WorldWideScience

Sample records for auger mining

  1. 30 CFR 77.1500 - Auger mining; planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining; planning. 77.1500 Section 77.1500 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.1500 Auger mining; planning. Auger mining shall be planned and conducted by the operator to...

  2. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 819.15 - Auger mining: Hydrologic balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. 819.15... MINING § 819.15 Auger mining: Hydrologic balance. (a) Auger mining shall be planned and conducted to minimize disturbances of the prevailing hydrologic balance in accordance with the requirements of §§...

  4. 30 CFR 819.19 - Auger mining: Backfilling and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environment. (5) Spoil placed on the outslope during previous mining operations shall not be disturbed if such... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Backfilling and grading. 819.19 Section 819.19 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 30 CFR 912.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 912.819 Section 912.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO §...

  6. 30 CFR 905.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 905.819 Section 905.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 910.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 910.819 Section 910.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA §...

  8. 30 CFR 937.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 937.819 Section 937.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON §...

  9. 30 CFR 942.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 942.819 Section 942.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 941.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 941.819 Section 941.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH...

  11. 30 CFR 922.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 922.819 Section 922.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 921.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 921.819 Section 921.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 903.819 - Special performance standards-Auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-Auger mining. 903.819 Section 903.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA §...

  14. 30 CFR 939.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 939.819 Section 939.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE...

  15. 30 CFR 933.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 933.819 Section 933.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 947.819 - Special performance standards-auger mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special performance standards-auger mining. 947.819 Section 947.819 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1503 - Augering equipment; overhead protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1503 Augering equipment; overhead protection. (a) Auger machines which are exposed to highwall hazards, together with all those parts of any coal elevating conveyors... connecting or disconnecting auger sections under a highwall, at least one person shall be assigned to...

  18. Differential auger spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongin, Myron; Varma, Matesh Narayan; Anne, Joshi

    1976-06-22

    Differential Auger spectroscopy method for increasing the sensitivity of micro-Auger spectroanalysis of the surfaces of dilute alloys, by alternately periodically switching an electron beam back and forth between an impurity free reference sample and a test sample containing a trace impurity. The Auger electrons from the samples produce representative Auger spectrum signals which cancel to produce an Auger test sample signal corresponding to the amount of the impurity in the test samples.

  19. Auger Physicists visit CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Visit at CERN P5 CMS in the experimental cavern Alan Watson, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Leeds; Jim Cronin, Nobel Laureate, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Chicago; Jim Virdee, CMS Former Spokesperson, Imperial College; Jim Matthews, Auger Co-Spokesperson, Louisiana State University

  20. Drill-auger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Bratisheva, L.L.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The author proposes a drill-auger with a drilling platform, a sectional auger-bit with a drilling-bit crown, a rotational mechanism, and a feed mechanism with vertical chain grippers. Borehole drilling operations are made more effective by drilling from a single drill platform attitude for the entirety of the auger-bit length (which is equal to the screw length). The chain teeth protrude from the auger to a diameter equal to the height of the teeth. The rotary mechanism is platform mounted with two symmetrically deployed rollers having teeth capable of kinematically interfacing with the auger teeth. The feed mechanism consists of a hydraulic jack deployed between the vertical chain protrusion and the auxiliary grippers which are themselves attached in a hinge-like fashion to the hydraulic-jack cylinder and are capable of interfacing with sections of the auger stem.

  1. Coincidence Auger spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penent, F. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France) and DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France)]. E-mail: penent@ccr.jussieu.fr; Lablanquie, P. [LURE, Universite Paris Sud, 91898 Orsay (France); Hall, R.I. [DIAM, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris 5 (France); Palaudoux, J. [LCPMR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris 5 (France); Ito, K. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); IMS, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Aoto, T. [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Eland, J.H.D. [Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3DW (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-15

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) are (with X-ray emission spectroscopy, XES) powerful analytical tools for material science and gas phase studies. However, the interpretation of Auger spectra can be very difficult due to the number and complexity of the involved processes. A deeper analysis, that allows a better understanding of relaxation processes following inner shell ionization, is possible with coincidence Auger spectroscopy. This method gives a new insight into electron correlation and allows disentangling of complex Auger electron spectra. In this paper, we present some examples related to gas phase coincidence Auger electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The detection in coincidence of an Auger electron with a threshold photoelectron presents two main advantages which are good energy resolution and high coincidence count rates. This technique has also provided new results on double Auger decay processes. A further qualitative breakthrough has been made with the development of a new experimental set-up based on a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer. This opens up the field of multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy and allows a most detailed analysis with characterization of all possible decay pathways following inner shell ionization.

  2. Impact analysis of OSM regulations on highwall mining systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The establishment of the federal surface mining performance standards has placed additional restraints on auger mining. The federal regulations impose barrier pillar and hole sealing requirements on augering, stipulate time frames for hole sealing and discharge treatment, and prohibit auger mining under certain conditions. Barrier pillar requirements between groups of auger holes and between auger holes and underground workings decrease the augerable reserve base on a site by a minimum of ten percent. Barrier requirements may also reduce productivity levels due to increased delay and scheduling problems. Federal auger hole sealing requirements are more stringent than most state regulations, and consequently have increased the cost of augering in almost all auger mining areas. The availability of impervious materials on the site and the extent of backfilling required to form a water-tight seal may have the greatest effect on auger hole reclamation costs. The federal regulations require auger mining to be prohibited: if adverse water quality impacts cannot be prevented; if stability of sealings cannot be achieved; if subsidence resulting from augering may damage powerlines, pipelines, buildings, or other facilities; or if coal reserve recovery is not maximized by augering. As a result, all up dip augering may be restricted on the grounds that seal stability cannot be maintained for long time periods if water pressure builds behind the plug. Also, since tradiational augering techniques have a lower recovery rate than surface or underground methods, augering may be prohibited in many situations by the stipulation that maximum resource recovery will not be achieved.

  3. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  4. Auger spectroscopy and surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Pierre Auger reported on his observations of low energy electrons associated with core-ionised atoms in cloud chamber experiments. He was able to correctly identify the mechanism for their production, and such electrons are now known as Auger electrons. Typically Auger electrons have energies in the range 10 eV to 2 keV. The short distance that such low energy electrons travel in solids ensures that Auger electrons come from the surface layers. The data generated by the AES technique are complex. There are at least three electrons involved in the process, and there are many possible configurations for the atom. These possibilities led to spectra that are not readily interpreted in detail. Theory lags behind experiment in this area. In principle, it should be possible to find information about the chemical environment of atoms from Auger spectra. While there are clear changes in spectral lineshapes, there is no simple way to go from the spectra to an understanding of the chemical bonding of the atom. There are a number of experiments currently underway which aim to improve our understanding of the Auger process. Synchrotron experiments with tunable energy x-rays are providing new insight. Experiments that use positrons to excite Auger emission have also produced further recent understanding. Coincidence experiments between photoelectrons and Auger electrons have also made recent advances. Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy reduces the complexity of Auger spectra by only counting those electrons that occur as a consequence of selected ionizations. The effect is to reduce the complexity of the spectra, and to isolate processes that are often clouded by the simultaneous occurrence of other effects. (author)

  5. Bore-auger servo-mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Bolotov, N.L.; Kiselev, Ye.I.; Opal' ko, L.L.; Podubniy, V.I.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyy, Yu.F.

    1980-06-06

    A bore-auger servo-mechanism is proposed for a drilling machine. This unit consists of a drilling bit, an auger boring section with a screw-type surface, upper and lower cutting disks, mounted onto the supports between the main auger sections, and a linear auger section with lateral ties. In order to simplify construction, the upper cutting disk is equipped with its own auger bits, both below and above the disks, thus facilitating interaction with the screw-type surface of the auger sections.

  6. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  7. El proyecto AUGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, A.

    Hace ya más de 30 años en Volcano Ranch, EE.UU., un extenso chubasco cósmico (ECC) fue detectado con energía en exceso de 1020 eV. Desde entonces, observatorios ubicados en Haverah Park del Reino Unido, Yakutsk de Rusia, AGASA de Japón y Dugway de EE.UU. también han observado ECC con energías mayores que 1020 eV. Poco se sabe de dichos rayos, y en particular cuál es la naturaleza del primario, de dónde provienen, y cómo son acelerados, pero su naturaleza ultrarelativista excluye la mayoría de las respuestas dejando sólo algunas plausibles de ser investigadas experimentalmente. Grupos de científicos de 20 países están trabajando con el fin de construir dos arreglos de detectores gigantes, uno en cada hemisferio a lo largo de 3000 km2 c/u. Dichas dimensiones son necesarias debido al flujo estimado de 1 rayo cósmico/centuria/km2/sr. La sede del Observatorio del Sur es la Argentina. El proyecto fue nombrado Pierre Auger en conmemoración del célebre físico francés que detectó por primera vez chubascos cósmicos en 1938. El proyecto focaliza su interés en rayos cósmicos con energías mayores que 1020 eV.

  8. Quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song Bin

    2015-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear quantum-beat pump-probe Auger spectroscopy is introduced by discussing a relatively simple four-level model system. We consider a coherent wave packet involving two low-lying states that was prepared by an appropriate pump pulse. This wave packet is subsequently probed by a weak, time-delayed probe pulse with nearly resonant coupling to a core-excited state of the atomic or molecular system. The resonant Auger spectra are then studied as a function of the duration of the probe pulse and the time delay. With a bandwidth of the probe pulse approaching the energy spread of the wave packet, the Auger yields and spectra show quantum beats as a function of pump-probe delay. An analytic theory for the quantum-beat Auger spectroscopy will be presented, which allows for the reconstruction of the wave packet by analyzing the delaydependent Auger spectra. The possibility of extending this method to a more complex manifold of electronic and vibrational energy levels is also discussed.

  9. Auger electron spectroscopy of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes how the surface compositions of some alloys can be determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The motivation for this research and the reasons for the choice of alloy systems studied are formulated. The theoretical background of AES is briefly discussed and the apparatus used and the experimental procedures applied are described. Four alloy systems have been investigated in this thesis - Ni-Cu and Pd - Ag (consisting of a component active in most cataytic reactions - Ni and Pd; and a component which is almost inactive for a number of reactions - Cu and Ag) and Pt - Pd and Pt-Ir (consisting of two active components). Knowledge of the surface composition of the various alloy systems is shown to be essential for the interpretation of catalytic results. (Auth./C.F.)

  10. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  11. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Performance and operation of the Surface Detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory using high-elevation fluorescence telescopes (HEAT); (3) AMIGA - Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Radio detection of Cosmic Rays at the southern Auger Observatory; (5) Hardware Developments for the AMIGA enhancement at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) A simulation of the fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory using GEANT 4; (7) Education and Public Outreach at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) BATATA: A device to characterize the punch-through observed in underground muon detectors and to operate as a prototype for AMIGA; and (9) Progress with the Northern Part of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above $10^{17}$ eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water-Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km$^2$ overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km$^2$, 61 detector infill array. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km$^2$ sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Auger Observatory.

  13. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  14. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhenry-Yvon Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  15. Auger electron appearance potential spectrum of Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons are accelerated onto a solid polycrystalline Ni surface. These primary electrons interact with the surface to produce one of two phenomena: x-ray fluorescence, or Auger electron emission. Auger Electron Appearance Potential Spectroscopy (AEAPS) is a process by which the Auger component of the secondary electron flux is analysed to extract qualitative information about the electronic structure of the empty conduction band states. In AEAPS, the threshold behavior of the Auger transitions is examined by taking the first derivative of the secondary electron current with respect to the incident electron energy using the potential modulation technique. Width of the empty band, degree of localization of the conduction band wave functions, overlapping of the 3d band with the 4s, and satellite phenomena are among the important parameters ascertainable by AEAPS. The present AEAPS measurements of L3 levels of Ni are compared with the reported data from Soft X-ray Appear nce Potential Spectroscopy (SXAPS) of Ni. SXAPS is a complimentary process of AEAPS in that it examines the secondary xray fluorescence from the surface in much the same way as AEAPS examines the total electron yield. AEAPS, used alone, or in conjunction with SXAPS, is considered to be a powerful technique for the systematic investgation of series of metals, such as the transition, or lanthanide series

  16. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; :, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antivcic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blumer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Frohlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp d, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Muller, G.; Munchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novzka, L.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruhle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tacscuau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a n

  17. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-21

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 10{sup 17} eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km{sup 2} overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km{sup 2}, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km{sup 2} sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  18. The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located on a vast, high plain in western Argentina, is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. The objectives of the Observatory are to probe the origin and characteristics of cosmic rays above 1017 eV and to study the interactions of these, the most energetic particles observed in nature. The Auger design features an array of 1660 water Cherenkov particle detector stations spread over 3000 km2 overlooked by 24 air fluorescence telescopes. In addition, three high elevation fluorescence telescopes overlook a 23.5 km2, 61-detector infilled array with 750 m spacing. The Observatory has been in successful operation since completion in 2008 and has recorded data from an exposure exceeding 40,000 km2 sr yr. This paper describes the design and performance of the detectors, related subsystems and infrastructure that make up the Observatory.

  19. Design of highwall mining equipment electronic guidance package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenden, B.B.; Morgen, G.P.; Shorpik, J.R.; Farrar, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides design specifics and guidance software for a guidance system intended for use in guiding an auger type highwall mining head through thin coal seams to depths of up to 600 ft. A small desk top computer is used at the operator's station to send and receive signals in serialized bit streams to a downhole microprocessor. The guidance system accepts signals from a variety of sensors and uses these signals to plot and control the course of the auger head automatically using computer algorithms designed to keep the auger head in the coal seam and maintain a specified stump thickness.

  20. Distributed Computing for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pierre Auger Observatory operates the largest system of detectors for ultra-high energy cosmic ray measurements. Comparison of theoretical models of interactions with recorded data requires thousands of computing cores for Monte Carlo simulations. Since 2007 distributed resources connected via EGI grid are successfully used. The first and the second versions of production system based on bash scripts and MySQL database were able to submit jobs to all reliable sites supporting Virtual Organization auger. For many years VO auger belongs to top ten of EGI users based on the total used computing time. Migration of the production system to DIRAC interware started in 2014. Pilot jobs improve efficiency of computing jobs and eliminate problems with small and less reliable sites used for the bulk production. The new system has also possibility to use available resources in clouds. Dirac File Catalog replaced LFC for new files, which are organized in datasets defined via metadata. CVMFS is used for software distribution since 2014. In the presentation we give a comparison of the old and the new production system and report the experience on migrating to the new system.

  1. Education and Outreach for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Snow, Gregory R

    2007-01-01

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach, and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a task of its own whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malargue that has hosted over 29,000 visitors since 2001, the Auger Celebration and a collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2005, the opening of the James Cronin School in Malargue in November 2006, public lectures, school visits, and courses for science teachers. As the collaboration prepares the proposal for the northern Auger site foreseen to be in southeast Colorado, plans for a comprehensive outreach program are being...

  2. Calibration and Monitoring of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Reports on the atmospheric monitoring, calibration, and other operating systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  3. Data Processing at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vicha, J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic-ray particles with ultra-high energies (above $10^{18}$ eV) are studied through the properties of extensive air showers which they initiate in the atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory detects these showers with unprecedented exposure and precision and the collected data are processed via dedicated software codes. Monte Carlo simulations of extensive air showers are very computationally expensive, especially at the highest energies and calculations are performed on the GRID for this purpose. The processing of measured and simulated data is described, together with a brief list of physics results which have been achieved.

