alone, or in conjunction with SXAPS, is considered to be a powerful technique for the systematic investgation of series of metals, such as the transition, or lanthanide series

  19. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; :, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antivcic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blumer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Frohlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp d, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Muller, G.; Munchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novzka, L.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruhle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tacscuau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a n

  20. Status report on Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a life history of the pond snail (Lymnaea Hinkleyia pilsbryi) at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The following information is included;...

  1. Freshwater snail consumption and angiostrongyliasis in Malaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liat, L B; Fong, Y L; Krishnansamy, M; Ramachandran, P; Mansor, S

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the freshwater snails, Pila scutata and Bellamyia ingallsiana, as food consumed by the local population was carried out in Peninsular Malaysia. Of these two species the first is preferred; the sizes favoured are between 25--40 mm. Pila snails were found to be consumed by the three communities, viz. Malay, Chinese and Indian, in different ways. The various methods of preparing the snails for consumption are described. P. scutata is an intermediate host of the rat-lung worm, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. As this worm presumably is the causative agent of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, the eating habits of the three races in consuming the snail in relation to the epidemiology of the disease was also discussed. PMID:726037

  2. CRCP-Prey choice of corallivorous snails

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The snail, Coralliophila abbreviata, is a common generalist corallivore and can be a major contributor to Caribbean acroporid tissue mortality. Considering the...

  3. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  4. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-21

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10{sup 17} eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km{sup 2} overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km{sup 2}, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km{sup 2} sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  5. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  6. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  7. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    OpenAIRE

    V.O. Aina; A.A.J. Adewumi; C.O. Yao; M.Z. Shi; Hu, D. Y.; W.H. Chai

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis) in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania...

  8. Education and Outreach for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Snow, Gregory R

    2007-01-01

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach, and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a task of its own whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malargue that has hosted over 29,000 visitors since 2001, the Auger Celebration and a collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2005, the opening of the James Cronin School in Malargue in November 2006, public lectures, school visits, and courses for science teachers. As the collaboration prepares the proposal for the northern Auger site foreseen to be in southeast Colorado, plans for a comprehensive outreach program are being...

  9. Calibration and Monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the atmospheric monitoring, calibration, and other operating systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  10. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  11. Data Processing at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vicha, J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic-ray particles with ultra-high energies (above $10^{18}$ eV) are studied through the properties of extensive air showers which they initiate in the atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory detects these showers with unprecedented exposure and precision and the collected data are processed via dedicated software codes. Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers are very computationally expensive, especially at the highest energies and calculations are performed on the GRID for this purpose. The processing of measured and simulated data is described, together with a brief list of physics results which have been achieved.

  12. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  13. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  14. Auger and SIMS spectrometry in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microanalysis limitations led to the development of analytical techniques more sensitive to the ''surface'' layer of the samples. The need for these methods arises from the importance of such layers in determining the characteristics of semiconductor devices. Two recent methods of surface analysis are described in this paper, namely the Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES) and the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Various AES and SIMS spectrometers are already available on the market, and are currently used in R and D or production laboratories of the electronic industries

  15. Education and public outreach of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Snow, G.

    2005-08-01

    The Auger collaboration's broad mission in education, outreach and public relations is coordinated in a separate task. Its goals are to encourage and support a wide range of outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on recent activities and future initiatives.

  16. Mate desertion in the snail kite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

  17. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  18. Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebr Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR in the world. These particles, presumably protons or heavier nuclei of energies up to 1020 eV, initiate extensive air showers which can be detected by sampling the particles that arrive at ground level or observing the fluorescence light generated during the passage of showers through the atmosphere – the Pierre Auger Observatory employs both these techniques. As the center-of-mass energies of the first interactions in the showers can be several orders of magnitude beyond the reach of the LHC, the UHECR provide an unique opportunity to study hadronic interactions. While the uncertainty in modeling these interactions is somewhat degenerate with the unknown composition of the primary beam, interaction models can be tested using data such as the depths of the maxima of the longitudinal development of the showers or their muon content. Particular sensitivity to interaction models is achieved when several observables are combined. Moreover, using careful data selection, proton-air cross section at the c.m.s. energy of 57 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair can be obtained.

  19. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouffon, Philippe [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km{sup 2}, sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  20. Spatial analysis of snail distribution in Jiangning county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-ying; ZHOU Yun; XU De-zhong; SUN Zhi-dong; ZHOU Xiao-nong; GONG Zi-li

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the spatial distribution of oncomelenia snails in Jiangning County. Methods:Cluster analysis and the Spatial Scan Statistics were performed based on the density of alive-snails in habitats and its rate infected by the S. Japonicum. Results: Although areas of snail habitats and density of the alivesnails in marshland in 2000 are higher significantly than that in mountain areas in Jiangning County, the numbers of habitats in mountain are more than that in marshland and they distributed sporadically. The snail habitats were classified into 4 in marshlands and 3 classes in mountain areas respectively in cluster analysis.Although they are mainly the one with low density of alive and infected snails, we should alert that there are also some habitats with high snail density and infection rate, which is important for the transmission of schistosomia. The analysis of Spatial Scan Statistics detected 2 significant spatial aggregations for alive-snail in marshland and 4 in mountain areas respectively with p-values less than 0. 01. There are also 2 significant spatial aggregations for infected snails in marshland. Conclusion.. The significant spatial aggregations for alivesnails and infected snails indicated that there are some factors in the habitats suitable for the survival of snails and the transmission of schistosomia.

  1. Soil chip convey of lunar subsurface auger drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-05-01

    Celestial body subsurface drilling and sampling is a key aspect of near-earth exploration projects. In these sample return missions, the auger drill system is universally used due to the environment and detector load limits. The common failure that the auger faces is chip chocking, which can raise the torque and cause the drill to stick. This paper builds auger drill models describing chip flow in the auger groove to balance geometric parameters, functional capability, and reliability. The features of chip flow are summarized and verified by a series of discrete element method simulations. In contrast to previous auger design, a convey capability factor is defined to indicate the auger's chip removal capacity, and the role of pitch angle and other parameters is assessed through motion analysis of the lunar soil flow process. The theory is verified by testing the drill penetrating speed limit, which combines drill geometry and motion parameters. This work provides a new method for design and optimization of low speed auger drill systems and research on particle flow with small scale mechanical constraints.

  2. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  3. Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; Veberic, D; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Chiosso, M; Mussa, R; Sequeiros, G; Mostafa, M A; Roberts, M D

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optica...

  4. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; d, J Knapp; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a number of major breakthroughs. Among these we discuss the energy spectrum and the searches for large-scale anisotropies. We present analyses of our X$_{max}$ data and show how it can be interpreted in terms of mass composition. We also describe some new analyses that extract mass sensitive parameters from the 100% duty cycle SD data. A coherent interpretation of all these recent results opens new directions. The consequences regarding the cosmic ray composition and the properties of UHECR sources are briefly discussed.

  5. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Peña, J. L.; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  6. The effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Kyle D; Belden, Jason B; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine has been shown to affect freshwater snails from the subcellular to community level. However, most studies have used different snail species, methods, endpoints, and atrazine exposure concentrations, resulting in some conflicting results and limiting our understanding. The goal of this study was to address these concerns by (1) investigating the acute and chronic effects of atrazine on four species of freshwater snails (Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, Physa acuta, and Stagnicola elodes) using the same methods, endpoints, and concentrations, and (2) summarizing the current literature pertaining to the effects of atrazine on freshwater snails. We conducted a 48 h acute toxicity test with an atrazine concentration higher than what typically occurs in aquatic environments (1000 µg/L). Additionally, we exposed snails to environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations (0, 0.3, 3, and 30 µg/L) for 28 days and assessed snail survival, growth, and reproduction. We also summarized all known literature pertaining to atrazine effects on freshwater snails. The literature summary suggests snails are often affected by environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations at the subcellular and cellular levels. These effects are typically not transitive to effects on survival, growth, or reproduction at the same concentrations. Our acute exposures corroborate the general trend of no direct effect on snail populations as atrazine did not directly affect the survival of any of the four snail species. Similarly, environmentally relevant concentrations did not significantly affect the survival, growth, or reproduction of any snail species. These results indicate that, in the absence of other possible stressors, the direct effects of environmentally relevant atrazine concentrations may not be realized at the snail population level.

  7. How stress alters memory in 'smart' snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dalesman

    Full Text Available Cognitive ability varies within species, but whether this variation alters the manner in which memory formation is affected by environmental stress is unclear. The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as model species in studies of learning and memory. The majority of those studies used a single laboratory strain (i.e. the Dutch strain originating from a wild population in the Netherlands. However, our recent work has identified natural populations that demonstrate significantly enhanced long-term memory (LTM formation relative to the Dutch strain following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour. Here we assess how two populations with enhanced memory formation (i.e. 'smart' snails, one from Canada (Trans Canada 1: TC1 and one from the U.K. (Chilton Moor: CM respond to ecologically relevant stressors. In control conditions the Dutch strain forms memory lasting 1-3 h following a single 0.5 h training session in our standard calcium pond water (80 mg/l [Ca(2+], whereas the TC1 and CM populations formed LTM lasting 5+ days following this training regime. Exposure to low environmental calcium pond water (20 mg/l [Ca(2+], which blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, reduced LTM retention to 24 h in the TC1 and CM populations. Crowding (20 snails in 100 ml immediately prior to training blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, and also did so in TC1 and CM populations. Therefore, snails with enhanced cognitive ability respond to these ecologically relevant stressors in a similar manner to the Dutch strain, but are more robust at forming LTM in a low calcium environment. Despite the two populations (CM and TC1 originating from different continents, LTM formation was indistinguishable in both control and stressed conditions. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms controlling cognitive differences among populations may be highly conserved in L. stagnalis.

  8. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  9. Snail1 Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Melanoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M.; Martin, James S.; Yang, Ruifeng; Xu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a known adverse prognostic factor, and the hypoxic dermal microenvironment participates in melanomagenesis. High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) expression in melanoma cells, particularly HIF-2α, is associated with poor prognosis. The mechanism underlying the effect of hypoxia on melanoma progression, however, is not fully understood. We report evidence that the effects of hypoxia on melanoma cells are mediated through activation of Snail1. Hypoxia increased melanoma cell migration and drug resistance, and these changes were accompanied by increased Snail1 and decreased E-cadherin expression. Snail1 expression was regulated by HIF-2α in melanoma. Snail1 overexpression led to more aggressive tumor phenotypes and features associated with stem-like melanoma cells in vitro and increased metastatic capacity in vivo. In addition, we found that knockdown of endogenous Snail1 reduced melanoma proliferation and migratory capacity. Snail1 knockdown also prevented melanoma metastasis in vivo. In summary, hypoxia up-regulates Snail1 expression and leads to increased metastatic capacity and drug resistance in melanoma cells. Our findings support that the effects of hypoxia on melanoma are mediated through Snail1 gene activation and suggest that Snail1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:21996677

  10. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. The convoluted evolution of snail chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilthuizen, M.; Davison, A.

    2005-11-01

    The direction that a snail (Mollusca: Gastropoda) coils, whether dextral (right-handed) or sinistral (left-handed), originates in early development but is most easily observed in the shell form of the adult. Here, we review recent progress in understanding snail chirality from genetic, developmental and ecological perspectives. In the few species that have been characterized, chirality is determined by a single genetic locus with delayed inheritance, which means that the genotype is expressed in the mother's offspring. Although research lags behind the studies of asymmetry in the mouse and nematode, attempts to isolate the loci involved in snail chirality have begun, with the final aim of understanding how the axis of left-right asymmetry is established. In nature, most snail taxa (>90%) are dextral, but sinistrality is known from mutant individuals, populations within dextral species, entirely sinistral species, genera and even families. Ordinarily, it is expected that strong frequency-dependent selection should act against the establishment of new chiral types because the chiral minority have difficulty finding a suitable mating partner (their genitalia are on the ‘wrong’ side). Mixed populations should therefore not persist. Intriguingly, however, a very few land snail species, notably the subgenus Amphidromus sensu stricto, not only appear to mate randomly between different chiral types, but also have a stable, within-population chiral dimorphism, which suggests the involvement of a balancing factor. At the other end of the spectrum, in many species, different chiral types are unable to mate and so could be reproductively isolated from one another. However, while empirical data, models and simulations have indicated that chiral reversal must sometimes occur, it is rarely likely to lead to so-called ‘single-gene’ speciation. Nevertheless, chiral reversal could still be a contributing factor to speciation (or to divergence after speciation) when

  13. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Mass composition results and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, A. E.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The study of their mass composition can help constrain models concerning their nature and origin. We discuss the different methods of deriving the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays. The methods use different parameters that describe various characteristics of the shower development. We will also discuss the prospects expected from an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Snail-Killing Effects of Streptomyces 218 Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Aina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at finding out the snail-killing effects of Streptomyces 218 powder on Oncomelania hupensis snails which are the vectors or intermediate host of Schiltosoma Japonicum (intestinal schistosomiasis in china the tests were carried out in the laboratory and on the field. The snail-killing effects of Streptomyces218 powder, isolated from snail habitat at Anchang Village of Anxiang country in China was tested using the immersion and spraying methods. The tests on the Oncomelania hupensis snails which are intermediate host of Streptomyces japonicum infection were carried out in the laboratory and in the field. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the immersion technique in the laboratory were 81.70 and 98.63% in 10 ppm of 218 solutions after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The mean corrected snail mortalities of the spraying tests in the laboratory were 82.90 and 87.90% at 3 and 5 days, respectively with 10 g/m2 218 powders. The snail-killing ability of 218 powders on the field determines by immersion and spraying methods were comparable to that of the chemical molluscicide-Niclosamide. The corrected snail mortality at 150 ppm of 218 powder (g/m2 and at 2 ppm of Niclosamide by immersion was 100% at the second time test after 24, 48 and 72 h. In the field spraying test, the mean corrected snail mortality at 100 ppm of 218 powders were 61.96 and 70.00% after 3 and 7 days of spraying respectively. At 2 ppm niclosamide, this was found to be 65.58 and 63.81%, respectively. The effective ingredients for the snail-killing are found to be located in the spore chains. Streptomyces 218 powder, although at higher concentrations, seems to be a promising mollusciciding biological agent. If developed further, this could compliment existing mollusciciding agents.

  15. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cazon, L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to measure the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 39 TeV and 56 TeV and also to constrain the new hadronic interaction models tuned after the results of the Large Hadron Collider, by measuring: the average shape of the electromagnetic longitudinal profile of air showers, the moments of the distribution of the depth at which they reach their maximum, and the content and production depth of muons in air showers with a primary center-of-mass energy per nucleon around and a...

  16. Land Snail Extinctions at Kalaeloa, O`ahu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Dye

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that the interpretation of Polynesian influence drawn from the stratigraphic record of sub-fossil land snails at Kalaeloa (O'ahu, Hawai'i is based on a unique stratigraphic sequence at a single sinkhole. The interpretation was then applied to other land snail sequences, despite their lack of evidence for Polynesian influence. We present a reanalysis of the stratigraphic record to conclude that Polynesians had little, if any, effect on land snail populations in sinkholes. We show that directional change in land snail populations was underway before Polynesians colonised the islands. Decreases in the diversity of snail populations, possibly indicative of environmental stress, do occur near the end of the stratigraphic sequence. Based on available dating evidence, however, these changes probably took place in the post-Contact period when the regional environment was radically altered by sugar cane cultivation.

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the venomous cone snail Conus consors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Age Brauer

    Full Text Available Cone snails are venomous predatory marine neogastropods that belong to the species-rich superfamily of the Conoidea. So far, the mitochondrial genomes of two cone snail species (Conus textile and Conus borgesi have been described, and these feed on snails and worms, respectively. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the fish-hunting cone snail Conus consors and describe a novel putative control region (CR which seems to be absent in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of other cone snail species. This possible CR spans about 700 base pairs (bp and is located between the genes encoding the transfer RNA for phenylalanine (tRNA-Phe, trnF and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (cox3. The novel putative CR contains several sequence motifs that suggest a role in mitochondrial replication and transcription.

  18. How parasitism, stream substrate, and movement patterns mediate response to disturbance in the snail Elimia flava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, A. M.; Feminella, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    Snails in the genus Elimia are abundant in southeastern USA streams, and also serve as intermediate hosts to parasitic trematodes. Previous work indicated that high-flows decrease snail abundance and trematode prevalence, and others have shown substrate type and snail size affect likelihood of snail dislodgement. To investigate how parasitism, size, substrate, and snail behavior influenced dislodgement, we placed Elimia flava in artificial streams containing tile or gravel substrates, and then exposed them to progressively increasing flow velocities ( ~10, 40, 90 cm/s) for 5 minutes each. We recorded snail behavior and time to dislodgement, and then preserved snails to quantify their size and parasite load. Snails on tile dislodged significantly faster than snails on gravel, and snails with high parasite loads also dislodged faster than snails without parasites. Parasitism also appeared to affect movement patterns: snails showing predominantly downstream movement had higher parasite loads than those that did not. Behavior also affected dislodgement probability, as snails moving upstream or to the waterline remained on the substrate longer than snails not showing those behaviors. Parasitism, substrate composition, and snail movement are useful predictors of the likelihood of dislodgement, and parasitism and substrate may both increase snail vulnerability to flow disturbance.

  19. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  20. What can be learnt from a snail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Littorina saxatilis is a common inhabitant of intertidal shores of the north Atlantic. It is amazingly polymorphic and forms reproductively isolated ecotypes in microhabitats where crabs are either present and wave action is less furious, or where waves are strong and crabs are absent. Decades of research have unveiled much of the ecological and demographic context of the formation of crab- and wave-ecotype snails showing important phenotypic differences being inherited, differential selection being strong over adjacent microhabitats, local dispersal being restricted, and long-distance transports of individuals being rare. In addition, strong assortative mating of ecotypes has been shown to include a component of male mate preference based on female size. Several studies support ecotypes being diverged locally and under gene flow in a parallel and highly replicated fashion. The high level of replication at various levels of independence (from local to pan-European scale) provides excellent opportunities to investigate the detailed mechanisms of microevolution, including the formation of barriers to gene flow. Current investigations benefit from a draft reference genome and an integration of genomic approaches, modelling and experiments to unveil molecular and ecological components of speciation and their interactions. PMID:27087845

  1. The emerging role of Snail1 in the tumor stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A; Herrera, M; Peña, C

    2016-09-01

    The transcription factor Snail1 leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by repressing the adherent and tight junctions in epithelial cells. This process is related to an increase of cell migratory and mesenchymal properties during both embryonic development and tumor progression. Although Snail1 expression is very limited in adult animals, emerging evidence has placed Snail at the forefront of medical science. As a transcriptional repressor, Snail1 confers cancer stem cell-like traits on tumor cells and promotes drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we summarize recent reports that suggest the pro-tumorigenic roles of Snail1 expression in tumor stroma. The crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells mediated by Snail1 regulates paracrine communication, pro-tumorigenic abilities of cancer cells, extracellular matrix characteristics and mesenchymal differentiation in cancer stem cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Therefore, understanding the regulation and functional roles of Snail1 in the tumor microenvironment will provide us with new therapies for treating metastatic disease. PMID:26687368

  2. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  3. Status and recent results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobiov, S

    2006-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory aims to determine the nature and origin of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). The Auger hybrid detector combines fluorescence observations of extended air showers, initiated in the atmosphere by these most energetic particles, with measures of the shower front at the ground level by its large array of Cherenkov water tanks. This allows to improve considerably the precision on reconstructed primary cosmic ray parameters, and to make important cross-calibrations between two techniques at these energies, unreachable with accelerator experiments. The Southern Auger site in Argentina is close to completion. The first measure of the primary cosmic rays energy spectrum, the anisotropy search results, and the limit on the photon fraction in the UHECR are discussed.

  4. Lateral width of shower image in the Auger fluorescence detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, H; Dobrigkeit, C; Engel, R; Gora, D; Heck, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Medina-Tanco, G; Ortiz, J A; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the lateral distribution of light in extensive air showers on the detection and reconstruction of shower profiles is investigated for the Auger fluorescence telescopes. Based on three-dimensional simulations, the capability of the Auger telescopes to measure the lateral distribution of light is evaluated. The ability to infer the actual lateral distribution is confirmed by the comparison of detailed simulations with real data. The contribution of pixels located far from the axis of the shower image is calculated and the accepted signal is rescaled in order to reconstruct a correct shower profile. The analysis presented here shows that: (a) the Auger telescopes are able to observe the lateral distribution of showers and (b) the energy corrections to account for the signal in outlying pixels can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  5. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fuchs, B; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hemery, N; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m$^2$ plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  6. Reviewing recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrigkeit, C.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory addresses the most fundamental questions about the nature and origin of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The results obtained by the Auger Observatory have already led to a number of major breakthroughs in the field contributing to the advance of our understanding of these extremely energetic particles. The spectrum and the arrival direction distribution are key observables to search for sources or source regions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and to understand the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. We present the latest results on the energy spectrum, and on the studies of anisotropies performed on the ten-year dataset of arrival directions of cosmic rays at large and small angular scales. We also address the plans and motivations for the future upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  7. Atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory and environmental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the highest energy cosmic rays. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the atmospheric monitoring, especially for aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere. Several methods are described which have been developed to measure the aerosol optical depth profile and aerosol phase function, using lasers and other light sources as recorded by the fluorescence detector. The origin of atmospheric aerosols traveling through the Auger site is also presented, highlighting the effect of surrounding areas to atmospheric properties. In the aim to extend the Pierre Auger Observatory to an atmospheric research platform, a discussion about a collaborative project is presented.

  8. Defect identification by compositional defect review using auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect identification plays an enabling role in determining the source of particles that occur during semiconductor processing and are subsequently detected by defect inspection tools. Auger electron spectroscopy provides a high spatial resolution, surface sensitive analytical probe that is well matched to examining small, thin or complex defects. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to cross-section buried defects and structures for subsequent Auger analysis. Such measurements have been made on defects from two wafers pulled at different process steps. One wafer was analyzed after poly-Si deposition, and the other wafer was analyzed after metal 2 etch. The defects on the poly-Si wafer are Si particles. Three types of particles were found on the metal 2 wafer: C-based, stainless steel, and Si-oxide. The majority of defects on this wafer are C-based. Auger, EDS and FIB results will be compared for representative defects on these two wafers

  9. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.

    2016-04-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  10. Digenetic larvae in Schistosome snails from El Fayoum, Egypt with detection of Schistosoma mansoni in the snail by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelhadid, Shawky M; Thabet, Marwa; El-Basel, Dayhoum; Taha, Ragaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to detect the digenetic larvae infections in Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and also PCR detection of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The snails were collected from different branches of Yousef canal and their derivatives in El Fayoum Governorate. The snails were investigated for infection through induction of cercarial shedding by exposure to light and crushing of the snails. The shed cercariae were S. mansoni, Pharyngeate longifurcate type I and Pharyngeate longifurcate type II from B. alexandrina, while that found in B. truncatus were Schitosoma haematobium and Xiphidiocercaria species cercariae. The seasonal prevalence of infection was discussed. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of S. mansoni in the DNA from field collected infected and non infected snails. The results of PCR showed that the pool of B. alexandrina snails which shed S. mansoni cercariae in the laboratory, gave positive reaction in the samples. Pooled samples of field collected B. alexandrina that showed negative microscopic shedding of cercariae gave negative and positive PCR in a consecutive manner. Accordingly, a latent infection in the snail (negative microscopic) could be detected by using PCR. PMID:27605774

  11. Monte-Carlo simulation of backscattered electrons in Auger electron spectroscopy. Part 1: Backscattering factor calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, M.; Vicario, E.; Doghmane, N.

    1987-10-01

    The contribution of backscattered electrons to Auger electrons yield was studied with a multiple scattering Monte-Carlo simulation. The Auger backscattering factor has been calculated in the 5 keV-60 keV energy range. The dependence of the Auger backscattering factor on the primary energy and the beam incidence angle were determined. Spatial distributions of backscattered electrons and Auger electrons are presented for a point incident beam. Correlations between these distributions are briefly investigated.

  12. The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Arqueros, F; Covault, C; D'Urso, D; Giulio, C D; Facal, P; Fick, B; Guarino, F; Malek, M; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J; Meyhandan, R; Monasor, M; Mostafa, M; Petrinca, P; Roberts, M; Sommers, P; Travnicek, P; Valore, L; Verzi, V; Wiencke, L

    2005-01-01

    The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a "test beam" to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

  13. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    OpenAIRE

    Wainberg, O.; A. Almela; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; B. Wundheiler; Melo, D.; Hampel, M.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slo...

  14. The Central laser facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F.; Bellido, J.; Covault, C.; D' Urso, D.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal, P.; Fick, B.; Guarino, F.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthews, J.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor,; Mostafa, M.; Petrinca, P.; Roberts, M.; Sommers, P.; Travnicek, P.; Valore, L.; Verzi, V.; Wiencke, Lawrence; /Utah U.

    2005-07-01

    The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a ''test beam'' to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

  15. CRCP-Acropora palmata snail corallivore removal evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Corallivorous snail feeding scars are a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one quarter of tissue loss in...

  16. Snails, stable iostopes, and southwestern desert paleoclimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.E. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Whelan, J.F.; Forester, R.M.; Burdett, J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern and fossil molluscs (snails) occur in many localities in and semi-arid regions throughout the desert southwest. Live terrestrial snails are found under rocks and in forest litter and aquatic taxa inhabit springs, seeps, and/or wetlands. Molluscs uptake local water during their growing season (spring and summer) and incorporate its delta 180 signature into their shells. Preliminary 180 analysis of modem shells from the southern Great Basin indicates that the shells probably reflect meteoric water 180 values during the growing season. This provides a way to estimate the delta 180 value of precipitation and, thereby, the source of the moisture-bearing air masses. Significant 180 variability in shells analyzed include geographic location, elevation, taxonomy, and habitat (terrestrial, spring, or wetland). We found a rough inverse correlation with elevation in modem shells from the Spring Range in southern Nevada. The delta 180 values of modem and fossil shells are also very different; modem values in this location are much higher than those from nearby late Pleistocene-age molluscs suggesting that the Pleistocene summers were variously colder and wetter than today or less evaporative (more humid). Assuming shell material directly reflects the 180 of the growing-season environment, comparison of modem and fossil shell delta 180 values can potentially identify changes in air-mass moisture sources and can help to define seasonal precipitation change through time. Comprehension and quantification of community and isotopic variability in modem gastropods is required to create probabilistic valid transfer functions with fossil materials. Valid inferences about past environmental conditions can then be established with known confidence limits.

  17. Microhabitats within Venomous Cone Snails Contain Diverse Actinobacteria▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Peraud, Olivier; Biggs, Jason S.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Alan R. Light; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Baldomero M. Olivera; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    Actinomycetes can be symbionts in diverse organisms, including both plants and animals. Some actinomycetes benefit their host by producing small molecule secondary metabolites; the resulting symbioses are often developmentally complex. Actinomycetes associated with three cone snails were studied. Cone snails are venomous tropical marine gastropods which have been extensively examined because of their production of peptide-based neurological toxins, but no microbiological studies have been rep...

  18. The Secrets Behind Vegetation Control on Snail Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Oncomelania (Oncomelania hupensis), a dioecian, ovoviviparous, and amphibious snail, is the sole intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, the most wide-spread snail fever in the world. Chemical eliminating the host proved unacceptable for there was severe contamination to water and soil. The river beaches and the delta areas of five provinces in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in China provide the most favorable habitats for Oncomelania. Our studies have revealed that the occurrence of ...

  19. Auger Emitter Based Radiotherapy- A Possible New Treatment for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredericia, Pil; Groesser, Torsten; Severin, Gregory;

    2014-01-01

    damage produced by Low-LET radiation used in current radiotherapy (2-3) Considerable efforts have been made in the past twenty years to develop Auger emitter-based radiotherapy However, previous studies lack precise measurement of RBE, which is the fundamental factor defining the relationship between...

  20. Performance of the fluorescence detectors of the pierre auger observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Jose A.; /Adelaide U.

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory have been operating in a stable manner since January 2004. After a brief review of the physical characteristics of the detectors, the associated atmospheric monitoring, the calibration infrastructure and the detector aperture, we will describe the steps required for the reconstruction of fluorescence event data, with emphasis on the shower profile parameters and primary energy.

  1. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environment. (5) Spoil placed on the outslope during previous mining operations shall not be disturbed if such... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Results and Perspectives of the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an extension of the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory. It is used to detect radio emission from extensive air showers with energies beyond $10^{17}~$eV in the $30 - 80~$MHz frequency band. After three phases of deployment, AERA now consists of more than 150 autonomous radio stations with different spacings, covering an area of about $17~$km$^2$. It is located at the same site as other Auger low-energy detector extensions enabling combinations with various other measurement techniques. The radio array allows different technical schemes to be explored as well as cross-calibration of our measurements with the established baseline detectors of the Auger Observatory. We report on the most recent technological developments and give an overview of the experimental results obtained with AERA. In particular, we will present the measurement of the radiation energy, i.e., the amount of energy that is emitted by the air shower in the form of radio emission, and its dependence...

  3. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yongfen [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  4. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; agoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; VandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Technical reports on operations and features of the Pierre Auger Observatory, including ongoing and planned enhancements and the status of the future northern hemisphere portion of the Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  5. Molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extraction against the freshwater snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Said Mahmoud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against the snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria spp. and Physa marmorata. Methods: Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen spinach. Snails were incubated in chlorophyllin containing water with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 µg/mL. All samples were kept in darkness overnight for incubation. After incubation, three samples were irradiated with simulated solar radiation for 3 h. After irradiation, the vitality of the organisms was determined. Results: The photodynamically active chlorophyllin, at low concentrations, was able to kill snails within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Besides, it had a killing effect by about 70% and 100% on the snails’ eggs and the newly hatched snails, respectively, after 3 h exposure to solar radiation. Conclusion: The derivates of chlorophyll was a very interesting substance for photodynamic freshwater snail control. Hence, it might be a promising and cheap new strategy which probably had the potential to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.

  6. Molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extraction against the freshwater snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Said Mahmoud; Peter Richter; Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby; Omnia Mohamed Kandil; Donat-Peter Hder

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against the snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria spp. and Physa marmorata.Methods:Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen spinach. Snails were incubated in chlorophyllin containing water with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 µg/mL. All samples were kept in darkness overnight for incubation. After incubation, three samples were irradiated with simulated solar radiation for 3 h. After irradiation, the vitality of the organisms was determined. Results: The photodynamically active chlorophyllin, at low concentrations, was able to kill snails within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Besides, it had a killing effect by about 70%and 100% on the snails’ eggs and the newly hatched snails, respectively, after 3 h exposure to solar radiation.Conclusion:The derivates of chlorophyll was a very interesting substance for photodynamic freshwater snail control. Hence, it might be a promising and cheap new strategy which probably had the potential to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.

  7. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sungyon; Hosoi, A E; Lauga, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be non-zero for moderate values of Capillar...

  8. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  9. Upflow bioreactor having a septum and an auger and drive assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl S.; Hansen, Conly L.

    2007-11-06

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes an auger positioned in the aperture of the septum. The vessel includes an opening in the top for receiving the auger. The auger extends from a drive housing, which is position over the opening and provides a seal around the opening. The drive housing is adjustable relative to the vessel. The position of the auger in the aperture can be adjusted by adjusting the drive housing relative to the vessel. The auger adjustment mechanism allows the auger to be accurately positioned within the aperture. The drive housing can also include a fluid to provide an additional seal around the shaft of the auger.

  10. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female

  11. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Bonnemain

    2005-01-01

    The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th centu...

  12. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, S.; Ravikanth, G; N.A. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorde...