  4. Recent Results from the Pierre Auger observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger observatory is a hybrid air shower experiment which uses multiple detection techniques to investigate the origin, spectrum, and composition of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. We present recent results on these topics and discuss their implications to the understanding the origin of the most energetic particles in nature as well as for physics beyond the Standard Model, such as violation of Lorentz invariance and 'top-down' models of cosmic ray production. Future plans, including enhancements underway at the southern site in Argentina will be presented. (author)

  5. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  6. Auger and SIMS spectrometry in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microanalysis limitations led to the development of analytical techniques more sensitive to the ''surface'' layer of the samples. The need for these methods arises from the importance of such layers in determining the characteristics of semiconductor devices. Two recent methods of surface analysis are described in this paper, namely the Auger Electron Spectrometry (AES) and the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Various AES and SIMS spectrometers are already available on the market, and are currently used in R and D or production laboratories of the electronic industries

  7. Education and public outreach of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Snow, G.

    2005-08-01

    The Auger collaboration's broad mission in education, outreach and public relations is coordinated in a separate task. Its goals are to encourage and support a wide range of outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. This report focuses on recent activities and future initiatives.

  8. Particle physics at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebr Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest detector of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR in the world. These particles, presumably protons or heavier nuclei of energies up to 1020 eV, initiate extensive air showers which can be detected by sampling the particles that arrive at ground level or observing the fluorescence light generated during the passage of showers through the atmosphere – the Pierre Auger Observatory employs both these techniques. As the center-of-mass energies of the first interactions in the showers can be several orders of magnitude beyond the reach of the LHC, the UHECR provide an unique opportunity to study hadronic interactions. While the uncertainty in modeling these interactions is somewhat degenerate with the unknown composition of the primary beam, interaction models can be tested using data such as the depths of the maxima of the longitudinal development of the showers or their muon content. Particular sensitivity to interaction models is achieved when several observables are combined. Moreover, using careful data selection, proton-air cross section at the c.m.s. energy of 57 TeV per nucleon-nucleon pair can be obtained.

  9. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouffon, Philippe [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to observe cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV . The southern site, located in Malargue, Argentina, is now fully operational (since mid 2008) and has been collecting data continuously while being deployed. The northern site, which will give a full sky coverage, is under development in Lamar, Colorado, USA. The PAO uses two complementary techniques to measure the direction of arrival and the energy of the comic rays. In the southern site, its 1600 water Cerenkov tanks, spread over 3000 km{sup 2}, sample the extended air shower front when it hits the ground, measuring time and energy deposited, while the 4 fluorescence detectors stations, each with 6 telescopes, collect the UV light emitted by the shower core, registering the time, intensity and angle of reception. Though the Pierre Auger collaboration will be taking data for the next two decades, several results have already been published based on data collected until 2009 and will be discussed briefly: the energy spectrum and its implications on the GZK cut off controversy, limits on photon and neutrino fluxes, anisotropy, point sources and mass composition. (author)

  10. Feasibility of an Integrated Thin Seam Coal Mining and Waste Disposal System

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kohinoor

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of more attractive thicker and easily accessible coal seams in the central Appalachia will direct attention towards the extraction of coal seams thinner than 28 in. This thesis investigates the feasibility of an integrated mining and backfilling system applicable to thin seams. Two conceptual mining systems, namely Auger mining and Self Advancing Miner, have been proposed for this purpose. Both these systems are designed to remotely mine coal from the seams. Several ...

  11. Soil chip convey of lunar subsurface auger drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Deming; Tang, Dewei; Hou, Xuyan; Jiang, Shengyuan; Deng, Zongquan

    2016-05-01

    Celestial body subsurface drilling and sampling is a key aspect of near-earth exploration projects. In these sample return missions, the auger drill system is universally used due to the environment and detector load limits. The common failure that the auger faces is chip chocking, which can raise the torque and cause the drill to stick. This paper builds auger drill models describing chip flow in the auger groove to balance geometric parameters, functional capability, and reliability. The features of chip flow are summarized and verified by a series of discrete element method simulations. In contrast to previous auger design, a convey capability factor is defined to indicate the auger's chip removal capacity, and the role of pitch angle and other parameters is assessed through motion analysis of the lunar soil flow process. The theory is verified by testing the drill penetrating speed limit, which combines drill geometry and motion parameters. This work provides a new method for design and optimization of low speed auger drill systems and research on particle flow with small scale mechanical constraints.

  12. Pierre Auger Atmosphere-Monitoring Lidar System

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; Veberic, D; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Chiosso, M; Mussa, R; Sequeiros, G; Mostafa, M A; Roberts, M D

    2003-01-01

    The fluorescence-detection techniques of cosmic-ray air-shower experiments require precise knowledge of atmospheric properties to reconstruct air-shower energies. Up to now, the atmosphere in desert-like areas was assumed to be stable enough so that occasional calibration of atmospheric attenuation would suffice to reconstruct shower profiles. However, serious difficulties have been reported in recent fluorescence-detector experiments causing systematic errors in cosmic ray spectra at extreme energies. Therefore, a scanning backscatter lidar system has been constructed for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, where on-line atmospheric monitoring will be performed. One lidar system is already deployed at the Los Leones fluorescence detector site and the second one is currently (April 2003) under construction at the Coihueco site. Next to the established ones, a novel analysis method with assumption on horizontal invariance, using multi-angle measurements is shown to unambiguously measure optica...

  13. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; d, J Knapp; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the world's largest cosmic ray observatory. Our current exposure reaches nearly 40,000 km$^2$ str and provides us with an unprecedented quality data set. The performance and stability of the detectors and their enhancements are described. Data analyses have led to a number of major breakthroughs. Among these we discuss the energy spectrum and the searches for large-scale anisotropies. We present analyses of our X$_{max}$ data and show how it can be interpreted in terms of mass composition. We also describe some new analyses that extract mass sensitive parameters from the 100% duty cycle SD data. A coherent interpretation of all these recent results opens new directions. The consequences regarding the cosmic ray composition and the properties of UHECR sources are briefly discussed.

  14. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo-Pérez, P.; Peña, J. L.; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  15. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. The surface detector system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allekotte, I. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ingo@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Barbosa, A.F. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bauleo, P. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [CBPF, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Civit, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Escobar, C.O. [Departamento de Raios Cosmicos, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6165, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Garcia, B. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Regional Mendoza, Mendoza (Argentina); Guedes, G. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Av. Universitaria Km 03 da BR 116, Campus Universitario, 44031-460 Feira de Santana BA (Brazil); Gomez Berisso, M. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche (U.N. Cuyo and CNEA, CONICET), 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Harton, J.L. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Healy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kaducak, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Newman-Holmes, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL (United States); Pepe, I. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus de Odina, 40210-340 Salvador BA (Brazil); Rodriguez-Cabo, I. [Dpto. Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Salazar, H. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Ap. Postal J-48, 72500 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Smetniansky-De Grande, N. [Laboratorio Tandar, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica and CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Warner, D. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19}eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  17. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Mass composition results and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, A. E.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The study of their mass composition can help constrain models concerning their nature and origin. We discuss the different methods of deriving the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays. The methods use different parameters that describe various characteristics of the shower development. We will also discuss the prospects expected from an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Hadronic physics with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Cazon, L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers are the result of billions of particle reactions initiated by single cosmic rays at ultra-high energy. Their characteristics are sensitive both to the mass of the primary cosmic ray and to the fine details of hadronic interactions. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays can be used to experimentally extend our knowledge on hadronic interactions in energy and kinematic regions beyond those tested by human-made accelerators. We report on how the Pierre Auger Observatory is able to measure the proton-air cross section for particle production at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 39 TeV and 56 TeV and also to constrain the new hadronic interaction models tuned after the results of the Large Hadron Collider, by measuring: the average shape of the electromagnetic longitudinal profile of air showers, the moments of the distribution of the depth at which they reach their maximum, and the content and production depth of muons in air showers with a primary center-of-mass energy per nucleon around and a...

  19. Status and recent results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobiov, S

    2006-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory aims to determine the nature and origin of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR). The Auger hybrid detector combines fluorescence observations of extended air showers, initiated in the atmosphere by these most energetic particles, with measures of the shower front at the ground level by its large array of Cherenkov water tanks. This allows to improve considerably the precision on reconstructed primary cosmic ray parameters, and to make important cross-calibrations between two techniques at these energies, unreachable with accelerator experiments. The Southern Auger site in Argentina is close to completion. The first measure of the primary cosmic rays energy spectrum, the anisotropy search results, and the limit on the photon fraction in the UHECR are discussed.

  20. Lateral width of shower image in the Auger fluorescence detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, H; Dobrigkeit, C; Engel, R; Gora, D; Heck, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Medina-Tanco, G; Ortiz, J A; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The impact of the lateral distribution of light in extensive air showers on the detection and reconstruction of shower profiles is investigated for the Auger fluorescence telescopes. Based on three-dimensional simulations, the capability of the Auger telescopes to measure the lateral distribution of light is evaluated. The ability to infer the actual lateral distribution is confirmed by the comparison of detailed simulations with real data. The contribution of pixels located far from the axis of the shower image is calculated and the accepted signal is rescaled in order to reconstruct a correct shower profile. The analysis presented here shows that: (a) the Auger telescopes are able to observe the lateral distribution of showers and (b) the energy corrections to account for the signal in outlying pixels can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  1. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blanco, M; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bridgeman, A; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fuchs, B; Fujii, T; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Hemery, N; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Louedec, K; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Mallamaci, M; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meissner, R; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Müller, S; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrov, Y; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vasquez, R; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m$^2$ plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  2. Reviewing recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrigkeit, C.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory addresses the most fundamental questions about the nature and origin of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The results obtained by the Auger Observatory have already led to a number of major breakthroughs in the field contributing to the advance of our understanding of these extremely energetic particles. The spectrum and the arrival direction distribution are key observables to search for sources or source regions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and to understand the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. We present the latest results on the energy spectrum, and on the studies of anisotropies performed on the ten-year dataset of arrival directions of cosmic rays at large and small angular scales. We also address the plans and motivations for the future upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory and environmental implications

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the highest energy cosmic rays. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the atmospheric monitoring, especially for aerosols in suspension in the atmosphere. Several methods are described which have been developed to measure the aerosol optical depth profile and aerosol phase function, using lasers and other light sources as recorded by the fluorescence detector. The origin of atmospheric aerosols traveling through the Auger site is also presented, highlighting the effect of surrounding areas to atmospheric properties. In the aim to extend the Pierre Auger Observatory to an atmospheric research platform, a discussion about a collaborative project is presented.

  4. Defect identification by compositional defect review using auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect identification plays an enabling role in determining the source of particles that occur during semiconductor processing and are subsequently detected by defect inspection tools. Auger electron spectroscopy provides a high spatial resolution, surface sensitive analytical probe that is well matched to examining small, thin or complex defects. A focused ion beam (FIB) can be used to cross-section buried defects and structures for subsequent Auger analysis. Such measurements have been made on defects from two wafers pulled at different process steps. One wafer was analyzed after poly-Si deposition, and the other wafer was analyzed after metal 2 etch. The defects on the poly-Si wafer are Si particles. Three types of particles were found on the metal 2 wafer: C-based, stainless steel, and Si-oxide. The majority of defects on this wafer are C-based. Auger, EDS and FIB results will be compared for representative defects on these two wafers

  5. The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Univ. Siegen (Germany); et al.

    2016-04-12

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has begun a major Upgrade of its already impressive capabilities, with an emphasis on improved mass composition determination using the surface detectors of the Observatory. Known as AugerPrime, the upgrade will include new 4 m2 plastic scintillator detectors on top of all 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors, updated and more flexible surface detector electronics, a large array of buried muon detectors, and an extended duty cycle for operations of the fluorescence detectors. This Preliminary Design Report was produced by the Collaboration in April 2015 as an internal document and information for funding agencies. It outlines the scientific and technical case for AugerPrime. We now release it to the public via the arXiv server. We invite you to review the large number of fundamental results already achieved by the Observatory and our plans for the future.

  6. Monte-Carlo simulation of backscattered electrons in Auger electron spectroscopy. Part 1: Backscattering factor calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholomier, M.; Vicario, E.; Doghmane, N.

    1987-10-01

    The contribution of backscattered electrons to Auger electrons yield was studied with a multiple scattering Monte-Carlo simulation. The Auger backscattering factor has been calculated in the 5 keV-60 keV energy range. The dependence of the Auger backscattering factor on the primary energy and the beam incidence angle were determined. Spatial distributions of backscattered electrons and Auger electrons are presented for a point incident beam. Correlations between these distributions are briefly investigated.

  7. The Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Arqueros, F; Covault, C; D'Urso, D; Giulio, C D; Facal, P; Fick, B; Guarino, F; Malek, M; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J; Meyhandan, R; Monasor, M; Mostafa, M; Petrinca, P; Roberts, M; Sommers, P; Travnicek, P; Valore, L; Verzi, V; Wiencke, L

    2005-01-01

    The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a "test beam" to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

  8. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    OpenAIRE

    Wainberg, O.; A. Almela; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; B. Wundheiler; Melo, D.; Hampel, M.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slo...

  9. The Central laser facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arqueros, F.; Bellido, J.; Covault, C.; D' Urso, D.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal, P.; Fick, B.; Guarino, F.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthews, J.; Meyhandan, R.; Monasor,; Mostafa, M.; Petrinca, P.; Roberts, M.; Sommers, P.; Travnicek, P.; Valore, L.; Verzi, V.; Wiencke, Lawrence; /Utah U.

    2005-07-01

    The Central Laser Facility is located near the middle of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. It features a UV laser and optics that direct a beam of calibrated pulsed light into the sky. Light scattered from this beam produces tracks in the Auger optical detectors which normally record nitrogen fluorescence tracks from cosmic ray air showers. The Central Laser Facility provides a ''test beam'' to investigate properties of the atmosphere and the fluorescence detectors. The laser can send light via optical fiber simultaneously to the nearest surface detector tank for hybrid timing analyses. We describe the facility and show some examples of its many uses.

  10. Auger Emitter Based Radiotherapy- A Possible New Treatment for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredericia, Pil; Groesser, Torsten; Severin, Gregory;

    2014-01-01

    damage produced by Low-LET radiation used in current radiotherapy (2-3) Considerable efforts have been made in the past twenty years to develop Auger emitter-based radiotherapy However, previous studies lack precise measurement of RBE, which is the fundamental factor defining the relationship between...

  11. Performance of the fluorescence detectors of the pierre auger observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellido, Jose A.; /Adelaide U.

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory have been operating in a stable manner since January 2004. After a brief review of the physical characteristics of the detectors, the associated atmospheric monitoring, the calibration infrastructure and the detector aperture, we will describe the steps required for the reconstruction of fluorescence event data, with emphasis on the shower profile parameters and primary energy.

  12. Results and Perspectives of the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an extension of the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory. It is used to detect radio emission from extensive air showers with energies beyond $10^{17}~$eV in the $30 - 80~$MHz frequency band. After three phases of deployment, AERA now consists of more than 150 autonomous radio stations with different spacings, covering an area of about $17~$km$^2$. It is located at the same site as other Auger low-energy detector extensions enabling combinations with various other measurement techniques. The radio array allows different technical schemes to be explored as well as cross-calibration of our measurements with the established baseline detectors of the Auger Observatory. We report on the most recent technological developments and give an overview of the experimental results obtained with AERA. In particular, we will present the measurement of the radiation energy, i.e., the amount of energy that is emitted by the air shower in the form of radio emission, and its dependence...

  13. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yongfen [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  14. Operations of and Future Plans for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; agoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; VandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Technical reports on operations and features of the Pierre Auger Observatory, including ongoing and planned enhancements and the status of the future northern hemisphere portion of the Observatory. Contributions to the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  15. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. Upflow bioreactor having a septum and an auger and drive assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl S.; Hansen, Conly L.

    2007-11-06

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes an auger positioned in the aperture of the septum. The vessel includes an opening in the top for receiving the auger. The auger extends from a drive housing, which is position over the opening and provides a seal around the opening. The drive housing is adjustable relative to the vessel. The position of the auger in the aperture can be adjusted by adjusting the drive housing relative to the vessel. The auger adjustment mechanism allows the auger to be accurately positioned within the aperture. The drive housing can also include a fluid to provide an additional seal around the shaft of the auger.

  17. The Lidar System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Chiosso, M; Connolly, B M; Filipcic, A; García, B; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Horvat, M; Iarlori, M; Macolino, C; Matthews, J A J; Melo, D; Mussa, R; Mostafa, M; Pallota, J; Petrera, S; Prouza, M; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Rojo, J R R; Salamida, F; Santander, M; Sequeiros, G; Tonachini, A; Valore, L; Veberic, D; Westerhoff, S; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M

    2006-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with energies above 10^18 eV. The energy calibration of the detector is based on a system of four air fluorescence detectors. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the fluorescence stations, the atmospheric conditions at the experiment's site need to be monitored continuously during operation. One of the components of the observatory's atmospheric monitoring system is a set of four elastic backscatter lidar stations, one station at each of the fluorescence detector sites. This paper describes the design, current status, standard operation procedure, and performance of the lidar system of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Warped extra dimension and inclined events at Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2016-01-01

    The generalized solution for the warp factor of the Randall-Sundrum metric is presented which is symmetric with respect to both branes and explicitly periodic in extra variable. Given that the curvature of the 5-dimensional space-time is small, the expected rate of neutrino-induced inclined events at the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is calculated. Both the "downward-going" (DG) and "Earth-skimming" (ES) neutrinos are considered. By comparing the expected event rate with the recent Auger data on searching for neutrino candidates, the lower bound on the fundamental gravity scale M_5 is obtained. The ratio of the number of the ES air showers to the number of the DG showers is estimated as a function of M_5.

  19. Atmospheric aerosol monitoring at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, R.; Chiosso, M.; Chirin, J.; Clay, R.; Dawson, B.; Fick, B.; Filipcic, A.; Garcia, B.; Grillo, A.; Horvat, M.; Iarlori, M.; Malek, M.; Matthews, J.; Matthews,; Melo, D.; Meyhandan, R.; Mostafa, M.; Mussa, R.; Prouza, M.; Raefert, B.; Rizi, V.

    2005-07-01

    For a ground based cosmic-ray observatory the atmosphere is an integral part of the detector. Air fluorescence detectors (FDs) are particularly sensitive to the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere. These aerosols, consisting mainly of clouds and dust, can strongly affect the propagation of fluorescence and Cherenkov light from cosmic-ray induced extensive air showers. The Pierre Auger Observatory has a comprehensive program to monitor the aerosols within the atmospheric volume of the detector. In this paper the aerosol parameters that affect FD reconstruction will be discussed. The aerosol monitoring systems that have been deployed at the Pierre Auger Observatory will be briefly described along with some measurements from these systems.

  20. Results from and prospects for the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA is one of the low-energy enhancements of the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA is based on experience obtained with the LOPES and CODALEMA experiments in Europe and aims to study in the MHz region the details of the emission mechanism of radio signals from extensive air showers. The data from AERA will be used to assess the sensitivity of MHz radiation to the mass composition of cosmic rays. Because of its energy threshold at 2 × 1017 eV the dip region in the cosmic-ray flux spectrum can be studied in detail. We present first results of AERA and of its prototypes and we provide an outlook towards the future.

  1. The camera of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Bracci, F; Facal, P; Fonte, R; Gallo, G; Kemp, E; Matthiae, Giorgio; Nicotra, D; Privitera, P; Raia, G; Tusi, E; Vitali, G

    2002-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is a set of telescopes which measure the fluorescence light emitted by atmospheric nitrogen stimulated by the cosmic-ray showers. The Camera is an array of photomultipliers positioned on the telescope focal surface. We describe the main features of the camera: the hexagonal pixels geometry on the spherical focal surface; the light collectors which complement the photomultipliers; the photomultipliers test.

  2. The hybrid performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel, A.; /New Mexico U.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects ultra-high energy cosmic rays by implementing two complementary air-shower techniques. The combination of a large ground array and fluorescence detectors, known as the hybrid concept, means that a rich variety of measurements can be made on a single shower, providing much improved information over what is possible with either detector alone. In this paper the hybrid reconstruction approach and its performance are described.

  3. Muons in Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, M.

    We present measurements of muons in air showers at ultra-high energies with the Pierre Auger Observatory. The number of muons at the ground in air showers detected at large zenith angles is determined as a function of energy and the results are compared to air shower simulations. Furthermore, using data collected at zenith angles smaller than 60°, rescaling factors are derived that quantify the deficit of muon production in air shower simulations.

  4. Scanning Auger microscopy for high lateral and depth elemental sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Yadav, P. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Bouttemy, M. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Renault, O.; Borowik, Ł.; Bertin, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, 45 av. des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Chabli, A. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •SAM performances and limitations are illustrated on real practical cases such as the analysis of nanowires and nanodots. •High spatial elemental resolution is shown with the analysis of reference semiconducting Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs multilayers. •High in-depth elemental resolution is also illustrated. Auger depth profiling with low energy ion beams allows revealing ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm). •Analysis of cross-sectional samples is another effective approach to obtain in-depth elemental information. -- Abstract: Scanning Auger microscopy is currently gaining interest for investigating nanostructures or thin multilayers stacks developed for nanotechnologies. New generation Auger nanoprobes combine high lateral (∼10 nm), energy (0.1%) and depth (∼2 nm) resolutions thus offering the possibility to analyze the elemental composition as well as the chemical state, at the nanometre scale. We report here on the performances and limitations on practical examples from nanotechnology research. The spatial elemental sensitivity is illustrated with the analysis of Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As/GaAs heterostructures, Si nanowires and SiC nanodots. Regarding the elemental in-depth composition, two effective approaches are presented: low energy depth profiling to reveal ultra-thin layers (∼1 nm) and analysis of cross-sectional samples.

  5. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  6. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  7. Triggers for the Pierre Auger Observatory, the current status and plans for the future

    CERN Document Server

    Szadkowski, Z

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a multi-national organization for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Southern Auger Observatory (Auger-South) in the province of Mendoza, Argentina, has been completed in 2008. First results on the energy spectrum, mass composition and distribution of arrival directions on the southern sky are really impressive. The planned Northern Auger Observatory in Colorado, USA, (Auger-North) will open a new window into the universe and establish charged particle astronomy to determine the origin and nature of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. These cosmic particles carry information complementary to neutrinos and photons and to gravitational waves. They also provide an extremely energetic beam for the study of particle interactions at energies that thirty times higher than those reached in terrestrial accelerators. The Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector consisting of a Surface Detector (SD) and an atmospheric Fluorescence Detector (FD). The hybrid data set obtained when both...

  8. Ramsey method for Auger-electron interference induced by an attosecond twin pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Buth, Christian; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the archetype of an interference experiment for Auger electrons: two electron wave packets are launched by inner-shell ionizing a krypton atom using two attosecond light pulses with a variable time delay. This setting is an attosecond realization of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields. Interference of the two ejected Auger-electron wave packets is predicted, indicating that the coherence between the two pulses is passed to the Auger electrons. For the detection of the...

  9. Observation of resonance recombination lines in electron excited Auger spectra of Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined measurements of electron excited Nsub(4,5) Auger spectra and photoelectron emission on clean and oxidized Gd lead to a distinction between Auger lines originating from 4d → continuum and 4d → 4f resonance excitations. Several Auger structures are identified as due to the direct recombination of 4d94f8 states with the 4f and valence electrons. The shape of the most prominent Auger line for oxidized Gd agrees perfectly with the Fano profile of the 4f photoemission intensity. (orig.)

  10. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  11. High resolution carbon and oxygen K-LL Auger spectra of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiltunen, A.; Aksela, S.; Vikor, Gy.; Ricz, S. E-mail: ricz@atomki.hu; Koever, A.; Sulik, B

    1999-06-03

    The proton excited carbon and oxygen K-LL Auger spectra of carbon dioxide were measured using the high-resolution, angular resolving ESA-21 electron spectrometer. The proton impact energy was 1.0 MeV. The transition energies of both K-LL Auger-spectra (oxygen and carbon) are determined and compared with the existing theoretical and earlier experimental data. The experimental line widths full width at half maximum (FWHM) and relative intensities of the Auger lines are determined. The Auger emission was found to be isotropic within the experimental accuracy.

  12. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects in Pierre Auger Observatory data; (2) Discriminating potential astrophysical sources of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Intrinsic anisotropy of the UHECR from the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Ultra-high energy photon studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) Limits on the flux of diffuse ultra high energy neutrinos set using the Pierre Auger Observatory; (6) Search for sidereal modulation of the arrival directions of events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory; (7) Cosmic Ray Solar Modulation Studies in the Pierre Auger Observatory; (8) Investigation of the Displacement Angle of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays Caused by the Galactic Magnetic Field; (9) Search for coincidences with astrophysical transients in Pierre Auger Observatory data; and (10) An alternative method for determining the energy of hybrid events at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig spectra from relativistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    The intensities of L-shell Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions in heavy atoms have been calculated relativistically. A detailed comparison is made with measured Auger spectra of Pt and U. The pertinent transition energies were computed from relativistic wave functions with inclusion of the Breit interaction, self-energy, a vacuum-polarization correction, and complete atomic relaxation. Multiplet splitting is found to distribute Auger electrons from certain transitions among several lines. The analysis leads to reassignment of a number of lines in the measured spectra. Lines originally identified as L2-L3Ni in the U spectrum are shown to arise from M4,5 Auger transitions instead.

  14. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 20Ca17+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative Auger emission (RAE) from lithiumlike 20Ca17+ projectiles excited in collisions with He has been measured. The intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα X-ray emission is enhanced by a factor of 10-17 compared with theoretical calculations for ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for Ca17+ is consistent with the results reported previously for lithiumlike 16S13+ and 23V20+ and indicates a systematic dependence on Z. Both the enhancement and the relative RAE transition rate increase with Z. (orig.)

  15. Enhanced radiative Auger emission from lithiumlike 16S13+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative Auger emission (RAE) from 0.94--6.25-MeV/u 16S13+ (lithiumlike) projectiles excited in collisions with He target atoms has been measured. For these highly stripped ions the intensity of RAE photons relative to Kα x-ray emission is enhanced by about a factor of five compared with theoretical calculations and an earlier experimental measurement for S ions with few electron vacancies. The enhancement of RAE for S13+ is qualitatively similar to results reported previously for lithiumlike 23V20+; however, some differences between S and V are evident

  16. A worm section of an auger drilling installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.E.; Kiseleve, E.I.; Krutilin, V.I.; Manzhula, I.T.; Ovsiannikov, P.A.; Savich, N.S.; Tverezyi, Iu.F.

    1981-01-01

    A worm section of an auger drilling installation, comprising columns arranged in parallel and adapters for decreasing the disturbance of the walls of the wells, is characterized in that for the purpose of decreasing the consumption of energy, the adapter for the decrease in the disturbance in the walls of the wells is made in the form of a cylindrical cover with longitudinal windows, arranged on a segment of the length of the worm, with which each cover is positioned rigidly in order to prevent it from shifting lengthwise by means of a support, reinforced on the shaft of the worm. Cylindrical covers are interconnected by a connection element.

  17. SCALER MODE OF THE AUGER OBSERVATORY AND SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, Carlos A. Garcia; Tarutina, Tatiana [Instituto de Fisica La Plata, CCT La Plata, CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Hojvat, Carlos [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Recent data from the Auger Observatory on low-energy secondary cosmic ray particles are analyzed to study temporal correlations together with data on the daily sunspot numbers and neutron monitor data. Standard spectral analysis demonstrates that the available data show 1/f {sup {beta}} fluctuations with {beta} Almost-Equal-To 1 in the low-frequency range. All data behave like Brownian fluctuations in the high-frequency range. The existence of long-range correlations in the data was confirmed by detrended fluctuation analysis. The real data confirmed the correlation between the scaling exponent of the detrended analysis and the exponent of the spectral analysis.

  18. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, P; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; D. Allard; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; J. Alvarez-Muñiz; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.

    2013-01-01

    The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort fromthe technical and administrative staff in Malarg¨ue. The authors are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisi´on Nacional de Energ´ıa At´omica, Fundaci ´on Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malarg¨ue, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Le˜...

  19. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahams, J.; Coppens, J.; de Jong, S. J.; Falcke, H.; Grebe, S.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A; Jiraskova, S.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Timmermans, C

    2009-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing c...

  20. Search for Large Scale Anisotropies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the nature and the origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (>3\\cdot1018 eV). Completed at the end of 2008, it has been continuously operating for more than six years. Using data collected from 1 January 2004 until 31 March 2009, we search for large scale anisotropies with two complementary analyses in different energy windows. No significant anisotropies are observed, resulting in bounds on the first harmonic amplitude at the 1% level at EeV energies.

  1. Aperture calculation of the Pierre Auger Observatory surface detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Armengaud, E.; Aublin, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Chou, A.; Ghia, P.L.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Hamilton, J.C.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Medina, C.; Navarra, G.; Parizot, E.; Tripathi, A.

    2005-08-01

    We determine the instantaneous aperture and integrated exposure of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory, taking into account the trigger efficiency as a function of the energy, arrival direction (with zenith angle lower than 60 degrees) and nature of the primary cosmic-ray. We make use of the so-called Lateral Trigger Probability function (or LTP) associated with an extensive air shower, which summarizes all the relevant information about the physics of the shower, the water tank Cherenkov detector, and the triggers.

  2. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  3. Drilling Power Consumption and Soil Conveying Volume Performances of Lunar Sampling Auger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ye; TANG Dewei; DENG Zongquan; JIANG Shengyuan; QUAN Qiquan

    2015-01-01

    The sampling auger used in lunar sampling and return mission is to transmit power and convey soil, and its performance is the key factor of the whole mission. However, there is currently a lack of the optimization research on soil conveying volume and power consumption models in auger structure design. To provide the drilled object, the simulation lunar soil, whose physical and mechanical property is the same as the real soil, is made by reducing soil void ratio. The models are formulated to analyze the influence of auger structure parameters on power consumption and soil conveying volume. To obtaln the optimized structure parameters of auger, the multi-objective optimization functions of the maximum soil conveying volume and minimum power consumption are developed. To verify the correctness of the models, the performances of different augers drilling simulation soil are tested. The test results demonstrate that the power consumption of optimized auger is the lowest both in theory and test, and the experimental results of soil conveying volume are in agreement with theoretical analysis. Consequently, a new method for designing a lunar sampling auger is proposed which includes the models of soil conveying volume and transportation power consumption, the optimization of structure parameters and the comparison tests. This method provides a reference for sampling auger designing of the Chinese Lunar Sample Mission.

  4. Geometry dependence of Auger carrier capture rates into cone-shaped self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Bischoff, Svend; Uskov, A.V.;

    2003-01-01

    We calculate carrier capture rates into cone- and truncated-cone-shaped quantum dots mediated by Auger processes. It is demonstrated that the capture rates depend strongly on both dot size and shape. The importance of phonon-mediated versus the Auger-mediated capture processes is discussed....

  5. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellidol, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Mirarrionti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, T. J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, J.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, Si.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud. identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger

  6. Atmospheric Aerosol Attenuation Measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Valore, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a nearly calorimetric measurement of the primary particle energy, since the fluorescence light produced is proportional to the energy dissipated by an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) in the atmosphere. The atmosphere therefore acts as a giant calorimeter, whose properties need to be well known during data taking. Aerosols play a key role in this scenario, since their effect on light transmission is highly variable even on a time scale of one hour, and the corresponding correction to EAS energy can range from a few percent to more than 40%. For this reason, hourly Vertical Aerosol Optical Depth (taer(h)) profiles are provided for each of the four FD stations. Starting from 2004, up to now 9 years of taer(h) profiles have been produced using data from the Central Laser Facility (CLF) and the eXtreme Laser Facility (XLF) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The two laser facilities, the techniques developed to measure taer(h) profiles using laser dat...