  13. ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation regulates cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Activation of the DNA damage responsive protein kinase ATM is a critical step for cellular survival in response to ionizing irradiation (IR). Direct targets of ATM regulating radiosensitivity remain to be fully investigated. We have recently reported that ATM phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor Snail on Serine 100. We aimed to further study the functional significance of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation in response to IR. Material and methods: We transfected vector-only, wild-type, the Serine 100 to alanine (S100A) or to glutamic acid (S100E) substitution of Snail into various cell lines. We assessed colony formation, γ-H2AX focus formation and the invasion index in the cells treated with or without IR. Results: We found that over-expression of the S100A mutant Snail in HeLa cells significantly increased radiosensitivity. Meanwhile the expression of S100E, a phospho-mimicking mutation, resulted in enhanced radio-resistance. Interestingly, S100E could rescue the radiosensitive phenotype in ATM-deficient cells. We also found that expression of S100E increased γ-H2AX focus formation and compromised inhibition of invasion in response to IR independent of cell survival. Conclusion: ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation in response to IR plays an important part in the regulation of radiosensitivity

  14. Implication of snail in metabolic stress-induced necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Hee Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Necrosis, a type of cell death accompanied by the rupture of the plasma membrane, promotes tumor progression and aggressiveness by releasing the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine high mobility group box 1. It is commonly found in the core region of solid tumors due to hypoxia and glucose depletion (GD resulting from insufficient vascularization. Thus, metabolic stress-induced necrosis has important clinical implications for tumor development; however, its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that the transcription factor Snail, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner in both two-dimensional culture of cancer cells, including A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231, in response to GD and the inner regions of a multicellular tumor spheroid system, an in vitro model of solid tumors and of human tumors. Snail short hairpin (sh RNA inhibited metabolic stress-induced necrosis in two-dimensional cell culture and in multicellular tumor spheroid system. Snail shRNA-mediated necrosis inhibition appeared to be linked to its ability to suppress metabolic stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition, which are the primary events that trigger necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Snail is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis, providing a new function for Snail in tumor progression.

  15. The Lidar System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Chiosso, M; Connolly, B M; Filipcic, A; García, B; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Horvat, M; Iarlori, M; Macolino, C; Matthews, J A J; Melo, D; Mussa, R; Mostafa, M; Pallota, J; Petrera, S; Prouza, M; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Rojo, J R R; Salamida, F; Santander, M; Sequeiros, G; Tonachini, A; Valore, L; Veberic, D; Westerhoff, S; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M

    2006-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV. The energy calibration of the detector is based on a system of four air fluorescence detectors. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the fluorescence stations, the atmospheric conditions at the experiment's site need to be monitored continuously during operation. One of the components of the observatory's atmospheric monitoring system is a set of four elastic backscatter lidar stations, one station at each of the fluorescence detector sites. This paper describes the design, current status, standard operation procedure, and performance of the lidar system of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. Warped extra dimension and inclined events at Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The generalized solution for the warp factor of the Randall-Sundrum metric is presented which is symmetric with respect to both branes and explicitly periodic in extra variable. Given that the curvature of the 5-dimensional space-time is small, the expected rate of neutrino-induced inclined events at the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is calculated. Both the "downward-going" (DG) and "Earth-skimming" (ES) neutrinos are considered. By comparing the expected event rate with the recent Auger data on searching for neutrino candidates, the lower bound on the fundamental gravity scale M_5 is obtained. The ratio of the number of the ES air showers to the number of the DG showers is estimated as a function of M_5.

  17. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.

    2005-07-01

    For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

  18. Results from and prospects for the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA is one of the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA is based on experience obtained with the LOPES and CODALEMA experiments in Europe and aims to study in the MHz region the details of the emission mechanism of radio signals from extensive air showers. The data from AERA will be used to assess the sensitivity of MHz radiation to the mass composition of cosmic rays. Because of its energy threshold at 2 × 1017 eV the dip region in the cosmic-ray flux spectrum can be studied in detail. We present first results of AERA and of its prototypes and we provide an outlook towards the future.

  19. Helix and Drugs: Snails for Western Health Care From Antiquity to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bonnemain

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The land helix, or snail, has been used in medicine since antiquity and prepared according to several formulations. This historical report traces the understanding of their properties from the time of Hippocrates, who proposed the use of snail mucus against protoccle and Pliny who thought that the snail increased the speed of delivery and was “a sovereign remedy to treat pain related to burns, abscesses and other wounds”, Galien recommended snails against hydrops foetails. In the 18th century, various snail “preparations” were also recommended for external use with dermatological disorders and internally for symptoms associated with tuberculosis and nephritis. Surprisingly, the 19th century saw a renewed interest in the pharmaceutical and medical use of snails with numerous indications for snail preparations. This interest in snails did not stop at the end of the 19th century. The 1945 edition of Dorvault devotes an entire paragraph to snails, indicating that the therapeutic usage of snails was still alive at that time. Recently the FDA has also shown an interest in snails. Ziconotide (SNXIII, a synthetic peptide coming from snail venom, has been under FDA review since 1999. Pre-clinical and clinical studies of this new drug are promising.

  20. New scope on the relationship between rotifers and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shereen Farouk Mossallam; Eglal Ibrahim Amer; Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rotifer internalization into snail tissue on the development of schistosomes. Methods:Susceptible laboratory-bred Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina) snails were exposed to lab-maintained rotifers; Philodina spp., two weeks before and after being infected with Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) miracidia. The consequent histopathological impact on snail tissues and cercarial biology were investigated before and after emergence from snails. Results:Contamination of B. alexandrina snails with philodina, two weeks before miracidial exposure, was found to hinder the preliminary development of S. mansoni cercariae inside the snail tissues. Furthermore, when snails were contaminated with rotifers two weeks post miracidial exposure; growth of already established cercariae was found to be retarded. The consequent influence of internalized rotifers within the snail tissue was clearly reflected on cercarial emergence, activity and infectivity along the four weeks duration of shedding. In the present study, comparison of snail histopathological findings and altered cercarial biology observed between the experimental and control groups indicated that the rotifers may have affected the levels of snail's energy reservoirs, which eventually was found to have had an adverse impact on reproduction, growth and survival of the parasite within the snail host, coupled with its performance outside the snail. Conclusions:In future biological control strategies of schistosomiasis, ritifers should be considered as a parasitic scourge of humanity.

  1. Ecology of bacterial communities in the schistosomiasis vector snailBiomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducklow, H W; Clausen, K; Mitchell, R

    1981-09-01

    The internal colony-forming bacterial flora of the schistosome intermediate host snailBiomphalaria glabrata (Say) has been characterized in ca. 500 individual snails from Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia, and from laboratory aquaria. Freshly captured wild snails harbor 2-40×10(6) CFU·g(-1), and healthy aquarium snails harbor 4-16×10(7) CFU·g(-1), whereas moribund individuals have 4-10 times as many bacteria as healthy individuals from the same habitats.Pseudomonas spp. are the most common predominant bacteria in normal snails, whereasAcinetobacter, Aeromonas, andMoraxella spp. predominate in moribund snails. External bacterial populations in water appear to have little effect on the composition and size of the flora in any snail. In addition to normal (healthy) and moribund snails, a third group of snails has been distinguished on the basis of internal bacterial density and predominating genera. These "high-density" snails may have undergone stresses and may harbor opportunistic pathogens. The microfloras of wild and laboratory-reared snails can be altered and stimulated to increase in density by crowding the snails or treating them with antibiotics. PMID:24227500

  2. The camera of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Bracci, F; Facal, P; Fonte, R; Gallo, G; Kemp, E; Matthiae, Giorgio; Nicotra, D; Privitera, P; Raia, G; Tusi, E; Vitali, G

    2002-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is a set of telescopes which measure the fluorescence light emitted by atmospheric nitrogen stimulated by the cosmic-ray showers. The Camera is an array of photomultipliers positioned on the telescope focal surface. We describe the main features of the camera: the hexagonal pixels geometry on the spherical focal surface; the light collectors which complement the photomultipliers; the photomultipliers test.

  3. The hybrid performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel, A.; /New Mexico U.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects ultra-high energy cosmic rays by implementing two complementary air-shower techniques. The combination of a large ground array and fluorescence detectors, known as the hybrid concept, means that a rich variety of measurements can be made on a single shower, providing much improved information over what is possible with either detector alone. In this paper the hybrid reconstruction approach and its performance are described.

  4. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  5. Allocative efficiency constraints in snail (Archachatina marginata production by small scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius B. Adinya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined constraints militating against the profitability potentials of snail (Archachatina marginata production by small-scale snail farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 120 respondents in the study area by means of structured and semi-structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of three (Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State, Nigeria. This was followed by random selection of three villages (Igoli in Ogoja Local Government Area, Alesi in Ikom Local Government Area and Adiabo in Odukpani Local Government Area in Cross River State. The respondents were randomly selected from each of the villages, 40 respondents were selected each from three villages, making a total number of 120 respondents. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and costs returns analysis. The results indicated that Cobb-Douglas production function had the best fit in explaining the relationship between output of snail and inputs used, the coefficient of multiple determinant (R2=0.60 indicates that sixty percent of the variability in output of snail is explained by the independent variables. Results from the analysis revealed that the marginal value products of farm size, labour, farm management practices and operating costs were N1080, N20.6, N972.8, N14.84 respectively, there existed allocative inefficiency, there is a high potential for snail farmers to increase their yields and income. Further analysis of results revealed that net returns on snail is N2,935,000.00 with return on every naira invested of N0.14 is also positive indicating a profit from the business, with attractive net return on investment. This study shows that snail farmers are faced with several problems in their production activities. These problems or constraints affect the efficiency of snail production in the study area. Notable among them

  6. Scanning Auger microscopy for high lateral and depth elemental sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yadav, P. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouttemy, M. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Renault, O.; Borowik, Ł.; Bertin, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chabli, A. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •SAM performances and limitations are illustrated on real practical cases such as the analysis of nanowires and nanodots. •High spatial elemental resolution is shown with the analysis of reference semiconducting Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs multilayers. •High in-depth elemental resolution is also illustrated. Auger depth profiling with low energy ion beams allows revealing ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm). •Analysis of cross-sectional samples is another effective approach to obtain in-depth elemental information. -- Abstract: Scanning Auger microscopy is currently gaining interest for investigating nanostructures or thin multilayers stacks developed for nanotechnologies. New generation Auger nanoprobes combine high lateral (∼10 nm), energy (0.1%) and depth (∼2 nm) resolutions thus offering the possibility to analyze the elemental composition as well as the chemical state, at the nanometre scale. We report here on the performances and limitations on practical examples from nanotechnology research. The spatial elemental sensitivity is illustrated with the analysis of Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs heterostructures, Si nanowires and SiC nanodots. Regarding the elemental in-depth composition, two effective approaches are presented: low energy depth profiling to reveal ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm) and analysis of cross-sectional samples.

  7. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Miyazaki, Jun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Nishizawa, Haruki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Kurahashi, Hiroki [Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake (Japan); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai, E-mail: Kai.Wang@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  8. MTA3 regulates CGB5 and Snail genes in trophoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Impaired MTA3, raised CGB5 and Snail expression are associated with preeclampsia. •Knock-down of MTA3 causes up-regulation of CGB5 and Snail genes in BeWo cells. •MTA3 occupies CGB5 and Snail gene promoters in BeWo cells. -- Abstract: Secreted by the placental trophoblast, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is an important hormone during pregnancy and is required for the maintenance of pregnancy. Previous studies have shown that dys-regulation of hCG expression is associated with preeclampsia. However, the exact relationship between altered hCG levels and development of preeclampsia is unknown. Metastasis associated protein 3 (MTA3), a chromatin remodeling protein, is abundantly expressed in the placental trophoblasts, but its function is unknown. In breast cancer, MTA3 has been shown to repress the expression of Snail and cell migration. However, whether MTA3 acts similarly in the trophoblast has not been investigated. In the present study, we examined the role of MTA3 in regulating the hCG β-subunit gene (gene name: CGB5) and Snail expression in the trophoblast cell line, BeWo, as well as its relevance to the high hCG expression levels seen in preeclampsia. First, we investigated MTA3 expression in preeclamptic placenta as compared to normal control placenta via gene expression microarray and qRT-PCR and found that MTA3 was significantly down-regulated, whereas both CGB5 and Snail were up-regulated in preeclamptic placenta. Secondly, we knocked down MTA3 gene in trophoblast cell line BeWo and found Snail and hCG were both up-regulated, suggesting that MTA3 represses Snail and hCG gene expression in trophoblasts. Next, we cloned the CGB5 and Snail promoters into the pGL3-basic vector individually and found that silencing of MTA3 by siRNA resulted in an increase of both CGB5 and Snail promoter activities. To confirm that this MTA3 inhibition is a direct effect, we performed a chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) assay and found that MTA3

  9. Study on gamma irradiation of snail slime for cosmetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snail slime is a product used by the cosmetic industry for skin regeneration. Due to its origin and obtaining method, prior to be commercialized, it requires to be exposed to a decontaminated procedure. Samples of snail slime were provided by the manufacturer and were treated with gamma irradiation doses of 2, 3 and 5 kGy. Microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic tests, indicated by the product specifications, were performed to the irradiated and control samples in order to determine the optimal decontamination dose. IR spectra of the irradiated samples and control were also obtained. It was determined that the minimum dose of 3 kGy was enough to achieve decontamination of the product without significant changes of the physico-chemical properties. Likewise, at 3 kGy, appearance, color and odour of snail slime remained almost unchanged. (author)

  10. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  11. Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Z

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Southern Auger Observatory (Auger-South) in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, has been completed in 2008. First results on the energy spectrum, mass composition and distribution of arrival directions on the southern sky are really impressive. The planned Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, (Auger-North) will open a new window into the universe and establish charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These cosmic particles carry information complementary to neutrinos and photons and to gravitational waves. They also provide an extremely energetic beam for the study of particle interactions at energies that thirty times higher than those reached in terrestrial accelerators. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set obtained when both...

  12. Some quality parameters of land snail meat - Helix pomatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tojagić Slobodan N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the tradition in our regions to collect land snails (Helix pomatia for export, which is "disrupted" by social control resulting in limited possibilities to develop this attractive activity, there is a great interest lately for land snail breeding and fattening at farms. For this reason it is necessary to investigate systematically the possibilities to develop this activity in a longer period and in larger areas. The first investigations, although covering only nutritive and health safety aspects of the edible parts yielded the results presented in this work. Chemical composition, the content of some elements and organochlorine insecticides were followed as unavoidable in human living and environment.

  13. Ramsey method for Auger-electron interference induced by an attosecond twin pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Buth, Christian; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the archetype of an interference experiment for Auger electrons: two electron wave packets are launched by inner-shell ionizing a krypton atom using two attosecond light pulses with a variable time delay. This setting is an attosecond realization of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields. Interference of the two ejected Auger-electron wave packets is predicted, indicating that the coherence between the two pulses is passed to the Auger electrons. For the detection of the...

  14. Efficacy of euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P. Yadav

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effect of binary and tertiary combinations of Euphorbia hirta Linn latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds, were evaluated against the freshwater snails Lymnaea (Radix acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. These combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both the snails. These compounds at higher doses were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch (Channidae {Ophicephalidae}, which shares the habitat with these snails, but the LC90 (24h doses of snails have no apparent killing properties in fish populations when treated in mixed population of snails and fish.

  15. Observation of resonance recombination lines in electron excited Auger spectra of Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined measurements of electron excited Nsub(4,5) Auger spectra and photoelectron emission on clean and oxidized Gd lead to a distinction between Auger lines originating from 4d → continuum and 4d → 4f resonance excitations. Several Auger structures are identified as due to the direct recombination of 4d94f8 states with the 4f and valence electrons. The shape of the most prominent Auger line for oxidized Gd agrees perfectly with the Fano profile of the 4f photoemission intensity. (orig.)

  16. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  17. High resolution carbon and oxygen K-LL Auger spectra of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltunen, A.; Aksela, S.; Vikor, Gy.; Ricz, S. E-mail: ricz@atomki.hu; Koever, A.; Sulik, B

    1999-06-03

    The proton excited carbon and oxygen K-LL Auger spectra of carbon dioxide were measured using the high-resolution, angular resolving ESA-21 electron spectrometer. The proton impact energy was 1.0 MeV. The transition energies of both K-LL Auger-spectra (oxygen and carbon) are determined and compared with the existing theoretical and earlier experimental data. The experimental line widths full width at half maximum (FWHM) and relative intensities of the Auger lines are determined. The Auger emission was found to be isotropic within the experimental accuracy.

  18. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  19. L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig spectra from relativistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    The intensities of L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions in heavy atoms have been calculated relativistically. A detailed comparison is made with measured Auger spectra of Pt and U. The pertinent transition energies were computed from relativistic wave functions with inclusion of the Breit interaction, self-energy, a vacuum-polarization correction, and complete atomic relaxation. Multiplet splitting is found to distribute Auger electrons from certain transitions among several lines. The analysis leads to reassignment of a number of lines in the measured spectra. Lines originally identified as L2-L3Ni in the U spectrum are shown to arise from M4,5 Auger transitions instead.

  20. Intraguild predation by shore crabs affects mortality, behavior, growth, and densities of California horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, J.; Hechinger, R.F.; Cooper, S. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, and the shore crabs, Pachygrapsus crassipesand Hemigrapsus oregonensis, compete for epibenthic microalgae, but the crabs also eat snails. Such intraguild predation is common in nature, despite models predicting instability. Using a series of manipulations and field surveys, we examined intraguild predation from several angles, including the effects of stage-dependent predation along with direct consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on intraguild prey. In the laboratory, we found that crabs fed on macroalgae, snail eggs, and snails, and the size of consumed snails increased with predator crab size. In field experiments, snails grew less in the presence of crabs partially because snails behaved differently and were buried in the sediment (nonconsumptive effects). Consistent with these results, crab and snail abundances were negatively correlated in three field surveys conducted at three different spatial scales in estuaries of California, Baja California, and Baja California Sur: (1) among 61 sites spanning multiple habitat types in three estuaries, (2) among the habitats of 13 estuaries, and (3) among 34 tidal creek sites in one estuary. These results indicate that shore crabs are intraguild predators on California horn snails that affect snail populations via predation and by influencing snail behavior and performance.

  1. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. Spatially-resolved thermoluminescence from snail opercula using an EMCCD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Kook, Myung Ho; Stirling, R.J.;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years opercula of the snail species Bithynia tentaculata have been shown to emit thermoluminescence (TL) signals that can be used to determine equivalent dose, and may be capable of dating events throughout the entire Quaternary period. Concentric growth lines are a notable feature of a...

  3. Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesbacher, S; Baur, B; Baur, A; Proksch, P

    1995-02-01

    Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a presumable degradation product of the latter. Other lichen compounds such as (+)-usnic acid or α-collatolic acid were not found in the soft bodies but were only detected in the feces, suggesting selective uptake of lichen compounds by the snails. In individuals ofC. clienta initially fed on the lichenX. parietina, the amount of sequestered parietin decreased over time on a parietin-free diet but was still detectable in the soft bodies after 28 days. In the ovoviviparous land snail,B. perversa, sequestered parietin was transferred from the mother to the eggs in the reproductive tract.

  4. The maintenance of hybrids by parasitism in a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttel, Yonathan; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2014-11-01

    Hybrids have often been labelled evolutionary dead-ends due to their lower fertility and viability. However, there is growing awareness that hybridisation between different species may play a constructive role in animal evolution as a means to create variability. Thus, hybridisation and introgression may contribute to adaptive evolution, for example with regards to natural antagonists (parasites, predators, competitors) and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here we investigated whether parasite intensity contributes to the continuous recreation of hybrids in 74 natural populations of Melanopsis, a complex of freshwater snails with three species. We also examined, under laboratory conditions, whether hybrids and their parental taxa differ in their tolerance of low and high temperatures and salinity levels. Infections were consistently less prevalent in males than in females, and lower in snails from deeper habitats. Infection prevalence in hybrids was significantly lower than in the parental taxa. Low hybrid infection rates could not be explained by sediment type, snail density or geographic distribution of the sampling sites. Interestingly, infected hybrid snails did not show signs of parasite-induced gigantism, whereas all parental taxa did. We found that hybrids mostly coped with extreme temperatures and salinity levels as well as their parental taxa did. Taken together, our results suggest that Melanopsis hybrids perform better in the presence of parasites and environmental stress. This may explain the widespread and long-term occurrence of Melanopsis hybrids as evidenced by paleontological and biogeographic data. Hybridisation may be an adaptive host strategy, reducing infection rates and resisting gigantism.

  5. Sequestration of lichen compounds by three species of terrestrial snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesbacher, S; Baur, B; Baur, A; Proksch, P

    1995-02-01

    Three species of lichen-grazing snails,Balea perversa, Chondria clienta, andHelicigona lapicida, all from the Swedish island of Öland, were found to sequester lichen compounds when feeding on the crustous lichen speciesAspicila calcarea, Caloplaca flavovirescens, Lecanora muralis, Physcia adscendens, Tephromela atra, andXanthoria parietina. The lichen compounds detected in the soft bodies of the snail species analyzed included the anthraquinone parietin, the depside atranorin, as well as a presumable degradation product of the latter. Other lichen compounds such as (+)-usnic acid or α-collatolic acid were not found in the soft bodies but were only detected in the feces, suggesting selective uptake of lichen compounds by the snails. In individuals ofC. clienta initially fed on the lichenX. parietina, the amount of sequestered parietin decreased over time on a parietin-free diet but was still detectable in the soft bodies after 28 days. In the ovoviviparous land snail,B. perversa, sequestered parietin was transferred from the mother to the eggs in the reproductive tract. PMID:24234022

  6. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  7. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 20Ca17+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative Auger emission (RAE) from lithiumlike 20Ca17+ projectiles excited in collisions with He has been measured. The intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα X-ray emission is enhanced by a factor of 10-17 compared with theoretical calculations for ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for Ca17+ is consistent with the results reported previously for lithiumlike 16S13+ and 23V20+ and indicates a systematic dependence on Z. Both the enhancement and the relative RAE transition rate increase with Z. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 16S13+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative Auger emission (RAE) from 0.94--6.25-MeV/u 16S13+ (lithiumlike) projectiles excited in collisions with He target atoms has been measured. For these highly stripped ions the intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα x-ray emission is enhanced by about a factor of five compared with theoretical calculations and an earlier experimental measurement for S ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for S13+ is qualitatively similar to results reported previously for lithiumlike 23V20+; however, some differences between S and V are evident

  9. A worm section of an auger drilling installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Kiseleve, E.I.; Krutilin, V.I.; Manzhula, I.T.; Ovsiannikov, P.A.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyi, Iu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A worm section of an auger drilling installation, comprising columns arranged in parallel and adapters for decreasing the disturbance of the walls of the wells, is characterized in that for the purpose of decreasing the consumption of energy, the adapter for the decrease in the disturbance in the walls of the wells is made in the form of a cylindrical cover with longitudinal windows, arranged on a segment of the length of the worm, with which each cover is positioned rigidly in order to prevent it from shifting lengthwise by means of a support, reinforced on the shaft of the worm. Cylindrical covers are interconnected by a connection element.

  10. SCALER MODE OF THE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, Carlos A. Garcia; Tarutina, Tatiana [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CCT La Plata, CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hojvat, Carlos [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Recent data from the Auger Observatory on low-energy secondary cosmic ray particles are analyzed to study temporal correlations together with data on the daily sunspot numbers and neutron monitor data. Standard spectral analysis demonstrates that the available data show 1/f {sup {beta}} fluctuations with {beta} Almost-Equal-To 1 in the low-frequency range. All data behave like Brownian fluctuations in the high-frequency range. The existence of long-range correlations in the data was confirmed by detrended fluctuation analysis. The real data confirmed the correlation between the scaling exponent of the detrended analysis and the exponent of the spectral analysis.

  11. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, P; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; D. Allard; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2013-01-01

    The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort fromthe technical and administrative staff in Malarg¨ue. The authors are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisi´on Nacional de Energ´ıa At´omica, Fundaci ´on Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malarg¨ue, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Le˜...

  12. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahams, J.; Coppens, J.; de Jong, S. J.; Falcke, H.; Grebe, S.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A; Jiraskova, S.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Timmermans, C

    2009-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing c...

  13. Search for Large Scale Anisotropies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the nature and the origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (>3\\cdot1018 eV). Completed at the end of 2008, it has been continuously operating for more than six years. Using data collected from 1 January 2004 until 31 March 2009, we search for large scale anisotropies with two complementary analyses in different energy windows. No significant anisotropies are observed, resulting in bounds on the first harmonic amplitude at the 1% level at EeV energies.

  14. Aperture calculation of the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Armengaud, E.; Aublin, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Chou, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Hamilton, J.C.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Medina, C.; Navarra, G.; Parizot, E.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-08-01

    We determine the instantaneous aperture and integrated exposure of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory, taking into account the trigger efficiency as a function of the energy, arrival direction (with zenith angle lower than 60 degrees) and nature of the primary cosmic-ray. We make use of the so-called Lateral Trigger Probability function (or LTP) associated with an extensive air shower, which summarizes all the relevant information about the physics of the shower, the water tank Cherenkov detector, and the triggers.

  15. Relationship between snail population density and infection status of snails and fish with zoonotic trematodes in Vietnamese carp nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin;

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm...... to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries....

  16. Drilling Power Consumption and Soil Conveying Volume Performances of Lunar Sampling Auger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ye; TANG Dewei; DENG Zongquan; JIANG Shengyuan; QUAN Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    The sampling auger used in lunar sampling and return mission is to transmit power and convey soil, and its performance is the key factor of the whole mission. However, there is currently a lack of the optimization research on soil conveying volume and power consumption models in auger structure design. To provide the drilled object, the simulation lunar soil, whose physical and mechanical property is the same as the real soil, is made by reducing soil void ratio. The models are formulated to analyze the influence of auger structure parameters on power consumption and soil conveying volume. To obtaln the optimized structure parameters of auger, the multi-objective optimization functions of the maximum soil conveying volume and minimum power consumption are developed. To verify the correctness of the models, the performances of different augers drilling simulation soil are tested. The test results demonstrate that the power consumption of optimized auger is the lowest both in theory and test, and the experimental results of soil conveying volume are in agreement with theoretical analysis. Consequently, a new method for designing a lunar sampling auger is proposed which includes the models of soil conveying volume and transportation power consumption, the optimization of structure parameters and the comparison tests. This method provides a reference for sampling auger designing of the Chinese Lunar Sample Mission.

  17. Geometry dependence of Auger carrier capture rates into cone-shaped self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Bischoff, Svend; Uskov, A.V.;

    2003-01-01

    We calculate carrier capture rates into cone- and truncated-cone-shaped quantum dots mediated by Auger processes. It is demonstrated that the capture rates depend strongly on both dot size and shape. The importance of phonon-mediated versus the Auger-mediated capture processes is discussed....

  18. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellidol, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Mirarrionti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, T. J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, J.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, Si.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud. identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger

  19. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  20. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  1. Trematode communities in snails can indicate impact and recovery from hurricanes in a tropical coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, Maria Leopoldina; Vidal-Martinez, Victor M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2002, Hurricane Isidore devastated the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. To understand its effects on the parasites of aquatic organisms, we analyzed long-term monthly population data of the horn snail Cerithidea pliculosa and its trematode communities in Celestún, Yucatán, Mexico before and after the hurricane (February 2001 to December 2009). Five trematode species occurred in the snail population: Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, Euhaplorchis californiensis, two species of the genus Renicola and one Heterophyidae gen. sp. Because these parasites use snails as first intermediate hosts, fishes as second intermediate hosts and birds as final hosts, their presence in snails depends on food webs. No snails were present at the sampled sites for 6 months after the hurricane. After snails recolonised the site, no trematodes were found in snails until 14 months after the hurricane. It took several years for snail and trematode populations to recover. Our results suggest that the increase in the occurrence of hurricanes predicted due to climate change can impact upon parasites with complex life cycles. However, both the snail populations and their parasite communities eventually reached numbers of individuals and species similar to those before the hurricane. Thus, the trematode parasites of snails can be useful indicators of coastal lagoon ecosystem degradation and recovery.

  2. Overexpression of Snail in retinal pigment epithelial triggered epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Li, Min; Xu, Ding; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Fang, E-mail: milwang_122@msn.com

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • First reported overexpression of Snail in RPE cells could directly trigger EMT. • Further confirmed the regulator role of Snail in RPE cells EMT in vitro. • Snail may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the fibrosis of PVR. - Abstract: Snail transcription factor has been implicated as an important regulator in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) during tumourigenesis and fibrogenesis. Our previous work showed that Snail transcription factor was activated in transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and may contribute to the development of retinal fibrotic disease such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). However, whether Snail alone has a direct role on retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the capacity of Snail to drive EMT in human RPE cells. A vector encoding Snail gene or an empty vector were transfected into human RPE cell lines ARPE-19 respectively. Snail overexpression in ARPE-19 cells resulted in EMT, which was characterized by the expected phenotypic transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. The expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were down-regulated, whereas mesenchymal markers a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and fibronectin were up-regulated in Snail expression vector transfected cells. In addition, ectopic expression of Snail significantly enhanced ARPE-19 cell motility and migration. The present data suggest that overexpression of Snail in ARPE-19 cells could directly trigger EMT. These results may provide novel insight into understanding the regulator role of Snail in the development of retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  3. Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser dat...

  4. Digital electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA muon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, O.; Almela, A.; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Melo, D.; Hampel, M. R.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2014-04-01

    The ``Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array'' (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of `0's and `1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  5. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Wainberg, O; Platino, M; Sanchez, F; Suarez, F; Lucero, A; Videla, M; Wundheiler, B; Melo, D; Hampel, M; Etchegoyen, A

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  6. The offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiro, S.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Gonzalez, Javier G.; Nellen, L.; Paul, T.; Porter, T.; Prado, L., Jr.; Roth, M.; Ulrich, R.; Veberic, D.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and origin of the highest energy cosmic rays through the analysis of extensive air showers. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. They have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows Auger collaborators to contribute algorithms and configuration instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information residing in many data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package allowing manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++ and takes advantage of object oriented design and common open source tools, while keeping the user-side simple enough for C++ novices to learn in a reasonable time. The distribution system incorporates unit and acceptance testing in order to support rapid development of both the core framework and the contributed user codes.

  7. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEνs has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHEνs can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν, producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after having traversed a large amount of atmosphere. In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHEνs in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHEνs in the EeV range and above.

  8. Auger neutralization and ionization in grazing ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, R. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Miskovic, Z.L. (Boris Kidric Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the projectile velocity parallel to the surface v{sub parallel} on Auger-type neutralization and ionization processes during grazing scattering of atomic particles from surfaces will be discussed. It is found that, contrary to the static case (v{sub parallel}=0), under grazing collision the Auger-type electron exchange between the metallic conduction band and an atomic orbital is a two-way process: atomic particles may be neutralized, as well as ionized. In particular, two types of v{sub parallel} dependence are obtained: (1) a gradual decrease of the final atomic level population with increasing v{sub parallel} in the case of atomic levels below the Fermi level E{sub F}, and (2) a peak-shaped v{sub parallel} dependence for atomic levels above E{sub F}. The leading features of these basic electron-exchange mechanisms between atoms and surfaces are illustrated for various atomic quasi-one-electron systems scattered from silver and magnesium surfaces. (orig.).

  9. Snail Hosts of Paragonimus in Asia and the Americas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.M.DAVIS; CHENCui-E; 等

    1994-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive review of snail hosts of Paragonimus world-wide exclusive of Africa based on modern malacological data,where available,and with consideration of the phylogeny of the snail groups involved.This is the first comprehensive review since those made by Chen(1979)and Chen et al.(1983),and there have been considerable taxonomic changes over the past decade. A number of names and concepts found in the medical malacological and parasitological literature up to the present time require revision or correction.There ae vast radiations of snails of the superfamilies Cerithiacea and Rissoacea involved in the transmission of Paragonimus in CHina.We list 54 species world-wide of which 35(65%)occur in China.Revisions and corrections pertaining to China include:(i)the family Hydrobiidae does not occur in China or S.E.Asia and thd Pomatiopsidae should be used,(ii)The genus Bythinella is entirely European(Hydrobiidae:Amnicolinae).The so-called Bythinella of China belongs to the genus Erhaia(Pomatiopsidae).(iii)The generic name Pseudobythinella described from China is preoccupied,a junior synonym of Pseudobythinella Melville 1956,a fossil from england,ll chinese Pseudobythinella are now classified as Erhaia.(iv)Akiyoshia has been used as a generic name for some snails in Hunan transmitting Paragonimus,Akiyoshia is from Japan and biological/ecological data indicate tat the Chinese taxon is not Akiyoshia.(v)The genus Tricula in recent Chinese literature is comprised of four genera determined by detailed comparative anatomical data:Tricula,Neotricula,Gammatricula,and Jinhongia Shells cannot be used to discriminate among them.(vi)tricula cristella has been consistently misidentified in collections in China and literature.However,genuine T.cristella does transmit Paragonimus skrjabini.(vii)Tricula minutoides in the Chinese literature has been misidentified,and specimens,are T.cristella.(viii)The genus Melania and the family Melaniidae are used in the

  10. Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Elke I.; Ducrot, V.; Jager, T.; Koene, J.; Lagadic, L.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Under constant environmental conditions, most animals tend to grow following the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Deviations from this curve can point to changes in the environment that the animals experience, such as food limitation when the available food is not sufficient or suitable. However, such deviations can also point to a phenomenon called metabolic acceleration, which is receiving increasing attention in the field of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modeling. Reasons for such an acceleration are usually changes in shape during ontogeny, which cause changes in the surface area to volume ratio of the organism. Those changes, in turn, lead to changes in some of the model parameters that have length in their dimension. The life-history consequences of metabolic acceleration as implemented in the DEB theory are an s-shaped growth curve (when body size is expressed as a length measure) and a prolongation of the hatching time. The great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was earlier found to be food limited during the juvenile phase in laboratory experiments conducted under classical ecotoxicity test protocols. The pond snail has isomorphic shell growth but yet does not exhibit the expected von Bertalanffy growth curve under food limitation. When applying the standard DEB model to data from such life-cycle experiments, we also found that the hatching time is consistently underestimated, which could be a sign of metabolic acceleration. We here present an application of the DEB model including metabolic acceleration to the great pond snail. We account for the simultaneous hermaphroditism of the snail by including a model extension that describes the relative investment into the male and female function. This model allowed us to adequately predict the life history of the snail over the entire life cycle. However, the pond snail does not change in shape substantially after birth, so the original explanation for the metabolic acceleration does not hold. Since the change in shape

  11. Lumican Inhibits SNAIL-Induced Melanoma Cell Migration Specifically by Blocking MMP-14 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Marta; Boncela, Joanna; Perreau, Corinne; Karamanou, Konstantina; Chatron-Colliet, Aurore; Proult, Isabelle; Przygodzka, Patrycja; Chakravarti, Shukti; Maquart, François-Xavier; Kowalska, M. Anna; Wegrowski, Yanusz; Brézillon, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Lumican, a small leucine rich proteoglycan, inhibits MMP-14 activity and melanoma cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Snail triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transitions endowing epithelial cells with migratory and invasive properties during tumor progression. The aim of this work was to investigate lumican effects on MMP-14 activity and migration of Snail overexpressing B16F1 (Snail-B16F1) melanoma cells and HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Lumican inhibits the Snail induced MMP-14 activity in B16F1 but not in HT-29 cells. In Snail-B16F1 cells, lumican inhibits migration, growth, and melanoma primary tumor development. A lumican-based strategy targeting Snail-induced MMP-14 activity might be useful for melanoma treatment. PMID:26930497

  12. Measurement of Selected Enzymatic Activities in Solanum nigrum-Treated Biomphalaria arabica Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daihan, Sooad

    In the present study, glucose, acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP), α-amylase and lipase were measured for the first time in tissue homogenates of Biomphalaria arabica snails, molluscan intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni in Saudi Arabia. Also, the effect of sublethal concentrations (LC25) of dry powdered Solanum nigrum leaf was tested as plant molluscicide against this snail species. The tested enzymes were altered in molluscicide-treated snails compared to control. While ALP and amylase were slightly affected, ACP and lipase were significantly altered. Glucose as an important energy source for a successful schistosome-snail relationship was significantly reduced in molluscicide-treated snails. In conclusion, sublethal concentration of the molluscicide showed potent effect in disturbing snail biochemistry which may render them physiologically unsuitable for the developing of schistosome parasite. This could be considered as a promising strategy to control the disease.

  13. Removal of corallivorous snails as a proactive tool for the conservation of acroporid corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana E. Williams

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corallivorous snail feeding is a common source of tissue loss for the threatened coral, Acropora palmata, accounting for roughly one-quarter of tissue loss in monitored study plots over seven years. In contrast with larger threats such as bleaching, disease, or storms, corallivory by Coralliophila abbreviata is one of the few direct sources of partial mortality that may be locally managed. We conducted a field experiment to explore the effectiveness and feasibility of snail removal. Long-term monitoring plots on six reefs in the upper Florida Keys were assigned to one of three removal treatments: (1 removal from A. palmata only, (2 removal from all host coral species, or (3 no-removal controls. During the initial removal in June 2011, 436 snails were removed from twelve 150 m2 plots. Snails were removed three additional times during a seven month “removal phase”, then counted at five surveys over the next 19 months to track recolonization. At the conclusion, snails were collected, measured and sexed. Before-After-Control-Impact analysis revealed that both snail abundance and feeding scar prevalence were reduced in removal treatments compared to the control, but there was no difference between removal treatments. Recolonization by snails to baseline abundance is estimated to be 3.7 years and did not differ between removal treatments. Recolonization rate was significantly correlated with baseline snail abundance. Maximum snail size decreased from 47.0 mm to 34.6 mm in the removal treatments. The effort required to remove snails from A. palmata was 30 diver minutes per 150 m2 plot, compared with 51 min to remove snails from all host corals. Since there was no additional benefit observed with removing snails from all host species, removals can be more efficiently focused on only A. palmata colonies and in areas where C. abbreviata abundance is high, to effectively conserve A. palmata in targeted areas.

  14. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Anne Ø.; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt;

    2016-01-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools...... to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy...... shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings...

  15. Ultrafast Molecular Three-Electron Collective Auger Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Raimund

    2016-06-01

    A new class of many-electron Auger transitions in atoms was initially proposed over 40 years ago, but the first tentative evidence for its real existence was only adduced by Lee et al. in 1993, on the basis of the resonant Auger spectrum of Kr. Using a multi-electron coincidence technique with synchrotron radiation, we unambiguously showed very recently that the transition suggested by Lee et al. in Kr really does take place, but with a rather small branching ratio. Related inter-atomic three-electron transitions in rare gas clusters were recently predicted by Averbukh and Kolorenc and demonstrated by Ouchi et al.. From consideration of the energy levels involved it seems that the basic three-electron process could occur in molecules too, wherever a double inner-valence shell vacancy lies at a higher energy than the molecular triple ionisation onset. Experiments on CH_3F reveal for the first time the existence of this new decay pathway there, and calculations show that despite its three-electron nature, its effective oscillator strength is orders of magnitudes higher than in atoms, allowing an efficient competition with both molecular dissociation and two-electron decay channels on the ultrafast time scale. The dramatic enhancement of the molecular three-electron Auger transition can be explained in terms of a partial breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionisation. We predict that the collective decay pathway will be significant in a wide variety of heteroatomic molecules ionised by extreme UV and soft X-rays, particularly at Free-Electron-Lasers where double inner-shell vacancies can be created efficiently by two-photon transitions. G.N. Ogurtsov et al., Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 15, 1656 (1971) and V.V. Afrosimov et al., JETP Lett. 21, 249 (1975). I. Lee, R. Wehlitz, U. Becker and M. Ya. Amusia, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, L41 (1993). J.H.D. Eland, R.J. Squibb, M. Mucke, S. Zagorodskikh, P. Linusson, and R. Feifel, New J. Phys. 17, 122001 (2015). V

  16. Snail sperm production characteristics vary with sperm competition risk

    OpenAIRE

    Oppliger, A.; Hosken, D J; Ribi, G

    1998-01-01

    Sperm competition is widespread and influences both male investment in spermatogenic tissue and ejaculate characteristics. Sperm competition models assume trade-offs between sperm size and number, although such trade-offs may be difficult to detect. This study examines the effects of sperm competition risk on the sperm production characteristics of the freshwater snail Viviparus ater. In this prosobranch, females mate frequently and store sperm, generating sperm competition. Males produce two...

  17. Action of SNAIL1 in Cardiac Myofibroblasts Is Important for Cardiac Fibrosis following Hypoxic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Hirak; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic injury to the heart results in cardiac fibrosis that leads to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. SNAIL1 is a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in fibrosis following organ injury and cancer. To determine if the action of SNAIL1 contributed to cardiac fibrosis following hypoxic injury, we used an endogenous SNAIL1 bioluminescence reporter mice, and SNAIL1 knockout mouse models. Here we report that SNAIL1 expression is upregulated in the infarcted heart, especially in the myofibroblasts. Utilizing primary cardiac fibroblasts in ex vivo cultures we find that pro-fibrotic factors and collagen I increase SNAIL1 protein level. SNAIL1 is required in cardiac fibroblasts for the adoption of myofibroblast fate, collagen I expression and expression of fibrosis-related genes. Taken together this data suggests that SNAIL1 expression is induced in the cardiac fibroblasts after hypoxic injury and contributes to myofibroblast phenotype and a fibrotic scar formation. Resultant collagen deposition in the scar can maintain elevated SNAIL1 expression in the myofibroblasts and help propagate fibrosis. PMID:27706205

  18. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, D.K.; Kumari Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, ...

  19. Fasciola hepatica in snails collected from water-dropwort fields using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwang-Yong; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Rok; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Cha, Guang-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis mainly in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Fascioliasis has been reported in Korea; however, determining F. hepatica infection in snails has not been done recently. Thus, using PCR, we evaluated the prevalence of F. hepatica infection in snails at 4 large water-dropwort fields. Among 349 examined snails, F. hepatica-specific internal transcribed space 1 (ITS-1) and/or ITS-2 markers were detected in 12 snails and confirmed using sequence analysis. Morphologically, 213 of 349 collected snails were dextral shelled, which is the same aperture as the lymnaeid snail, the vectorial host for F. hepatica. Among the 12 F. hepatica-infected snails, 6 were known first intermediate hosts in Korea (Lymnaea viridis and L. ollula) and the remaining 6 (Lymnaea sp.) were potentially a new first intermediate host in Korea. It has been shown that the overall prevalence of the snails contaminated with F. hepatica in water-dropwort fields was 3.4%; however, the prevalence varied among the fields. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of F. hepatica infection using the vectorial capacity of the snails in Korea.

  20. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David J; Gribben, Paul; Parkinson, Kerryn

    2015-06-15

    In urban areas, cigarette butts are the most common discarded refuse articles. In marine intertidal zones, they often fall into tidepools. We tested how common intertidal molluscs were affected by butt leachate in a laboratory experiment, where snails were exposed to various leachate concentrations. Mortality was very high, with all species showing 100% mortality at the full leachate concentration (5 butts per litre and 2h soak time) after 8days. However, Austrocochlea porcata showed higher mortality than the other 2 species at lower concentrations (10%, 25%) which may affect the relative abundance of the 3 snails under different concentrations of leachate pollution. Also, sublethal effects of leachate on snail activity were observed, with greater activity of Nerita atramentosa than the other 2 species at higher concentrations, suggesting it is more resilient than the other 2 species. While human health concerns predominate with respect to smoking, we show strong lethal and sublethal (via behavioural modifications) impacts of discarded butts on intertidal organisms, with even closely-related taxa responding differently.

  1. Effect of Auger Recombination on Lasing in Heterostructured Quantum Dots with Engineered Core/Shell Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Shin; Bae, Wan Ki; Baker, Thomas; Lim, Jaehoon; Klimov, Victor I

    2015-11-11

    Nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) are attractive materials for applications as laser media because of their bright, size-tunable emission and the flexibility afforded by colloidal synthesis. Nonradiative Auger recombination, however, hampers optical amplification in QDs by rapidly depleting the population of gain-active multiexciton states. In order to elucidate the role of Auger recombination in QD lasing and isolate its influence from other factors that might affect optical gain, we study two types of CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs with the same core radii and the same total sizes but different properties of the core/shell interface ("sharp" vs "smooth"). These samples exhibit distinctly different biexciton Auger lifetimes but are otherwise virtually identical. The suppression of Auger recombination in the sample with a smooth (alloyed) interface results in a notable improvement in the optical gain performance manifested in the reduction of the threshold for amplified spontaneous emission and the ability to produce dual-color lasing involving both the band-edge (1S) and the higher-energy (1P) electronic states. We develop a model, which explicitly accounts for the multiexciton nature of optical gain in QDs, and use it to analyze the competition between stimulated emission from multiexcitons and their decay via Auger recombination. These studies re-emphasize the importance of Auger recombination control for the realization of real-life QD-based lasing technologies and offer practical strategies for suppression of Auger recombination via "interface engineering" in core/shell structures. PMID:26397312

  2. Astrophysics Motivation behind the Pierre Auger Southern Observatory Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration intends to extend the energy range of its southern observatory in Argentina for high quality data from 0.1 to 3 EeV. The extensions, described in accompanying papers, include three additional fluorescence telescopes with a more elevated field of view (HEAT) and a nested surface array with 750 and 433 m spacing respectively and additional muon detection capabilities (AMIGA). The enhancement of the detector will allow measurement of cosmic rays, using the same techniques, from below the second knee up to the highest energies observed. The evolution of the spectrum through the second knee and ankle, and corresponding predicted changes in composition, are crucial to the understanding of the end of Galactic confinement and the effects of propagation on the lower energy portion of the extragalactic flux. The latter is strongly related to the cosmological distribution of sources and to the composition of the injected spectrum. We discuss the science motivation behind these enhancements...

  3. Measurement of Aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Cester, R; Chiosso, M; Connolly, B M; Fick, B; Filipcic, A; García, B; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Horvat, M; Iarlori, M; Macolino, C; Malek, M; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Melo, D; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M; Monasor, M; Mostafá, M; Mussa, R; Pallotta, J; Petrera, S; Prouza, M; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Rojo, J R Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, D; Salamida, F; Santander, M; Sequeiros, G; Sommers, P; Tonachini, A; Valore, L; Verberic, D; Visbal, E; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The air fluorescence detectors (FDs) of the Pierre Auger Observatory are vital for the determination of the air shower energy scale. To compensate for variations in atmospheric conditions that affect the energy measurement, the Observatory operates an array of monitoring instruments to record hourly atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 square km. This paper presents results from four instruments used to characterize the aerosol component of the atmosphere: the Central Laser Facility (CLF), which provides the FDs with calibrated laser shots; the scanning backscatter lidars, which operate at three FD sites; the Aerosol Phase Function monitors (APFs), which measure the aerosol scattering cross section at two FD locations; and the Horizontal Attenuation Monitor (HAM), which measures the wavelength dependence of aerosol attenuation.

  4. A method and equipment for auger coal excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovskii, I.I.; Levkovich, T.E.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to provide automated coal excavation in seams containing unstable rock. This is achieved by an arrangement whereby the auger coal excavation method, which includes advancing two parallel development workings, excavating and transporting the coal, and delivering the rock and filling the worked out area with this rock, which is performed by screw conveyors which are kinematically linked to the working tools, the worked-out space is filled at the same time the coal is excavated; the coal is transported to one of the development workings by a screw conveyor, and the rock is delivered to the work-out area by a second screw conveyor connected to a second development working. One of the conveyors is shortened during the coal excavation, while the second conveyor is lengthened. This device includes a working tool, two sectional screw conveyors and a conveyor drive; the screw conveyors are located on opposite sides of the working tool.

  5. The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S; González, J; Nellen, L; Paul, T; Porter, T A; Roth, M; Ulrich, R; Veberic, D

    2005-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage...

  6. The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S; González, J; Nellen, L; Paul, T; Porter, T A; Prado, L; Roth, M; Ulrich, R; Veberic, D

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage...

  7. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Mendoza, (UTN-FRM), Mendoza (Argentina); Abreu, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Aguirre, C. [Universidad Catolica de Bolivia, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ahn, E.J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ambrosio, M. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Anzalone, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo (INAF), Palermo (Italy); Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy); Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Arganda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Argiro, S. [Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Arisaka, K. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arneodo, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi , L' Aquila (Italy); Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-21

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  8. Mass composition measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Bueno, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment built so far. It is a hybrid detector, since it measures both the fluorescence light emitted while the air showers develop in the atmosphere and the particles reaching the ground. We present the results related to the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as obtained from both types of measurements. The depth at which the maximum of the electromagnetic development takes place and its fluctuations are the most sensitive parameters to infer the nature of the cosmic rays. In addition, we present the latest muon measurements that can be used to test and constrain models of hadronic interactions at energies larger than those reached at LHC.

  9. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, R., E-mail: rbonino@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - IFSI, c.so Fiume 4, 10133 Torino (Italy); INFN sezione di Torino, v. P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-11-11

    Completed at the end of 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been continuously operating for more than seven years. We present here the analysis techniques and the results about the search for large scale anisotropies in the sky distribution of cosmic rays, reporting both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in right ascension in different energy ranges above 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV. Thanks to the collected statistics, a sensitivity of 1% at EeV energies can be reached. No significant anisotropies have been observed, upper limits on the amplitudes have been derived and are here compared with the results of previous experiments and with some theoretical expectations.

  10. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.

    2012-11-01

    Completed at the end of 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been continuously operating for more than seven years. We present here the analysis techniques and the results about the search for large scale anisotropies in the sky distribution of cosmic rays, reporting both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in right ascension in different energy ranges above 2.5×1017 eV. Thanks to the collected statistics, a sensitivity of 1% at EeV energies can be reached. No significant anisotropies have been observed, upper limits on the amplitudes have been derived and are here compared with the results of previous experiments and with some theoretical expectations.

  11. The Rapid Atmospheric Monitoring System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10^17 eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the observations for variations in atmospheric conditions, atmospheric monitoring is performed at regular intervals ranging from several minutes (for cloud identification) to several hours (for aerosol conditions) to several days (for vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity). In 2009, the monitoring program was upgraded to allow for additional targeted measurements of atmospheric conditions shortly after the detection of air showers of special interest, e.g., showers produced by very high-energy cosmic rays or showers with atypical longitudinal profiles. The former events are of particular importance for the determination of the energy scale of the Observatory, and the latter are characteristic of unusual air show...

  12. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacher, A; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H J M; Barenthien, N; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Bollmann, E; Bolz, H; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Bracci, F; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, D CaminL; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Castro, J; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordero, A; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J W; Cuautle, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daudo, F; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Gibbs, K; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grassi, V; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Grygar, J; Guardincerri, Y; Guardone, N; Guerard, C; Guarino, F; Gumbsheimer, R; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hofman, G; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Hucker, H; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kern, H; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Marchetto, F; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martineau, O; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mucchi, M; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nerling, F; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nicotra, D; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Oßwald, B; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Pouryamout, J; Prado, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, G Raia J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Roberts, M D; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; b, H Salazar; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, G Schleif A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Sequieros, G; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Smiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Trapani, P; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tusi, E; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vitali, G; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wild, N; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wörner, G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; b, A Zepeda; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  13. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  14. K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.

  15. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoir, Pierre, E-mail: billoir@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. P. and M. Curie and Univ. D. Diderot, 4 place Jussieu 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatorio Pierre Auger, av. San Martín Norte, 304 5613, Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km{sup 2}), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained.

  16. MARTA - Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shellard, R.C.; Maurizio, D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, M. [LIP, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Pierre Auger Observatory was built with the goal of making a major contribution to the understanding of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), their origin and nature. It is sensitive to energies above roughly 10{sup 18} eV and it is fully efficient above 3 X 10{sup 18} eV. It has collected data with an exposure of over 31000 km{sup 2} .sr.year, since 2008. However, it has a poor discrimination capability to separate the electromagnetic and the muonic component of an air shower. A good separation capability is an important tool to improve the identification of the primary composition of cosmic rays. MARTA is a proposed detector to address this issue. It based on a well known technology of RPC's (Resistive Plate Chambers). We will present the physics requirements of Auger, for a muon detector, that leads to a better understanding of the structure of air showers and describe how MARTA comply with them. This will allow to: Measure the energy evolution of the distribution of the number of muons in the showers; Disentangle mass composition changes from a change in hadronic interactions at high energies; Improve the energy measurement by subtracting the muon component from the tank signal; Increase the primary photon discrimination power; Improve the estimation of the missing energy in air showers. We describe the detector, its capabilities, and the prototypes with are already installed in the Observatory. We discuss the problems which may arise in running these type of detectors under the harsh conditions of the pampas and the solutions that are proposed to face them. (author)

  17. Impact of the age of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails on Schistosoma mansoni transmission: modulation of the genetic outcome and the internal defence system of the snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Fathy Abou-El-Naga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 34 identified Biomphalariaspecies,Biomphalaria alexandrinarepresents the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoniin Egypt. Using parasitological and SOD1 enzyme assay, this study aimed to elucidate the impact of the age of B. alexandrinasnails on their genetic variability and internal defence against S. mansoniinfection. Susceptible and resistant snails were reared individually for self-reproduction; four subgroups of their progeny were used in experiment. The young susceptible subgroup showed the highest infection rate, the shortest pre-patent period, the highest total cercarial production, the highest mortality rate and the lowest SOD1 activity. Among the young and adult susceptible subgroups, 8% and 26% were found to be resistant, indicating the inheritance of resistance alleles from parents. The adult resistant subgroup, however, contained only resistant snails and showed the highest enzyme activity. The complex interaction between snail age, genetic background and internal defence resulted in great variability in compatibility patterns, with the highest significant difference between young susceptible and adult resistant snails. The results demonstrate that resistance alleles function to a greater degree in adults, with higher SOD1 activity and provide potential implications for Biomphalariacontrol. The identification of the most susceptible snail age enables determination of the best timing for applying molluscicides. Moreover, adult resistant snails could be beneficial in biological snail control.

  18. K-shell Auger lifetime variation in doubly ionized Ne and first row hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolorenč, Přemysl; Averbukh, Vitali

    2011-10-01

    We consider 1s Auger decay in doubly (core-core and core-valence) ionized Ne and in the isoelectronic first row element hydrides. We show theoretically that the presence of the spectator inner valence vacancy leads to Auger lifetime variation of up to about a factor of 2, relative to the Auger lifetimes in the singly ionized species. The origin of this effect is traced to spin selection rules. Implications on the modelling of the radiation damage in strong x-ray fields are discussed.

  19. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, A. M. van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Ou...

  20. Doppler effect in resonant photoemission from SF6: correlation between Doppler profile and Auger emission anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, M; Ueda, K; De Fanis, A; Furuta, T; Shindo, H; Tanaka, H; Okada, K; Feifel, R; Sorensen, S L; Gel'mukhanov, F; Baev, A; Agren, H

    2003-11-21

    Fragmentation of the SF6 molecule upon F 1s excitation has been studied by resonant photoemission. The F atomiclike Auger line exhibits the characteristic Doppler profile that depends on the direction of the photoelectron momentum relative to the polarization vector of the radiation as well as on the photon energy. The measured Doppler profiles are analyzed by the model simulation that takes account of the anisotropy of the Auger emission in the molecular frame. The Auger anisotropy extracted from the data decreases with an increase in the F-SF5 internuclear distance.

  1. Properties of Auger electrons following excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupliauskiene, A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: akupl@itpa.lt; Tutlys, V. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-01-15

    In non-relativistic approximation, the most general expression for differential cross sections describing the properties of Auger-electron emission induced in the excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons is obtained for the first time. The ways of the application of the general expressions suitable for the specific experimental conditions are outlined by deriving the expressions for the asymmetry parameters and the magnetic dichroism of the angular distribution of the Auger electrons as well as of the angular correlations between the scattered and Auger electrons.

  2. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  3. Auger recombination of dark excitons in WS2 and WSe2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovich, Mark; Zólyomi, Viktor; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel phonon assisted Auger process unique to the electronic band structure of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which dominates the radiative recombination of ground state excitons in tungsten based TMDCs. Using experimental and density functional theory computed values for the exciton energies, spin-orbit splittings, optical matrix element, and the Auger matrix elements, we find that the Auger process begins to dominate at carrier densities as low as {10}9-10 {{cm}}-2, thus providing a plausible explanation for the low quantum efficiencies reported for these materials.

  4. Aquatic snails from mining sites have evolved to detect and avoid heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefcort, H; Abbott, D P; Cleary, D A; Howell, E; Keller, N C; Smith, M M

    2004-05-01

    Toxicants in polluted environments are often patchily distributed. Hence, rather than being passive absorbers of pollution, some organisms have evolved the ability to detect and avoid toxicants. We studied the avoidance behavior of Physella columbiana, an aquatic pulmonate snail, in a pond that has been polluted with heavy metals for more than 120 years. Populations of this snail are rare at reference sites and are only robust at heavy-metal-polluted sites. We hypothesized that the snails are able to persist because they have evolved the ability to minimize their exposure to metals by actively avoiding metals in their environment. Using a Y-maze flow tank, we tested the avoidance behavior of snails to heavy-metal-polluted sediments and single-metal solutions of cadmium, zinc, or lead. We also tested the avoidance behaviors of the snails' laboratory-reared offspring raised in nonpolluted conditions. In addition, we tested the avoidance behavior of a small population of snails from a reference pond. Although all the snails we tested were able to detect low concentrations of heavy metals, we found that snails from the polluted site were the most sensitive, that their offspring were somewhat less sensitive, and that snails from the reference site were the least sensitive. This suggests that the ability of polluted-site snails to avoid heavy metals is both genetic and environmental. The concentrations of metals avoided by the snails from the polluted site were below the levels found at hot spots within their natal pond. The snails may be able to persist at this site because they decrease their exposure by moving to less-polluted sections of the pond. One application of our findings is the use of aquatic snails and our Y-maze design as an inexpensive pollution detector. Environmental pollutants such as lead, zinc, and arsenic are a problem throughout the world. People in underdeveloped countries often lack sophisticated pollution detection devices. We have developed a

  5. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

  6. Field prevalence and laboratory susceptibility of southern Australian land snails to Brachylaima cribbi sporocyst infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher A.R.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylaima cribbi is a terrestrial trematode of birds and mammals with helic id and hygromild land snails reported as first and second Intermediate hosts. However, reports describing the first Intermediate host range of B. cribbi have been limited to those snail species present In a small number of geographical locations In South Australia. The natural first Intermediate host range, distribution and prevalence of B. cribbi In land snails In southern Australia were determined. A total of 6,432 introduced and native land snails were collected from eight geographical districts across 3,000 km of southern Australia and examined microscopically for B. cribbi sporocysts. Four Introduced European snails, Theba pisana, Cernuella virgata, Cochlicella acuta and Cochlicella barbara were natural first Intermediate hosts. Sporocyst-infected snails were detected In all districts from Victoria to the west coast of South Australia, a distance of over 1,300 km. Natural sporocyst infection was not observed in introduced European snails Microxeromagna armillata and Helix aspersa or In native Australian land snails Succinea australis and Strangesta gawleri. Egg feeding experiments in the laboratory with B. cribbi confirmed the susceptibility of those species of snails found to be natural first intermediate hosts. Of those species not found to be Infected In nature, only M. armillata could be Infected In the laboratory. Although this study has shown that five different species of European land snails are suitable first Intermediate hosts for B. cribbi there are as yet no reports of B. cribbi from these snails In Europe or from other countries where they have been introduced. Further Investigations are needed in Europe to clarify the origins of this parasite.

  7. The effect of isolation on reproduction and growth of Pseudosuccinea columella (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae: a snail-conditioned water experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A snail-conditioned water experiment was conducted in Pseudosuccinea columella to test the possible role of a chemical interaction between snails on the diminished growth and fecundity rates found for snails raised in pairs compared to those raised in complete isolation. The results permit to discard the hypothesis of an inhibition of growth and reproduction between snails due to factors released into the water.

  8. Ellog Auger Drilling -"3-in-one" method for hydrogeological data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kurt; Larsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    The Ellog auger drilling method is an integrated approach for hydrogeological data collection during auger drilling in unconsolidated sediments. The drill stem is a continuous flight, hollow-stem auger with integrated electrical and gamma logging tools. The geophysical logging is performed...... continuously while drilling. Data processing is carried out in the field, and recorded log features are displayed as drilling advances. A slotted section in the stem, above the cutting head, allows anaerobic water and soil-gas samples to be taken at depth intervals of approximately 0.2 m. The logging, water....... The Ellog auger drilling method provides detailed information on small-scale changes in lithology, sediment chemistry, and water, as well as gas compositions in aquifer systems - data essential to hydrogeological studies....

  9. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmia\\lkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the composition of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory, including examination of hadronic physics effects on the structure of extensive air showers. Submissions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland (July 2009).

  10. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mičanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.049

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluoresence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of...

  11. Study of KLL Auger processes for light elements above Z = 10. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.A.; Dress, W.B.; Nyberg, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the KLL Auger spectrum for members of the third row of the periodic table. This group contains the lightest elements wherein an Auger process can occur without the direct participation of the valence shell. Recent Auger spectra induced by x-ray photoionization on Mg, Al, and Si metals and their oxides are given as well as preliminary results on salts of Na and K, and for comparison, the LMM spectra of RbCl. Results were combined with previous experimental data and theory in order to obtain an overview. Four topics concerned with Auger processes are discussed: Energies, relative intensities, chemical shifts, and satellite structure. Interlaced throughout is a discussion of the role played by the chemical environment and electron correlation.

  12. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mianen; Guo, Xiaojing; Qian, Xiaolong; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Chunying; Brinkman, Kathryn L.; Serrano-Gonzalez, Monica; Jope, Richard S.; Zhou, Binhua; Engler, David A.; Zhan, Ming; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis. However, the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known. Here, we demonstrate that the ATM kinase, one of the critical DDR elements, is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition marker, Snail. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100. Using mass spectrometry, we identified HSP90 as a critical binding protein of Snail in response to DNA damage. HSP90 binds to and stabilizes phosphorylated Snail. We further provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that activation of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. Finally, we demonstrate that Snail Serine-100 phosphorylation is elevated in breast cancer tissues with lymph-node metastasis, indicating clinical significance of the ATM-Snail pathway. Together, our findings provide strong evidence that the ATM-Snail pathway promotes tumor metastasis, highlighting a previously undescribed role of the DDR in tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:22923499

  13. Activation of the ATM-Snail pathway promotes breast cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mianen Sun; David A. Engler; Ming Zhan; Stephen T.C. Wong; Li Fu; Bo Xu; Xiaojing Guo; Xiaolong Qian; Haibo Wang; Chunying Yang; Kathryn L. Brinkman; Monica Serrano-Gonzalez; Richard S. Jope; Binhua Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for the maintenance of genetic stability and serves as an anti-cancer barrier during early tumorigenesis.However,the role of the DDR in tumor progression and metastasis is less known.Here,we demonstrate that the ATM kinase,one of the critical DDR elements,is hyperactive in late stage breast tumor tissues with lymph-node metastasis and this hyperactivity correlates with elevated expression of the epitheliai-mesenchymal transition marker,Snail.At the molecular level,we demonstrate that ATM regulates Snail stabilization by phosphorylation on Serine-100.Using mass spectrometry,we identified HSP90 as a critical binding protein of Snail in response to DNA damage.HsP9o binds to and stabilizes phosphorylated Snail.We further provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that activation of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation promotes tumor invasion and metastasis.Finally,we demonstrate that Snail Serine-100 phosphorylation is elevated in breast cancer tissues with lymph-node metastasis,indicating clinical significance of the ATM-Snail pathway.Together,our findings provide strong evidence that the ATM-Snail pathway promotes tumor metastasis,highlighting a previously undescribed role of the DDR in tumor invasion and metastasis.