  7. Digital electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA muon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, O.; Almela, A.; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Melo, D.; Hampel, M. R.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2014-04-01

    The ``Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array'' (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of `0's and `1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  8. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    CERN Document Server

    Wainberg, O; Platino, M; Sanchez, F; Suarez, F; Lucero, A; Videla, M; Wundheiler, B; Melo, D; Hampel, M; Etchegoyen, A

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slot. Muon counter data is sampled and stored at 320 MHz allowing both the detection of single photoelectrons and the implementation of an offline trigger designed to mitigate multi-pixel PMT crosstalk and dark rate undesired effects. Acquisition is carried out by the digital electronics built around a low power Cyclone III FPGA. This paper presents the digital electronics design, internal and external synchronization schemes, hardware tests, and first results from the Observatory.

  9. The offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiro, S.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Gonzalez, Javier G.; Nellen, L.; Paul, T.; Porter, T.; Prado, L., Jr.; Roth, M.; Ulrich, R.; Veberic, D.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and origin of the highest energy cosmic rays through the analysis of extensive air showers. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. They have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows Auger collaborators to contribute algorithms and configuration instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information residing in many data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package allowing manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++ and takes advantage of object oriented design and common open source tools, while keeping the user-side simple enough for C++ novices to learn in a reasonable time. The distribution system incorporates unit and acceptance testing in order to support rapid development of both the core framework and the contributed user codes.

  10. Ultrahigh Energy Neutrinos at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Abreu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEνs has become a priority in experimental astroparticle physics. UHEνs can be detected with a variety of techniques. In particular, neutrinos can interact in the atmosphere (downward-going ν or in the Earth crust (Earth-skimming ν, producing air showers that can be observed with arrays of detectors at the ground. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can detect these types of cascades. The distinguishing signature for neutrino events is the presence of very inclined showers produced close to the ground (i.e., after having traversed a large amount of atmosphere. In this work we review the procedure and criteria established to search for UHEνs in the data collected with the ground array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This includes Earth-skimming as well as downward-going neutrinos. No neutrino candidates have been found, which allows us to place competitive limits to the diffuse flux of UHEνs in the EeV range and above.

  11. Auger neutralization and ionization in grazing ion-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, R. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Univ. Muenster (Germany)); Miskovic, Z.L. (Boris Kidric Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1991-06-01

    The effect of the projectile velocity parallel to the surface v{sub parallel} on Auger-type neutralization and ionization processes during grazing scattering of atomic particles from surfaces will be discussed. It is found that, contrary to the static case (v{sub parallel}=0), under grazing collision the Auger-type electron exchange between the metallic conduction band and an atomic orbital is a two-way process: atomic particles may be neutralized, as well as ionized. In particular, two types of v{sub parallel} dependence are obtained: (1) a gradual decrease of the final atomic level population with increasing v{sub parallel} in the case of atomic levels below the Fermi level E{sub F}, and (2) a peak-shaped v{sub parallel} dependence for atomic levels above E{sub F}. The leading features of these basic electron-exchange mechanisms between atoms and surfaces are illustrated for various atomic quasi-one-electron systems scattered from silver and magnesium surfaces. (orig.).

  12. Ultrafast Molecular Three-Electron Collective Auger Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, Raimund

    2016-06-01

    A new class of many-electron Auger transitions in atoms was initially proposed over 40 years ago, but the first tentative evidence for its real existence was only adduced by Lee et al. in 1993, on the basis of the resonant Auger spectrum of Kr. Using a multi-electron coincidence technique with synchrotron radiation, we unambiguously showed very recently that the transition suggested by Lee et al. in Kr really does take place, but with a rather small branching ratio. Related inter-atomic three-electron transitions in rare gas clusters were recently predicted by Averbukh and Kolorenc and demonstrated by Ouchi et al.. From consideration of the energy levels involved it seems that the basic three-electron process could occur in molecules too, wherever a double inner-valence shell vacancy lies at a higher energy than the molecular triple ionisation onset. Experiments on CH_3F reveal for the first time the existence of this new decay pathway there, and calculations show that despite its three-electron nature, its effective oscillator strength is orders of magnitudes higher than in atoms, allowing an efficient competition with both molecular dissociation and two-electron decay channels on the ultrafast time scale. The dramatic enhancement of the molecular three-electron Auger transition can be explained in terms of a partial breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionisation. We predict that the collective decay pathway will be significant in a wide variety of heteroatomic molecules ionised by extreme UV and soft X-rays, particularly at Free-Electron-Lasers where double inner-shell vacancies can be created efficiently by two-photon transitions. G.N. Ogurtsov et al., Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 15, 1656 (1971) and V.V. Afrosimov et al., JETP Lett. 21, 249 (1975). I. Lee, R. Wehlitz, U. Becker and M. Ya. Amusia, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, L41 (1993). J.H.D. Eland, R.J. Squibb, M. Mucke, S. Zagorodskikh, P. Linusson, and R. Feifel, New J. Phys. 17, 122001 (2015). V

  13. Graph mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graph mining is the study of how to perform data mining and machine learning on data represented with graphs. One can distinguish between, on the one hand, transactional graph mining, where a database of separate, independent graphs is considered (such as databases of molecules and databases of images), and, on the other hand, large network analysis, where a single large network is considered (such as chemical interaction networks and concept networks).

  14. Effect of Auger Recombination on Lasing in Heterostructured Quantum Dots with Engineered Core/Shell Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Shin; Bae, Wan Ki; Baker, Thomas; Lim, Jaehoon; Klimov, Victor I

    2015-11-11

    Nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) are attractive materials for applications as laser media because of their bright, size-tunable emission and the flexibility afforded by colloidal synthesis. Nonradiative Auger recombination, however, hampers optical amplification in QDs by rapidly depleting the population of gain-active multiexciton states. In order to elucidate the role of Auger recombination in QD lasing and isolate its influence from other factors that might affect optical gain, we study two types of CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs with the same core radii and the same total sizes but different properties of the core/shell interface ("sharp" vs "smooth"). These samples exhibit distinctly different biexciton Auger lifetimes but are otherwise virtually identical. The suppression of Auger recombination in the sample with a smooth (alloyed) interface results in a notable improvement in the optical gain performance manifested in the reduction of the threshold for amplified spontaneous emission and the ability to produce dual-color lasing involving both the band-edge (1S) and the higher-energy (1P) electronic states. We develop a model, which explicitly accounts for the multiexciton nature of optical gain in QDs, and use it to analyze the competition between stimulated emission from multiexcitons and their decay via Auger recombination. These studies re-emphasize the importance of Auger recombination control for the realization of real-life QD-based lasing technologies and offer practical strategies for suppression of Auger recombination via "interface engineering" in core/shell structures. PMID:26397312

  15. Astrophysics Motivation behind the Pierre Auger Southern Observatory Enhancements

    CERN Document Server

    Medina-Tanco, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration intends to extend the energy range of its southern observatory in Argentina for high quality data from 0.1 to 3 EeV. The extensions, described in accompanying papers, include three additional fluorescence telescopes with a more elevated field of view (HEAT) and a nested surface array with 750 and 433 m spacing respectively and additional muon detection capabilities (AMIGA). The enhancement of the detector will allow measurement of cosmic rays, using the same techniques, from below the second knee up to the highest energies observed. The evolution of the spectrum through the second knee and ankle, and corresponding predicted changes in composition, are crucial to the understanding of the end of Galactic confinement and the effects of propagation on the lower energy portion of the extragalactic flux. The latter is strongly related to the cosmological distribution of sources and to the composition of the injected spectrum. We discuss the science motivation behind these enhancements...

  16. Measurement of Aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, S Y; Cester, R; Chiosso, M; Connolly, B M; Fick, B; Filipcic, A; García, B; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Horvat, M; Iarlori, M; Macolino, C; Malek, M; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Melo, D; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M; Monasor, M; Mostafá, M; Mussa, R; Pallotta, J; Petrera, S; Prouza, M; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Rojo, J R Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, D; Salamida, F; Santander, M; Sequeiros, G; Sommers, P; Tonachini, A; Valore, L; Verberic, D; Visbal, E; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The air fluorescence detectors (FDs) of the Pierre Auger Observatory are vital for the determination of the air shower energy scale. To compensate for variations in atmospheric conditions that affect the energy measurement, the Observatory operates an array of monitoring instruments to record hourly atmospheric conditions across the detector site, an area exceeding 3,000 square km. This paper presents results from four instruments used to characterize the aerosol component of the atmosphere: the Central Laser Facility (CLF), which provides the FDs with calibrated laser shots; the scanning backscatter lidars, which operate at three FD sites; the Aerosol Phase Function monitors (APFs), which measure the aerosol scattering cross section at two FD locations; and the Horizontal Attenuation Monitor (HAM), which measures the wavelength dependence of aerosol attenuation.

  17. A method and equipment for auger coal excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozovskii, I.I.; Levkovich, T.E.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this invention is to provide automated coal excavation in seams containing unstable rock. This is achieved by an arrangement whereby the auger coal excavation method, which includes advancing two parallel development workings, excavating and transporting the coal, and delivering the rock and filling the worked out area with this rock, which is performed by screw conveyors which are kinematically linked to the working tools, the worked-out space is filled at the same time the coal is excavated; the coal is transported to one of the development workings by a screw conveyor, and the rock is delivered to the work-out area by a second screw conveyor connected to a second development working. One of the conveyors is shortened during the coal excavation, while the second conveyor is lengthened. This device includes a working tool, two sectional screw conveyors and a conveyor drive; the screw conveyors are located on opposite sides of the working tool.

  18. The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S; González, J; Nellen, L; Paul, T; Porter, T A; Roth, M; Ulrich, R; Veberic, D

    2005-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage...

  19. The Offline Software Framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S; González, J; Nellen, L; Paul, T; Porter, T A; Prado, L; Roth, M; Ulrich, R; Veberic, D

    2007-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to unveil the nature and the origins of the highest energy cosmic rays. The large and geographically dispersed collaboration of physicists and the wide-ranging collection of simulation and reconstruction tasks pose some special challenges for the offline analysis software. We have designed and implemented a general purpose framework which allows collaborators to contribute algorithms and sequencing instructions to build up the variety of applications they require. The framework includes machinery to manage these user codes, to organize the abundance of user-contributed configuration files, to facilitate multi-format file handling, and to provide access to event and time-dependent detector information which can reside in various data sources. A number of utilities are also provided, including a novel geometry package which allows manipulation of abstract geometrical objects independent of coordinate system choice. The framework is implemented in C++, and takes advantage...

  20. The fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Mendoza, (UTN-FRM), Mendoza (Argentina); Abreu, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Aguirre, C. [Universidad Catolica de Bolivia, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Ahn, E.J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ambrosio, M. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Anzalone, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo (INAF), Palermo (Italy); Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy); Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Arganda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Argiro, S. [Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Arisaka, K. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arneodo, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi , L' Aquila (Italy); Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-08-21

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  1. Mass composition measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Bueno, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest ultra-high energy cosmic ray experiment built so far. It is a hybrid detector, since it measures both the fluorescence light emitted while the air showers develop in the atmosphere and the particles reaching the ground. We present the results related to the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays as obtained from both types of measurements. The depth at which the maximum of the electromagnetic development takes place and its fluctuations are the most sensitive parameters to infer the nature of the cosmic rays. In addition, we present the latest muon measurements that can be used to test and constrain models of hadronic interactions at energies larger than those reached at LHC.

  2. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, R., E-mail: rbonino@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica - IFSI, c.so Fiume 4, 10133 Torino (Italy); INFN sezione di Torino, v. P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2012-11-11

    Completed at the end of 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been continuously operating for more than seven years. We present here the analysis techniques and the results about the search for large scale anisotropies in the sky distribution of cosmic rays, reporting both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in right ascension in different energy ranges above 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV. Thanks to the collected statistics, a sensitivity of 1% at EeV energies can be reached. No significant anisotropies have been observed, upper limits on the amplitudes have been derived and are here compared with the results of previous experiments and with some theoretical expectations.

  3. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.

    2012-11-01

    Completed at the end of 2008, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been continuously operating for more than seven years. We present here the analysis techniques and the results about the search for large scale anisotropies in the sky distribution of cosmic rays, reporting both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in right ascension in different energy ranges above 2.5×1017 eV. Thanks to the collected statistics, a sensitivity of 1% at EeV energies can be reached. No significant anisotropies have been observed, upper limits on the amplitudes have been derived and are here compared with the results of previous experiments and with some theoretical expectations.

  4. The Rapid Atmospheric Monitoring System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility built to detect air showers produced by cosmic rays above 10^17 eV. During clear nights with a low illuminated moon fraction, the UV fluorescence light produced by air showers is recorded by optical telescopes at the Observatory. To correct the observations for variations in atmospheric conditions, atmospheric monitoring is performed at regular intervals ranging from several minutes (for cloud identification) to several hours (for aerosol conditions) to several days (for vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and humidity). In 2009, the monitoring program was upgraded to allow for additional targeted measurements of atmospheric conditions shortly after the detection of air showers of special interest, e.g., showers produced by very high-energy cosmic rays or showers with atypical longitudinal profiles. The former events are of particular importance for the determination of the energy scale of the Observatory, and the latter are characteristic of unusual air show...

  5. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacher, A; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H J M; Barenthien, N; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Bollmann, E; Bolz, H; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Bracci, F; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, D CaminL; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Castro, J; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordero, A; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J W; Cuautle, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daudo, F; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Gibbs, K; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grassi, V; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Grygar, J; Guardincerri, Y; Guardone, N; Guerard, C; Guarino, F; Gumbsheimer, R; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hofman, G; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Hucker, H; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kern, H; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Marchetto, F; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martineau, O; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mucchi, M; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nerling, F; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nicotra, D; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Oßwald, B; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Pouryamout, J; Prado, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, G Raia J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Roberts, M D; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; b, H Salazar; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, G Schleif A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Sequieros, G; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Smiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Trapani, P; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tusi, E; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vitali, G; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wild, N; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wörner, G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; b, A Zepeda; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a hybrid detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It combines a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level together with a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The fluorescence detector comprises 24 large telescopes specialized for measuring the nitrogen fluorescence caused by charged particles of cosmic ray air showers. In this paper we describe the components of the fluorescence detector including its optical system, the design of the camera, the electronics, and the systems for relative and absolute calibration. We also discuss the operation and the monitoring of the detector. Finally, we evaluate the detector performance and precision of shower reconstructions.

  6. Exploring the cosmic rays energy frontier with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The existence of cosmic rays with energies in excess of 1020 eV represents a longstanding scientific mystery. Unveileing the mechanism and source of production/acceleration of particles of such enormous energies is a challenging experimental task due to their minute flux, roughly one km2 century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, now nearing completion in Malargue, Mendoza Province, Argentina, is spread over an area of 3000 km2. Two techniques are employed to observe the cosmic ray showers: detection of the shower particles on the ground and detection of fluorescence light produced as the shower particles pass through the atmosphere. I will describe the status of the Observatory and its detectors, and early results from the data recorded while the observatory is reaching its completion.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  7. K-shell auger decay of atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolte, W.C.; Lu, Y.; Samson, J.A.R. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the present research is to understand the interaction between the ejected photoelectron and Auger electron produced by the Auger decay of a 1s hole in atomic oxygen, and to understand the influence this interaction has on the shape of the ionization cross sections. To accomplish this the authors have measured the relative ion yields (ion/photon) in the vicinity of the oxygen K-shell (525 - 533 eV) for O{sup +} and O{sup 2+}. The measurements were performed at the ALS on beamline, 6.3.2. The atomic oxygen was produced by passing molecular oxygen through a microwave-driven discharge. A Rydberg analysis of the two series leading to the [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 4}P) and [1s]2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 2}P) limits were obtained. This analysis shows some differences to the recently published results by Menzel et al. The energy position of the main 1s{sup 1}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5}({sup 3}P) resonance differs by approximately 1 eV from the authors value, all members of the ({sup 2}P)np series differ by 0.3 eV, but the members of the ({sup 4}P)np series agree. The molecular resonance at 530.5 eV and those between 539 eV and 543 eV, measured with the microwave discharge off show identical results in both experiments.

  8. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billoir, Pierre, E-mail: billoir@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ. P. and M. Curie and Univ. D. Diderot, 4 place Jussieu 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatorio Pierre Auger, av. San Martín Norte, 304 5613, Malargüe (Argentina)

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km{sup 2}), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense “infill” subarray. - Highlights: • The water Cherenkov technique is used in the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. • Cross-calibrated with the Fluorescence Detector, it provides a measurement of the primary energy. • The spectrum of the UHE cosmic rays exhibits clearly an “ankle” and a cutoff. • The muon observed muon content of the atmospheric showers is larger than expected from the models. • Stringent limits on the flux of UHE neutrinos and photons are obtained.

  9. MARTA - Muon Auger RPC for the Tank Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shellard, R.C.; Maurizio, D. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pimenta, M. [LIP, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The Pierre Auger Observatory was built with the goal of making a major contribution to the understanding of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), their origin and nature. It is sensitive to energies above roughly 10{sup 18} eV and it is fully efficient above 3 X 10{sup 18} eV. It has collected data with an exposure of over 31000 km{sup 2} .sr.year, since 2008. However, it has a poor discrimination capability to separate the electromagnetic and the muonic component of an air shower. A good separation capability is an important tool to improve the identification of the primary composition of cosmic rays. MARTA is a proposed detector to address this issue. It based on a well known technology of RPC's (Resistive Plate Chambers). We will present the physics requirements of Auger, for a muon detector, that leads to a better understanding of the structure of air showers and describe how MARTA comply with them. This will allow to: Measure the energy evolution of the distribution of the number of muons in the showers; Disentangle mass composition changes from a change in hadronic interactions at high energies; Improve the energy measurement by subtracting the muon component from the tank signal; Increase the primary photon discrimination power; Improve the estimation of the missing energy in air showers. We describe the detector, its capabilities, and the prototypes with are already installed in the Observatory. We discuss the problems which may arise in running these type of detectors under the harsh conditions of the pampas and the solutions that are proposed to face them. (author)

  10. K-shell Auger lifetime variation in doubly ionized Ne and first row hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolorenč, Přemysl; Averbukh, Vitali

    2011-10-01

    We consider 1s Auger decay in doubly (core-core and core-valence) ionized Ne and in the isoelectronic first row element hydrides. We show theoretically that the presence of the spectator inner valence vacancy leads to Auger lifetime variation of up to about a factor of 2, relative to the Auger lifetimes in the singly ionized species. The origin of this effect is traced to spin selection rules. Implications on the modelling of the radiation damage in strong x-ray fields are discussed.

  11. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, A. M. van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Ou...

  12. Doppler effect in resonant photoemission from SF6: correlation between Doppler profile and Auger emission anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, M; Ueda, K; De Fanis, A; Furuta, T; Shindo, H; Tanaka, H; Okada, K; Feifel, R; Sorensen, S L; Gel'mukhanov, F; Baev, A; Agren, H

    2003-11-21

    Fragmentation of the SF6 molecule upon F 1s excitation has been studied by resonant photoemission. The F atomiclike Auger line exhibits the characteristic Doppler profile that depends on the direction of the photoelectron momentum relative to the polarization vector of the radiation as well as on the photon energy. The measured Doppler profiles are analyzed by the model simulation that takes account of the anisotropy of the Auger emission in the molecular frame. The Auger anisotropy extracted from the data decreases with an increase in the F-SF5 internuclear distance.

  13. Properties of Auger electrons following excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupliauskiene, A. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: akupl@itpa.lt; Tutlys, V. [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Vilnius University, A. Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-01-15

    In non-relativistic approximation, the most general expression for differential cross sections describing the properties of Auger-electron emission induced in the excitation of polarized atoms by polarized electrons is obtained for the first time. The ways of the application of the general expressions suitable for the specific experimental conditions are outlined by deriving the expressions for the asymmetry parameters and the magnetic dichroism of the angular distribution of the Auger electrons as well as of the angular correlations between the scattered and Auger electrons.

  14. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  15. Auger recombination of dark excitons in WS2 and WSe2 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovich, Mark; Zólyomi, Viktor; Fal'ko, Vladimir I.; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel phonon assisted Auger process unique to the electronic band structure of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which dominates the radiative recombination of ground state excitons in tungsten based TMDCs. Using experimental and density functional theory computed values for the exciton energies, spin-orbit splittings, optical matrix element, and the Auger matrix elements, we find that the Auger process begins to dominate at carrier densities as low as {10}9-10 {{cm}}-2, thus providing a plausible explanation for the low quantum efficiencies reported for these materials.

  16. Mining`s global tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.; Grimstone, L.; MacBeth, A.

    1995-05-01

    Consists of an edited extract of the chapter `Mining Today, Australia`s Tomorrow - Exploration and Mining Globally to 2020` from the CSIRO book. `Challenge to change: Australia in 2020`. Forecasts the state of the Australian mineral industry in 2020 covering aspects such as: exploration concepts and area selection; excavation design and engineering; developments in mining technology and equipment; environmental management; and minerals processing. Presents an optimistic view of the long-term future of the Australian mining industry. Predicts that by 2020 Australia will emerge as the leader of an Austral/Asian trading bloc incorporating India, SE Asia, Pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand.

  17. Ellog Auger Drilling -"3-in-one" method for hydrogeological data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kurt; Larsen, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    The Ellog auger drilling method is an integrated approach for hydrogeological data collection during auger drilling in unconsolidated sediments. The drill stem is a continuous flight, hollow-stem auger with integrated electrical and gamma logging tools. The geophysical logging is performed...... continuously while drilling. Data processing is carried out in the field, and recorded log features are displayed as drilling advances. A slotted section in the stem, above the cutting head, allows anaerobic water and soil-gas samples to be taken at depth intervals of approximately 0.2 m. The logging, water....... The Ellog auger drilling method provides detailed information on small-scale changes in lithology, sediment chemistry, and water, as well as gas compositions in aquifer systems - data essential to hydrogeological studies....

  18. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmia\\lkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the composition of the highest energy cosmic rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory, including examination of hadronic physics effects on the structure of extensive air showers. Submissions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland (July 2009).

  19. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mičanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.01.049

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors and fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory, the radio analysis functionality had to be incorporated in the existing hybrid analysis solutions for fluoresence and surface detector data. This goal has been achieved in a natural way by extending the existing Auger Offline software framework with radio functionality. In this article, we lay out the design, highlights and features of the radio extension implemented in the Auger Offline framework. Its functionality has achieved a high degree of sophistication and offers advanced features such as vectorial reconstruction of the electric field, advanced signal processing algorithms, a transparent and efficient handling of FFTs, a very detailed simulation of...

  20. Study of KLL Auger processes for light elements above Z = 10. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, T.A.; Dress, W.B.; Nyberg, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the KLL Auger spectrum for members of the third row of the periodic table. This group contains the lightest elements wherein an Auger process can occur without the direct participation of the valence shell. Recent Auger spectra induced by x-ray photoionization on Mg, Al, and Si metals and their oxides are given as well as preliminary results on salts of Na and K, and for comparison, the LMM spectra of RbCl. Results were combined with previous experimental data and theory in order to obtain an overview. Four topics concerned with Auger processes are discussed: Energies, relative intensities, chemical shifts, and satellite structure. Interlaced throughout is a discussion of the role played by the chemical environment and electron correlation.

  1. Magnetic field influence on Auger effect on shallow donors in CdF2:Mn+ luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct observation of the suppression of the Auger effect on shallow donors by magnetic field in the luminescence of manganese ions in semiconducting CdF2:Mn crystals is presented. The magnetic field decreases the probability of the Auger effect, which is spin-dependent energy transfer from the manganese ions to the electrons occupying shallow donors. This results in the increase in the decay times of the luminescence. (author)

  2. Argon and krypton Auger spectra induced by ion bombardment of aluminium and silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements are reported of Auger (autoionization) spectra of Ar and Kr produced by bombarding Al and Si substrates with Ar+ and Kr+ ions in the 110 eV-5 keV energy range. These are shown to be consistent with the simple Doppler model suggested, for Ne and Al and Si, in a previous paper. Once corrected using the model, the observed Auger energies are shown to correspond to theoretical predictions produced using Dirac-Fock calculations. (Author)

  3. Auger electron spectroscopy as a tool for measuring intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkoev, T. T.

    1993-10-01

    A way for the determination of the values of intramolecular charges of adsorbed molecules of some binary dielectrics, based on Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), is proposed. These values can be obtained from the coverage dependences of the ratios of intensities of anion KL 23L 23 and KL 1L 1 Auger transitions, which are sensitive to the amount of charge at the 2p-orbitals. As an example, MgO adsorbed on Mo(110) is presented.

  4. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colalillo, Roberta

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  5. Biophysical aspects of Auger processes: A review of the literature 1987--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on Auger emitters held in Oxfordshire in 1987 produced papers on physical dosimetry, molecular damage, biologic effects, and therapeutic applications. These are briefly summarized. Since that time there has appeared in the literature a number of reports on Auger processes as they relate to microscopic and cellular dosimetry, DNA damage, biologic consequences, and therapeutic potential. A number of these are reviewed as background for the Second International Symposium

  6. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  7. New insight into the Auger decay process in O{sub 2}: The coincidence perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arion, Tiberiu, E-mail: tiberiu.arion@cfel.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Puettner, Ralph [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Lupulescu, Cosmin [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und atomare Physik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ovsyannikov, Ruslan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Foerstel, Marko [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Oehrwall, Gunnar [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Lindblad, Andreas [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Ueda, Kiyoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Svensson, Svante [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bradshaw, Alex M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und atomare Physik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed a new experimental set-up for e,e-coincidence experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New information on the potential curves of the final states in O{sub 2} has been extracted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observed new features, assigned to autoionization of neutral doubly excited states. -- Abstract: Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of Auger decay processes with different core-ionized intermediate states. In this paper we describe an investigation into the Auger decay of the O{sub 2} molecule, with the purpose of bringing new insight into the dynamics of the core hole decay mechanism. Using a novel experimental approach to measuring such coincidence spectra we report the highest resolution Auger spectrum of O{sub 2} recorded hitherto. In our approach, we have combined the advantages of these coincidence spectra with the high resolution and excellent signal-to-noise ratios of non-coincident Auger spectra and a state-of-the-art fit analysis. In this way we have derived information about the potential energy curves of the final states W {sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}, B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}, and B Prime {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup -} and concluded that the corresponding Auger transitions are formed to a large part by strongly overlapping vibrational progressions. The present findings are compared to earlier results reported in the literature confirming some theoretical predictions.

  8. Ramsey interferometry for resonant Auger decay through core-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Souvik; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the electron dynamics in Ne atoms involving core-excited states through the Ramsey scheme with a pair of time-delayed x-ray pulses. Irradiation of Ne atoms by the ˜1 femtosecond x-ray pulse simultaneously populates two core-excited states, and an identical but time-delayed x-ray pulse probes the dynamics of the core-excited electron wave packet which is subject to the resonant Auger decay. The energy-integrated total Auger electron yield and energy-resolved Auger electron spectra in the time domain show periodic structures due to the temporal evolution of the wave packet, from which we can obtain the counterpart in the frequency domain through the Fourier transformation. The Auger electron energy spectra in the time as well as frequency domains show the interference patterns between the two Auger electron wave packets released into the continuum from the superposition of two core-excited states at different times. These spectra are important to clarify the individual contribution of the different Auger decay channels upon core excitation by the x-ray pulse.

  9. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  10. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  11. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  12. Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence study for condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, G. [Department of Physics and Unita' INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: stefani@fis.uniroma3.it; Gotter, R. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Ruocco, A. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Offi, F. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Pieve, F. Da [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Iacobucci, S. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Morgante, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Verdini, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Liscio, A. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Yao, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Bartynski, R.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Advances in materials science have produced a wide array of new solid-state systems with tunable properties and previously unattainable combinations of phenomena that hold the promise of entirely new approaches to technological applications. Invariably, these new materials are increasingly complex and include a large number of constituents in a variety of chemical states. Entirely new theoretical and experimental approaches are needed to gain the insights necessary for intelligent engineering of these materials. In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have demonstrated the capability of investigating complicated systems with sensitivity and specificity well beyond the limits imposed by conventional electron spectroscopies. Over the past decade or so, Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) has emerged as a powerful technique for obtaining detailed information about complex materials systems. Moreover, the recent advent of angle-resolved (AR)-APECS has introduced a new level of discrimination in studying the distribution of electrons photoemitted from complex systems. In this review, we describe the basic ideas behind APECS and discuss a study of the SiO{sub 2} system as an example of the unique information this technique can provide. We then introduce the concept of AR-APECS, explain its novel state and angular momentum selectivity that can be used to disentangle information about complex systems that is hidden to conventional spectroscopies. Examples of AR-APECS measurements from Cu, Ge, and graphite that exemplify the capabilities of this technique are presented.

  13. The Cherenkov Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects the atmospheric showers induced by cosmic rays of ultra-high energy (UHE). It is the first one to use the hybrid technique. A set of telescopes observes the fluorescence of the nitrogen molecules on clear moonless nights, giving access to the longitudinal profile of the shower. These telescopes surround a giant array of 1600 water Cherenkov tanks (covering more than 3000 km2), which works continuously and samples the particles reaching the ground (mainly muons, photons and electrons/positrons); the light produced within the water is recorded into FADC (Fast Analog to Digital Convertes) traces. A subsample of hybrid events provides a cross calibration of the two components. We describe the structure of the Cherenkov detectors, their sensitivity to different particles and the information they can give on the direction of origin, the energy and the nature of the primary UHE object; we discuss also their discrimination power for rare events (UHE photons or neutrinos). To cope with the variability of weather conditions and the limitations of the communication system, the procedures for trigger and real time calibration have been shared between local processors and a central acquisition system. The overall system has been working almost continuously for 10 years, while being progressively completed and increased by the creation of a dense "infill" subarray.

  14. On the results of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, Martin, E-mail: lemoine@iap.f [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2009-05-15

    This paper discusses the correlation recently reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) of the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays with active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within 75 Mpc. It is argued that these correlating AGN do not have the power required to be the sources of those particles. It is further argued that the current PAO data disfavors giant radio-galaxies (both Fanaroff-Riley type I and II) as sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The reported correlation with AGN should thus be understood as follows: the AGN trace the distribution of the local large scale structure, in which the actual sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays camouflage. The most promising theoretical candidates for these sources are then gamma-ray bursts and magnetars. One important consequence of the above is that one will not detect counterparts in gamma-rays, neutrinos or gravitational waves to the sources of these observed ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, since the cosmic rays are delayed by extragalactic magnetic fields on timescales approx10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yrs much larger than the emission timescale of these sources.

  15. AMIGA at the Auger observatory: the telecommunications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMIGA is an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory that will consist of 85 detector pairs, each one composed of a surface water-Cherenkov detector and a buried muon counter. Each muon counter has an area of 30 square meters and is made of scintillator strips, with doped optical fibers glued to them, which guide the light to 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes. The detector pairs are arranged at 433 m and 750 m array spacings. In this paper we present the telecommunications system designed to connect the muon counters with the central data processing system at the observatory campus in Malarg and quot;ue. The telecommunications system consists of a point-to-multipoint radio link designed to connect the 85 muon counters or subscribers to two coordinators located at the Coihueco fluorescence detector building. The link provides TCP/IP remote access to the scintillator modules through router boards installed on each of the surface detectors of AMIGA. This setup provides a flexible LAN configuration for each muon counter connected to a WAN that links all the data generated by the muon counters and the surface detectors to the Central Data Acquisition System, or CDAS, at the observatory campus. We present the design parameters, the proposed telecommunications solution and the laboratory and field tests proposed to guarantee its functioning for the whole data traffic generated between each surface detector and muon counter in the AMIGA array and the CDAS

  16. ELVES light intensity studies at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Roberto; Maiorana, Carolina

    2016-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Malargüe (Argentina), is the largest facility (3000 km2) for the study of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>1018 eV). The four sites of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) are continuously observing the night sky with moon fraction below 50% (13% duty cycle) with 100 ns time resolution and a space resolution below one degree. The fluorescence light (λ = 300 nm to 420 nm) produced by shower in the atmosphere is proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic ray. The atmospheric optical properties are continuously monitored by the Observatory with a set of dedicated instruments (lidars, cloud cameras, weather stations). The energy of each cosmic ray can therefore be measured with a systematic energy resolution about 14%. After the serendipitous discovery of an ELVES candidate event in 2005, a special trigger has been implemented to detect these phenomena with high efficiency, fully operational since March 2013. Since January 2014 the ELVES candidates are read out with a modified DAQ scheme, to observe the light emission from above the vertical of the causative lightning. This paper will report about the analysis of the correlation between light emission and lightning intensity as recorded by lightning detection networks, on data taken in the last three years of operation.