  14. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  15. Studies on the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira on schistosomiasis transmitting snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdalla M; Abdel-Gawad, Mahfouz M; El-Nahas, Hanan A; Osman, Nadia S

    2015-04-01

    In the search for new molluscicidal plants for controlling the snail vectors of schistosomiasis, laboratory evaluation was made to assess the molluscicidal activity of Agave angustifolia and Pittosporum tobira plants against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. Results indicated that both plants have promising molluscicidal activity as the LC90 of the dry powder of both plants was 120 ppm. Both plants showed marked cercaricidal and miracidicidal potencies against S. mansoni larvae. The LC90 of both plants (120 ppm) killed most B. alexandrina eggs within 24 h of exposure. The sub-lethal concentrations of both plants markedly suppressed the survival rate of B. alexandrina snails and the mortality increased with increasing the concentrations and the exposure period up to 10 successive weeks. The accumulative toxic effect of these concentrations was continuous during the recovery period. Also, the reproductive rates of exposed snails were greatly affected even through the recovery period. This depression in reproductive ability of snails was accompanied by histological damage in the hermaphrodite glands of exposed snails. Meanwhile, the growth of snails was estimated weekly and it showed great inhibition in exposed snails comparing with the control ones. PMID:26012228

  16. Local adaptation of the trematode Fasciola hepatica to the snail Galba truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyfuss G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of six riverbank populations of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if the poor susceptibility of these populations to this digenean might be due to the scarcity or the absence of natural encounters between these snails and the parasite. The first three populations originated from banks frequented by cattle in the past (riverbank group whereas the three others were living on islet banks without any known contact with local ruminants (islet group. After their exposure, all snails were placed in their natural habitats from the end of October up to their collection at the beginning of April. Compared to the riverbank group, snails, which died without cercarial shedding clearly predominated in the islet group, while the other infected snails were few in number. Most of these last snails released their cercariae during a single shedding wave. In islet snails dissected after their death, the redial and cercarial burdens were significantly lower than those noted in riverbank G. truncatula. Snails living on these islet banks are thus able to sustain larval development of F. hepatica. The modifications noted in the characteristics of snail infection suggest the existence of an incomplete adaptation between these G. truncatula and the parasite, probably due to the absence of natural contact between host and parasite.

  17. Magnetic field influence on Auger effect on shallow donors in CdF2:Mn+ luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of the suppression of the Auger effect on shallow donors by magnetic field in the luminescence of manganese ions in semiconducting CdF2:Mn crystals is presented. The magnetic field decreases the probability of the Auger effect, which is spin-dependent energy transfer from the manganese ions to the electrons occupying shallow donors. This results in the increase in the decay times of the luminescence. (author)

  18. Argon and krypton Auger spectra induced by ion bombardment of aluminium and silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of Auger (autoionization) spectra of Ar and Kr produced by bombarding Al and Si substrates with Ar+ and Kr+ ions in the 110 eV-5 keV energy range. These are shown to be consistent with the simple Doppler model suggested, for Ne and Al and Si, in a previous paper. Once corrected using the model, the observed Auger energies are shown to correspond to theoretical predictions produced using Dirac-Fock calculations. (Author)

  19. Auger electron spectroscopy as a tool for measuring intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, T. T.

    1993-10-01

    A way for the determination of the values of intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules of some binary dielectrics, based on Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), is proposed. These values can be obtained from the coverage dependences of the ratios of intensities of anion KL 23L 23 and KL 1L 1 Auger transitions, which are sensitive to the amount of charge at the 2p-orbitals. As an example, MgO adsorbed on Mo(110) is presented.

  20. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalillo, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  1. Biophysical aspects of Auger processes: A review of the literature 1987--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on Auger emitters held in Oxfordshire in 1987 produced papers on physical dosimetry, molecular damage, biologic effects, and therapeutic applications. These are briefly summarized. Since that time there has appeared in the literature a number of reports on Auger processes as they relate to microscopic and cellular dosimetry, DNA damage, biologic consequences, and therapeutic potential. A number of these are reviewed as background for the Second International Symposium

  2. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  3. Snail/beta-catenin signaling protects breast cancer cells from hypoxia attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherbakov, Alexander M., E-mail: alex.scherbakov@gmail.com [Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Institute of Clinical Oncology, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Stefanova, Lidia B.; Sorokin, Danila V.; Semina, Svetlana E. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Carcinogenesis, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Berstein, Lev M. [Laboratory of Oncoendocrinology, N.N. Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, St. Petersburg 197758 (Russian Federation); Krasil’nikov, Mikhail A. [Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Carcinogenesis, N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Centre, Kashirskoye sh. 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-10

    The tolerance of cancer cells to hypoxia depends on the combination of different factors – from increase of glycolysis (Warburg Effect) to activation of intracellular growth/apoptotic pathways. Less is known about the influence of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and EMT-associated pathways on the cell sensitivity to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Snail signaling, one of the key EMT pathways, in the mediating of hypoxia response and regulation of cell sensitivity to hypoxia, using as a model in vitro cultured breast cancer cells. Earlier we have shown that estrogen-independent HBL-100 breast cancer cells differ from estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells with increased expression of Snail1, and demonstrated Snail1 involvement into formation of hormone-resistant phenotype. Because Snail1 belongs to hypoxia-activated proteins, here we studied the influence of Snail1 signaling on the cell tolerance to hypoxia. We found that Snail1-enriched HBL-100 cells were less sensitive to hypoxia-induced growth suppression if compared with MCF-7 line (31% MCF-7 vs. 71% HBL-100 cell viability after 1% O{sub 2} atmosphere for 3 days). Snail1 knock-down enhanced the hypoxia-induced inhibition of cell proliferation giving the direct evidence of Snail1 involvement into cell protection from hypoxia attack. The protective effect of Snail1 was shown to be mediated, at least in a part, via beta-catenin which positively regulated expression of HIF-1-dependent genes. Finally, we found that cell tolerance to hypoxia was accompanied with the failure in the phosphorylation of AMPK – the key energy sensor, and demonstrated an inverse relationship between AMPK and Snail/beta-catenin signaling. Totally, our data show that Snail1 and beta-catenin, besides association with loss of hormone dependence, protect cancer cells from hypoxia and may serve as an important target in the treatment of breast cancer. Moreover, we suggest that the level of these proteins as well

  4. New insight into the Auger decay process in O{sub 2}: The coincidence perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arion, Tiberiu, E-mail: tiberiu.arion@cfel.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Puettner, Ralph [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Lupulescu, Cosmin [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und atomare Physik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ovsyannikov, Ruslan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foerstel, Marko [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Oehrwall, Gunnar [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Lindblad, Andreas [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Ueda, Kiyoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Svensson, Svante [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bradshaw, Alex M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und atomare Physik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a new experimental set-up for e,e-coincidence experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New information on the potential curves of the final states in O{sub 2} has been extracted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed new features, assigned to autoionization of neutral doubly excited states. -- Abstract: Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of Auger decay processes with different core-ionized intermediate states. In this paper we describe an investigation into the Auger decay of the O{sub 2} molecule, with the purpose of bringing new insight into the dynamics of the core hole decay mechanism. Using a novel experimental approach to measuring such coincidence spectra we report the highest resolution Auger spectrum of O{sub 2} recorded hitherto. In our approach, we have combined the advantages of these coincidence spectra with the high resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratios of non-coincident Auger spectra and a state-of-the-art fit analysis. In this way we have derived information about the potential energy curves of the final states W {sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}, B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}, and B Prime {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup -} and concluded that the corresponding Auger transitions are formed to a large part by strongly overlapping vibrational progressions. The present findings are compared to earlier results reported in the literature confirming some theoretical predictions.

  5. Ramsey interferometry for resonant Auger decay through core-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvik; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron dynamics in Ne atoms involving core-excited states through the Ramsey scheme with a pair of time-delayed x-ray pulses. Irradiation of Ne atoms by the ˜1 femtosecond x-ray pulse simultaneously populates two core-excited states, and an identical but time-delayed x-ray pulse probes the dynamics of the core-excited electron wave packet which is subject to the resonant Auger decay. The energy-integrated total Auger electron yield and energy-resolved Auger electron spectra in the time domain show periodic structures due to the temporal evolution of the wave packet, from which we can obtain the counterpart in the frequency domain through the Fourier transformation. The Auger electron energy spectra in the time as well as frequency domains show the interference patterns between the two Auger electron wave packets released into the continuum from the superposition of two core-excited states at different times. These spectra are important to clarify the individual contribution of the different Auger decay channels upon core excitation by the x-ray pulse.

  6. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  7. The expression and significance of Snail2 in endometrial carcinoma%Snail2在子宫内膜癌中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪伟; 胡建国

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the expression of Snail2 gene in endometrial carcinoma tissues, for the purpose of finding the relationship between the gene and endometrial carcinoma. METHODS The expression of Snail2 in normal endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma tissues was detected by the immunohistochemistry, Real-time PCR and western blot. RESULTS The expression of Snail2 mRNA and protein in endometrial carcinoma was higher than that in normal secretory endometrial tissues. CONCLUSION The expression of Snail2 in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma increases, suggesting it is closely related with endometrial cancer.%目的 探讨Snail2在子宫内膜癌中的表达及意义.方法 采用免疫组织化学S-P法、Western Blot、荧光定量PCR技术(Real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction)检测Snail2蛋白及mRNA在20例子宫内膜癌及40例正常子宫内膜(增生期、分泌期各20例)中的表达.结果 子宫内膜癌中Snail2表达较增生期和分泌期子宫内膜均增高(P<0.05).结论Snail2 mRNA和蛋白在子宫内膜癌中表达增高,推测其与子宫内膜癌发病密切相关.

  8. Speciation and gene flow between snails of opposite chirality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Davison

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Left-right asymmetry in snails is intriguing because individuals of opposite chirality are either unable to mate or can only mate with difficulty, so could be reproductively isolated from each other. We have therefore investigated chiral evolution in the Japanese land snail genus Euhadra to understand whether changes in chirality have promoted speciation. In particular, we aimed to understand the effect of the maternal inheritance of chirality on reproductive isolation and gene flow. We found that the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of Euhadra is consistent with a single, relatively ancient evolution of sinistral species and suggests either recent "single-gene speciation" or gene flow between chiral morphs that are unable to mate. To clarify the conditions under which new chiral morphs might evolve and whether single-gene speciation can occur, we developed a mathematical model that is relevant to any maternal-effect gene. The model shows that reproductive character displacement can promote the evolution of new chiral morphs, tending to counteract the positive frequency-dependent selection that would otherwise drive the more common chiral morph to fixation. This therefore suggests a general mechanism as to how chiral variation arises in snails. In populations that contain both chiral morphs, two different situations are then possible. In the first, gene flow is substantial between morphs even without interchiral mating, because of the maternal inheritance of chirality. In the second, reproductive isolation is possible but unstable, and will also lead to gene flow if intrachiral matings occasionally produce offspring with the opposite chirality. Together, the results imply that speciation by chiral reversal is only meaningful in the context of a complex biogeographical process, and so must usually involve other factors. In order to understand the roles of reproductive character displacement and gene flow in the chiral evolution of Euhadra, it will be

  9. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from

  10. Snails and slugs damaging the cut foliage, Cordyline fruticosa and use of biorationals towards their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthiga, S; Jegathambigai, V; Karunarathne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2012-01-01

    Snails and slugs became a serious molluscan pests and damaging leaves of purple compacta, Cordyline fruticosa extensively grown for export at Green Farm Ltd, Sri Lanka. The export quality of leaves of C. fruticosa is lowered due to feeding of snails, Achantina fulica (Bowditch), Opeas pyrgula Schmacker and Boettgerx and Helix aspersa Muller and slugs incurring great loss to cut foliage industry. Paucity of information is available to understand snails and slugs damage and their host range that limits to develop suitable management practices. Therefore this study was aimed to determine damage, alternate hosts and to develop possible management practices. Snails and slugs damaged mainly fresh leaves of C. fruticosa. The severity of damage was 44.5% in infested field based on the visual rating method. Leaves of cassava, sting bean, okra, cucumber, passion fruit, papaya, Glyricidia and shoe flower were identified as alternate hosts and neem, Ixora and Dracaena spp were not served as alternate hosts. Among the plant materials tested for their repellence against snails and slugs revealed that neem seed powder was an irritant; neem leaves, mint leaves and Lantana leaves were acted as anti-feedant and Salt as chemical repellent. Among the barrier and bait experiments Bordeaux mixture exhibited a significant barrier effect against horizontal movement of snails. Baits made out of Metaldehyde bait, vegetables bait and jaggery had a strong effect in repelling the snails and slugs. Mulching with Madhuca longifolia punnac was the best to reduce the snails and slugs population compared to M. longifolia seed kernel powder. Oil from M. longifolia failed to reduce their population. Hence the results revealed that saponin containing M. longifolia punnac helped to eliminate snails and slugs when used as mulch. Metaldehyde, vegetable and jaggery baits are also useful to minimize their colonization further. Hence combination of these methods will help to prevent snails and slugs from

  11. Changes in frequency of spontaneous oscillations in procerebrum correlate to behavioural choice in terrestrial snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Samarova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to understand functional significance of spontaneous oscillations of local field potential in the olfactory brain lobe of terrestrial snail, the procerebrum (PC. We compared changes in frequency of oscillations in semi-intact preparations from snails trained to percept the same conditioned odor as positive (associated with food reinforcement or negative (associated with noxious reinforcement. In vivo recordings in freely behaving naïve snails showed a significant decrease of spontaneous PC oscillations frequency during a stage of tentacle withdrawal to odor presentation. In in vitro preparations from naïve snails, a similar decrease in frequency of the PC oscillations to odor presentation was observed. Changes in frequency of the oscillations to cineole presentations in the “aversive” group of snails (demonstrating withdrawal were much more pronounced than in naïve snails. No significant difference in responses to 5 and 20% cineole was noted. Changes in the spontaneous oscillations frequency in the snails trained to respond with positive reaction (approach to cineole depended on the concentration of the applied odor, and these responses were qualitatively similar to responses of other groups during the first 10 s of responses to odor, but significantly different (increase in PC oscillations frequency from the responses of the aversively trained and naïve snails in the interval 11-30 s, which corresponds to the end of the tentacle withdrawal and timing of decision making (approach or escape in the free behaving snails. Obtained results suggest that frequency of the PC lobe spontaneous oscillations correlate to the choice of behavior in snails: withdrawal (decrease in frequency or approach (increase in frequency to the source of odor.

  12. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Juli J. Unternaehrer; Rui Zhao; Kitai Kim; Marcella Cesana; John T. Powers; Sutheera Ratanasirintrawoot; Tamer Onder; Tsukasa Shibue; Robert A. Weinberg; George Q. Daley

    2014-01-01

    Stem Cell Reports Report The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming Juli J. Unternaehrer,1,2,3,7,* Rui Zhao,1,2,3,8 Kitai Kim,1,2,3,9 Marcella Cesana,1,2,3 John T. Powers,1,2,3 Sutheera Ratanasirintrawoot,1,2,3 Tamer Onder,1,2,3,10 Tsukasa Shibue,4,5 Robert A. Weinberg,4,5,6 and George Q. Daley1,2,3 1Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Stem Cell Transplantation Program, Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Howard H...

  13. Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence study for condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, G. [Department of Physics and Unita' INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: stefani@fis.uniroma3.it; Gotter, R. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Ruocco, A. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Offi, F. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Pieve, F. Da [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Iacobucci, S. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Morgante, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Verdini, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Liscio, A. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Yao, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Bartynski, R.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Advances in materials science have produced a wide array of new solid-state systems with tunable properties and previously unattainable combinations of phenomena that hold the promise of entirely new approaches to technological applications. Invariably, these new materials are increasingly complex and include a large number of constituents in a variety of chemical states. Entirely new theoretical and experimental approaches are needed to gain the insights necessary for intelligent engineering of these materials. In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have demonstrated the capability of investigating complicated systems with sensitivity and specificity well beyond the limits imposed by conventional electron spectroscopies. Over the past decade or so, Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) has emerged as a powerful technique for obtaining detailed information about complex materials systems. Moreover, the recent advent of angle-resolved (AR)-APECS has introduced a new level of discrimination in studying the distribution of electrons photoemitted from complex systems. In this review, we describe the basic ideas behind APECS and discuss a study of the SiO{sub 2} system as an example of the unique information this technique can provide. We then introduce the concept of AR-APECS, explain its novel state and angular momentum selectivity that can be used to disentangle information about complex systems that is hidden to conventional spectroscopies. Examples of AR-APECS measurements from Cu, Ge, and graphite that exemplify the capabilities of this technique are presented.

  14. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km2), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense "infill" subarray.

  15. On the results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, Martin, E-mail: lemoine@iap.f [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2009-05-15

    This paper discusses the correlation recently reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) of the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays with active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within 75 Mpc. It is argued that these correlating AGN do not have the power required to be the sources of those particles. It is further argued that the current PAO data disfavors giant radio-galaxies (both Fanaroff-Riley type I and II) as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The reported correlation with AGN should thus be understood as follows: the AGN trace the distribution of the local large scale structure, in which the actual sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays camouflage. The most promising theoretical candidates for these sources are then gamma-ray bursts and magnetars. One important consequence of the above is that one will not detect counterparts in gamma-rays, neutrinos or gravitational waves to the sources of these observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, since the cosmic rays are delayed by extragalactic magnetic fields on timescales approx10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yrs much larger than the emission timescale of these sources.

  16. AMIGA at the Auger observatory: the telecommunications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMIGA is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory that will consist of 85 detector pairs, each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. Each muon counter has an area of 30 square meters and is made of scintillator strips, with doped optical fibers glued to them, which guide the light to 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes. The detector pairs are arranged at 433 m and 750 m array spacings. In this paper we present the telecommunications system designed to connect the muon counters with the central data processing system at the observatory campus in Malarg and quot;ue. The telecommunications system consists of a point-to-multipoint radio link designed to connect the 85 muon counters or subscribers to two coordinators located at the Coihueco fluorescence detector building. The link provides TCP/IP remote access to the scintillator modules through router boards installed on each of the surface detectors of AMIGA. This setup provides a flexible LAN configuration for each muon counter connected to a WAN that links all the data generated by the muon counters and the surface detectors to the Central Data Acquisition System, or CDAS, at the observatory campus. We present the design parameters, the proposed telecommunications solution and the laboratory and field tests proposed to guarantee its functioning for the whole data traffic generated between each surface detector and muon counter in the AMIGA array and the CDAS

  17. ELVES light intensity studies at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Roberto; Maiorana, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe (Argentina), is the largest facility (3000 km2) for the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>1018 eV). The four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) are continuously observing the night sky with moon fraction below 50% (13% duty cycle) with 100 ns time resolution and a space resolution below one degree. The fluorescence light (λ = 300 nm to 420 nm) produced by shower in the atmosphere is proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic ray. The atmospheric optical properties are continuously monitored by the Observatory with a set of dedicated instruments (lidars, cloud cameras, weather stations). The energy of each cosmic ray can therefore be measured with a systematic energy resolution about 14%. After the serendipitous discovery of an ELVES candidate event in 2005, a special trigger has been implemented to detect these phenomena with high efficiency, fully operational since March 2013. Since January 2014 the ELVES candidates are read out with a modified DAQ scheme, to observe the light emission from above the vertical of the causative lightning. This paper will report about the analysis of the correlation between light emission and lightning intensity as recorded by lightning detection networks, on data taken in the last three years of operation.

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF/sub 2/ as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states. (GHT)

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  20. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  1. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  2. Diaphanous gene mutation affects spiral cleavage and chirality in snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Reiko; Fujikura, Kohei; Abe, Masanori; Hosoiri, Yuji; Asakawa, Shuichi; Shimizu, Miho; Umeda, Shin; Ichikawa, Futaba; Takahashi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    L-R (left and right) symmetry breaking during embryogenesis and the establishment of asymmetric body plan are key issues in developmental biology, but the onset including the handedness-determining gene locus still remains unknown. Using pure dextral (DD) and sinistral (dd) strains of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis as well as its F2 through to F10 backcrossed lines, the single handedness-determining-gene locus was mapped by genetic linkage analysis, BAC cloning and chromosome walking. We have identified the actin-related diaphanous gene Lsdia1 as the strongest candidate. Although the cDNA and derived amino acid sequences of the tandemly duplicated Lsdia1 and Lsdia2 genes are very similar, we could discriminate the two genes/proteins in our molecular biology experiments. The Lsdia1 gene of the sinistral strain carries a frameshift mutation that abrogates full-length LsDia1 protein expression. In the dextral strain, it is already translated prior to oviposition. Expression of Lsdia1 (only in the dextral strain) and Lsdia2 (in both chirality) decreases after the 1-cell stage, with no asymmetric localization throughout. The evolutionary relationships among body handedness, SD/SI (spiral deformation/spindle inclination) at the third cleavage, and expression of diaphanous proteins are discussed in comparison with three other pond snails (L. peregra, Physa acuta and Indoplanorbis exustus). PMID:27708420

  3. Food induced esterase phenocopies in the snail Cepaea nemoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, G S

    1975-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic extracts from the snail Cepaea nemoralis, assayed straight from the field, often contain three or four heavily staining esterase zones which migrate to the cathodal end of polyacrylamide disc gels during electrophoresis. Previous breeding results showed that the heavily straining zones appeared allelic but to incorporate these multibanded phenotypes, a super gene of five closely linked loci was tentatively proposed. Further breeding work again failed to demonstrate multiple zones in parents or offspring and so experiments were conducted to see whether the multi-zoned phenotypes in the wild were produced by secondary modification of single primary products. Wild snails yielding extracts containing more than two heavily staining zones were shown to possess only two such zones after three months under laboratory conditions. Also, the ingestion of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has been demonstrated to induce extra esterase zones in laboratory-reared animals. Some of the secondarily induced zones appear identical in physical, biochemical and electrophoretic properties to the primary products of other alleles, and thus appear to be electrophoretic phenocopies. A model is suggested which could account for this phenomenon. PMID:1061709

  4. MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL AT GRAZING PADDOCK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ime Ebenso

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination of animal products is under reported. Juvenile edible land snails (Archachatina marginata were exposed as sentinels in bottomless metal drums for 1 week at abandoned, new and reference sites respectively at grazing paddock environment, to assess the presence of foodborne microbiological mycotoxins contamination during the dry season. Mycological analysis of A. marginata samples revealed high (p<0.05 contamination at all paddocks ranged from 1.2-1.3 x 105 cfu-g. Results revealed values that were found to be unacceptable by FAO/WHO standards. The presence of Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillum expansum were noted as potential toxicogenic mycoflora. Snails were tolerant to all levels of contamination with no clinical signs of infection or mortality. This finding could serve as basis for assessing pre-slaughter microbial contamination of livestock farm/field environment in order to establish data with comparative epidemiological value, which could highlight early warning signals of food safety risk and cross-contamination of mycotoxins in the food chain.

  5. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots. PMID:27087053

  6. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots.

  7. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  8. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thapana Chontananarth; Chalobol Wongsawad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Methods:The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. Results:A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae;gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). Conclusions:The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

  9. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  10. Occurrence of a Snail Borne Disease, Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer Itch in Doon Valley (Uttarakhand, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Jauhari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Cercarial dermatitis' also known as swimmers itch (Skin allergies is caused by a trematode parasite, Schistosoma which has two hosts - an invertebrate (snail and a vertebrate (livestock, human being. Although the availability of both vector snails and pathogens at the selected site the Doon Valley in northern India has already been confirmed but there was a hazy picture of the disease, whether it is due to entrance of cercariae or due to wild variety of grass (Parthenium hysterophorus. The present study is an attempt to provide a way forward towards the vector snails and snail borne diseases in the study area.Snail sampling and identification was done by applying standard methods / using Keys & Catalogues. Associated parasites and cercariometry in snails has been worked out by cercarial shedding. Human involvement at zo-onotic level has been performed in collaboration with Health centers and socio- economic aspect of inhabitants of study area.The snail diversity encountered 19 species including the vector species such as Indoplanorbis exustus, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Melanoides tuberculata and Lymnaea acuminata. The cercarial diversity comprised Furcocercous, Monostome, Amphistome and liver fluke / Xiphidiocercaria. During the study (2009-2010, 0.173% was found with cercarial dermatitis among human population in the selected area. The symptoms of disease recorded were red spots and swellings on effected parts of skin. Frequent visits of livestock to the water body and presence of vector snails provides a clue in completing the life cycle of the parasite of the family Schistosomatidae.Cercarial dermatitis has been considered a potential risk at those places where warm blooded and snail's hosts share a link with aquatic bodies with particular emphasis to temperature and time of year.

  11. The uptake and distribution of copper sulphate by the freshwater snail bulinus (bulinus) tropicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The copper concentration found in the haemolymph, shell and the whole snail was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These concentration values were designated as the background copper concentration. No copper was found in the snail haemolymph or the shell after a six hour exposure of snails to 1 ppm CuSO4. This exposure to CuSO4 was done at a pH of 7,2 and 8,4. Because of differences in the solubility of coppersulphate at different pH levels the amount of copper available in aquarium water at pH 4, 7,2 and 8,4 was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Snails which have accumulated copper do not release the copper into the water. For this experiment the water was analysed for copper for a period of 24 hours. This test was done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and radio-active copper (Cu64). Snails were also exposed to increasing concentrations of CuSO4 and at the same time the decrease of copper from the water was monitored. The relationship between copper uptake by the snail and its increasing metabolic rate showed that the rate of copper uptake does not increase with increasing metabolic activity. An experiment to measure the adsorption of copper by dead snail tissue was performed. Transmission electron microscopy showed histological changes in the subepithelial tissues. The results obtained from the various experiments indicate that copper is adsorbed on the exposed body wall of the snail. It is suggested that chemisorption and not physisorption could be the underlying mechanism of adsorption of copper on the snails outer epithelium

  12. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  13. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  14. Detailed theoretical and experimental description of normal Auger decay in O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Zhuo; Travnikova, Oksana; Svensson, Svante; Piancastelli, Maria Novella [Physics Department, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Fink, Reinhold F [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Am Hubland, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Ceolin, Denis [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Maria-Novella.Piancastelli@fysik.uu.se

    2008-06-28

    The normal Auger electron spectrum of the O{sub 2} molecule is assigned in detail on the basis of ab initio valence configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions. Potential energy curves of the ground state, the core-ionized states and the doubly charged final states are calculated and Auger decay rates are obtained with the one-centre approximation. Using the lifetime vibrational interference method, band shapes are obtained for all contributions to the Auger spectrum. The calculated Auger electron spectrum allows us to identify all features observed experimentally. Significant differences to previous assignments are reported. A quantitative simulation of the spectrum is given on the basis of a curve-fitting procedure, in which the energetic positions and intensities of the theoretical bands were optimized. Besides providing a basis for a refined analysis of the spectrum, the fit allows us to assess the accuracy of the calculation. As expected for this level of theory, the absolute accuracy of the valence CI energies is found to be about 0.3 eV. The inherent error of the one-centre transition rates is less than 5% of the most intense transition in the spectrum. The frequently questioned one-centre Auger transition rates are shown to be rather appropriate if applied with reasonable wavefunctions and if the vibrational band structure of the molecular spectrum is properly taken into account.

  15. Universal size dependence of auger constants in direct- and indirect-gap semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robel, Istvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gresback, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Kortshagen, Uwe [U OF MINNESOTA

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of multi-electron phenomena including non radiative Auger recombination. In this process, a conduction-band electron recombines with a valence-band hole by transferring the recombination energy to a third carrier. Significant interest in Auger recombination in NCs has been stimulated by recent studies ofNC lasing, and generation-III photovoltaics enabled by carrier multiplication because in both of these prospective applications Auger recombination represents a dominant carrier-loss mechanism. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of Auger recombination rates in NCs of several different compositions including Ge, PbSe, InAs, and CdSe. We observe that the only factor, which has a significant effect on the measured recombination rates, is the size of the NCs but not the details of the material's electronic structure. Most surprisingly, comparable rates are measured for nanocrystals of directand indirect-gap semiconductor NCs despite a dramatic four-to-five orders of magnitude difference in respective bulk-semiconductor Auger constants. This unusual observation can be explained by confinement-induced relaxation of momentum conservation, which smears out the difference between direct- and indirect-gap materials.

  16. SNAIL gene inhibited by hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengnan; Liu, Yanmei; Feng, Youji; Gao, Shujun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL gene expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell line. EOC cells were treated with hypoxia, hypoxia combined with rapamycin, and control. The expression of HIF-1α and E-cad were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. The gene expression of SNAIL was studied by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. RNA interference technology was used to determine the relationship between HIF-1α and SNAIL. The present study indicated that the HIF-1α protein was expressed and increased in EOC cell line. SNAIL mRNA was found to increase and E-cad expression decreased with the time of hypoxia prolonged. Hypoxia increased invasion abilities of EOC cell line, but compared with cells exposed to hypoxia, the change of invasive ability of cells with rapamycin had no effect. The expression of HIF-1α protein and SNAIL mRNA could be inhibited gradually by rapamycin. siRNA of HIF-1α could suppress the expression of SNAIL while siRNA of SNAIL had no influence on HIF-1α protein expression. HIF-1α may be the upstream of the SNAIL gene in EOC. Our data suggested that HIF-1α might be an upregulator of the SNAIL gene and HIF-1α-SNAIL-E-cad pathway may play an important role in EOC invasion and metastasis. PMID:27044634

  17. Experimental evidence for extreme surface sensitivity in Auger-Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, A.; Gotter, R.; Ruocco, A.; Iacobucci, S.; Danese, A.G.; Bartynski, R.A.; Stefani, G

    2004-07-01

    Core hole creation and subsequent Auger decay processes are studied with unprecedented discrimination by Auger-Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). Early works in this field have already pointed out the intrinsic surface sensitivity of these experiments. However, it was not until recently that a model calculation was developed to quantitatively evaluate it. Here we present the first attempt to experimentally establish an effective target thickness for such experiments. The angular distribution of 3p{sub 3/2} photoelectron with kinetic energy of 160 eV is measured in coincidence with the M{sub 3}VV Auger electron with kinetic energy of 55 eV on a Cu (1 1 1) surface. Coincidence and non-coincidence photoelectron angular distributions display differences that, to large extent, are explained by confining the source of the coincident signal within the first two layers of Cu target, thus establishing an experimental upper limit for the effective target thickness of the APECS experiment.

  18. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array (PISA 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about View the $17\\,$km$^2$, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of...

  19. Spectral analysis of the low energy Auger emission from a (0 0 0 1) ruthenium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, Jerzy J.; Krajniak, Janusz

    2003-04-30

    The low energy Auger emission from a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface have been analysed by means of a cylindrical mirror analyser (CMA) within the range of the electron energy (E) from 27 to 37 eV as a function of the primary electron energy (E{sub p}), which was set from 170 to 450 eV in 20 eV steps. Three Auger transitions at following energies: 31.7, 33.8 and 36.4 eV, have been found due to application of the backscattering generation factor idea. Obtained results for the Auger transitions were verified by means of XPS results published by Fuggle et al. [Surf. Sci. 52 (1975) 521].

  20. The Auger Engineering Radio Array and multi-hybrid cosmic ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E. M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Since the radio emission is induced purely by the electromagnetic component of the shower, in combination with the AMIGA muon counters, AERA is perfect for separate measurements of the electrons and muons in the shower, if combined with a muon counting detector like AMIGA. In addition to the depth of the shower maximum, the ratio of the electron and muon number serves as a measure of the primary particle mass.

  1. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  2. Solar radio-transmitters on snail kites in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Fuller, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of one- and two-stage solar radio-transmitters in tracking the movements and survival of adult and fledgling Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were evaluated between 1979 and 1983 in southern Florida. Transmitters were attached to birds with back-pack arrangements using teflon ribbon straps. Accessory plastic shields minimized feather coverage of the solar cells. Intact transmitters were seen on birds up to 47 mo after installation. Operating lives ranged from 8 to 21 mo for one-stage, and 10 to 14 mo for two-stage transmitters. Because survival of adult and nestling radio-marked kites was high, we conclude that our transmitter-attachment method had little effect on the birds.

  3. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Factor SNAIL Paradoxically Enhances Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli J. Unternaehrer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs entails a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET. While attempting to dissect the mechanism of MET during reprogramming, we observed that knockdown (KD of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT factor SNAI1 (SNAIL paradoxically reduced, while overexpression enhanced, reprogramming efficiency in human cells and in mouse cells, depending on strain. We observed nuclear localization of SNAI1 at an early stage of fibroblast reprogramming and using mouse fibroblasts expressing a knockin SNAI1-YFP reporter found cells expressing SNAI1 reprogrammed at higher efficiency. We further demonstrated that SNAI1 binds the let-7 promoter, which may play a role in reduced expression of let-7 microRNAs, enforced expression of which, early in the reprogramming process, compromises efficiency. Our data reveal an unexpected role for the EMT factor SNAI1 in reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotency.

  4. Life history studies and habitat requirements of the apple snail at Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study discusses habitat requirements and life history of the apple snail at Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge. A study was initiated during 1971 to gather...

  5. Survey of Endangered Tree Snails on Navy-Owned Land in Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this survey are to determine the location of Guam tree snails on Navy-owned lands in Guam and to identify the location of suitable habitat and...

  6. Palatability of Thlaspi caerulescens for snails: influence of zinc and glucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noret, N; Meerts, P; Tolrà, R; Poschenrieder, C; Barceló, J; Escarre, J

    2005-03-01

    * The hypothesis that zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulation defends Thlaspi caerulescens against herbivores is tested with the snail Helix aspersa. We investigated the effects of leaf zinc, cadmium, glucosinolate, nitrogen and dry matter concentrations on the feeding preferences of snails. * Four T. caerulescens populations from southern France (two from metalliferous and two from normal soils) were grown on low- and high-Zn soils to obtain contrasting leaf Zn concentrations. Plants were also collected in the field, and binary feeding choices involving low- and high-Zn leaves were conducted. * Foliar Zn, Cd, N and dry matter concentrations did not affect the feeding choices of snails, whereas glucosinolate had a significant negative effect on herbivore preferences. Compared with metallicolous plants, nonmetallicolous ones appeared to be better protected against snails, whatever their Zn concentration. * These results do not support the defence hypothesis, as glucosinolates appear to decrease the degree of herbivory when Zn does not. PMID:15720687

  7. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J.; Tinkitina, Benjamin;

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non......-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin...... is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all...

  8. Mesenchymal cells reactivate Snail1 expression to drive three-dimensional invasion programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, R.G.; Li, X.Y.; Hu, Y.;

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for mesodermal differentiation during development. The zinc-finger transcription factor, Snail1, can trigger EMT and is sufficient to transcriptionally reprogram epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal phenotype during neoplasia and fibrosis. Whet...

  9. Preparation and evaluation of appertized from snail Helix aspersa M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Loyola López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study includes the development and evaluation of snails (Helix aspersa M. appertized, collected at a heliciculture breeding center, located in Los Niches sector, Curico, Maule region, South-central of Chile. The test was conducted at the Laboratory of Sciences of the Catholic University of Maule, Nuestra Señora del Carmen Campus, Curico. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of appertized on sensory attributes and commercial durability of snail Helix aspersa M. Additionally, some specific objectives were proposed as follow: to provide this mollusc with a commercial alternative for it consume, to evaluate its organoleptic characteristics and guarantee the product from both the microbiological and nutritional points of view. Three media cover were used (T0: water + NaCl 2%; T1: Water + NaCl 2% + citric acid 0.5% + kilol and T2: extra virgin olive oil + spices + tocopherol. The product was assessed at two different times, after 30 and 90 days of storage. Two sensory evaluations were conducted to measure various organoleptic attributes and acceptability of the appertized by 14 trained panelists. Amino acid, vitamins, cholesterol, acidity, heavy metals, phosphorus and organochlorines analysis were performed. The presence of both total and fecal contaminant microorganisms was determined. Attributes such as color, flavor, aroma, texture and overall acceptability were also measured. Preserves made by T0 and T1 treatments were equally accepted by the panelists. However, preserve from treatment T2 was rejected because of the detection in them of a very dark color, odor and mealy texture. Positive results regarding the content of amino acids, vitamin C and low cholesterol, as well as the absence of pathogenic microorganisms were obtained for the three treatments.

  10. Validation of 64Cu-ATSM damaging DNA via high-LET Auger electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive copper (II) (diacetyl-bis N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) isotopes were originally developed for the imaging of hypoxia in tumors. Because the decay of a 64Cu atom is emitting not only positrons but also Auger electrons, this radionuclide has great potential as a theranostic agent. However, the success of 64Cu-ATSM internal radiation therapy would depend on the contribution of Auger electrons to tumor cell killing. Therefore, we designed a cell culture system to define the contributions to cell death from Auger electrons to support or refute our hypothesis that the majority of cell death from 64Cu-ATSM is a result of high-LET Auger electrons and not positrons or other low-LET radiation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) wild type and DNA repair–deficient xrs5 cells were exposed to 64Cu-ATSM during hypoxic conditions. Surviving fractions were compared with those surviving gamma-radiation, low-LET hadron radiation, and high-LET heavy ion exposure. The ratio of the D10 values (doses required to achieve 10% cell survival) between CHO wild type and xrs5 cells suggested that 64Cu-ATSM toxicity is similar to that of high-LET Carbon ion radiation (70 keV/μm). γH2AX foci assays confirmed DNA double-strand breaks and cluster damage by high-LET Auger electrons from 64Cu decay, and complex types of chromosomal aberrations typical of high-LET radiation were observed after 64Cu-ATSM exposure. The majority of cell death was caused by high-LET radiation. This work provides strong evidence that 64Cu-ATSM damages DNA via high-LET Auger electrons, supporting further study and consideration of 64Cu-ATSM as a cancer treatment modality for hypoxic tumors. (author)

  11. The offline software package for analysis of radio emission from air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraenkel, Eric Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In anticipation of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) to be built at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio functionality has been built into the Offline analysis framework. For the purpose of radio-hybrid analysis and to facilitate a standardized treatment of simulation as well as experimental d

  12. Bioaccumulative and conchological assessment of heavy metal transfer in a soil-plant-snail food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nica Dragos V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb can pose serious threats to environmental health because they tend to bioaccumulate in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated under field conditions the transfer of these heavy metals in a soil-plant-snail food chain in Banat area, Romania. The main goal of this paper was to assess the Roman snail (Helix pomatia usefulness in environmental monitoring as bioindicator of heavy metal accumulation. Eight sampling sites, selected by different history of heavy metal (HM exposure, were chosen to be sampled for soil, nettle leaves, and newly matured snails. This study also aimed to identify the putative effects of HM accumulation in the environment on phenotypic variability in selected shell features, which included shell height (SH, relative shell height (RSH, and whorl number (WN. Results Significantly higher amounts of HMs were accumulated in snail hepatopancreas and not in foot. Cu, Zn, and Cd have biomagnified in the snail body, particularly in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, Pb decreased when going up into the food chain. Zn, Cd, and Pb correlated highly with each other at all levels of the investigated food chain. Zn and Pb exhibited an effective soil–plant transfer, whereas in the snail body only foot Cu concentration was correlated with that in soil. There were significant differences among sampling sites for WN, SH, and RSH when compared with reference snails. WN was strongly correlated with Cd and Pb concentrations in nettle leaves but not with Cu and Zn. SH was independent of HM concentrations in soil, snail hepatopancreas, and foot. However, SH correlated negatively with nettle leaves concentrations for each HM except Cu. In contrast, RSH correlated significantly only with Pb concentration in hepatopancreas. Conclusions The snail hepatopancreas accumulates high amounts of HMs, and therefore, this organ can function as a reliable biomarker for tracking HM bioavailability

  13. Variant abiotic factors and the infection of Fasciola gigantica larval stages in vector snail Indoplanorbis exustus

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Singh; Pradeep Kumar; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic environment has numerous physical and chemical parameters that may influence the physiology and maturation rate of parasite found inside the vector snail. It may be possible that abiotic factors (temperature, pH, CO2, O2 and conductivity) and higher population density of snails could promote the transmission of parasite and raise their local abundance. In the present paper, we examined that how these environmental factors affect the transmission of cercaria throughout the year 200...

  14. Venom Variation during Prey Capture by the Cone Snail, Conus textile

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia A Prator; Murayama, Kellee M.; Schulz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the mollusc-hunting cone snail Conus textile during feeding reveal that prey are often stung multiple times in succession. While studies on the venom peptides injected by fish-hunting cone snails have become common, these approaches have not been widely applied to the analysis of the injected venoms from mollusc-hunters. We have successfully obtained multiple injected venom samples from C. textile individuals, allowing us to investigate venom compositional variation during pre...

  15. Consequences of Physical Disturbance by Tadpoles and Snails on Chironomid Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gargi Pal; Gautam Aditya; Niladri Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Indirect interactions among community members impact on organisms. The effects of two snails, banded pond snail, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck), and Red-rimmed melania, Melanoides tuberculata (Müller), and tadpoles of Asian common toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider), on nonbiting midge larvae, Chironomus striatipennis Kieffer, were observed in experimental microcosm. Decrease in tube number and tube length of midge larvae was observed compared to control condition due to introduction...

  16. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    OpenAIRE

    Johel Chaves-Campos; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that ...

  17. The ectopic expression of Snail in MDBK cells does not induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Haraguchi, Misako; Sudo, Akiharu; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in the tumor metastatic cascade, is characterized by the loss of cell-cell junctions and cell polarity, as well as by the acquisition of migratory and invasive properties. However, the precise molecular events that initiate this complex EMT process are poorly understood. Snail expression induces EMT in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line, A431. Snail is a zinc finger transcription factor and triggers EMT by suppressing E-cadherin expression. In the present study, to broaden our knowledge of Snail‑induced EMT, we generated stable Snail transfectants using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Contrary to the MDCK or A431 cells examined in our previous studies, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct maintained an epithelial morphology and showed no sign of reduced cell-cell adhesiveness compared to the control cells. Consistent with these observations, the downregulation of epithelial marker proteins, e.g. E-cadherin and desmoglein, and the upregulation of mesenchymal marker proteins, e.g., N-cadherin and fibronectin, were not detected. Furthermore, the E-cadherin promoter was not methylated. Therefore, in the MDBK cells, the ectopic expression of Snail failed to induce EMT. As previously demonstrated, in MDCK cells, Snail expression is accompanied by the increased expression of other EMT-inducing transcription factors, e.g., Slug and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1). However, the MDBK cells transfected with the Snail construct did not exhibit an increased expression of these factors. Thus, it is possible that the failure to upregulate other EMT-related transcription factors may explain the lack of Snail-mediated induction of EMT in MDBK cells.

  18. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  19. Data Acquisition, Triggering, and Filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, J L

    2012-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 10^17 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  20. Effects of the atomic level shift in the Auger neutralization rates of noble metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, R.C., E-mail: r.c.monreal@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Centre (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Goebl, D.; Primetzhofer, D.; Bauer, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom-und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    In this work we compare characteristics of Auger neutralization of He{sup +} ions at noble metal and free-electron metal surfaces. For noble metals, we find that the position of the energy level of He with respect to the Fermi level has a non-negligible influence on the values of the calculated Auger rates through the evaluation of the surface dielectric susceptibility. We conclude that even though our calculated rates are accurate, further theoretical effort is needed to obtain realistic values of the energy level of He in front of these surfaces.

  1. Radiotoxicity induced by auger electron emitters in human osteosarcoma cell line using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) was used to evaluate the radiotoxicity of Auger electron emitters in the human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). After internal exposure to 67Ga-EDTMP, the sarcoma cell has been injured severely. The comet length was longer along with the increase of dose, the appearance of comet tail was different from that with respect to the 60Co γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage of cell was mainly due to the radiation effect of Auger electrons. The 67Ga may be a therapeutic radionuclide with good prospect for tumor treatment and palliation of bone pain induced by metastasis

  2. Étude par spectrométrie auger d'alliages aluminium-cuivre liquides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laty, P.; Joud, J. C.; Desré, P.

    1981-03-01

    Surface analysis of liquid aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys have been performed by Auger electron spectroscopy at 775°C. Experiments were carried out, in UHV chamber, on liquid droplets located in graphite crucible heated by a heat pipe. Pure aluminium has been studied in view to estimate surface contamination. For each Al-Cu alloy surface composition is calculated from the Auger spectra. Peak to peak height ratios are deduced from limited extrapolation t zero level contamination. The deduced Al enrichment of the surface is compared with thermodynamical computation based on statistical model or Gibbs' adsorption relation.

  3. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, Alexander; Abreu, Pedro; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For ...

  4. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  5. Photoelectron recapture and reemission process associated with double Auger decay in Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Mashiko, R.; Odagiri, T.; Adachi, J.; Tanaka, H.; Kosuge, T.; Ito, K.

    2016-06-01

    Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy has been performed for Ar at a photon energy of only 0.2 eV above the 2 p1 /2 threshold. It is revealed that a postcollision interaction induced by double Auger decay leads to photoelectron recapture, followed by reemission of the captured electron, where the recapture of the slow photoelectron forms the A r2 + Rydberg-excited states which subsequently undergo autoionization. The energy correlation of the emitted electrons discloses that both direct and cascade paths in the double Auger decay contribute to the photoelectron recapture.

  6. Communication: Formation of slow electrons in the Auger decay of core-ionized water molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakano, M.; Odagiri, T.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I. H.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Ito, K.

    2012-11-01

    Double Auger decay of O1s-1 and its satellite states in H2O has been studied with a multi-electron coincidence method, and a process leading to autoionizing O* fragments has been revealed. The breaking of the two O-H bonds producing the autoionizing O* fragments occurs for highly excited H2O2+ populated by the initial Auger decay. The O* fragments are more favorably produced in the decay from the satellite states, resulting from the larger population of highly excited H2O2+ states inheriting the valence excitation in the initial state.

  7. Angle-Resolved Auger Spectroscopy as a Sensitive Access to Vibronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, A.; Patanen, M.; Hans, A.; Petrov, I. D.; Bozek, J. D.; Ehresmann, A.; Demekhin, Ph. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the angle-averaged excitation and decay spectra of molecules, vibronic coupling may induce the usually weak dipole-forbidden transitions by the excitation intensity borrowing mechanism. The present complementary theoretical and experimental study of the resonant Auger decay of core-to-Rydberg excited CH4 and Ne demonstrates that vibronic coupling plays a decisive role in the formation of the angle-resolved spectra by additionally involving the decay rate borrowing mechanism. Thereby, we propose that the angle-resolved Auger spectroscopy can in general provide very insightful information on the strength of the vibronic coupling.

  8. Investigation of low-Z Coster-Kronig transitions by means of Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental intensity ratios of Auger transitions for Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn as well as the relative L sub 2 and L sub 3 level widths of Cu and Zn, derived from their photoelectron spectra, are presented. Evidence is presented that a great deal of vacancy reorganization took place following photoionization and prior to Auger emission. These reorganizations are assumed to be due to Coster-Kronig transitions f sub 23. These results are compared with theoretical calculations and agree with predicted discontinuity at Z = 30 where f sub 23 transitions become energetically impossible.

  9. Polycomb complex 2 is required for E-cadherin repression by the Snail1 transcription factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Nicolás; Pasini, Diego; Díaz, Víctor M;

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional factor Snail1 is a repressor of E-cadherin gene (CDH1) expression essential for triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snail1 represses CDH1 directly binding its promoter and inducing the synthesis of Zeb1 repressor. In this article we show that repression of CDH1...... by Snail1, but not by Zeb1, is dependent on the activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). ES cells null for Suz12, one of the components of PRC2, show higher levels of Cdh1 mRNA than control ES cells. In tumour cells, interference of PRC2 activity prevents the ability of Snail1 to down......-regulate CDH1 and partially de-represses CDH1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that Snail1 increases the binding of Suz12 to CDH1 promoter and the tri-methylation of lysine 27 in the histone 3. Moreover, Snail1 interacts with Suz12 and Ezh2 as shown by coimmunoprecipitation experiments...

  10. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Seppälä

    Full Text Available Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability. We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  11. Differences in predatory pressure on terrestrial snails by birds and mammals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zuzanna M Rosin; Paulina Olborska; Adrian Surmacki; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2011-09-01

    The evolution of shell polymorphism in terrestrial snails is a classic textbook example of the effect of natural selection in which avian and mammalian predation represents an important selective force on gene frequency. However, many questions about predation remain unclear, especially in the case of mammals. We collected 2000 specimens from eight terrestrial gastropod species to investigate the predation pressure exerted by birds and mice on snails. We found evidence of avian and mammalian predation in 26.5% and 36.8% of the shells. Both birds and mammals were selective with respect to snail species, size and morphs. Birds preferred the brown-lipped banded snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) and mice preferred the burgundy snail Helix pomatia L. Mice avoided pink mid-banded C. nemoralis and preferred brown mid-banded morphs, which were neglected by birds. In contrast to mice, birds chose larger individuals. Significant differences in their predatory pressure can influence the evolution and maintenance of shell size and polymorphism of shell colouration in snails.

  12. How terrestrial snails can be used in risk assessment of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vaufleury, Annette; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Pandard, Pascal; Scheifler, Renaud; Lovy, Christiane; Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2006-03-01

    Among soil invertebrates, terrestrial snails are herbivorous and detritivorous organisms exposed to polluted soils by both digestive and cutaneous routes. Using laboratory-reared snails (Helix aspersa aspersa), we describe how the effects of contaminants on survival and growth of snails can be evaluated in laboratory bioassays. A national ring test was performed to assess the effect of Cd added to the soil or to the food. The ecotoxicity of sewage sludge also was evaluated. The present results demonstrate that toxicity depends on both the pollutants and the exposure route. Cadmium was sixfold more toxic for snails exposed via food contamination (median effective concentration [EC50], 68-139 microg/g) than via soil contamination (EC50, 534-877 microg/g), whereas the opposite occurred with the sewage sludge (EC50, 55% of sludge in the food and 10% of waste in the soil). A logistic relationship linked growth inhibition and internal Cd concentrations, which can reach 2,000 microg/g in the viscera of snails exposed to 626 microg/g in the food. No clear trend was found between Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, and Ni concentrations in the sludge and in snail tissues. These data enabled the development of an international standard, which should enhance the use of terrestrial gastropods for both fundamental research and routine risk assessment in the terrestrial environment.

  13. Biochemical responses to the toxicity of the biocide abamectin on the freshwater snail Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Zhou, Chune; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-03-01

    The toxic effects of abamectin (ABM), an anthelmintic drug, on the snail, Physa Acuta, and the biochemical responses to the exposure stress were evaluated. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in snail soft tissues (head, foot, visceral mass, and the mantle) for up to 96h of exposure to 3.4, 9.6, 19.2, or 27.4μgL(-1) of ABM. The results showed that SOD and GST activities were promoted by ABM-exposure at the earlier periods of treatment (12-48h) while these activites were inhibited at the end of test. The tendency of CAT activity was similar to that of SOD, but it increased at the end of test. MDA levels of the snail soft tissues increased in all treatment groups, including the recovery group, indicating that lipid peroxidation occurred in snail soft tissues. ABM-exposure inhibited AChE activity. However, NOS activities increased by ABM-exposure. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes and AChE from the snail soft tissues resumed the normal levels after 96h of recovery period, but MDA level did not attain the original level. This study provides information on the biochemical mechanism of ABM toxicity on the snail.

  14. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  15. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  16. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  17. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Otto; Karvonen, Anssi; Kuosa, Marja; Haataja, Maarit; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size) by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability). We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability. PMID:24205383

  18. Foraging and refuge use by a pond snail: Effects of physiological state, predators, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdak, Jeremy M.

    2009-09-01

    The costs and benefits of anti-predator behavioral responses should be functions of the actual risk of predation, the availability of the prey's resources, and the physiological state of the prey. For example, a food-stressed individual risks starvation when hiding from predators, while a well-fed organism can better afford to hide (and pay the cost of not foraging). Similarly, the benefits of resource acquisition are probably highest for the prey in the poorest state, while there may be diminishing returns for prey nearing satiation. Empirical studies of state-dependent behavior are only beginning, however, and few studies have investigated interactions between all three potentially important factors. Here I present the results of a laboratory experiment where I manipulated the physiological state of pond snails ( Physa gyrina), the abundance of algal resources, and predation cues ( Belostoma flumineum waterbugs consuming snails) in a full factorial design to assess their direct effects on snail behavior and indirect effects on algal biomass. On average, snails foraged more when resources were abundant, and when predators were absent. Snails also foraged more when previously exposed to physiological stress. Snails spent more time at the water's surface (a refuging behavior) in the presence of predation cues on average, but predation, resource levels, and prey state had interactive effects on refuge use. There was a consistent positive trait-mediated indirect effect of predators on algal biomass, across all resource levels and prey states.

  19. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  20. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  1. Fluorescence and Auger Decay Properties of the Core-Excited F-Like Ions from Ne to Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-Li; DONG Chen-Zhong; SU Mao-Gen; KOIKE Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10Auger transition rates, radiative, Auger and natural widths, as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented. It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z; the Auger rate is overtaken at Z = 30 by the radiative decay rate. Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.%Ve systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10≤Z≤36 based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method.The Breit interaction,the QED corrections and the nuclear finite mass effects are also considered as perturbation.Auger transition rates,radiative,Auger and natural widths,as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented.It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z;the Auger rate is overtaken at Z =30 by the radiative decay rate.Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.

  2. Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benliang Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

  3. Age-dependent susceptibilities of Bulinus truncatus snails to an aqueous extract of Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. (Asteraceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elnour A; Bushara, Hamid O; Ali, Faisal S; Hussein, Mansour F

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the potential use of the herb Pulicaria crispa in the biological control of different developmental stages of Bulinus truncatus, a major snail intermediate host of urinary schistosomiasis. Age-dependent susceptibilities of mature adult snails, immature snails, juveniles, and one-day old egg masses to aqueous extracts of Pulicaria crispa leaves collected from Khartoum (Sudan) and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) was determined and compared. The results show the juvenile snails are the most susceptible, followed in descending order by one-day old egg masses, immature snails, and mature adult snails. The P. crispa sample collected from Riyadh was significantly more potent against B. truncatus than that collected from Khartoum, as indicated by the least (LC50) and (LC90) values for all B. truncatus ages.

  4. [Effects of heavy metals on snail development. Use of snails as bio-indicators of heavy metal pollution for the preservation of human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomot, A

    1997-01-01

    The use of snails as biological indicators is particularly appropriate for metals, which they accumulate in their organs. The aim of the present experiment was to carry out a rigorous experimentation in the laboratory and in the wild in order to develop a methodology for the use of snails at a known stage of growth that would give precise information on the toxicity of heavy metals for different concentrations and durations of exposure. We have developed a test of toxicity based on the effects of a noxious and carcinogenic element, cadmium, on the land-snail Helix aspersa aspersa (H.a.a) of one month of age. Five concentrations (50 to 800 micrograms/g), were selected to estimate the concentrations causing 50% inhibition of growth (EC 50) at 14 days: 190 micrograms/g and at 28 days: 180 micrograms/g. A soil matrix contaminated with metals (soil including 800 micrograms/g Cr, 20 micrograms/g Cd, 800 micrograms/g Pb and 2000 micrograms/g Zn) was incorporated into the food at 50 and 75%, it too inhibited the growth of juvenile snails compared to incorporation of control soil. An accurate and rapid (2 to 4 weeks) method is therefore available for the evaluation of the toxicity of pollutants by ingestion. The first trials of this method in the wild consisted of placing batches of 2-month-old snails, identical to those used in the first lab tests, in locations that were either polluted or not. Differences in growth were observed depending on the locations; analysis of the levels of metal in the organs of the snails should enable us to check if there is a correlation between these levels and the growth rates. The results obtained with cadmium compared to those of other authors working with earthworms and soil arthropods show that snails give responses to concentrations comparable to those of earthworms and much more rapidly and with more sensitivity than those of collembolla for example. The ease of handling snails and the perfect control of their breeding are essential

  5. Study of the Pierre Auger Observatory ground detectors: tests, simulation and calibration; Etude des detecteurs de surface de l'observatoire Pierre Auger: tests, simulation et etalonnage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, A

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is intended to the ultra high energy cosmic rays study. This study is realized through the particles showers coming from the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. The ground detection of these showers requires a comprehensive understanding of the detectors. Several test tanks have been elaborated for this purpose, especially the Orsay one. The first chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the cosmic rays and of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The second one describes the detectors used for the Observatory surface array. The Orsay test tank is then presented and detailed. We study the results we have got with the Orsay test tank in the fourth chapter and compare these results with those of the Observatory detectors in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the validation of the results set through the simulation (GEANT4 software). Finally, the first detected particles showers are presented in the seventh chapter. The data acquisition has begun this year. The construction will be finished by end of 2005. From this moment, The Pierre Auger Observatory will allow us to contribute to solving the cosmic rays puzzle. (author)

  6. Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Nils; Kestrup, A; Mårtensson, M.; Nyström, Per

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice and other aquatic vegetation in the region. 2. Snail avoidance reactions to released predator chemical cues were investigated in aquaria wh...

  7. Antigens of Euparipha pisana (snail). I. Identification of allergens by means of in vivo and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, S; Cocchiara, R; Locorotondo, G; Parlato, A; Lampiasi, N; Albeggiani, G; Falagiani, P; Geraci, D

    1988-01-01

    The data obtained in this study suggest that eating Euparipha pisana (snail), a common food in Mediterranean countries, could give serious allergic reaction such as asthma. We describe here the identification and partial characterization of allergenic molecules form this new source. An aqueous extract of snail was obtained by homogenization in distilled water, centrifugation, dialysis and defatting with ethyl ether. Skin prick test (SPT) performed with the snail extract on 70 subjects allergic to the more common allergens of the Mediterranean area gave a SPT positivity in 61% of the subjects tested, with a mean value of histamine-equivalent prick (HEP) equal to 0.81 +/- 0.25 (n = 43), while no SPT-snail-positive reactions were obtained by using the same extract on 30 not allergic subjects. To ascertain if such a sensitivity was IgE-mediated, sera from SPT-snail-positive subjects were analyzed by RAST, coupling the snail extract to polystyrene balls and to paper discs. 19% of the sera tested were RAST-positive, mean value of binding 4.8 +/- 2.8% (n = 13), while when using sera from SPT-snail-negative subjects, the RAST mean value was 0.49 +/- 0.18% (n = 27). Histamine release (HR) was also performed. Basophils prepared from SPT-snail-positive subjects were incubated with a snail extract. All of the SPT-snail-positive subjects gave a significant value of HR, mean value 21.8 +/- 7% using 1 micrograms of snail extract (n = 16), while 1.41 +/- 1.1% (n = 10) was the mean value obtained when SPT-snail-negative subjects were analyzed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. In vitro PHYTOTHERAPY OF VECTOR SNAILS BY BINARY COMBINATIONS OF LARVICIDAL ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF FASCIOLIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari Sunita; Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; Dinesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A food-borne trematode infection fascioliasis is one among common public health problems worldwide. It caused a great economic loss for the human race. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. The life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria inside of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. In vitro toxicity of different binary com...

  9. Release of lungworm larvae from snails in the environment: potential for alternative transmission pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Giannelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host.Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior. Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior.Results of this study

  10. Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Na Ri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. Methods We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Results Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (≥75% positive nuclear staining was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P P = 0.002, lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002, and perineural invasion (P = 0.002 in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P = 0.023. cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Conclusion Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs.

  11. Overexpression of Snail is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tumor progression and invasion. Snail is a known regulator of EMT in various malignant tumors. This study investigated the role of Snail in gastric cancer. We examined the effects of silenced or overexpressed Snail using lenti-viral constructs in gastric cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from 314 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) was used to determine Snail’s clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Differential gene expression in 45 GC specimens with Snail overexpression was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis. Silencing of Snail by shRNA decreased invasion and migration in GC cell lines. Conversely, Snail overexpression increased invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells, in line with increased VEGF and MMP11. Snail overexpression (≥75% positive nuclear staining) was also significantly associated with tumor progression (P < 0.001), lymph node metastases (P = 0.002), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002), and perineural invasion (P = 0.002) in the 314 GC patients, and with shorter survival (P = 0.023). cDNA microarray analysis revealed 213 differentially expressed genes in GC tissues with Snail overexpression, including genes related to metastasis and invasion. Snail significantly affects invasiveness/migratory ability of GCs, and may also be used as a predictive biomarker for prognosis or aggressiveness of GCs

  12. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  13. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km$^2$. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the under-ground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 10$^{17}$ eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60$^{\\circ}$ zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62$^{\\circ}$ to 80$^{\\circ}$ will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km$^2$ for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determi...

  14. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil. PMID:27047705

  15. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO §...

  16. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA §...

  18. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON §...

  19. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH...

  1. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA §...

  4. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE...

  5. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Obseervatory - the birth of the hybrid era

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, A A

    2008-01-01

    Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. In particular there is a detailed discussion of of the cosmic ray energy spectrum from 0.3 EeV to 100 EeV and of the mass composition above 1 EeV.

  8. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  9. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos

  10. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weinidl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines th

  11. Surface sensitivity effects with local probe scanning Auger-scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Agterveld, DTL; Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM; Bentley, J; Allen, C; Dahmen, U; Petrov,

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-high-vacuum segregation studies on in-situ fractured Cu-Sb alloys were performed in terms of nanometer scale scanning Auger/Electron microscopy. S contamination leads to the formation Of Cu2S precipitates which, upon removal due to fracture, expose pits with morphology that depends on the prec

  12. Auger electron spectroscopic study of CO{sub 2} adsorption on Zircaloy-4 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojilovic, N.; Farkas, N. [Institute for Teaching and Learning and Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-6236 (United States); Ramsier, R.D. [Institute for Teaching and Learning and Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-6236 (United States)], E-mail: rex@uakron.edu

    2008-02-28

    We investigate the adsorption of CO{sub 2} onto Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) surfaces at 150, 300 and 600 K using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Following CO{sub 2} adsorption at 150 K the graphitic form of carbon is detected, whereas upon chemisorption at 300 and 600 K we detect the carbidic phase. As the adsorption temperature is increased, the carbon Auger signal increases, whereas the oxygen signal decreases. Adsorption at all three temperatures results in a shift of the Zr Auger features, indicating surface oxidation. The effect of adsorbed CO{sub 2} on the Zr(MVV) and Zr(MNV) transitions depends on adsorption temperature and is less pronounced at higher temperatures. On the other hand, changes in the Zr(MNN) feature are similar for all three adsorption temperatures. The changes in the Zr Auger peak shapes and positions are attributed to oxygen from dissociated CO{sub 2}, with the differences observed at various temperatures indicative of the diffusion of oxygen into the subsurface region.