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF/sub 2/ as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states. (GHT)

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy of solids and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of photoelectron spectroscopy, primarily x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, to obtain information on the electronic structure of a wide variety of solids (especially the bulk electronic structure of solids) is covered. Both valence band and core-level spectra, as well as a few cases of photon excited Auger electron spectroscopy, are employed in the investigations to derive information on N(E). The effect of several modulations inherent in the measured I(E)'s, such as final state band structure, cross section, and relaxation, is discussed. Examples of many-electron interactions in PES are given. Some experimental aspects of PES and AES studies are given with emphasis on sample preparation techniques. Multiple splitting of core levels is examined using the Mn levels in MnF2 as a detailed case study. Core level splittings in transition metals, rare earth metals, transition metal halides and several alloys are also reported. The application of PES to the study of the chemical bond in some crystalline semiconductors and insulators, A/sup N/B/sup 8-N/ and A/sup N/B/sup 10-N/ compounds is treated, and a spectroscopic scale of ionicity for these compounds is developed from the measured ''s-band'' splitting in the valence band density of states

  19. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots. PMID:27087053

  20. Auger Recombination in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots: Quenching and Broadening of the Charged Exciton Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzmann, Annika; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2016-05-11

    In quantum dots (QDs), the Auger recombination is a nonradiative process in which the electron-hole recombination energy is transferred to an additional carrier. It has been studied mostly in colloidal QDs, where the Auger recombination time is in the picosecond range and efficiently quenches the light emission. In self-assembled QDs, on the other hand, the influence of Auger recombination on the optical properties is in general neglected, assuming that it is masked by other processes such as spin and charge fluctuations. Here, we use time-resolved resonance fluorescence to analyze the Auger recombination and its influence on the optical properties of a single self-assembled QD. From excitation-power-dependent measurements, we find a long Auger recombination time of about 500 ns and a quenching of the trion transition by about 80%. Furthermore, we observe a broadening of the trion transition line width by up to a factor of 2. With a model based on rate equations, we are able to identify the interplay between tunneling and Auger rate as the underlying mechanism for the reduced intensity and the broadening of the line width. This demonstrates that self-assembled QDs can serve as an ideal model system to study how the charge recapture process, given by the band-structure surrounding the confined carriers, influences the Auger process. Our findings are not only relevant for improving the emission properties of colloidal QD-based emitters and dyes, which have recently entered the consumer market, but also of interest for more visionary applications, such as quantum information technologies, based on self-assembled quantum dots.

  1. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  2. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  3. Detailed theoretical and experimental description of normal Auger decay in O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Zhuo; Travnikova, Oksana; Svensson, Svante; Piancastelli, Maria Novella [Physics Department, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Fink, Reinhold F [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Am Hubland, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Ceolin, Denis [Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: Maria-Novella.Piancastelli@fysik.uu.se

    2008-06-28

    The normal Auger electron spectrum of the O{sub 2} molecule is assigned in detail on the basis of ab initio valence configuration interaction (CI) wavefunctions. Potential energy curves of the ground state, the core-ionized states and the doubly charged final states are calculated and Auger decay rates are obtained with the one-centre approximation. Using the lifetime vibrational interference method, band shapes are obtained for all contributions to the Auger spectrum. The calculated Auger electron spectrum allows us to identify all features observed experimentally. Significant differences to previous assignments are reported. A quantitative simulation of the spectrum is given on the basis of a curve-fitting procedure, in which the energetic positions and intensities of the theoretical bands were optimized. Besides providing a basis for a refined analysis of the spectrum, the fit allows us to assess the accuracy of the calculation. As expected for this level of theory, the absolute accuracy of the valence CI energies is found to be about 0.3 eV. The inherent error of the one-centre transition rates is less than 5% of the most intense transition in the spectrum. The frequently questioned one-centre Auger transition rates are shown to be rather appropriate if applied with reasonable wavefunctions and if the vibrational band structure of the molecular spectrum is properly taken into account.

  4. Universal size dependence of auger constants in direct- and indirect-gap semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robel, Istvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gresback, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Kortshagen, Uwe [U OF MINNESOTA

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of multi-electron phenomena including non radiative Auger recombination. In this process, a conduction-band electron recombines with a valence-band hole by transferring the recombination energy to a third carrier. Significant interest in Auger recombination in NCs has been stimulated by recent studies ofNC lasing, and generation-III photovoltaics enabled by carrier multiplication because in both of these prospective applications Auger recombination represents a dominant carrier-loss mechanism. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of Auger recombination rates in NCs of several different compositions including Ge, PbSe, InAs, and CdSe. We observe that the only factor, which has a significant effect on the measured recombination rates, is the size of the NCs but not the details of the material's electronic structure. Most surprisingly, comparable rates are measured for nanocrystals of directand indirect-gap semiconductor NCs despite a dramatic four-to-five orders of magnitude difference in respective bulk-semiconductor Auger constants. This unusual observation can be explained by confinement-induced relaxation of momentum conservation, which smears out the difference between direct- and indirect-gap materials.

  5. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  6. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  7. Experimental evidence for extreme surface sensitivity in Auger-Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) from solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, A.; Gotter, R.; Ruocco, A.; Iacobucci, S.; Danese, A.G.; Bartynski, R.A.; Stefani, G

    2004-07-01

    Core hole creation and subsequent Auger decay processes are studied with unprecedented discrimination by Auger-Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). Early works in this field have already pointed out the intrinsic surface sensitivity of these experiments. However, it was not until recently that a model calculation was developed to quantitatively evaluate it. Here we present the first attempt to experimentally establish an effective target thickness for such experiments. The angular distribution of 3p{sub 3/2} photoelectron with kinetic energy of 160 eV is measured in coincidence with the M{sub 3}VV Auger electron with kinetic energy of 55 eV on a Cu (1 1 1) surface. Coincidence and non-coincidence photoelectron angular distributions display differences that, to large extent, are explained by confining the source of the coincident signal within the first two layers of Cu target, thus establishing an experimental upper limit for the effective target thickness of the APECS experiment.

  8. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array (PISA 2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Frank G

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about View the $17\\,$km$^2$, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of...

  9. Spectral analysis of the low energy Auger emission from a (0 0 0 1) ruthenium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, Jerzy J.; Krajniak, Janusz

    2003-04-30

    The low energy Auger emission from a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface have been analysed by means of a cylindrical mirror analyser (CMA) within the range of the electron energy (E) from 27 to 37 eV as a function of the primary electron energy (E{sub p}), which was set from 170 to 450 eV in 20 eV steps. Three Auger transitions at following energies: 31.7, 33.8 and 36.4 eV, have been found due to application of the backscattering generation factor idea. Obtained results for the Auger transitions were verified by means of XPS results published by Fuggle et al. [Surf. Sci. 52 (1975) 521].

  10. The Auger Engineering Radio Array and multi-hybrid cosmic ray detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E. M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) aims at the detection of air showers induced by high-energy cosmic rays. As an extension of the Pierre Auger Observatory, it measures complementary information to the particle detectors, fluorescence telescopes and to the muon scintillators of the Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array (AMIGA). AERA is sensitive to all fundamental parameters of an extensive air shower such as the arrival direction, energy and depth of shower maximum. Since the radio emission is induced purely by the electromagnetic component of the shower, in combination with the AMIGA muon counters, AERA is perfect for separate measurements of the electrons and muons in the shower, if combined with a muon counting detector like AMIGA. In addition to the depth of the shower maximum, the ratio of the electron and muon number serves as a measure of the primary particle mass.

  11. Validation of 64Cu-ATSM damaging DNA via high-LET Auger electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive copper (II) (diacetyl-bis N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) isotopes were originally developed for the imaging of hypoxia in tumors. Because the decay of a 64Cu atom is emitting not only positrons but also Auger electrons, this radionuclide has great potential as a theranostic agent. However, the success of 64Cu-ATSM internal radiation therapy would depend on the contribution of Auger electrons to tumor cell killing. Therefore, we designed a cell culture system to define the contributions to cell death from Auger electrons to support or refute our hypothesis that the majority of cell death from 64Cu-ATSM is a result of high-LET Auger electrons and not positrons or other low-LET radiation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) wild type and DNA repair–deficient xrs5 cells were exposed to 64Cu-ATSM during hypoxic conditions. Surviving fractions were compared with those surviving gamma-radiation, low-LET hadron radiation, and high-LET heavy ion exposure. The ratio of the D10 values (doses required to achieve 10% cell survival) between CHO wild type and xrs5 cells suggested that 64Cu-ATSM toxicity is similar to that of high-LET Carbon ion radiation (70 keV/μm). γH2AX foci assays confirmed DNA double-strand breaks and cluster damage by high-LET Auger electrons from 64Cu decay, and complex types of chromosomal aberrations typical of high-LET radiation were observed after 64Cu-ATSM exposure. The majority of cell death was caused by high-LET radiation. This work provides strong evidence that 64Cu-ATSM damages DNA via high-LET Auger electrons, supporting further study and consideration of 64Cu-ATSM as a cancer treatment modality for hypoxic tumors. (author)

  12. The offline software package for analysis of radio emission from air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraenkel, Eric Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In anticipation of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) to be built at the Pierre Auger Observatory, radio functionality has been built into the Offline analysis framework. For the purpose of radio-hybrid analysis and to facilitate a standardized treatment of simulation as well as experimental d

  13. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  14. Data Acquisition, Triggering, and Filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, J L

    2012-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 10^17 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  15. Effects of the atomic level shift in the Auger neutralization rates of noble metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, R.C., E-mail: r.c.monreal@uam.es [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Centre (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Goebl, D.; Primetzhofer, D.; Bauer, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom-und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    In this work we compare characteristics of Auger neutralization of He{sup +} ions at noble metal and free-electron metal surfaces. For noble metals, we find that the position of the energy level of He with respect to the Fermi level has a non-negligible influence on the values of the calculated Auger rates through the evaluation of the surface dielectric susceptibility. We conclude that even though our calculated rates are accurate, further theoretical effort is needed to obtain realistic values of the energy level of He in front of these surfaces.

  16. Radiotoxicity induced by auger electron emitters in human osteosarcoma cell line using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) was used to evaluate the radiotoxicity of Auger electron emitters in the human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). After internal exposure to 67Ga-EDTMP, the sarcoma cell has been injured severely. The comet length was longer along with the increase of dose, the appearance of comet tail was different from that with respect to the 60Co γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage of cell was mainly due to the radiation effect of Auger electrons. The 67Ga may be a therapeutic radionuclide with good prospect for tumor treatment and palliation of bone pain induced by metastasis

  17. Étude par spectrométrie auger d'alliages aluminium-cuivre liquides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laty, P.; Joud, J. C.; Desré, P.

    1981-03-01

    Surface analysis of liquid aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys have been performed by Auger electron spectroscopy at 775°C. Experiments were carried out, in UHV chamber, on liquid droplets located in graphite crucible heated by a heat pipe. Pure aluminium has been studied in view to estimate surface contamination. For each Al-Cu alloy surface composition is calculated from the Auger spectra. Peak to peak height ratios are deduced from limited extrapolation t zero level contamination. The deduced Al enrichment of the surface is compared with thermodynamical computation based on statistical model or Gibbs' adsorption relation.

  18. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration; Aab, Alexander; Abreu, Pedro; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For ...

  19. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  20. Photoelectron recapture and reemission process associated with double Auger decay in Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Mashiko, R.; Odagiri, T.; Adachi, J.; Tanaka, H.; Kosuge, T.; Ito, K.

    2016-06-01

    Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy has been performed for Ar at a photon energy of only 0.2 eV above the 2 p1 /2 threshold. It is revealed that a postcollision interaction induced by double Auger decay leads to photoelectron recapture, followed by reemission of the captured electron, where the recapture of the slow photoelectron forms the A r2 + Rydberg-excited states which subsequently undergo autoionization. The energy correlation of the emitted electrons discloses that both direct and cascade paths in the double Auger decay contribute to the photoelectron recapture.

  1. Communication: Formation of slow electrons in the Auger decay of core-ionized water molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakano, M.; Odagiri, T.; Soejima, K.; Suzuki, I. H.; Lablanquie, P.; Penent, F.; Ito, K.

    2012-11-01

    Double Auger decay of O1s-1 and its satellite states in H2O has been studied with a multi-electron coincidence method, and a process leading to autoionizing O* fragments has been revealed. The breaking of the two O-H bonds producing the autoionizing O* fragments occurs for highly excited H2O2+ populated by the initial Auger decay. The O* fragments are more favorably produced in the decay from the satellite states, resulting from the larger population of highly excited H2O2+ states inheriting the valence excitation in the initial state.

  2. Angle-Resolved Auger Spectroscopy as a Sensitive Access to Vibronic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, A.; Patanen, M.; Hans, A.; Petrov, I. D.; Bozek, J. D.; Ehresmann, A.; Demekhin, Ph. V.

    2016-05-01

    In the angle-averaged excitation and decay spectra of molecules, vibronic coupling may induce the usually weak dipole-forbidden transitions by the excitation intensity borrowing mechanism. The present complementary theoretical and experimental study of the resonant Auger decay of core-to-Rydberg excited CH4 and Ne demonstrates that vibronic coupling plays a decisive role in the formation of the angle-resolved spectra by additionally involving the decay rate borrowing mechanism. Thereby, we propose that the angle-resolved Auger spectroscopy can in general provide very insightful information on the strength of the vibronic coupling.

  3. Investigation of low-Z Coster-Kronig transitions by means of Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.; Tsang, T.; Adler, I.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental intensity ratios of Auger transitions for Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn as well as the relative L sub 2 and L sub 3 level widths of Cu and Zn, derived from their photoelectron spectra, are presented. Evidence is presented that a great deal of vacancy reorganization took place following photoionization and prior to Auger emission. These reorganizations are assumed to be due to Coster-Kronig transitions f sub 23. These results are compared with theoretical calculations and agree with predicted discontinuity at Z = 30 where f sub 23 transitions become energetically impossible.

  4. Fluorescence and Auger Decay Properties of the Core-Excited F-Like Ions from Ne to Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang-Li; DONG Chen-Zhong; SU Mao-Gen; KOIKE Fumihiro

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10Auger transition rates, radiative, Auger and natural widths, as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented. It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z; the Auger rate is overtaken at Z = 30 by the radiative decay rate. Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.%Ve systematically study the decay properties of the K-shell excited F-like ions with 10≤Z≤36 based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method.The Breit interaction,the QED corrections and the nuclear finite mass effects are also considered as perturbation.Auger transition rates,radiative,Auger and natural widths,as well as fluorescence and Auger yields for K-shell excited F-like ions are presented.It is shown by means of concrete figures that the decay properties change significantly with the increase of the atomic number Z;the Auger rate is overtaken at Z =30 by the radiative decay rate.Several fitting formulae for the radiative and Auger widths and the fluorescence yields have been evaluated which is expected to be useful in plasma analysis and plasma modeling.