  13. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  14. Relationship between chromatin structure and sensitivity to molecularly targeted auger electron radiation therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry, S.Y.A.; Vallis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Chromatin structure was alte

  15. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the correlations of ultra-high energy cosmic ray directions with extra-Galactic objects, of general anisotropy, of photons and neutrinos, and of other astrophysical effects, with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  16. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertania, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2014-01-01

    Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (X-max), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the d

  17. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory : Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Vitale, P. F. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masias; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is pos

  18. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade mode

  19. Application of Auger electron spectroscopy in studies about diffusion of Cu in thin Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion coefficient of Cu in thin Ni films (350A) at low temperatures is determined by using Auger electron spectroscopy and timepermeation technic. A grain-boundary mechanism is proposed for the diffusion of Cu in Ni. The activation energy is determined to Q=0,6eV. (Author)

  20. Are Cosmic Rays still a valuable probe of Lorentz Invariance Violations in the Auger era?

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto; di Matteo, Armando; Ghia, Piera L; Grillo, Aurelio F; Petrera, Sergio; Salamida, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic Invariance might be modified by Quantum Gravity effects. The interesting point which emerged in the last fifteen years is that remnants of possible Lorentz Invariance Violations could be present at energies much lower than their natural scale, and possibly affect Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays phenomena. We discuss their status in the view of recent data from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  2. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Coopers, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Diaz; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parr, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors a

  3. Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum using hybrid events of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, Mariangela; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, IFM; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L.; Andring, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A.M.; Barber, K.B.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Bauml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker, K.H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J.A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P.L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blumer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boroda, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W.C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R.E.; Cabellero-Mora, K.S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S.H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J.A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R.W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M.R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M.J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C.E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B.R.; de Almeida, R.M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S.J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W.J.M.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M.L.; Diep, P.N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Dong, PN; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, JC; Dova, M.T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A.C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A.P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Filevich, A.; Filevich, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C.E.; Fraenkel, E.D.; Fratu, O.; Frohlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R.F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S.T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P.L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M.S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P.F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A.F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G.P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T.A.; Harton, J.L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A.E.; Hill, G.C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V.C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J.R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K.H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R.M.; Klages, H.O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kromer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J.K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M.C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A.G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I.C.; Marquez Falcon, H.R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, [No Value; Mathes, H.J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P.O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M.I.; Minaya, I.A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J.C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C.A.; Muller, M.A.; Muller, G.; Munchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J.L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P.T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I.M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A.C.; Ruhle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C.E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E.M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S.J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R.C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H.H.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G.R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A.D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M.S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N.T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C.J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D.B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A.M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, JR; Vazquez, R.A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A.A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B.J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above 10(18)eV is measured using the hybrid events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory between November 2005 and September 2010. The large exposure of the Observatory allows the measurement of the main features of the energy spectrum with hi

  4. Towards a lateral distribution function reconstruction of radio measurements in offline with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray induced air showers radiate appreciable power at radio frequencies via the geosynchrotron process. The Pierre Auger Observatory is constructing radio detection technique on large scales, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). For this purpose the Auger software-framework called offline, is being enhanced to analyze and reconstruct radio data. Our target is to reconstruct the intensity of the measured radio emission versus the distance from the shower-axis, representing the lateral distribution, which needs to be reconstructed from the Auger-data collected at one of the test sites for radio detection, located in the western part of the observatory near the surface detector tank Olaia, where three poles forming an equilateral triangle with a baseline of 100 m constitutes our setup of dual-polarized log-periodic dipole antennas. Our analysis focuses on a comparison of different functional dependencies for the LDF, such as exponential and polynomial one. The final aim is to have an independent energy estimation, direction reconstruction and, if possible, composition of the primary particle which induced the shower, to compare and integrate with the surface and fluorescence detector reconstructions.

  5. Postcollision interactions in the Auger decay of the Ar L-shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.A.R.; Stolte, W.C.; He, Z.X. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The photoionization cross sections for Ar{sup +} through Ar{sup 4+}, produced by the Auger decay of an inner shell 2p hole, have been measured between 242 eV and 253 eV on beamline 9.0.1 and 6.3.2. In this study the authors are interested in near threshold phenomenon involving postcollision interactions (PCI), which are related to the Auger decay of a vacancy in the Ar L-shell. During an Auger decay a postcollision interaction can occur causing the out-going photoelectron to be retarded thus losing a certain amount of energy. If the retardation is sufficiently large the photoelectron will not escape. This result produces a singly charged ion, which normally would not be present. Such evidence of electron capture by the PCI effect was first shown clearly by Eberhardt et al. and, with higher resolution, in the present work. However, capture of the photoelectron is expected to be 100% exactly at the L{sub 2,3} thresholds. Thus, from the authors results they would have expected the Ar{sup 2+} signal to be zero at threshold, but it was not? The authors can explain this anomoly on the basis that during the Auger decay the photoelectrons are captured into high lying excited states of Ar{sup +}, which subsequently decay through autoionization yielding Ar{sup 2+}. Future work in this area will seek experimental evidence to verify this prediction.

  6. Calculations of physical and chemical reactions with DNA in aqueous solution from Auger cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo calculations are performed of the physical and chemical interactions in liquid water by electrons produced during Auger cascades resulting from the decay of various radionuclides. Estimates are also made of the number of direct physical and indirect chemical interactions that would be produced on DNA located near the decay site. 13 refs., 8 figs

  7. Can we reconcile the TA excess and hotspot with Auger observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Globus, Noemie; Parizot, Etienne; Lachaud, Cyril; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) shows a 20$^{\\circ}$ hotspot as well as an excess of UHECRs above 50 EeV when compared with the Auger spectrum. We consider the possibility that both the TA excess and hotspot are due to a dominant source in the Northern sky. We carry out detailed simulations of UHECR propagation in both the intergalactic medium and the Galaxy, using different values for the intergalactic magnetic field. We consider two general classes of sources: transients and steady, adopting a mixed UHECR composition that is consistent with the one found by Auger. The spatial location of the sources is draw randomly. We generate Auger-like and TA-like data sets from which we determine the spectrum, the sky maps and the level of anisotropy. We find that, while steady sources are favoured over transients, the probability to account for all the currently available observational data is very low ($\\sim 0.1\\%$). While we reproduce fairly well the Auger spectrum for the vast majority of the simulated data sets, most of ...

  8. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  9. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions

  10. Thermal tolerance and climate warming sensitivity in tropical snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rezende, Enrico L; Baharuddin, Nursalwa; Choi, Francis; Helmuth, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to climate change because their thermal tolerance limits generally lie close to current maximum air temperatures. This prediction derives primarily from studies on insects and lizards and remains untested for other taxa with contrasting ecologies. We studied the HCT (heat coma temperatures) and ULT (upper lethal temperatures) of 40 species of tropical eulittoral snails (Littorinidae and Neritidae) inhabiting exposed rocky shores and shaded mangrove forests in Oceania, Africa, Asia and North America. We also estimated extremes in animal body temperature at each site using a simple heat budget model and historical (20 years) air temperature and solar radiation data. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that HCT and ULT exhibit limited adaptive variation across habitats (mangroves vs. rocky shores) or geographic locations despite their contrasting thermal regimes. Instead, the elevated heat tolerance of these species (HCT = 44.5 ± 1.8°C and ULT = 52.1 ± 2.2°C) seems to reflect the extreme temperature variability of intertidal systems. Sensitivity to climate warming, which was quantified as the difference between HCT or ULT and maximum body temperature, differed greatly between snails from sunny (rocky shore; Thermal Safety Margin, TSM = -14.8 ± 3.3°C and -6.2 ± 4.4°C for HCT and ULT, respectively) and shaded (mangrove) habitats (TSM = 5.1 ± 3.6°C and 12.5 ± 3.6°C). Negative TSMs in rocky shore animals suggest that mortality is likely ameliorated during extreme climatic events by behavioral thermoregulation. Given the low variability in heat tolerance across species, habitat and geographic location account for most of the variation in TSM and may adequately predict the vulnerability to climate change. These findings caution against generalizations on the impact of global warming across ectothermic taxa and highlight how the consideration of nonmodel animals, ecological transitions

  11. Lead reduces shell mass in juvenile garden snails (Helix aspersa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high Pb diet causes differential depression of juvenile shell mass in populations of Helix. - In an earlier paper examining inherited tolerance to Pb, the shell growth of laboratory-bred offspring of Helix aspersa from contaminated sites was compared with that of juveniles from naieve populations on dosed and undosed diets. Eight-week-old snails were fed either 500 μg g-1 Pb or a control food in competitive trials between two populations. In the first series of trials, a parental history of exposure to Pb did not confer any advantage to either of two populations (BI and MI) competing with a naieve population (LE), whether Pb was present in the diet or not. However, in the analysis of their metal concentrations reported here, LE are found to retain higher levels of Pb in the soft tissues than either BI or MI. Compared to their siblings on the unleaded diet, dosed LE and BI juveniles had lower soft tissue concentrations of Ca and Mg. Although the growth in shell height is unaffected by diet, LE and BI juveniles build lighter shells on the Pb-dosed diet, achieving around 75% of the shell mass of their controls. In contrast, the shell weights of dosed MI juveniles are depressed by only 15% and show no change in the essential metal concentrations of their soft tissues. A second experiment using five populations fed only the dosed food show that the shell weight/soft tissue weight ratios are comparable to the dosed snails of the previous experiment. Building a lighter shell thus appears to be the common response of all Helix populations to a high Pb diet, at least amongst juveniles. The reduction in its mass means that less Ca and Mg is added to the shell and, along with the lowered soft tissue concentrations observed in some populations, may be a consequence of an increased effort to excrete Pb. The possibility that the MI population shows a genotypic adaptation, perhaps as some form of modification of its Ca metabolism, is briefly discussed

  12. Multiplet-Splitting of the Quasi-Atomic-Like Core-Valence-Valence Auger Spectra of Zinc Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-Min

    2001-01-01

    Multiplet-splitting of the quasi-atomic-like core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger spectra of zinc metal is calculated by explicitly considering the so-called hole-hole interaction in the final valence states of the Auger transition. We assume that before the Auger transition occurs, the occupied valence states relax to screen the core-hole which results in a redistribution of the valence electrons, in particular within the atom that contains a hole in the core. The supercell method is used to calculate the electronic states concerned by the Auger transition, which is accomplished by the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. In each supercell, one atom is considered to have a core-hole and many others without it. Due to relaxation and screening, the valence states at the site of the Auger transition are more localized compared with those in the ground-state metal. The multiplet peaks of the quasi-atomic-like CVV Auger spectra of zinc metal are obtained by calculating the Auger transition matrix elements between the referred states.

  13. Influence of water quality on zinc toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and sensitivity of freshwater snails to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Tong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The present study characterized the influence of water-quality characteristics on zinc (Zn) toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and the sensitivity of freshwater snails to Zn. Standard 96-h renewal acute toxicity tests were conducted with Zn and juvenile P. paludosa under 3 conditions of pH and alkalinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Median lethal effect concentrations (96-h LC50s), no-observed- effect concentrations, lowest-observed-effect concentrations, LC10s, and LC20s were determined for each test. The results showed that Zn toxicity to P. paludosa decreased linearly with increasing hardness, pH, and DOC. A multiple linear regression model based on pH, hardness, and DOC was able to explain 99% of the observed variability in LC50s. These results are useful for the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for P. paludosa and Zn. Zinc acute toxicity data were collected from the literature for 12 freshwater snail species in a wide range of water-quality characteristics for species sensitivity distribution analysis. The results showed that P. paludosa is the second most sensitive to Zn. The present study also suggested that aqueous ZnCO3 and ZnHCO3 (-) can be bioavailable to P. paludosa. Therefore, bioavailability models (e.g., BLM) should take these Zn species into consideration for bioavailability when applied to snails.

  14. Fragmentation of CF3Br induced by fluroine is core excitation: Energy resolved auger electron multiple-ion coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation processes in CF3Br near the F K edge were investigated using synchrotron radiation and Energy Resolved Auger Electron Multiple Ion Coincidence (ERAEMICO). Time-of flight mass spectra were collected in coincidence with either selected F 1s Auger or resonant-Auger electrons which were energy analyzed with a hemispherical detector. In addition, a more inclusive mass spectrum was taken near the F 1s ionization potential in coincidence with low energy electrons. Preliminary spectra the Br2+ ion intensity is negligible and the relative CF+ abundance is higher. These differences confirm the notion that the electronic state prior to bond breakage governs the resulting fragmentation pattern

  15. Doppler effect in fluorine K-Auger line produced in electron-induced core ionization of SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S; Singh, R K; Shanker, R

    2006-01-21

    An experimental evidence is reported on the observation of the Doppler effect in fluorine K-Auger line emitted from a core-ionized SF6 molecule under an impact of 16 keV electrons. The emitting source of the Auger line is found to acquire a kinetic energy of 4.7+/-0.3 keV. We propose that such large energy is released from the Coulomb repulsion taking place between F+ and SF5+ fragment ions under influence of an intense focusing field of the incident electrons. In the presence of the Coulomb field of these ions, the Auger line obtains a polarization P = 76%+/-7%.

  16. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Iowa pleistocene snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T K

    1999-09-01

    The Iowa Pleistocene snail, Discus macclintocki, is an endangered species that survives only in relictual populations on algific (cold-air) talus slopes in northeast Iowa and northwest Illinois in the central region of the USA. These populations are believed to have been isolated since the temperatures began to warm at the end of the last glacial period around 16 500 years ago. DNA sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene of the mitochondria was used to determine the genetic relationship among 10 populations and the genetic diversity within these populations. Genetic diversity is extremely high within this species with 40 haplotypes spread across the 10 populations sampled within a 4000 km2 region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that haplotypes formed monophyletic groups by the watershed on which they were found, suggesting that watersheds were important historical avenues of gene flow. Genetic distances were strongly related to the geographical distance among all populations, but this relationship was dependent on the scale being considered. PMID:10564443

  17. Toxicity of Metals to a Freshwater Snail, Melanoides tuberculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult freshwater snails Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropod, Thiaridae were exposed for a four-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe, aluminium (Al, and manganese (Mn concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT50 and concentrations (LC50 were calculated. LT50 and LC50 increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. The LC50 values for the 96-hour exposures to Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Al, and Mn were 0.14, 1.49, 3.90, 6.82, 8.46, 8.49, 68.23, and 45.59 mg L−1, respectively. Cu was the most toxic metal to M. tuberculata, followed by Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al (Cu > Cd > Zn > Pb > Ni > Fe > Mn > Al. Metals bioconcentration in M. tuberculata increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cu has the highest accumulation (concentration factor in the soft tissues. A comparison of LC50 values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater gastropods reveals that M. tuberculata is equally sensitive to metals.

  18. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows

  19. Ecotoxicological effect of sublethal exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Bakry, Fayez A; Sayed, Dawlat A

    2014-08-01

    Freshwater snails are used as sensitive biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem pollution. The potential impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on aquatic ecosystems have attracted special attention due to their unique properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms of ecotoxicological effects of ZnONPs on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. ZnONPs showed molluscicidal activity against B. alexandrina snails, and the LC50 was 145 μg/ml. Two tested concentrations of ZnONPs were selected: The first concentration was equivalent to LC10 (7 μg/ml), and the second was equivalent to LC25 (35 μg/ml). Exposure to ZnONPs (7 and 35 μg/ml) for three consecutive weeks significantly induced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with concomitant decreases in glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase levels in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. Moreover, ZnONPs elicited a significant decrease in total protein and albumin contents coinciding with enhancement of total lipids and cholesterol levels as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. This study highlights the potential ecological implications of ZnONP release in aquatic environments and may serve to encourage regulatory agencies in Egypt to more carefully monitor and regulate the industrial use and disposal of ZnONPs. PMID:24736985

  20. Genetic Variation between Biomphalaria alexandrina Snails Susceptible and Resistant to Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. F. El-Nassery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to control schistosomiasis infection in Egypt. However, enduring effects from such strategies have not yet been achieved. In this study, we sought to determine the genetic variability related to the interaction between Biomphalaria alexandrina snails and Schistosoma mansoni. Using RAPD-PCR with eight (10 mers random primers, we were able to determine the polymorphic markers that differed between snails susceptible and resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection using five primers out of the eight. Our results suggest that the RAPD-PCR technique is an efficient means by which to compare genomes and to detect genetic variations between schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. The RAPD technique with the above-noted primers can identify genomic markers that are specifically related to the Biomphalaria alexandrina/Schistosoma mansoni relationship in the absence of specific nucleotide sequence information. This approach could be used in epidemiologic surveys to investigate genetic diversity among Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The ability to determine resistant markers in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails could potentially lead to further studies that use refractory snails as agents to control the spread of schistosomiasis.

  1. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sunita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L. Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva.

  2. Diet control on carbon isotopic composition of land snail shell carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZongXiu; GU ZhaoYan; WU NaiQin; XU Bing

    2007-01-01

    Carbon isotope compositions for both the carbonate shells and soft bodies (organic tissue) of living land snails collected mostly from the Loess Plateau, China have been measured. The result shows that δ13C values range from -13.1‰ to -4.3‰ for the aragonite shell samples and from -26.8‰ to -18.0‰ for the soft body samples. Although the shells are enriched in 13C relative to the bodies averagely by 14.2(±0.8)‰, the shell δ13Ca values are closely correlated to the body δ13Corg values, expressed as δ13Ca = 1.021 δ13Corg + 14.38 (R = 0.965; N = 31). This relationship indicates that δ13Ca is primarily a function of the isotopic composition of the snail diets since previous studies have proved that the snail body is the same as their food in carbon isotope composition. In other words, carbon isotope compo-sition of the carbonate shell can be used as a proxy to estimate the dietary 13C abundance of the land snails. The data also support that the 13C enrichment of the carbonate shells results mainly from the equilibrium fractionations between the metabolic CO2, HCO3- in the hemolymph and shell aragonite, and partially from kinetic fractionations when snail shells form during their activity.

  3. Dynamic of population-dynamics in a medically important snail species Lymnaea (Radix Luteola (Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Misra

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available The life-cycle parameters of the snail Lymnaea (Radix luteola and the factors influencing the same have been studied under laboratory conditions. Ins each month, from July 1990 to June 1991, a batch of 100 zero-day old individual were considered for studies. The snails of April batch survived for 19.42 days while those in December batch survived for 87.45 days. The May batch individual though survived for 65.67 days gained maximum shell size (15.84 mm in length and body weight (419.87 mg. All individuals of April batch died prior to attainment of sexual maturity. In the remaining 11 batches the snails became sexually mature between 32 and 53 days. At this stage, they were with varying shell lengths, 9.3 mm to 13,11 mm in respect to batches. The reproduction period varied from 1-67 days. An individual laid, on an average, 0,25 (March batch to 443.67 (May batch eggs in its life-span. A batch of such snails would leave 24312, 22520, 720268, 80408, 76067, 418165, 214, 9202, 0, 0, 2459386 and 127894 individuals at the end of 352nd day. Since the environmental conditions were almost similar the 'dynamic' of population dynamics seems to be involved with the 'strain' of the snail individuals of the batches concerned.

  4. Differential gene expression in haemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata: effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A N; Raghavan, N; FitzGerald, P C; Lewis, F A; Knight, M

    2001-05-15

    Parasite encapsulation and destruction in Biomphalaria glabrata has been shown to involve the cellular component of the snail's internal defence system, the haemocytes. To identify genes involved in the immunobiology of these cells, we used the method of differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) to investigate differential gene regulation in haemocytes isolated from Schistosoma mansoni exposed and unexposed snails. RNA isolated from circulating haemocytes from resistant snails (BS-90 stock), previously exposed to S. mansoni, was analysed using 12 different arbitrary primers in conjunction with an anchored Oligo d(T(11)CG) primer. Transcription profiles between haemocytes of parasite exposed and unexposed snails were compared and a total of 87 differentially regulated bands were identified and isolated. Of these, 65 bands were cloned and used as probes in Southern blots to show the presence of corresponding sequences in the snail genome. RT-PCR was performed to verify the regulation of these transcripts. DNA sequence analysis showed that the majority of the cloned sequences were novel, although a few showed a high degree of sequence similarity to other sequences in the DNA and protein databases. One of these included a differentially expressed transcript that showed a significant degree of sequence identity to E. coli transposase Tn5, an enzyme whose activity is normally associated with generating mobility and instability in the genome. PMID:11336750

  5. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKEN OFFAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR LOCAL FISH MEAL IN GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A OMOLE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of ninety six growing snails of mean weight 91.23±2.4g were used to determine the effects of partial or total replacement of local fish meal, a source of protein but expensive to a less expensive, alternative source, chicken offal in the diet of growing snails. Completely randomized design was used for the study. The feeding trial had four treatments, C1, C2, C3 and C4 in which fish meal fraction of the diets was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with chicken offal respectively. The parameters taken were weight gain, feed intake. Feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain were calculated. The trial lasted for twelve weeks. Significant differences were not observed in the mean weekly feed intake of the snails in all the treatments. The mean weight gain in all the treatments were not significantly influenced by the inclusion of chicken offal in the diet (P>0.005. Total feed cost and cost/weight gain reduced as the level of the chicken offal increased while the lowest cost/weight gain was observed in C4. The inclusion of Chicken offal in all the diets had no detrimental effect on the snails in all the treatments. Based on the present results chicken offal could replace local fish meal in the diet of growing snail up to 100% and hereby reduce feed cost

  6. Do ice nucleating agents limit the supercooling ability of the land snail Cornu aspersum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansart, A; Nicolai, A; Vernon, P; Madec, L

    2010-01-01

    The supercooling ability of adults and eggs of the partially freezing tolerant land snail Cornu aspersum remains limited to high subzero temperatures (ca. -5 degree C) whatever the conditions, suggesting the presence of ice nucleating agents (INAs). In this study, we investigated the nucleation activity of the digestive tract of adult snails, eggs and their direct environment: food, faeces and soil. The mucous ribbon always present in the distal intestine of adults exhibited a heat-sensitive (i.e. organic) nucleation activity, close to that of the entire snails during dormant states (aestivation and hibernation). However, a microbial nature of these INAs could not be established in inactive snails. The food provided to active snails contained ice nucleating bacteria, which followed the digestive tract to be found in the intestine and in the faeces, but with a decreasing concentration along the transit. Eggshells also presented a heat-sensitive nucleation activity, which could be related to its structure. Moreover, eggs are laid directly in the soil which contained both organic and mineral INAs. This study is the first to demonstrate the implication of organic INAs in the cold hardiness of a terrestrial gastropod. PMID:20818461

  7. An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, H; Hung, N M

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive measures to reduce transmission, e.g. control of intermediate hosts because transmission patterns are often complicated due to presence of reservoir final hosts. In order to implement control measures against the intermediate host snails with minimal impact on the freshwater ecosystems and their biodiversity, a profound knowledge on transmission patterns of the trematodes is required and this is partly related to distribution, habitat preferences, and seasonal variation in density of the intermediate host species. Identification of snail species can be problematic on the basis of morphological and anatomical characters alone as some species show morphological plasticity and similarly morphological differentiation of cercariae found in snails may be difficult and this could lead to biased perceptions of intermediate host spectra and transmission patterns. In this paper, we give an overview of the snail families and their medical and veterinary importance in Asia but with main focus on Vietnam. PMID:25149356

  8. Reprint of "An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, H; Hung, N M

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive measures to reduce transmission, e.g. control of intermediate hosts because transmission patterns are often complicated due to presence of reservoir final hosts. In order to implement control measures against the intermediate host snails with minimal impact on the freshwater ecosystems and their biodiversity, a profound knowledge on transmission patterns of the trematodes is required and this is partly related to distribution, habitat preferences, and seasonal variation in density of the intermediate host species. Identification of snail species can be problematic on the basis of morphological and anatomical characters alone as some species show morphological plasticity and similarly morphological differentiation of cercariae found in snails may be difficult and this could lead to biased perceptions of intermediate host spectra and transmission patterns. In this paper, we give an overview of the snail families and their medical and veterinary importance in Asia but with main focus on Vietnam. PMID:25446169

  9. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  10. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  11. Global Assessment of Schistosomiasis Control Over the Past Century Shows Targeting the Snail Intermediate Host Works Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Jones, Isabel J.; Lopez, Melina; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Rickards, Chloe; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during the 20th century, and (ii) schistosomiasis remains endemic, or (iii) schistosomiasis has been "eliminated," or is "no longer endemic," or transmission has been interrupted. Principal Findings Widespread snail control reduced prevalence by 92 ± 5% (N = 19) vs. 37 ± 7% (N = 29) for programs using little or no snail control. In addition, ecological, economic, and political factors contributed to schistosomiasis elimination. For instance, snail control was most common and widespread in wealthier countries and when control began earlier in the 20th century. Conclusions/Significance Snail control has been the most effective way to reduce schistosomiasis prevalence. Despite evidence that snail control leads to long-term disease reduction and elimination, most current schistosomiasis control efforts emphasize MDA using praziquantel over snail control. Combining drug-based control programs with affordable snail control seems the best strategy for eliminating schistosomiasis. PMID:27441556

  12. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Array, The Telescope; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, K; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nanpei, H; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Oh, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z; Aab, A; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2013: cross-calibration of the fluorescence telescopes, large scale anisotropies and mass composition.

  13. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism. PMID:21438646

  14. EFFECTS OF CARBOFURAN ON THE REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF A FRESHWATER SNAIL, RADIX QUADRASI, UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGINIA S. CARING

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 4 sublethal concentrations of carbofuran (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the reproductive capacity of R. quadrasi was determined. Results showed that incubation period is delayed and inhibited by 1000 and 2000 ppm carbofuran but not by lower concentrations. The hatching period is longer in treated snails and not all eggs hatch in the 1000 and 2000 ppm treatment. The percentage of hatching is inversely proportional to the carbofuran concentration. Oviposition was delayed in all the treated stages and at all dosages. The higher the carbofuran concentration, the later the onset of oviposition. The reproductive period is shortened. Fecundity was decreased in snails treated at EMB and SM. However, only the 2000 ppm carbofuran concentration showed an adverse effect on the snails exposure at PSM.

  15. Copper, zinc and lead bioaccumulation in marine snail, Strombus gigas, from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, O; Olivares Reumont, S; Viguri Fuente, J; Díaz Arado, O; López Pino, N; D'Alessandro Rodríguez, K; Arado López, J O; Gelen Rudnikas, A; Arencibia Carballo, G

    2010-09-01

    Levels of copper, zinc and lead were determined in sediments and edible muscle of marine snail Strombus gigas collected from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba. The concentration range of each metal in marine snail muscle on mg kg(-1) wet weight varied as follows: Cu = 6.4-32.6, Zn = 20.4-31.1 and Pb = 0.2-2.3; and in corresponding sediments (on mg kg(-1) dry weight) as: Cu = 157-186, Zn = 56-94 and Pb = 20-37. The average biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) obtained for studied metals are less than unity in all cases, indicating that only a little fraction of metal content in the sediments is bioavailable, independently of their possible enrichments in the sediments. The concentrations of copper and lead in some of the marine snails are above typical public health recommended limits. PMID:20676604

  16. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  17. Reprint of "An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Hung, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive...... measures to reduce transmission, e.g. control of intermediate hosts because transmission patterns are often complicated due to presence of reservoir final hosts. In order to implement control measures against the intermediate host snails with minimal impact on the freshwater ecosystems and their...... biodiversity, a profound knowledge on transmission patterns of the trematodes is required and this is partly related to distribution, habitat preferences, and seasonal variation in density of the intermediate host species. Identification of snail species can be problematic on the basis of morphological and...

  18. Molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide and its intermediate compounds against a freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola, the vector of animal schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sukumaran

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide was evaluated and compared with niclosamide (2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, ethanolamide salt against different stages of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola i.e., eggs, immature, young mature, and adults. Calculated values of lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 showed that both nicotinanilide and niclosamide as toxic against eggs, immature, and adults. The young mature stage of the snails was comparatively more tolerant to both molluscicides than the other stages. The toxicity of the intermediate compounds of nicotinanilide against the young mature stage of the snails showed them as ineffective. The mortality pattern of the snails exposed to LC90 concentration of these molluscicides showed niclosamide to kill faster (within 8 to 9 h than nicotinanilide (26 to 28 h. In view of the above studies it may be concluded that both molluscicides are toxic against all the stages of the L. luteola snails.

  19. Experimental quantification of long distance dispersal potential of aquatic snails in the gut of migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Many plant seeds and invertebrates can survive passage through the digestive system of birds, which may lead to long distance dispersal (endozoochory in case of prolonged retention by moving vectors. Endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds has nowadays been documented for many aquatic plant seeds, algae and dormant life stages of aquatic invertebrates. Anecdotal information indicates that endozoochory is also possible for fully functional, active aquatic organisms, a phenomenon that we here address experimentally using aquatic snails. We fed four species of aquatic snails to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, and monitored snail retrieval and survival over time. One of the snail species tested was found to survive passage through the digestive tract of mallards as fully functional adults. Hydrobia (Peringia ulvae survived up to five hours in the digestive tract. This suggests a maximum potential transport distance of up to 300 km may be possible if these snails are taken by flying birds, although the actual dispersal distance greatly depends on additional factors such as the behavior of the vectors. We put forward that more organisms that acquired traits for survival in stochastic environments such as wetlands, but not specifically adapted for endozoochory, may be sufficiently equipped to successfully pass a bird's digestive system. This may be explained by a digestive trade-off in birds, which maximize their net energy intake rate rather than digestive efficiency, since higher efficiency comes with the cost of prolonged retention times and hence reduces food intake. The resulting lower digestive efficiency allows species like aquatic snails, and potentially other fully functional organisms without obvious dispersal adaptations, to be transported internally. Adopting this view, endozoochorous dispersal may be more common than up to now thought.

  20. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity.

  1. Differential spatial repositioning of activated genes in Biomphalaria glabrata snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arican-Goktas, Halime D; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Bridger, Joanna M; Knight, Matty

    2014-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease infecting mammals as the definitive host and fresh water snails as the intermediate host. Understanding the molecular and biochemical relationship between the causative schistosome parasite and its hosts will be key to understanding and ultimately treating and/or eradicating the disease. There is increasing evidence that pathogens that have co-evolved with their hosts can manipulate their hosts' behaviour at various levels to augment an infection. Bacteria, for example, can induce beneficial chromatin remodelling of the host genome. We have previously shown in vitro that Biomphalaria glabrata embryonic cells co-cultured with schistosome miracidia display genes changing their nuclear location and becoming up-regulated. This also happens in vivo in live intact snails, where early exposure to miracidia also elicits non-random repositioning of genes. We reveal differences in the nuclear repositioning between the response of parasite susceptible snails as compared to resistant snails and with normal or live, attenuated parasites. Interestingly, the stress response gene heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is only repositioned and then up-regulated in susceptible snails with the normal parasite. This movement and change in gene expression seems to be controlled by the parasite. Other differences in the behaviour of genes support the view that some genes are responding to tissue damage, for example the ferritin genes move and are up-regulated whether the snails are either susceptible or resistant and upon exposure to either normal or attenuated parasite. This is the first time host genome reorganisation has been seen in a parasitic host and only the second time for any pathogen. We believe that the parasite elicits a spatio-epigenetic reorganisation of the host genome to induce favourable gene expression for itself and this might represent a fundamental mechanism present in the human host infected with schistosome cercariae as well as in

  2. Second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of Brachylaima cribbi in southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher A.R.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study of infection of southern Australian land snails with Brachylaima cribbi metacercariae has shown that all commonly encountered native and introduced snails are susceptible second intermediate hosts. The range of infected snails is extensive with metacercariae-infected snails being present in all districts across southern Australia. C. virgata has the highest average natural metacercarial infection intensity of 6.1 metacercariae per infected snail. The susceptibility of birds, mammals and reptiles to B. cribbi infection was studied in South Australia by capturing, dissecting and examining the intestinal tract contents of animals which commonly eat land snails as a food source. Indigenous Australian little ravens (Corvus mellori, which are a common scavenger bird, and two other passeriform birds, the black bird (Turdus merula and the starling (Sturnus vulgaris, which are both introduced European birds, were found to have the highest infection rates of all animals examined. Other birds found infected with B. cribbi were an emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae, chickens (Gallus gallus and a pigeon (Columba livia. Natural infections were also detected in field mice (Mus domesticus and shingleback lizards (Tiliqua rugosa although the intensity of infection was lower than that observed in birds. Susceptibility studies of laboratory mice, rats and ducks showed that mice developed patent infections which persisted for several weeks, rats developed a short-lived infection of three weeks’ duration and ducks did not support infection. This study has shown for the first time that a brachylaimid can infect a wide host range of birds, mammals and reptiles in nature.

  3. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity. PMID:24215068

  4. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  5. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem C Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas.

  6. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Hem C.; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; El-Naccache, Darine W.; Singh, Rajnish K.; Sahu, Sushil K.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  7. Anomalous two-election Auger resonance in thorium near the 5d(O5) photothreshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoexcited O5P3V (5dsub(3/2) 6psub(3/2) valence) Auger emission line for thorium metal shows an anomalous increase in kinetic energy of approximately 1 eV as the photon energy hν is increased through the atomic-like 5d → 5f resonant excitation at hνsub(r) = 89 eV. Possible mechanisms for this anomalous behavior are discussed, and it is suggested that it can be interpreted as a two-electron resonance involving the O5P3V Auger excitation and a shake-up satellite of the 6psub(3/2) core level excitation. (author)

  8. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muon counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The...

  9. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2014-08-08

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  10. Direct observation of the double Auger decay of a K hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double Auger (DA) decay of a K hole has been observed directly by detecting the two emitted electrons in coincidence. The hole was created in 37Cl following the electron-capture decay of 37Ar. The probability of DA decay, per Auger decay, with the two electrons both having an energy greater than 250 eV was found to be 3.7±0.2%. The DA probability was found to decrease exponentially as the energy partitioning between the two electrons changed from the asymmetric case (E1>E2) to the symmetric case (E1≅E2). The DA probability accounts for the bulk of the intensity of high charge states previously measured in 37Cl. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density, affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ~10% seasonal modulation and ~2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of pressure and density. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Moliere radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Engel, R; Gora, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Unger, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  13. Atmospheric profiles at the southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their relevance to air shower measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Unger, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-07-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focusing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  14. Measurement of the muon production depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collica, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between 1019.2 and 1020eV.

  15. Measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between $10^{19.2}$ and $10^{20}$ eV.

  16. Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Wen, Hanqing; Bertazzi, Francesco; Goano, Michele; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    The potential applications of germanium and its alloys in infrared silicon-based photonics have led to a renewed interest in their optical properties. In this letter, we report on the numerical determination of Auger coefficients at T = 300 K for relaxed and biaxially strained germanium. We use a Green's function based model that takes into account all relevant direct and phonon-assisted processes and perform calculations up to a strain level corresponding to the transition from indirect to direct energy gap. We have considered excess carrier concentrations ranging from 1016 cm-3 to 5 × 1019 cm-3. For use in device level simulations, we also provide fitting formulas for the calculated electron and hole Auger coefficients as functions of carrier density.

  17. The aperture for UHE tau neutrinos of the Auger fluorescence detector using a Digital Elevation Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Gennaro [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Ed. Institutos de Investigacion, Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-03-09

    We perform a new study of the chances of the fluorescence detector (FD) at the Pierre Auger Observatory to detect the tau leptons produced by Earth-skimming ultra high energy {nu}{sub {tau}}'s. We present a new and more detailed evaluation of the effective aperture of the FD that considers a reliable fiducial volume for the experimental set up. In addition, we take into account the real elevation profile of the area near Auger. We find a significant increase in the number of expected events with respect to the predictions of a previous semi-analytical determination, and our results show the enhancement effect for neutrino detection from the presence of the near mountains.

  18. Limiting efficiency calculation of silicon single-nanowire solar cells with considering Auger recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-02-09

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique light-harvesting capability mediated by the optical antenna effect and the high photoconversion efficiency due to the orthogonalization of the carrier collection to the photon incidence. We present a detailed prediction of the light-conversion efficiency of Si SNSCs based on finite-element simulation and thermodynamic balance analysis, with especially focusing on the comparison between SNSCs and film systems. Carrier losses due to radiative and Auger recombinations are introduced in the analysis of the limiting efficiency, which show that the Auger recombination plays a key role in accurately predicting the efficiency of Si SNSCs, otherwise, the device performance would be strongly overestimated. The study paves a more realistic way to evaluate the nanostructured solar cells based on indirect-band photoactive materials.

  19. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using backward trajectory of air masses

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest operating cosmic ray observatory ever built. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the monitoring of the atmosphere, both in terms of atmospheric state variables and optical properties. To better understand the atmospheric conditions, a study of air mass trajectories above the site is presented. Such a study has been done using an air-modelling program well known in atmospheric sciences. Its validity has been checked using meteorological radiosonde soundings performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Finally, aerosol concentration values measured by the Central Laser Facility are compared to backward trajectories.

  20. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L D\\'\\iaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Fuji, T; Gaior, R; Garc\\'\\ia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Islo, K; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agëra, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Mart\\'\\inez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Mas\\'\\ias; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, A J; Matthews, J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Newton, D; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; kowski, A Śmiał; Šm\\'\\ida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Thao, N T; Theodoro, V M; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than $60^\\circ$ detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  1. Angle and Spin Resolved Auger Emission Theory and Applications to Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The Auger effect must be interpreted as the radiationless counterpart of photoionization and is usually described within a two-step model. Angle and spin resolved Auger emission physics deals with the theoretical and numerical description, analysis and interpretation of such types of experiments on free atoms and molecules. This monograph derives the general theory applying the density matrix formalism and, in terms of irreducible tensorial sets, so called state multipoles and order parameters, for parameterizing the atomic and molecular systems, respectively. Propensity rules and non-linear dependencies between the angular distribution and spin polarization parameters are included in the discussion. The numerical approaches utilizing relativistic distorted wave (RDWA), multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF), and Greens operator methods are described. These methods are discussed and applied to theoretical predictions, numerical results and experimental data for a variety of atomic systems, especially the rare...

  2. Relativistic L -shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Laiman, E.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    Relativistic calculations of radiationless transition rates to L -subshell vacancy states in selected atoms with Z in the 70-96 range have been performed. The Auger and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities are calculated from perturbation theory, assuming frozen orbitals, in the Dirac-Hartree-Slater approach. Transition rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig yields are compared with nonrelativistic theoretical results and with experiment. Relativity is found to affect the L -subshell Auger widths by (10-25)% and individual transition rates to certain j-j configurations by as much as 40% at Z = 80. The widths of L sub i vacancy states and the L sub 2 Coster-Kronig yields f33 from these relativistic calculations agree much better with experiment than earlier nonrelativistic theoretical values.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of 3p photoionization and subsequent Auger decay in atomic chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, J.; Huttula, S.-M.; Mäkinen, A.; Patanen, M.; Huttula, M.

    2015-12-01

    3p photoionization and subsequent low kinetic energy Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig Auger decay have been studied in atomic chromium. The binding energies, line widths, and relative intensities for the transitions seen in the synchrotron radiation excited 3p photoelectron spectrum are determined. The high resolution M2,3 M4,5 M4,5 and M2,3 M4,5 N1 Auger electron spectra following the electron impact excited 3p ionization are presented and the kinetic energies, relative intensities, and identifications are given for the main lines. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained from Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approaches.

  4. Resistance of pulmonate snail populations to repeated treatments of copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, Harvey D.; Cameron, Stephen C.; Cairns, John

    1985-09-01

    Two species of pulmonate snails, Lymnaea cat-ascopium and Physa integra, were collected from Douglas and Houghton Lakes. Snail populations from the former lake (pristine) had never been exposed to copper sulfate, whereas those from the latter one (treated) had been subjected to the molluscicide for more than 40 years. Molluscs from the treated lake were more resistant to the copper at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 ppm than those from the pristine lake. Furthermore, larger lymnaeids had a higher survival rate than smaller ones.

  5. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    OpenAIRE

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den, L.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and 50 values for snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan con...

  6. Oxidative stress and genotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Kumar, Sudhir; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the toxic effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organism is the biggest obstacle to the safe development of nanotechnology. However, little is known about the toxic mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola (L. luteola). This study was designed to investigate the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by ZnONPs in freshwater snail L. luteola. ZnONPs (32 μg/ml) elicited a significant (psnail L. luteola may be used as suitable test model for nanoecotoxicological studies in future.

  7. Reconstruction accuracy of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of extensive air showers (arrival direction, core position and energy estimation) by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is discussed together with the corresponding accuracy. We determine the angular reconstruction accuracy as a function of the station multiplicity by using two different aproaches. We discuss statistical and systematic uncertainties in the determination of the signal at 1000 m from the core, S(1000), which is used to estimate the primary energy.

  8. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bertou, X.; Busca, N.G.; Ghia, P.L.; C. Medina; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Ibarguen, H. Salazar; Ranchon, S.; Urban, M.; Villasenor, L.; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked ...

  9. Design of Continuous Flight Auger Pile Foundation for a Multi-Storey Apartment Building

    OpenAIRE

    Yatskevich, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    The object of this work was studying, systemizing and describing continuous flight auger (CFA) pile foundation design for a residential complex and calculating the bearing capacity of a single СFA pile on the basis of Russian Building Code. This thesis was written on the request of the YIT Lentek JSK Design Department. The information for the theoretical part was gathered from Russian Building Codes, theoretical manuals, other common available materials (including the Internet), and proje...

  10. Search for Ultra-High Energy Photons with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, M D

    2007-01-01

    Data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to search for air showers initiated by ultra-high energy (UHE) photons. Results of searches are reported from hybrid observations where events are measured with both fluorescence and array detectors. Additionally, a more stringent test of the photon fluxes predicted with energies above 10^19 eV is made using a larger data set measured using only the surface detectors of the observatory.

  11. Satellite X-ray lines and KLL Auger electrons from fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine K X-rays are excited by irradiation of solid samples (LiF, NaF, KF, RbF, CsF, AgF; BeF2, MgF2, CaF2, CrF2, FeF2, CoF2, NiF2, CuF2, SnF2, ZnF2, PbF2, BaF2) with α-particles. Optimal conditions for the observation of Kαsub(3,4) satellites from thick samples are obtained with 2 MeV4He+ particles from a Van de Graaff generator. X-rays are analysed with a Bragg spectrometer equipped with a flat crystal of TIAP, the resolution is 1.2 eV for Fluorine K X-rays. Auger electrons are excited by irradiation of same samples with Al Kαsub(1,2) X-rays; electrons from the main KLL Auger line are detected with a resolution of about 1 eV. The observations made on these compounds are in accordance with previous data on a few samples as reported by Deconninck et al. (1978). Important variations in shape and amplitude are observed in Kαsub(3,4) X-ray and KLL Auger spectra. The relative amplitude of the Kαsub(3,4) peak is maximum in ionic compound and the peak width is narrower, this amplitude decreases with increasing covalency and the presence of energy band is observed by the energy spreading of the peaks (X-ray and Auger). The competition between different decay modes is investigated in an attempt to interpretate the relative amplitude of the satellite peaks. (author)

  12. Composition studies of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Mora, Karen Salomé

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this work is the estimation of the mass composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The time traces of the surface detector stations are explored to obtain a new observable sensitive to the mass composition. The new observable is calibrated with the most mass-sensitive observable of the Observatory, the depth of the shower maximum to obtain a new estimation. Results on mass composition, from this, are reported.

  13. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Arganda, E.; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; García Pinto, Diego; Ortiz Ramis, Montserrat; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis...

  14. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18) eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aer...

  15. Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzi, Valerio

    The energy spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. The measurement is based on data collected until 31 December 2012 and extends over three orders of magnitude in energy from 3 × 1017 eV up to the very end of the spectrum. The spectral features are presented together with a detailed description of the recent improvements in determination of the energy scale.

  16. The in-situ fracture and Auger analysis of Nicalon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braski, D.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Osborne, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A technique has been developed to fracture irradiated Nicalon SiC fibers in a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) and analyze the fracture surfaces without contaminating the specimen chamber. The technique, which was evaluated using as-received fibers, requires only minor modification of two standard specimen holders and should be applicable to other fibers or materials that can be broken under low loads in bending. The technique is simple, rapid, reduces beam charging, and eliminates the need for ion sputtering.

  17. Constraints on hadronic models in extensive air showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays are sensitive to the details of hadronic interactions models, so we present the main results obtained using the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The depth at which the maximum of the electromagnetic development takes place is the most sensitive parameter to infer the nature of the cosmic rays. However, the hadronic models cannot describe consistently the maximum and the muon measurements at energies higher than those reached at the LHC.

  18. Relativistic K-LL Auger spectra in the intermediate-coupling scheme with configuration interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical K-LL Auger spectra from relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater calculations in intermediate coupling with configuration interaction (ICWCI) are considered. Calculated transition rates for 25 elements with Z between 18 and 96, inclusive, are listed and compare well with experimental data. Relativistic effects are found to be important above Z equal to about 35, and ICWCI is necessary to describe the spectra for Z less than about 60.

  19. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.M.van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-08-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimize detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterize the shower from radio signals and to optimize the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of a large detection array requires autonomous detector stations. The current design is aiming at stations with antennas for two polarizations, solar power, wireless communication, and local trigger logic. The results of this initial phase will provide an important stepping stone for the design of a few tens kilometers square engineering array.

  20. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, A M van den

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimise detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterise the shower from radio signals and to optimise the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of ...

  1. Measurements of the muonic component of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration to estimate the muon content of air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The data of the Pierre Auger Observatory will be compared with predictions based upon EPOS 1.99 and QGSJET-II-3 hadronic interaction models. In addition to the direct measures of the muonic content, the combination of a fluorescence detector and a muon sensitive surface array allows for a direct test of air shower simulations which is sensitive to both the shower core and large distances from the core. These methods reveal a deficit of muons in air shower simulations with proton primaries and that the energy assignment basedupon simulations of the surface array signal is systematically higher than that derived from the florescence detector. Summary: I will discuss the deficit in the number of muons currently predicted by simulations when compared to the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. I will describe the methods used to measure the muon content, including sources of systematic uncertainty, and give their current results. Finally, I will present the Collaborations current understanding of the nature of the discrepancy, which could arise from an energy scale problem, composition, or deficiencies in the hadronic interaction models. See references [1, 2].

  2. Distribution of strand breaks produced by Auger electrons in decay of iodine 125 in triplex DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigate the possibility of using Auger electrons as a probing agent for the study of structures of nucleic acids. To this end, we present the distribution of breaks produced in strands of a DNA duplex and a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) carrying Auger emitting radionuclide 125I. The method of calculation includes use of a molecular model of plasmid DNA duplex with bound TFO carrying a labelled 125I at position C5 of a single deoxycytosine residue, a source of Auger spectra, Monte Carlo electron track structure and the ensuing chemistry codes, to simulate the distribution of breaks produced in both strands of a plasmid DNA. Frequencies of fragment length distributions were obtained for the TFO, the purine and the pyrimidine strands. The frequency of breaks in the purine strand showed good correlation with the published experimental results, while that for the pyrimidine strand is lower by a factor of 3. It is concluded that the true structure of triplex DNA may not be purely of B-form

  3. Distribution of strand breaks produced by Auger electrons in decay of iodine 125 in triplex DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikjoo, H.; Panyutin, I.G.; Terrissol, M.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Laughton, C.A. [MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    In this study we investigate the possibility of using Auger electrons as a probing agent for the study of structures of nucleic acids. To this end, we present the distribution of breaks produced in strands of a DNA duplex and a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) carrying Auger emitting radionuclide {sup 125}I. The method of calculation includes use of a molecular model of plasmid DNA duplex with bound TFO carrying a labelled {sup 125}I at position C5 of a single deoxycytosine residue, a source of Auger spectra, Monte Carlo electron track structure and the ensuing chemistry codes, to simulate the distribution of breaks produced in both strands of a plasmid DNA. Frequencies of fragment length distributions were obtained for the TFO, the purine and the pyrimidine strands. The frequency of breaks in the purine strand showed good correlation with the published experimental results, while that for the pyrimidine strand is lower by a factor of 3. It is concluded that the true structure of triplex DNA may not be purely of B-form.

  4. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  5. Chemical-state imaging of Li using scanning Auger electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Scanning Auger electron microscopy is used to image chemical states of Li. •The combined use of AES and EELS signals for the elemental mapping is powerful. •Distribution corresponding to metallic and oxidized states of Li can be imaged. -- Abstract: The demand for measurement tools to detect Li with high spatial resolution and precise chemical sensitivity is increasing with the spread of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for use in a wide range of applications. In this work, scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM) is used to image chemical states of a partially oxidized Li surface on the basis of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data obtained during an oxidation process of a metal Li. We show that distribution of metallic and oxidized states of Li is clearly imaged by mapping the intensity of the corresponding AES and EELS peaks. Furthermore, a tiny difference in the extent of oxidation can be distinguished by comparing the elemental map of an AES peak with that of an EELS peak owing to the different behaviors of those signals to the chemical states of Li

  6. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  7. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  8. Correlation between steroid sex hormones, egg laying capacity and cercarial shedding in Biomphalaria alexandrina snails after treatment with Haplophyllum tuberculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Metwally, Nadia S; Hamed, Manal A; Mohamed, Azza M

    2012-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is considered the second most pre-valiant worldwide parasitic disease ranked next to malaria. It has significant economic and public health consequences in many developing countries. Several ways have been practiced in order to bring the disease under an adequate control through the breakage of the life cycle of the parasite. Snail control could be regarded as a rapid and efficient of reducing or eliminating transmission and remains among the methods of choice for schistosomiasis control. The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (family Rutaceae) as a plant molluscicide. The mortality rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were monitored after treatment with three extracts of the plant aerial parts; petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol. Chloroform extract that recorded the most potent effect was further evaluated through measuring the toxicity pattern against B. alexandrina snails, egg laying capacity, cercarial shedding, phenol oxidase enzyme and the levels of steroid sex hormones. Histopathological examination of hepatopancreas and ovotestis of treated snails were also done for result confirmation. Treatment of snails by chloroform extract recorded reduction in egg laying capacity, decrease in cercarial shedding, diminution in phenol oxidase enzyme, disturbance in steroid sex hormones and sever alternation of the histopathological picture of snails tissue. In conclusion, H. tuberculatum recorded molluscicidal potency against B. alexandrina snails. Further studies are needed for its environmental applications. PMID:22771439

  9. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Tham C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rogevich, Emily C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Rand, Gary M. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)], E-mail: randg@fiu.edu; Gardinali, Piero R. [Florida International University, Department of Chemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, FL 32960 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 {mu}g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

  10. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 μg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail

  11. Study on the relationship of abnormal transcription factors OCT4, HBP1 and Snail expression with progression of osteosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Yu Si

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship of abnormal transcription factors OCT4, HBP1 and Snail expression with progression of osteosarcoma.Methods: Surgical removed osteosarcoma tissue specimens were selected as pathology group, surgically removed osteoid osteoma specimens were selected as control group, and the expression levels of gene transcription factors OCT4, HBP1 and Snail, proliferation genes, epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker molecules in tissue specimens were determined.Results:Oct4 and Snail protein levels of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group and HBP1 protein level was significantly lower than that of control group; C-myc and cyclinD1 protein levels of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group, positively correlated with OCT4 and negatively correlated with HBP1; p16 and p53 protein levels were significantly lower than those of control group, negatively correlated with OCT4 and positively correlated with HBP1; N-cadherin and Vimentin protein levels of pathology group were significantly higher than those of control group and positively correlated with Snail while E-cadherin and Occludin protein levels were significantly lower than those of control group and negatively correlated with Snail.Conclusion: Oct4 and Snail are highly expressed and HBP1 is lowly expressed in osteosarcoma tissue, Oct4 and Snail can participate in the regulation of cell proliferation, and HBP1 can participate in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cells.

  12. Role of the lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella in the transmission of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-11-01

    Experimental infections of three Egyptian Pseudosuccinea columella populations with sympatric miracidia of Fasciola sp., coming from cattle- or sheep-collected eggs, were carried out to determine the capacity of this lymnaeid to support larval development of the parasite. Using microsatellite markers, the isolates of Egyptian miracidia were identified as Fasciola hepatica. Apart from being independent of snail origin, prevalences ranging from 60.4 to 75.5% in snails infected with five miracidia of F. hepatica were significantly higher than values of 30.4 to 42.2% in snails with bi-miracidial infections. The number of metacercariae ranged from 243 to 472 per cercarial-shedding snail and was independent of snail origin, parasite origin and miracidial dose used for infection. If P. columella was subjected to two successive bi-miracidial infections with F. hepatica, prevalence of infection was 63.3%, with a mean of 311 metacercariae per snail. These values were clearly greater than those already reported for Radix natalensis infected with the same parasite and the same protocol. Successful experimental infection of P. columella with F. hepatica suggests that this lymnaeid snail is an important intermediate host for the transmission of fascioliasis in Egypt.

  13. Effect of snails (Elimia clavaeformis) on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, E.A. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1993-10-01

    In this study, the author examined the effect of grazing on phosphorus cycling in stream periphyton and leaf detritus communities using the snail Elimia clavaeformis. Phosphorus cycling fluxes and turnover rates were measured in a laboratory and in a natural stream, respectively, using radioactive tracer techniques.

  14. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not pre

  15. Scientific Opinion on the environmental risk assessment of the apple snail for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health, (PLH); Van Leeuwen, C.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    At EFSA’s request, the Plant Health Panel (PLH) performed an environmental risk assessment (ERA) of the apple snail for the EU and validated the ERA approach presented in the PLH ERA guidance document. Improvements and suggestions for simplification of the ERA are provided. One service-providing uni

  16. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  17. Comparative reproductive anatomy in the South African giant land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The history and current taxonomic status of 62 nominal taxa are revised that have been associated in the literature with the subgenus Tholachatina Bequaert, 1950, of genus Archachatina Albers, 1850, and the genus Cochlitoma Férussac, 1821, in the land snail family Achatinidae Swainson, 1840. Tangibl

  18. Drought, snails, and large-scale die-off of Southern U.S. salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silliman, B.R.; Van de Koppel, J.; Bertness, M.D.; Stanton, L.; Mendelssohn, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Salt marshes in the southeastern United States have recently experienced massive die-off, one of many examples of widespread degradation in marine and coastal ecosystems. Although intense drought is thought to be the primary cause of this die-off, we found snail grazing to be a major contributing fa

  19. Survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and giant African land snails in Phitsanulok province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apichat Vitta; Raxsina polseela; Seangchai Nateeworanart; Muncharee Tattiyapong

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To survey theAngiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) or the rat lungworm in a rat, definitive host, and in a giant African land snail (Achatina fulica), the intermediate host, in Phitsanulok, Thailand.Methods:Rats and giant African land snails were captured from Tha Pho sub-district, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Rats were killed and examined for adultA. cantonensis. The artificial digestion method following Baermann technique were used for isolation third stage larvae ofA. cantonensis.Results: Sixty-two rats were captured and they were identified as Rattus argentiventer,Rattus rattus (R. rattus), Bandicota savilei, andBandicota indicabut only one animal (R. rattus) of62rats (1.61%)was positive with adult worm ofA. cantonensis. The third stage larvae ofA. cantonensis were examined on307Angiostrongylus fulica snails. It was found that the overall infection rate was12.38%(38 infected out of307Achatina snails).Conclusions:This study demonstrates thatA. cantonensis is available in the natural hosts of Phitsanulok. This suggests that the transmissions of this parasite to human may occur in this region.

  20. Drought, Snails, and Large-Scale Die-Off of Southern U.S. Salt Marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silliman, Brian R.; Koppel, Johan van de; Bertness, Mark D.; Stanton, Lee E.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.

    2005-01-01

    Salt marshes in the southeastern United States have recently experienced massive die-off, one of many examples of widespread degradation in marine and coastal ecosystems. Although intense drought is thought to be the primary cause of this die-off, we found snail grazing to be a major contributing fa

  1. Genetic variability and identification of the intermediate snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies based on shell or reproductive organ morphology and genetic considerations suggest extensive intraspecific variation in Biomphalaria snails. The high variability at the morphological and genetic levels, as well as the small size of some specimens and similarities between species complicate the correct identification of these snails. Here we review our work using methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification for analysis of genetic variation and identification of Biomphalaria snails from Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. Arbitrarily primed-PCR revealed that the genome of B. glabrata exihibits a remarkable degree of intraespecific polymorphism. Low stringency-PCR using primers for 18S rRNA permited the identification of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis. The study of individuals obtained from geographically distinct populations exhibits significant intraspecific DNA polymorphism, however specimens from the same species, exhibit some species specific LSPs. We also showed that PCR-restriction fragment of length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region of Biomphalaria rDNA, using DdeI permits the differentiation of the three intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The molecular biological techniques used in our studies are very useful for the generation of new knowledge concerning the systematics and population genetics of Biomphalaria snails.

  2. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  3. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-lo

  4. An overview of freshwater snails in Asia with main focus on Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Hung, N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater snails have received much attention for their role as intermediate hosts for trematodes causing disease in people and animals such as schistosomiasis and various food-borne trematodes. While effective medical treatment exists for some of these diseases there is need for preventive meas...... families and their medical and veterinary importance in Asia but with main focus on Vietnam....

  5. Plasticity as Phenotype: G x E Interaction in a Freshwater Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkow, P. E.; Calloway, S. A.

    2005-05-01

    Plasticity in morphological development allows species to accommodate environmental variation experienced during growth; however, genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity per se has been relatively under-studied. We utilized the well-documented plastic response of shell development to predator cues in a freshwater snail to quantify genetic variation for plasticity in growth rate and shell shape. Field-caught pairs of snails reproduced in the laboratory to create families of full siblings, which were then divided and allowed to grow in control and predator cue treatments. Predator (crayfish) cues had significant effects on both size-corrected growth rate and shell shape; family identity also significantly affected both final shell shape and growth rate. The interaction between predator treatment and family identity significantly affected snail growth rate but not final shell shape, suggesting genetic variation in the plastic response to predator cues for a physiological variable (growth rate) but not for a variable known to mechanically reduce the risk of predation (shell shape), at least in this population of snails. The possibility that risk of multiple modes of predation (i.e., both fish and crayfish) in some populations might maintain genetic variation in morphological plasticity is discussed.

  6. Large-scale determinants of intestinal schistosomiasis and intermediate host snail distribution across Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope;

    2013-01-01

    to climate change. Here, we combine a growing degree day model for Schistosoma mansoni with species distribution models for the intermediate host snail (Biomphalaria spp.) to investigate large-scale environmental determinants of the distribution of the African S. mansoni-Biomphalaria system and potential...

  7. Identification of SNAIL1 Peptide-Based Irreversible Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1-Selective Inactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yukihiro; Aihara, Keisuke; Mellini, Paolo; Tojo, Toshifumi; Ota, Yosuke; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Solomon, Viswas Raja; Zhan, Peng; Suzuki, Miki; Ogasawara, Daisuke; Shigenaga, Akira; Inokuma, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Miyata, Naoki; Mizukami, Tamio; Otaka, Akira; Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2016-02-25

    Inhibition of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a flavin-dependent histone demethylase, has recently emerged as a new strategy for treating cancer and other diseases. LSD1 interacts physically with SNAIL1, a member of the SNAIL/SCRATCH family of transcription factors. This study describes the discovery of SNAIL1 peptide-based inactivators of LSD1. We designed and prepared SNAIL1 peptides bearing a propargyl amine, hydrazine, or phenylcyclopropane moiety. Among them, peptide 3, bearing hydrazine, displayed the most potent LSD1-inhibitory activity in enzyme assays. Kinetic study and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that peptide 3 is a mechanism-based LSD1 inhibitor. Furthermore, peptides 37 and 38, which consist of cell-membrane-permeable oligoarginine conjugated with peptide 3, induced a dose-dependent increase of dimethylated Lys4 of histone H3 in HeLa cells, suggesting that they are likely to exhibit LSD1-inhibitory activity intracellularly. In addition, peptide 37 decreased the viability of HeLa cells. We believe this new approach for targeting LSD1 provides a basis for development of potent selective inhibitors and biological probes for LSD1. PMID:26700437

  8. A "Love" Dart Allohormone Identified in the Mucous Glands of Hermaphroditic Land Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Wang, Tianfang; Koene, Joris M; Storey, Kenneth B; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-04-01

    Animals have evolved many ways to enhance their own reproductive success. One bizarre sexual ritual is the "love" dart shooting of helicid snails, which has courted many theories regarding its precise function. Acting as a hypodermic needle, the dart transfers an allohormone that increases paternity success. Its precise physiological mechanism of action within the recipient snail is to close off the entrance to the sperm digestion organ via a contraction of the copulatory canal, thereby delaying the digestion of most donated sperm. In this study, we used the common garden snailCornu aspersumto identify the allohormone that is responsible for this physiological change in the female system of this simultaneous hermaphrodite. The love dart allohormone (LDA) was isolated from extracts derived from mucous glands that coat the dart before it is stabbed through the partner's body wall. We isolated LDA from extracts using bioassay-guided contractility measurement of the copulatory canal. LDA is encoded within a 235-amino acid precursor protein containing multiple cleavage sites that, when cleaved, releases multiple bioactive peptides. Synthetic LDA also stimulated copulatory canal contractility. Combined with our finding that the protein amino acid sequence resembles previously described molluscan buccalin precursors, this indicates that LDA is partially conserved in helicid snails and less in other molluscan species. In summary, our study provides the full identification of an allohormone that is hypodermically injected via a love dart. More importantly, our findings have important consequences for understanding reproductive biology and the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies.

  9. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340 bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451 bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100 pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere.

  10. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  11. Molecular characterisation of intermediate snail hosts and the search for resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rollinson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between schistosomes and their intermediate hosts is an extremely intricate one with strains and species of the parasite depending on particular species of snail, which in turn may vary in their susceptibility to the parasites. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease we have been investigating the use of molecular markers for snail identification and for studying host-parasite relationships. In this paper we will draw on examples concerning schistosomiasis in West and East Africa to illustrate how a molecular analysis can be used as part of a "total evidence" approach to characterisation of Bulinus species and provide insights into parasite transmission. Particular emphasis is given to ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI. Snails resistant to infection occur naturally and there is a genetic basis for this resistance. In Biomphalaria glabrata resistance to Schistosoma mansoni is known to be a polygenic trait and we have initiated a preliminary search for snail genomic regions linked to, or involved in, resistance by using a RAPD based approach in conjunction with progeny pooling methods. We are currently characterising a variety of STSs (sequence tagged sites associated with resistance. These can be used for local linkage and interval mapping to define genomic regions associated with the resistance trait. The development of such markers into simple dot-blot or specific PCR-based assays may have a direct and practical application for the identification of resistant snails in natural populations.