  5. Study of the Pierre Auger Observatory ground detectors: tests, simulation and calibration; Etude des detecteurs de surface de l'observatoire Pierre Auger: tests, simulation et etalonnage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creusot, A

    2004-10-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is intended to the ultra high energy cosmic rays study. This study is realized through the particles showers coming from the interaction between the cosmic rays and the atmosphere. The ground detection of these showers requires a comprehensive understanding of the detectors. Several test tanks have been elaborated for this purpose, especially the Orsay one. The first chapter is dedicated to the presentation of the cosmic rays and of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The second one describes the detectors used for the Observatory surface array. The Orsay test tank is then presented and detailed. We study the results we have got with the Orsay test tank in the fourth chapter and compare these results with those of the Observatory detectors in the fifth chapter. The sixth chapter is dedicated to the validation of the results set through the simulation (GEANT4 software). Finally, the first detected particles showers are presented in the seventh chapter. The data acquisition has begun this year. The construction will be finished by end of 2005. From this moment, The Pierre Auger Observatory will allow us to contribute to solving the cosmic rays puzzle. (author)

  6. Mining machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outram, J.K.

    1978-11-23

    This is concerned with a supporting and transport device for heavy mining auxiliary equipment such as hydraulic units, switchgear, transformers, etc., which must be erected nearby to operate large mines and which have to be moved on as the workings progress. The device consists of long steel structures consisting of girders, whose upper/outer part made as a bridge unit surrounds the conveyor part lying below it over its whole length. The bridge with the auxiliary equipment fixed to it can be lifted at the ends and in the centre by jacks. The bridge anchored to the floor of the seam engages with guide wheels under a flat rail, which are distributed on both sides along its length, where the rails run on the left and right along its length. Both rails form a track like that of a crane trolley, on which the conveyor structure under the bridge unit can be moved forward a certain distance. By lowering the bridge by its jacks, other pairs of wheels engage the same rails from above, so that the bridge with the auxiliary equipment can also be moved along on the support structure resting on the floor of the seam. By repeating this process all auxiliary equipment is brought close to the mining face by moving the required distance.

  7. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km$^2$. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the under-ground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 10$^{17}$ eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60$^{\\circ}$ zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62$^{\\circ}$ to 80$^{\\circ}$ will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km$^2$ for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determi...

  8. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil. PMID:27047705

  9. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Obseervatory - the birth of the hybrid era

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, A A

    2008-01-01

    Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. In particular there is a detailed discussion of of the cosmic ray energy spectrum from 0.3 EeV to 100 EeV and of the mass composition above 1 EeV.

  10. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  11. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos

  12. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weinidl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The "hybrid" detection mode combines th

  13. Surface sensitivity effects with local probe scanning Auger-scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Agterveld, DTL; Palasantzas, G; De Hosson, JTM; Bentley, J; Allen, C; Dahmen, U; Petrov,

    2001-01-01

    Ultra-high-vacuum segregation studies on in-situ fractured Cu-Sb alloys were performed in terms of nanometer scale scanning Auger/Electron microscopy. S contamination leads to the formation Of Cu2S precipitates which, upon removal due to fracture, expose pits with morphology that depends on the prec

  14. Auger electron spectroscopic study of CO{sub 2} adsorption on Zircaloy-4 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojilovic, N.; Farkas, N. [Institute for Teaching and Learning and Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-6236 (United States); Ramsier, R.D. [Institute for Teaching and Learning and Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-6236 (United States)], E-mail: rex@uakron.edu

    2008-02-28

    We investigate the adsorption of CO{sub 2} onto Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) surfaces at 150, 300 and 600 K using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Following CO{sub 2} adsorption at 150 K the graphitic form of carbon is detected, whereas upon chemisorption at 300 and 600 K we detect the carbidic phase. As the adsorption temperature is increased, the carbon Auger signal increases, whereas the oxygen signal decreases. Adsorption at all three temperatures results in a shift of the Zr Auger features, indicating surface oxidation. The effect of adsorbed CO{sub 2} on the Zr(MVV) and Zr(MNV) transitions depends on adsorption temperature and is less pronounced at higher temperatures. On the other hand, changes in the Zr(MNN) feature are similar for all three adsorption temperatures. The changes in the Zr Auger peak shapes and positions are attributed to oxygen from dissociated CO{sub 2}, with the differences observed at various temperatures indicative of the diffusion of oxygen into the subsurface region.

  15. Measurements of the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiño, I.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory offers a unique window to study cosmic rays and particle physics at energies above 3 EeV (corresponding to a centre-of-mass energy of 75 TeV in proton-proton collisions) inaccessible to accelerator experiments. We discuss the different methods of estimating the number of muons in showers recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, which is an observable sensitive to primary mass composition and to properties of the hadronic interactions in the shower. The muon content, derived from data with these methods, is presented and compared to predictions from the post-LHC hadronic interaction models for different primary composition. We find that models do not reproduce well the Auger observations, displaying a deficit of muons at the ground. In the light of these results, a better understanding of ultra-high energy extensive air showers and hadronic interactions is crucial to determine the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We report on the upgrade plans of the Pierre Auger Observatory to achieve this science goal.

  16. Relationship between chromatin structure and sensitivity to molecularly targeted auger electron radiation therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry, S.Y.A.; Vallis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Chromatin structure was alte

  17. Astrophysical Sources of Cosmic Rays and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; DiGiulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; GarcíaGámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kühn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; LaRosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; vandenBerg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the correlations of ultra-high energy cosmic ray directions with extra-Galactic objects, of general anisotropy, of photons and neutrinos, and of other astrophysical effects, with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Contributions to the 31st ICRC, Lodz, Poland, July 2009.

  18. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertania, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2014-01-01

    Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (X-max), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the d

  19. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory : Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Vitale, P. F. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masias; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is pos

  20. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade mode

  1. Application of Auger electron spectroscopy in studies about diffusion of Cu in thin Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion coefficient of Cu in thin Ni films (350A) at low temperatures is determined by using Auger electron spectroscopy and timepermeation technic. A grain-boundary mechanism is proposed for the diffusion of Cu in Ni. The activation energy is determined to Q=0,6eV. (Author)

  2. Are Cosmic Rays still a valuable probe of Lorentz Invariance Violations in the Auger era?

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto; di Matteo, Armando; Ghia, Piera L; Grillo, Aurelio F; Petrera, Sergio; Salamida, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic Invariance might be modified by Quantum Gravity effects. The interesting point which emerged in the last fifteen years is that remnants of possible Lorentz Invariance Violations could be present at energies much lower than their natural scale, and possibly affect Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays phenomena. We discuss their status in the view of recent data from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  4. Advanced functionality for radio analysis in the Offline software framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Coopers, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Castro, M. L. Diaz; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parr, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) necessitates the development of a powerful framework for the analysis of radio measurements of cosmic ray air showers. As AERA performs "radio-hybrid" measurements of air shower radio emission in coincidence with the surface particle detectors a

  5. Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum using hybrid events of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, Mariangela; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, IFM; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L.; Andring, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A.M.; Barber, K.B.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Bauml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker, K.H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J.A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P.L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blumer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boroda, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W.C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R.E.; Cabellero-Mora, K.S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S.H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J.A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R.W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M.R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M.J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C.E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B.R.; de Almeida, R.M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S.J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W.J.M.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M.L.; Diep, P.N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Dong, PN; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, JC; Dova, M.T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A.C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A.P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Filevich, A.; Filevich, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C.E.; Fraenkel, E.D.; Fratu, O.; Frohlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R.F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S.T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P.L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M.S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P.F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A.F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G.P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T.A.; Harton, J.L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A.E.; Hill, G.C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V.C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J.R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K.H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R.M.; Klages, H.O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kromer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J.K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M.C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A.G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I.C.; Marquez Falcon, H.R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, [No Value; Mathes, H.J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P.O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M.I.; Minaya, I.A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J.C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C.A.; Muller, M.A.; Muller, G.; Munchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J.L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P.T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I.M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A.C.; Ruhle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C.E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E.M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S.J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R.C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H.H.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G.R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A.D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M.S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N.T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C.J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D.B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A.M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, JR; Vazquez, R.A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A.A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B.J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above 10(18)eV is measured using the hybrid events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory between November 2005 and September 2010. The large exposure of the Observatory allows the measurement of the main features of the energy spectrum with hi

  6. Towards a lateral distribution function reconstruction of radio measurements in offline with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray induced air showers radiate appreciable power at radio frequencies via the geosynchrotron process. The Pierre Auger Observatory is constructing radio detection technique on large scales, the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA). For this purpose the Auger software-framework called offline, is being enhanced to analyze and reconstruct radio data. Our target is to reconstruct the intensity of the measured radio emission versus the distance from the shower-axis, representing the lateral distribution, which needs to be reconstructed from the Auger-data collected at one of the test sites for radio detection, located in the western part of the observatory near the surface detector tank Olaia, where three poles forming an equilateral triangle with a baseline of 100 m constitutes our setup of dual-polarized log-periodic dipole antennas. Our analysis focuses on a comparison of different functional dependencies for the LDF, such as exponential and polynomial one. The final aim is to have an independent energy estimation, direction reconstruction and, if possible, composition of the primary particle which induced the shower, to compare and integrate with the surface and fluorescence detector reconstructions.

  7. Postcollision interactions in the Auger decay of the Ar L-shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.A.R.; Stolte, W.C.; He, Z.X. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The photoionization cross sections for Ar{sup +} through Ar{sup 4+}, produced by the Auger decay of an inner shell 2p hole, have been measured between 242 eV and 253 eV on beamline 9.0.1 and 6.3.2. In this study the authors are interested in near threshold phenomenon involving postcollision interactions (PCI), which are related to the Auger decay of a vacancy in the Ar L-shell. During an Auger decay a postcollision interaction can occur causing the out-going photoelectron to be retarded thus losing a certain amount of energy. If the retardation is sufficiently large the photoelectron will not escape. This result produces a singly charged ion, which normally would not be present. Such evidence of electron capture by the PCI effect was first shown clearly by Eberhardt et al. and, with higher resolution, in the present work. However, capture of the photoelectron is expected to be 100% exactly at the L{sub 2,3} thresholds. Thus, from the authors results they would have expected the Ar{sup 2+} signal to be zero at threshold, but it was not? The authors can explain this anomoly on the basis that during the Auger decay the photoelectrons are captured into high lying excited states of Ar{sup +}, which subsequently decay through autoionization yielding Ar{sup 2+}. Future work in this area will seek experimental evidence to verify this prediction.

  8. Calculations of physical and chemical reactions with DNA in aqueous solution from Auger cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo calculations are performed of the physical and chemical interactions in liquid water by electrons produced during Auger cascades resulting from the decay of various radionuclides. Estimates are also made of the number of direct physical and indirect chemical interactions that would be produced on DNA located near the decay site. 13 refs., 8 figs

  9. Can we reconcile the TA excess and hotspot with Auger observations?

    CERN Document Server

    Globus, Noemie; Parizot, Etienne; Lachaud, Cyril; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) shows a 20$^{\\circ}$ hotspot as well as an excess of UHECRs above 50 EeV when compared with the Auger spectrum. We consider the possibility that both the TA excess and hotspot are due to a dominant source in the Northern sky. We carry out detailed simulations of UHECR propagation in both the intergalactic medium and the Galaxy, using different values for the intergalactic magnetic field. We consider two general classes of sources: transients and steady, adopting a mixed UHECR composition that is consistent with the one found by Auger. The spatial location of the sources is draw randomly. We generate Auger-like and TA-like data sets from which we determine the spectrum, the sky maps and the level of anisotropy. We find that, while steady sources are favoured over transients, the probability to account for all the currently available observational data is very low ($\\sim 0.1\\%$). While we reproduce fairly well the Auger spectrum for the vast majority of the simulated data sets, most of ...

  10. Multiplet-Splitting of the Quasi-Atomic-Like Core-Valence-Valence Auger Spectra of Zinc Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jian-Min

    2001-01-01

    Multiplet-splitting of the quasi-atomic-like core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger spectra of zinc metal is calculated by explicitly considering the so-called hole-hole interaction in the final valence states of the Auger transition. We assume that before the Auger transition occurs, the occupied valence states relax to screen the core-hole which results in a redistribution of the valence electrons, in particular within the atom that contains a hole in the core. The supercell method is used to calculate the electronic states concerned by the Auger transition, which is accomplished by the self-consistent full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. In each supercell, one atom is considered to have a core-hole and many others without it. Due to relaxation and screening, the valence states at the site of the Auger transition are more localized compared with those in the ground-state metal. The multiplet peaks of the quasi-atomic-like CVV Auger spectra of zinc metal are obtained by calculating the Auger transition matrix elements between the referred states.

  11. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  12. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  13. Mining review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  14. Fragmentation of CF3Br induced by fluroine is core excitation: Energy resolved auger electron multiple-ion coincidence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation processes in CF3Br near the F K edge were investigated using synchrotron radiation and Energy Resolved Auger Electron Multiple Ion Coincidence (ERAEMICO). Time-of flight mass spectra were collected in coincidence with either selected F 1s Auger or resonant-Auger electrons which were energy analyzed with a hemispherical detector. In addition, a more inclusive mass spectrum was taken near the F 1s ionization potential in coincidence with low energy electrons. Preliminary spectra the Br2+ ion intensity is negligible and the relative CF+ abundance is higher. These differences confirm the notion that the electronic state prior to bond breakage governs the resulting fragmentation pattern

  15. Doppler effect in fluorine K-Auger line produced in electron-induced core ionization of SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S; Singh, R K; Shanker, R

    2006-01-21

    An experimental evidence is reported on the observation of the Doppler effect in fluorine K-Auger line emitted from a core-ionized SF6 molecule under an impact of 16 keV electrons. The emitting source of the Auger line is found to acquire a kinetic energy of 4.7+/-0.3 keV. We propose that such large energy is released from the Coulomb repulsion taking place between F+ and SF5+ fragment ions under influence of an intense focusing field of the incident electrons. In the presence of the Coulomb field of these ions, the Auger line obtains a polarization P = 76%+/-7%.

  16. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  17. High energy resolution and first time-dependent positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Jakob

    2010-04-03

    It was the aim of this thesis to improve the existing positron annihilation induced Auger spectrometer at the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC (NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh) in several ways: Firstly, the measurement time for a single spectrum should be reduced from typically 12 h to roughly 1 h or even less. Secondly, the energy resolution, which amounted to {delta}E/E{approx}10%, should be increased by at least one order of magnitude in order to make high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger spectroscopy (PAES)-measurements of Auger transitions possible and thus deliver more information about the nature of the Auger process. In order to achieve these objectives, the PAES spectrometer was equipped with a new electron energy analyzer. For its ideal operation all other components of the Auger analysis chamber had to be adapted. Particularly the sample manipulation and the positron beam guidance had to be renewed. Simulations with SIMION {sup registered} ensured the optimal positron lens parameters. After the adjustment of the new analyzer and its components, first measurements illustrated the improved performance of the PAES setup: Firstly, the measurement time for short overview measurements was reduced from 3 h to 420 s. The measurement time for more detailed Auger spectra was shortened from 12 h to 80 min. Secondly, even with the reduced measurement time, the signal to noise ratio was also enhanced by one order of magnitude. Finally, the energy resolution was improved to {delta}E/E < 1. The exceptional surface sensitivity and elemental selectivity of PAES was demonstrated in measurements of Pd and Fe, both coated with Cu layers of varying thickness. PAES showed that with 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe, more than 55% of the detected Auger electrons stem from Cu. In the case of the Cu coated Pd sample 0.96 monolayer of Cu resulted in a Cu Auger fraction of more than 30% with PAES and less than 5% with electron induced Auger spectroscopy

  18. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  19. Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array: Joint Contributions to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Array, The Telescope; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, K; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, K; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nanpei, H; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Oh, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T A; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z; Aab, A; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antivcic, T; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bardenet, R; Baeuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Belletoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blumer, H; Bohacova, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceicao, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Diaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Foerster, N; Fox, B D; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Frohlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; Garcia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gomez; Vitale, P F Gomez; Goncalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Homola, P; Hoerandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovsky, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kroemer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leao, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopez, R; Aguera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martinez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masias; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Micanovic, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafa, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Muller, G; Munchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novzka, L; Oehlschlager, J; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Preda, T; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Ruhle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sanchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Straub, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijarvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Tacscuau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tome, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Galicia, J F Valdes; Valino, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cardenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vazquez, J R; Vazquez, R A; Veberic, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villasenor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    Joint contributions of the Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations to the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 2013: cross-calibration of the fluorescence telescopes, large scale anisotropies and mass composition.