  12. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H. KYLE, Alexis W. KROPF, Romi L. BURKS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While difficult to prevent introductions, scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic, invasive species. South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread. Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats, female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large, bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects. To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches, we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e. material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial attracted P. insularum females to lay clutches. In our fourth experiment, we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output. To further understand reproductive output, we quantified experimental clutch chara- cteristics (height above water, dimensions, mass, approximate volume, number of eggs, hatching efficiency. Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material, chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures. In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US, Pontederia cordata, snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic, invasive plant (wild taro, Colocasia esculenta. Unexpectedly, smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails. Therefore, hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production. Collectively, our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P. insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5: 630–641, 2011].

  13. Invading freshwater snails and biological control in Martinique Island, French West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Pointier

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight alien freshwater snail species were introduced into Martinique Island during the last 50 years. The introduced snails include four planorbids (Biomphalaria straminea, Helisoma duryi, Amerianna carinata and Gyraulus sp., three thiarids (Melanoides tuberculata, M. amabilis and Tarebia granifera and one ampullarid (Marisa cornuarietis. Four of these species rapidly colonized the whole Martinican hydrographic system whereas the other four remained restricted to some particular sites. The invasion processes were documented during the last 20 years and showed (i a rapid invasion of the island by several morphs of M. tuberculata at the beginning of the 80's; (ii the introduction of T. granifera in 1991 and M. amabilis in 1997; and (iii the rapid spread of these last two species throughout the island. In the years following its introduction, M. tuberculata was used in biological control experiments against the snail hosts of schistosomiasis, B. glabrata and B. straminea. Experiments were conducted with success in several groups of water-cress beds which constituted the latest transmission sites for schistosomiasis at the beginning of the 80's. A malacological survey carried out in 2000 all over the island showed the absence of B. glabrata but the presence of some residual populations of B. straminea. Long-term studies carried out in Martinique have shown that the thiarids are able to maintain relatively stable populations over a long period of time, thus preventing recolonization by the snail hosts. Within this context the invasion of the hydrographic system of Martinique by thiarid snails has resulted in an efficient and sustainable control of the intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis.

  14. Density-dependence across dispersal stages in a hermaphrodite land snail: insights from discrete choice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahirel, Maxime; Vardakis, Michalis; Ansart, Armelle; Madec, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Dispersal movements, i.e. movements leading to gene flow, are key behaviours with important, but only partially understood, consequences for the dynamics and evolution of populations. In particular, density-dependent dispersal has been widely described, yet how it is determined by the interaction with individual traits, and whether density effects differ between the three steps of dispersal (departure, transience, and settlement), remains largely unknown. Using a semi-natural landscape, we studied dispersal choices of Cornu aspersum land snails, a species in which negative effects of crowding are well documented, and analysed them using dispersal discrete choice models, a new method allowing the analysis of dispersal decisions by explicitly considering the characteristics of all available alternatives and their interaction with individual traits. Subadults were more dispersive than adults, confirming existing results. In addition, departure and settlement were both density dependent: snails avoided crowded patches at both ends of the dispersal process, and subadults were more reluctant to settle into crowded patches than adults. Moreover, we found support for carry-over effects of release density on subsequent settlement decisions: snails from crowded contexts were more sensitive to density in their subsequent immigration choices. The fact that settlement decisions were informed indicates that costs of prospecting are not as important as previously thought in snails, and/or that snails use alternative ways to collect information, such as indirect social information (e.g. trail following). The observed density-dependent dispersal dynamics may play an important role in the ability of C. aspersum to successfully colonise frequently human-disturbed habitats around the world. PMID:27139427

  15. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  16. Dynamics of Infected Snails and Mated Schistosoma Worms within the Human Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Besigye-Bafaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female worms are independently distributed within a human host each with a Poisson probability distribution mass function. Mating takes place immediately when partners are available. It was found that the mated worm function is non-linear near the origin and becomes almost linear as the worms increase. They increase with increase in the worm load due to aggregation of worms. This also increases the infection of snails which are secondary hosts. On the analysis of the model, three equilibrium states were found, two of which were stable and one unstable. A stable endemic equilibrium within a community is very much undesirable. So the main objective of the model was to have the point O(0,0 as the only equilibrium point. This is a situation where there are no worms within the human host and the environment is free of infected snails. A critical point, above which the disease would be chronic and below which the disease would be eradicated, was found and analyzed. The parameters indicated that to achieve a disease free environment, the death rate of worms within the human host should be much greater than the cercariae that penetrate the human. Also the death rate of infected snails should be much higher than the contact rate between the miracidia and the snails. It was concluded that de-worming and killing of snails should be emphasized for disease control and educating the masses on the modes of disease transmission is quite necessary for prevention of the disease.

  17. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin H. KYLE; Alexis W. KROPF; Romi L. BURKS

    2011-01-01

    While difficult to prevent introductions,scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic,invasive species.South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread.Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats,female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large,bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects.To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches,we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e.material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial) amacted P.insularum females to lay clutches.In our fourth experiment,we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output.To further understand reproductive output,we quantified experimental clutch characteristics (height above water,dimensions,mass,approximate volume,number of eggs,hatching efficiency).Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material,chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures.In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US,Pontederia cordata,snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic,invasive plant (wild taro,Colocasia esculenta).Unexpectedly,smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails.Therefore,hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production.Collectively,our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P.insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5):630-641,2011].

  18. Impairment of context memory by β-amyloid peptide in terrestrial snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined influence of the β-amyloid peptide (25-35 neurotoxic fragment (βAP on Helix lucorum food-aversion learning. Testing with aversively conditioned carrot showed that 2, 5, and 14 days after training the βAP-injected group responded in a significantly larger number of cases and with a significantly smaller latency than the sham-injected control group. The results demonstrate that the amyloid peptide partially impairs the learning process. In an attempt to specify what component of memory is impaired we compared responses in a context in which the snails were aversively trained, and in a neutral context. It was found that the sham-injected learned snails significantly less frequently took the aversively conditioned food in the context in which the snails were shocked, while the βAP-injected snails remembered the aversive context 2 days after associative training, but were not able to distinguish two contexts 5, and 14 days after training. In a separate series of experiments a specific context was associated with electric shock, and changes in general responsiveness were tested in two contexts several days later. It was found that the βAP-injected snails significantly increased withdrawal responses in all tested contexts, while the sham-injected control animals selectively increased responsiveness only in the context in which they were reinforced with electric shocks. These results demonstrate that the β-amyloid peptide (25-35 interferes with the learning process, and may play a significant role in behavioral plasticity and memory by selectively impairing only one

  19. Soil calcium availability influences shell ecophenotype formation in the sub-antarctic land snail, Notodiscus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryvonne Charrier

    Full Text Available Ecophenotypes reflect local matches between organisms and their environment, and show plasticity across generations in response to current living conditions. Plastic responses in shell morphology and shell growth have been widely studied in gastropods and are often related to environmental calcium availability, which influences shell biomineralisation. To date, all of these studies have overlooked micro-scale structure of the shell, in addition to how it is related to species responses in the context of environmental pressure. This study is the first to demonstrate that environmental factors induce a bi-modal variation in the shell micro-scale structure of a land gastropod. Notodiscus hookeri is the only native land snail present in the Crozet Archipelago (sub-Antarctic region. The adults have evolved into two ecophenotypes, which are referred to here as MS (mineral shell and OS (organic shell. The MS-ecophenotype is characterised by a thick mineralised shell. It is primarily distributed along the coastline, and could be associated to the presence of exchangeable calcium in the clay minerals of the soils. The Os-ecophenotype is characterised by a thin organic shell. It is primarily distributed at high altitudes in the mesic and xeric fell-fields in soils with large particles that lack clay and exchangeable calcium. Snails of the Os-ecophenotype are characterised by thinner and larger shell sizes compared to snails of the MS-ecophenotype, indicating a trade-off between mineral thickness and shell size. This pattern increased along a temporal scale; whereby, older adult snails were more clearly separated into two clusters compared to the younger adult snails. The prevalence of glycine-rich proteins in the organic shell layer of N. hookeri, along with the absence of chitin, differs to the organic scaffolds of molluscan biominerals. The present study provides new insights for testing the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial

  20. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Uwe

    2013-10-30

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 10{sup 18} eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼10{sup 17} eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  1. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 1018 eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼1017 eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  2. Calculations of Auger-cascade-induced reactions with DNA in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of radionuclides incorporated into mammalian cells are of considerable interest for radiation biology and radiation protection. Simulation of the nuclear and atomic events associated with the decay of several Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides was accomplished using Monte Carlo calculational techniques. Calculations of the energies of Auger electrons produced from a number of decays have been performed for the radionuclides Pt-195m, Pt-193m, I-125, In-111, and Fe-55. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code OREC (8, 11-13) has been used to transport the electrons produced during the Auger cascades through liquid water surrounding the decay site and to calculate the physical and chemical interactions produced. In order to estimate the interactions that might be produced with a DNA molecule, a very simple model has been assumed. A segment of double-stranded DNA is represented as a right circular cylinder of radius 1 nm with ''sugar'' and ''base'' reactive sites alternating along two helical strands on the surface. For the purposes of this paper two types of interactions with the DNA are considered. During the charged-particle transport the DNA cylinder is treated as though it were water, and if an inelastic energy loss event occurs within the cylinder it is considered to represent a ''direct'' physical event. An ''indirect'' chemical event is considered to result when a reactive chemical species interacts with a ''sugar'' or ''base'' site on the DNA. Although no attempt is made to identify the consequences of these direct or indirect events, it is interesting to compare the relative numbers of such events for various types of radiation. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Distribution of freshwater snails in the river Niger basin in Mali with special reference to the intermediate hosts of schistosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Coulibaly, Godefroy; Furu, Peter

    1987-01-01

    densities appeared to be associated with human water contact activities, which apparently create favourable biotopes for the snails. This is probably due to an alteration of the vegetation and an increase of the trophic status of the site by contamination with food remnants and other debris. The larger...... irrigation canals or lakes in these schemes play an important role in the transmission of human schistosomes and transmission appears to be very focal in these habitats. Infected snails are almost exclusively found in well-defined human water contact sites (WCS). Local infection rates with schistosomes were......Snail surveys were carried out in various parts of Mali. All areas surveyed are part of the Niger basin being either affluents or irrigation schemes fed by this river. The snail species present varied greatly between areas. The following potential hosts of schistosomes were recorded: Biomphalaria...

  4. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, P; Bertou, X; Busca, N G; Ghia, P L; Medina, C; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Ibarguen, H S; Ranchon, S; Urban, M; Villaseñor, L

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked the procedure with high statistics on a test tank at the Observatory base and applied with success on the whole array.

  5. Enhancement of radiative Auger emission in lithium-like 23V20+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of projectile X-ray spectra coincident with single electron losss in collisions of 3.5-9.0 MeV amu-123Vq+ (q = 19, 20, 21) ions with He targets under single collision conditions. Non-monoenergetic X-rays observed in the coincidence spectra for V20+ (lithium-like) projectiles are attributed to the radiative Auger effect (RAE). The intensity of RAE photons relative to the characteristic K x-ray yield is more than an order of magnitude larger than expected from theoretical calculations and from earlier measurements for atomic targets. (author)

  6. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  7. Accelerator based Production of Auger-Electron-emitting Isotopes for Radionuclide Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Augerelectron- emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Augeremitter 119Sb has been identified...... isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able...

  8. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  9. Radiotoxicity induced by Auger electron emitters in human osteosarcoma cell line using comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yu-Jie; LI Qing-Nuan; ZHU Ran; ZHU Ben-Xing; ZHANG Yong-Ping; ZHANG Xiao-Dong; FAN Wo; HONG Cheng-Jiao; LI Wen-Xin

    2003-01-01

    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) was used to evaluate the radiotoxicity of Augerelectron emitters in the human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). After internal exposure to 67Ga-EDTMP, the sar-coma cell has been injured severely. The comet length was longer along with the increase of dose, the appearance ofcomet tail was different from that with respect to the 60Co γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage of cell was mainly due tothe radiation effect of Auger electrons. The 67Ga may be a therapeutic radionuclide with good prospect for tumortreatment and palliation of bone pain induced by metastasis.

  10. The thermal behaviour of three different auger pressure grouted piles used as heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, F.; Olgun, C.G.; Brettmann, T.; Powrie, W.

    2014-01-01

    Three auger pressure grouted (APG) test piles were constructed at a site in Richmond, Texas. The piles were each equipped with two U-loops of heat transfer pipes so that they could function as pile heat exchangers. The piles were of two different diameters and used two different grouts, a standard APG grout and a thermally enhanced grout. Thermal response tests, where fluid heated at a constant rate is circulated through the pipe loops, were carried out on the three piles, utilising either ...

  11. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and adminis- trative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organiza- tions for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in grat...

  12. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, C/ Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia (Spain); Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J-J.; Bertin, V. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Technical University of Catalonia, Rambla Exposicio, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Astraatmadja, T.; Beemster, L. J.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baret, B.; Bouhou, B. [APC-Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris) 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie 38, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bigongiari, C. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); and others

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E {sup -2} energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per source is derived.

  13. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E –2 energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 × 10–8 GeV cm–2 s–1 per source is derived

  14. Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gallo, F; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pepe, I M; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Strafella, F; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valbuena-Delgado, A; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yelos, D; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (E_CM = 110-170 TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33 +- 0.16 (1.61 +- 0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

  15. The performance of the corrector lenses for the Auger fluorescence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ricardo; Escobar, Carlos O.; /Campinas State U.

    2005-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effect that the corrector lenses (Schmidt Optics) have on the overall performance of the Auger Fluorescence Detector. The analysis uses real data from the telescopes. Figures of merit for the corrector lenses performance include shower trigger rate and the distribution of the distance of closest approach to the shower axis. As a result of this analysis we may say that the effective light collection area of a telescope nearly doubles with the use of a corrector lens at its aperture.

  16. Properties and performance of the prototype instrument for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, I.C.; Albrow, M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Muniz, J.; Amaral, M.G. do; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrews, R.; Anguiano, M.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arteaga, J.C.; Atulugama, S.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baggio, R.; Bai, X.; Barbosa, A.F.; Barbosa, H.M.J.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bellido, J.A.; Bello, P.; Bergmann, T.; Berman, E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P.; Billoir, P.; Biral, R.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bollmann, E.; Bonifazi, C.; Boratav, M.; Boselli, A.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J.-M.; Bui-Duc, H.; Cabrera, V.; Camin, D.V.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Carreno, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, L.A. de; Casanova, S.; Casimiro, E.; Castellina, A.; Castro, J.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, N.; Cheam, D.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J.A.; Chiosso, M.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Cillis, A.; Civit, B.; Claes, D.; Clark, P.D.J.; Clay, R.W.; Cohen, F.; Cordero, A.; Cordier, A.; Cormier, E.; Cotzomi, J.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C.E.; Creusot, A.; Cronin, J.W.; Cuautle, M.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang-Quang, T.; Silva, P. da; Darling, J.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B.R.; Bruijn, L. de; Capoa, A. de; Oliveira, M.A.L. de; Souza, V. de; Della Selva, A.; Deligny, O.; Diaz, J.C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dye, A.; DuVernois, M.A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.N.; Eschstruth, P.; Escobar, C.O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fauth, A.C.; Fazzini, N.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fonte, R.; Fulgione, W.; Gamez, E.; Garcia, B.; Garcia, C.A.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Germain-Renaud, C.; Ghia, P.L.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P.F.; Gonzalez, J.; Gora, D.; Goodwin, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.F.; Grunfeld, C.; Grygar, J.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G.; Guerard, C. [and others

    2004-05-01

    Construction of the first stage of the Pierre Auger Observatory has begun. The aim of the Observatory is to collect unprecedented information about cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV. The first phase of the project, the construction and operation of a prototype system, known as the engineering array, has now been completed. It has allowed all of the sub-systems that will be used in the full instrument to be tested under field conditions. In this paper, the properties and performance of these sub-systems are described and their success illustrated with descriptions of some of the events recorded thus far.

  17. Resonant Auger-intercoulombic hybridized decay in the photoionization of endohedral fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Javani, Mohammad H; De, Ruma; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2013-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of Ar@C60, we predict resonant femtosecond decays of both Ar and C60 vacancies through the continua of atom-fullerene hybrid final states. The resulting resonances emerge from the interference between simultaneous autoionizing and intercoulombic decay (ICD) processes. For Ar 3s-->np excitations, these resonances are far stronger than the Ar-to-C60 resonant ICDs, while for C60 excitations they are strikingly larger than the corresponding Auger features. The results indicate the power of hybridization to enhance decay rates, and modify lifetimes and line profiles.

  18. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.12.002

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malarg\\"ue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  19. Three new species of cercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) snails in Al-Bathan fresh water body, Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate other new species of cercariae encountered in Melanopsis praemorsa (M. praemorsa) snails collected from Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 100 M. praemorsa were collected from Al-Bathan water body, Palestine, from November, 2010 to November, 2011. Cercariae in M. praemorsa were obtained by emerging and crushing methods. Results: Other three new different species of cercariae have been identified from this snail. These species were Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia IV), Microcercous (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia V) and Longifurcate cercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia VI). The infection rate ofM. praemorsa with these three different cercariae was (42.2%). Coinfection with Xiphidiocercariae and Longifurcate cercariae or Xiphidiocercariae and Microcercous cercariae has been noted and coinfection rate was 1.23% among the infected snails. The highest cercarial infection rate was in June (64.3%). No infected snails were found in September. It was also noted that infected snails attained a larger size than uninfected ones and all infected snails had a size between 17-22 mm (average 20 mm). Conclusions: Our studies imply that there are potentially more new species of trematodes in this area than were found until now. Due to the presence of infected M. praemorsa and may be species of other snails, water resources could be contaminated by the emerging new cercariae, consequently attack the local people directly via the skin or are transferred to them by metacercariae ingestion. More surveys are needed to identify the real prevalence of the trematodes both in human and animal hosts, and also to determine the range of snail hosts of the parasite in enzootic areas of the disease, as well as the life cycle and biology of trematodes and its effects on man should be elucidated.

  20. Evaluation of different methods for the experimental infection of the land snail Helix aspersa with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Ettore; Falsone, Luigi; Gaglio, Gabriella; Colella, Vito; Otranto, Domenico; Giannetto, Salvatore; Brianti, Emanuele

    2016-07-30

    The laboratory maintenance of parasitic life cycles is crucial to support research in many fields of parasitology. The land snail Helix aspersa (syn. Cornu aspersum), an intermediate host of feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, is adopted to produce infective stages of those nematodes in laboratory condition. The aim of this study was to compare the most common methods of experimental infection of H. aspersa with first stage larvae (L1) of A. abstrusus (i.e., contact of the snail foot with the L1) with the injection of these larvae in the foot of the snail, instrumental to reduce the infection time and to maximize the output of third-stage larvae (L3). Three groups (i.e., A, B, C) of 15 H. aspersa snails were infected with L1 of A. abstrusus (n=250 for each snail), whereas a fourth group (group D) was not infected (control). Snails were individually placed for 48h on a microfilm containing L1 (group A), on a potato slice previously irrigated with a suspension of L1 (group B), or they were inoculated by injection of L1 in the posterior-ventral portion of the foot (group C). Eighteen days after the infection all snails were analyzed and tissues were digested to recover L3. No difference in mortality rate was recorded among snail groups and the mean number of retrieved L3 was significantly larger in group C (71.5±52.9) compared to group B (38.2±44.9; p=0.0161) and group A (19±23.3; p<0.0001). The injection of A. abstrusus L1 in the foot of H. aspersa proved to be a fast, easy to apply and effective method, resulting in the largest number of infective larvae retrieved. PMID:27369568

  1. Recruitment of Glycosyl Hydrolase Proteins in a Cone Snail Venomous Arsenal: Further Insights into Biomolecular Features of Conus Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Favreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone snail venoms are considered an untapped reservoir of extremely diverse peptides, named conopeptides, displaying a wide array of pharmacological activities. We report here for the first time, the presence of high molecular weight compounds that participate in the envenomation cocktail used by these marine snails. Using a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified glycosyl hydrolase proteins, of the hyaluronidase type (Hyal, from the dissected and injectable venoms (“injectable venom” stands for the venom variety obtained by milking of the snails. This is in contrast to the “dissected venom”, which was obtained from dissected snails by extraction of the venom glands of a fish-hunting cone snail, Conus consors (Pionoconus clade. The major Hyal isoform, Conohyal-Cn1, is expressed as a mixture of numerous glycosylated proteins in the 50 kDa molecular mass range, as observed in 2D gel and mass spectrometry analyses. Further proteomic analysis and venom duct mRNA sequencing allowed full sequence determination. Additionally, unambiguous segment location of at least three glycosylation sites could be determined, with glycans corresponding to multiple hexose (Hex and N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc moieties. With respect to other known Hyals, Conohyal-Cn1 clearly belongs to the hydrolase-type of Hyals, with strictly conserved consensus catalytic donor and positioning residues. Potent biological activity of the native Conohyals could be confirmed in degrading hyaluronic acid. A similar Hyal sequence was also found in the venom duct transcriptome of C. adamsonii (Textilia clade, implying a possible widespread recruitment of this enzyme family in fish-hunting cone snail venoms. These results provide the first detailed Hyal sequence characterized from a cone snail venom, and to a larger extent in the Mollusca phylum, thus extending our knowledge on this protein family and its evolutionary selection in marine snail venoms.

  2. Recruitment of Glycosyl Hydrolase Proteins in a Cone Snail Venomous Arsenal: Further Insights into Biomolecular Features of Conus Venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Favreau; Igor Križaj; Frédéric Ducancel; Reto Stöcklin; Florian Noguier; Sébastien Dutertre; Daniel Biass; David Piquemal; Yves Terrat; Adrijana Leonardi; Aude Violette

    2012-01-01

    Cone snail venoms are considered an untapped reservoir of extremely diverse peptides, named conopeptides, displaying a wide array of pharmacological activities. We report here for the first time, the presence of high molecular weight compounds that participate in the envenomation cocktail used by these marine snails. Using a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified glycosyl hydrolase proteins, of the hyaluronidase type (Hyal), from the dissected and injectable ven...

  3. A novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay for epidemiological surveillance of the vector snails of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Vázquez, Antonio A; Figueredo, Mabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Otero, Oscar; Sarracent, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    Fasciolosis is a globally distributed snail-borne disease which requires economic consideration due to its enormous impact on veterinary medicine. During recent decades, this parasitosis has also shown increasing prevalence in human populations worldwide. The dissemination and successful transmission of fasciolosis ultimately depends on the existence of susceptible snails that act as intermediate hosts. Therefore, to accomplish effective control of this disease, surveillance and detection of the infected intermediate host would be essential. The screening of trematodes within snails using classical parasitological examination of the larvae can be unreliable (sensitivity and specificity vary depending on the time of infection and the experience of the observer) and relatively costly when using molecular biological methods during large-scale monitoring. Here we propose a novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect ongoing Fasciola hepatica infection in lymnaeid snails. Anti-F. hepatica rediae mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop a double monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for parasite detection. Fasciola hepatica-infected and uninfected laboratory-reared Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella were used for assessment of the developed ELISA. Experimentally infected snails were dissected and examined for parasite larvae as the "gold standard" method. Sensitivity results were 100% for both snail species, while specificity was 98% for G. cubensis and 100% for P. columella. No cross-reactivity was detected in lymnaeids infected with Trichobilharzia sp. or Cotylophoron sp. The ELISA enabled detection of the infection from day 8 p.i. in G. cubensis while in P. columella it was noted as early as day 4. To our knowledge no previous immunoassays have been reported to detect helminth-infected snails and the developed sandwich ELISA method is therefore suggested for infection status validation in natural populations of lymnaeid

  4. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shun; Miyazato, Akio; Ebitani, Kohki

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  5. Improvements upon the continuum wavefunctions of Auger electrons by use of the least-squares variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variational least-squares technique is developed to obtain an iterative improvements upon the wavefunctions of Auger electrons emitted by the ion Ar2+. The core potentials seen by the Auger electrons are evaluated on the basis of the Hartree-Fock orbitals delivered by the conventional Hartree-Fock programs. In order to illustrate our technique, the transition rates of the Auger electrons emitted from Ar corresponding to different configurations, namely 1s → 3p 3p, 1s → 3s 3s, 1s → 2s 2s, 1s → 2p 2p, 1s → 2s 3s and 1s → 2p 3p are calculated. (author)

  6. Depth resolution at profile Auger analysis of the ZnS-PbxSn1-xTe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons have been studied of anomalously large broadening of profiles at the interface at profile Auger-analysis of the structures ZnS-PbxSn1-xTe, grown by a moleclar-beam epitaxy method. It is shown that this broadening is not related with the existance of the extended region of a valiable composition. Other possible mechanisms of profile persistance have been studied experimentally. In place of the analysis an effectively greater rate of ion etching is observed. It is found that the Auger-profile shape near the interface is determined by the surface relief formation at ion etching. It is shown that the reason of the formation of a developed relief of the surface in the place periodically irradiated by the electron beam during obtaining the Auger-spectra has an electrostatic character. Two possible mechanisms of such relies formation are discussed

  7. Toxic effect and bioavailability of malathion spiked in natural sediments from the Ignacio Ramirez Dam on the snail Stagnicola sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Tabche, Laura; Galar, M Marcela; Olvera, H Elena; Chehue, R Alejandro; López López, Eugenia; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo; Terron Sierra, Oscar

    2002-07-01

    Malathion (MA) is a widely used insecticide in México. The snail Stagnicola sp is a native species of the Ignacio Ramírez dam (IRD). This work aimed to evaluate the bioavailability and toxicity of MA in sediments of the IRD from the Stagnicola sp snail, taking into account the physicochemical properties of the IRD sediment. The toxic effect of MA on the snail Stagnicola sp was evaluated by biochemical tests of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, protein concentration, lipid peroxidation level (LPL), and lipid content; a toxicokinetic study was also carried out. An increment in all biochemical parameters was observed at the beginning of exposure, while at 48 and 72 h a decrement in AchE activity, LPL, and lipid content was observed. The kinetics study showed gradual uptake and rapid elimination of the insecticide in the test organism. The bioconcentration factor and the absorption and elimination constants led to the conclusion that this compound is not being stored in snails. However, at the end of the experiment, the snails without MA exhibited a lack of recovery in AchE activity, which indicates that there is no correlation between the inhibitory pattern of AchE activity and snail MA concentration.

  8. Bioaccumulation of copper and toxic effects on feeding, growth, fecundity and development of pond snail Lymnaea luteola L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sangita; Khangarot, B S

    2011-01-15

    We studied the bioaccumulation and the toxic effects of Cu on survival, number of eggs and eggmasses laying, embryo development, growth, and food consumption in an Indian pond snail, Lymnaea luteola L. exposed for 7 weeks. Copper caused loss of chemoreception, locomotion and inhibited food consumption significantly during 7 weeks of exposure. Food consumption in Cu exposed snails significantly decreased and at 56 and 100 μg L(-1), snail stopped feeding activity. Mean number of eggmasses or eggs significantly decreased in Cu concentrations during the 7 week study. The percentage hatching decreased in Cu concentrations but there was more than 95% hatched in control in 10-11 days after spawning. Egg development was completely inhibited at 100 μg L(-1), while abnormal embryonic development observed at 32 and 56 μg L(-1) of Cu. The Cu concentration in tissues increased in Cu treated snails and bioaccumulation factor ranged from 2.3 to 18.7. Snail growth at 5.6 and 10 μg L(-1) was reduced by 6.2% and 16.9%, respectively. The study revealed that snail embryos and adults could be used as in vivo test models for ecotoxicological studies. Findings of present study are helpful for advancing water quality guidelines for protecting aquatic biota.

  9. Sublethal Effects of Some New Textile Dyes On the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina, as a Biological Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eco toxicological effects of three synthetic textile dyes; fast violet (FV), fast orange (FO) and fast yellow (FY) which mainly used in textile industry in Egypt, were tested on the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina, that used as a bio-indicator. The results demonstrated that only the FV dye is lethal and the 72 hr LC 50 is 500 ppm. The FO and dyes did not show any lethal effect on the snails at the concentrations used throughout the experiment time. The sublethal toxic concentration of non-irradiated FV dye (100 ppm) showed an increase in cellular and humoral defense responses of the snails exposed to the dye for 72 hr. Although the profile of the snail's nucleoproteins revealed minor qualitative differences; were quantitative differences differences reflected in the intensity of the separated bands, as well as, the percentage of the protein content. The protein content significantly decreased in the snails exposed to FV-dye when compared to FO,FY and non-exposed control snails

  10. Feeding of Bait to Snail Lymnaea acuminata and Their Effect on Certain Enzyme in the Nervous Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2012-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a snail-borne parasitic zoonosis, has been recognized for a long time because of its major veterinary and human impact. Different Bait formulations were fed to the snail Lymnaea acuminata in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Snail attractant containing bait formulations was prepared from different binary combination (1 : 1 ratio) of carbohydrates (glucose, starch 10 mM) and amino acid (methionine, histidine 10 mM) in 100 ml of 2% agar solution + sublethal (20% and 60% of 24 h and 96 h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (eugenol, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, and limonene). Snails fed on bait containing sub-lethal concentration of different molluscicides and the snail attractant, causing a significant inhibition in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the nervous tissue of the vector snail L. acuminata. Maximum inhibition in ALP (20% of control) and AChE (49.49% of control) activity was observed in the nervous tissue of the L. acuminata exposed to 60% of 96 h LC50 of eugenol in the bait pellets containing starch + histidine, starch + methionine, respectively.

  11. Multiparametric topological analysis (MTA) for the study of the primary CR composition: Performances with Auger simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, D.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Guarino, F.; Valore, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2008-04-01

    We describe the application of a multiparametric analysis to estimate the UHE Cosmic Rays composition. The proposed method, MTA (Multiparametric Topological Analysis), is based on the study of the correlations among different shower observables. This technique is designed to fully exploit the complementarity of Auger fluorescence and ground array data. In the present work, we report the results of the application to Conex showers, fully simulated through the Auger detector, using only parameters describing the longitudinal development of air showers as recorded by fluorescence detector for hybrid data.

  12. The dynamic Auger Doppler effect in HF and DF: control of fragment velocities in femtosecond dissociation through photon energy detuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, K.; Naves de Brito, A.; Sorensen, S. L.; Burmeister, F.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Svensson, S.; Björneholm, O.

    2002-03-01

    The Auger-Doppler effect in the experimental spectra of HF and DF is presented, and the dynamics of ultra-fast dissociation in the core-excited state are discussed. The Doppler splitting of the atomic Auger peak is calculated and simulated using a classical model and a very good agreement is found between experiment and simulation. It is shown that the difference in photon energy relative to the resonance is transferred completely into the kinetic energy release (KER). This is expected to be a general phenomenon, but is clearly illuminated in the HF/DF case. Thus the fragment velocity can be controlled through photon energy detuning.

  13. Energy and Auger Widths of Triply Excited 3p3p3p 2po State of Lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟秉聪; 俞开智

    2003-01-01

    The high-lying triply excited 3p3p3p 2po state of the double hollow lithium atom is studied by using the saddlepoint complex-rotation method. The energy and Auger widths of this resonance are calculated. The relativistic corrections and mass polarization are included. The total Auger width is obtained by coupling the important open channels and summing over the other channels. The oscillator strength is also calculated. The results are compared with other theoretical and experimental data in the literature.