  20. Mining machine safari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-11-01

    New South African and other mining equipment on display at the Electra 98 exhibition is described. Products include: cutting machines; shovels; crushing machines; drilling equipment; control systems; moon buggy inspection vehicles; remote control underground mining machines; longwall shearers; mining software; scrapedozers; continuous miners; sprays; mine haulage equipment; milling machines; flotation plant; mud removal systems; chains; vehicle exhaust filters and continuous miner monitoring systems.

  1. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  2. Anomalous two-election Auger resonance in thorium near the 5d(O5) photothreshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoexcited O5P3V (5dsub(3/2) 6psub(3/2) valence) Auger emission line for thorium metal shows an anomalous increase in kinetic energy of approximately 1 eV as the photon energy hν is increased through the atomic-like 5d → 5f resonant excitation at hνsub(r) = 89 eV. Possible mechanisms for this anomalous behavior are discussed, and it is suggested that it can be interpreted as a two-electron resonance involving the O5P3V Auger excitation and a shake-up satellite of the 6psub(3/2) core level excitation. (author)

  3. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muon counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The...

  4. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander; et al.

    2014-08-08

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  5. Direct observation of the double Auger decay of a K hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double Auger (DA) decay of a K hole has been observed directly by detecting the two emitted electrons in coincidence. The hole was created in 37Cl following the electron-capture decay of 37Ar. The probability of DA decay, per Auger decay, with the two electrons both having an energy greater than 250 eV was found to be 3.7±0.2%. The DA probability was found to decrease exponentially as the energy partitioning between the two electrons changed from the asymmetric case (E1>E2) to the symmetric case (E1≅E2). The DA probability accounts for the bulk of the intensity of high charge states previously measured in 37Cl. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density, affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ~10% seasonal modulation and ~2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of pressure and density. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Moliere radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  7. Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Engel, R; Gora, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Unger, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  8. Atmospheric profiles at the southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their relevance to air shower measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Unger, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-07-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focusing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  9. Measurement of the muon production depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collica, Laura

    2016-09-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between 1019.2 and 1020eV.

  10. Measurement of the Muon Production Depths at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers is an observable sensitive to the primary composition and to the hadronic interaction properties. The Pierre Auger Observatory uses water-Cherenkov detectors to measure particle densities at the ground and therefore is sensitive to the muon content of air showers. We present here a method which allows us to estimate the muon production depths by exploiting the measurement of the muon arrival times at the ground recorded with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The analysis is performed in a large range of zenith angles, thanks to the capability of estimating and subtracting the electromagnetic component, and for energies between $10^{19.2}$ and $10^{20}$ eV.

  11. Numerical evaluation of Auger recombination coefficients in relaxed and strained germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Wen, Hanqing; Bertazzi, Francesco; Goano, Michele; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    The potential applications of germanium and its alloys in infrared silicon-based photonics have led to a renewed interest in their optical properties. In this letter, we report on the numerical determination of Auger coefficients at T = 300 K for relaxed and biaxially strained germanium. We use a Green's function based model that takes into account all relevant direct and phonon-assisted processes and perform calculations up to a strain level corresponding to the transition from indirect to direct energy gap. We have considered excess carrier concentrations ranging from 1016 cm-3 to 5 × 1019 cm-3. For use in device level simulations, we also provide fitting formulas for the calculated electron and hole Auger coefficients as functions of carrier density.

  12. The aperture for UHE tau neutrinos of the Auger fluorescence detector using a Digital Elevation Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Gennaro [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Ed. Institutos de Investigacion, Apdo. 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: pastor@ific.uv.es; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2006-03-09

    We perform a new study of the chances of the fluorescence detector (FD) at the Pierre Auger Observatory to detect the tau leptons produced by Earth-skimming ultra high energy {nu}{sub {tau}}'s. We present a new and more detailed evaluation of the effective aperture of the FD that considers a reliable fiducial volume for the experimental set up. In addition, we take into account the real elevation profile of the area near Auger. We find a significant increase in the number of expected events with respect to the predictions of a previous semi-analytical determination, and our results show the enhancement effect for neutrino detection from the presence of the near mountains.

  13. Limiting efficiency calculation of silicon single-nanowire solar cells with considering Auger recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-02-09

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique light-harvesting capability mediated by the optical antenna effect and the high photoconversion efficiency due to the orthogonalization of the carrier collection to the photon incidence. We present a detailed prediction of the light-conversion efficiency of Si SNSCs based on finite-element simulation and thermodynamic balance analysis, with especially focusing on the comparison between SNSCs and film systems. Carrier losses due to radiative and Auger recombinations are introduced in the analysis of the limiting efficiency, which show that the Auger recombination plays a key role in accurately predicting the efficiency of Si SNSCs, otherwise, the device performance would be strongly overestimated. The study paves a more realistic way to evaluate the nanostructured solar cells based on indirect-band photoactive materials.

  14. Origin of atmospheric aerosols at the Pierre Auger Observatory using backward trajectory of air masses

    CERN Document Server

    Louedec, K

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest operating cosmic ray observatory ever built. Calorimetric measurements of extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays are performed with a fluorescence detector. Thus, one of the main challenges is the monitoring of the atmosphere, both in terms of atmospheric state variables and optical properties. To better understand the atmospheric conditions, a study of air mass trajectories above the site is presented. Such a study has been done using an air-modelling program well known in atmospheric sciences. Its validity has been checked using meteorological radiosonde soundings performed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Finally, aerosol concentration values measured by the Central Laser Facility are compared to backward trajectories.

  15. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Barber, K B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Candusso, M; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Colalillo, R; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; de Jong, S J; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L D\\'\\iaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Hasankiadeh, Q Dorosti; Dova, M T; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fernandes, M; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fox, B D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Fuji, T; Gaior, R; Garc\\'\\ia, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garilli, G; Bravo, A Gascon; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Islo, K; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agëra, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Malacari, M; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Mart\\'\\inez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Mas\\'\\ias; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, A J; Matthews, J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Newton, D; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, L; Ochilo, L; Olinto, A; Oliveira, M; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porcelli, A; Porowski, C; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Purrello, V; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Sima, O; kowski, A Śmiał; Šm\\'\\ida, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Thao, N T; Theodoro, V M; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Velzen, S; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vlcek, B; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than $60^\\circ$ detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. Angle and Spin Resolved Auger Emission Theory and Applications to Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The Auger effect must be interpreted as the radiationless counterpart of photoionization and is usually described within a two-step model. Angle and spin resolved Auger emission physics deals with the theoretical and numerical description, analysis and interpretation of such types of experiments on free atoms and molecules. This monograph derives the general theory applying the density matrix formalism and, in terms of irreducible tensorial sets, so called state multipoles and order parameters, for parameterizing the atomic and molecular systems, respectively. Propensity rules and non-linear dependencies between the angular distribution and spin polarization parameters are included in the discussion. The numerical approaches utilizing relativistic distorted wave (RDWA), multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF), and Greens operator methods are described. These methods are discussed and applied to theoretical predictions, numerical results and experimental data for a variety of atomic systems, especially the rare...

  17. Relativistic L -shell Auger and Coster-Kronig rates and fluorescence yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Laiman, E.; Crasemann, B.; Aoyagi, M.; Mark, H.

    1979-01-01

    Relativistic calculations of radiationless transition rates to L -subshell vacancy states in selected atoms with Z in the 70-96 range have been performed. The Auger and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities are calculated from perturbation theory, assuming frozen orbitals, in the Dirac-Hartree-Slater approach. Transition rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig yields are compared with nonrelativistic theoretical results and with experiment. Relativity is found to affect the L -subshell Auger widths by (10-25)% and individual transition rates to certain j-j configurations by as much as 40% at Z = 80. The widths of L sub i vacancy states and the L sub 2 Coster-Kronig yields f33 from these relativistic calculations agree much better with experiment than earlier nonrelativistic theoretical values.

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of 3p photoionization and subsequent Auger decay in atomic chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, J.; Huttula, S.-M.; Mäkinen, A.; Patanen, M.; Huttula, M.

    2015-12-01

    3p photoionization and subsequent low kinetic energy Coster-Kronig and super Coster-Kronig Auger decay have been studied in atomic chromium. The binding energies, line widths, and relative intensities for the transitions seen in the synchrotron radiation excited 3p photoelectron spectrum are determined. The high resolution M2,3 M4,5 M4,5 and M2,3 M4,5 N1 Auger electron spectra following the electron impact excited 3p ionization are presented and the kinetic energies, relative intensities, and identifications are given for the main lines. The experimental findings are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained from Hartree-Fock and multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approaches.

  19. Reconstruction accuracy of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of extensive air showers (arrival direction, core position and energy estimation) by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is discussed together with the corresponding accuracy. We determine the angular reconstruction accuracy as a function of the station multiplicity by using two different aproaches. We discuss statistical and systematic uncertainties in the determination of the signal at 1000 m from the core, S(1000), which is used to estimate the primary energy.

  20. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bertou, X.; Busca, N.G.; Ghia, P.L.; C. Medina; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Ibarguen, H. Salazar; Ranchon, S.; Urban, M.; Villasenor, L.; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked ...

  1. Design of Continuous Flight Auger Pile Foundation for a Multi-Storey Apartment Building

    OpenAIRE

    Yatskevich, Yulia

    2010-01-01

    The object of this work was studying, systemizing and describing continuous flight auger (CFA) pile foundation design for a residential complex and calculating the bearing capacity of a single СFA pile on the basis of Russian Building Code. This thesis was written on the request of the YIT Lentek JSK Design Department. The information for the theoretical part was gathered from Russian Building Codes, theoretical manuals, other common available materials (including the Internet), and proje...

  2. Search for Ultra-High Energy Photons with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Healy, M D

    2007-01-01

    Data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to search for air showers initiated by ultra-high energy (UHE) photons. Results of searches are reported from hybrid observations where events are measured with both fluorescence and array detectors. Additionally, a more stringent test of the photon fluxes predicted with energies above 10^19 eV is made using a larger data set measured using only the surface detectors of the observatory.

  3. Satellite X-ray lines and KLL Auger electrons from fluorine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine K X-rays are excited by irradiation of solid samples (LiF, NaF, KF, RbF, CsF, AgF; BeF2, MgF2, CaF2, CrF2, FeF2, CoF2, NiF2, CuF2, SnF2, ZnF2, PbF2, BaF2) with α-particles. Optimal conditions for the observation of Kαsub(3,4) satellites from thick samples are obtained with 2 MeV4He+ particles from a Van de Graaff generator. X-rays are analysed with a Bragg spectrometer equipped with a flat crystal of TIAP, the resolution is 1.2 eV for Fluorine K X-rays. Auger electrons are excited by irradiation of same samples with Al Kαsub(1,2) X-rays; electrons from the main KLL Auger line are detected with a resolution of about 1 eV. The observations made on these compounds are in accordance with previous data on a few samples as reported by Deconninck et al. (1978). Important variations in shape and amplitude are observed in Kαsub(3,4) X-ray and KLL Auger spectra. The relative amplitude of the Kαsub(3,4) peak is maximum in ionic compound and the peak width is narrower, this amplitude decreases with increasing covalency and the presence of energy band is observed by the energy spreading of the peaks (X-ray and Auger). The competition between different decay modes is investigated in an attempt to interpretate the relative amplitude of the satellite peaks. (author)

  4. Composition studies of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using Data of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Mora, Karen Salomé

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this work is the estimation of the mass composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The time traces of the surface detector stations are explored to obtain a new observable sensitive to the mass composition. The new observable is calibrated with the most mass-sensitive observable of the Observatory, the depth of the shower maximum to obtain a new estimation. Results on mass composition, from this, are reported.

  5. Search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos in highly inclined events at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Arganda, E.; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; García Pinto, Diego; Ortiz Ramis, Montserrat; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to neutrinos of all flavors above 0.1 EeV. These interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere giving rise to extensive air showers. When interacting deeply in the atmosphere at nearly horizontal incidence, neutrinos can be distinguished from regular hadronic cosmic rays by the broad time structure of their shower signals in the water-Cherenkov detectors. In this paper we present for the first time an analysis...

  6. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18) eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aer...

  7. Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzi, Valerio

    The energy spectrum of high-energy cosmic rays measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. The measurement is based on data collected until 31 December 2012 and extends over three orders of magnitude in energy from 3 × 1017 eV up to the very end of the spectrum. The spectral features are presented together with a detailed description of the recent improvements in determination of the energy scale.

  8. The in-situ fracture and Auger analysis of Nicalon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braski, D.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Osborne, M.C. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A technique has been developed to fracture irradiated Nicalon SiC fibers in a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) and analyze the fracture surfaces without contaminating the specimen chamber. The technique, which was evaluated using as-received fibers, requires only minor modification of two standard specimen holders and should be applicable to other fibers or materials that can be broken under low loads in bending. The technique is simple, rapid, reduces beam charging, and eliminates the need for ion sputtering.

  9. Constraints on hadronic models in extensive air showers with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays are sensitive to the details of hadronic interactions models, so we present the main results obtained using the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The depth at which the maximum of the electromagnetic development takes place is the most sensitive parameter to infer the nature of the cosmic rays. However, the hadronic models cannot describe consistently the maximum and the muon measurements at energies higher than those reached at the LHC.

  10. Relativistic K-LL Auger spectra in the intermediate-coupling scheme with configuration interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Mark, H.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical K-LL Auger spectra from relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Slater calculations in intermediate coupling with configuration interaction (ICWCI) are considered. Calculated transition rates for 25 elements with Z between 18 and 96, inclusive, are listed and compare well with experimental data. Relativistic effects are found to be important above Z equal to about 35, and ICWCI is necessary to describe the spectra for Z less than about 60.

  11. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.M.van den; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-08-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimize detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterize the shower from radio signals and to optimize the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of a large detection array requires autonomous detector stations. The current design is aiming at stations with antennas for two polarizations, solar power, wireless communication, and local trigger logic. The results of this initial phase will provide an important stepping stone for the design of a few tens kilometers square engineering array.

  12. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, A M van den

    2007-01-01

    The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimise detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterise the shower from radio signals and to optimise the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of ...

  13. Measurements of the muonic component of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been developed by the Pierre Auger Collaboration to estimate the muon content of air showers from ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The data of the Pierre Auger Observatory will be compared with predictions based upon EPOS 1.99 and QGSJET-II-3 hadronic interaction models. In addition to the direct measures of the muonic content, the combination of a fluorescence detector and a muon sensitive surface array allows for a direct test of air shower simulations which is sensitive to both the shower core and large distances from the core. These methods reveal a deficit of muons in air shower simulations with proton primaries and that the energy assignment basedupon simulations of the surface array signal is systematically higher than that derived from the florescence detector. Summary: I will discuss the deficit in the number of muons currently predicted by simulations when compared to the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. I will describe the methods used to measure the muon content, including sources of systematic uncertainty, and give their current results. Finally, I will present the Collaborations current understanding of the nature of the discrepancy, which could arise from an energy scale problem, composition, or deficiencies in the hadronic interaction models. See references [1, 2].

  14. Distribution of strand breaks produced by Auger electrons in decay of iodine 125 in triplex DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigate the possibility of using Auger electrons as a probing agent for the study of structures of nucleic acids. To this end, we present the distribution of breaks produced in strands of a DNA duplex and a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) carrying Auger emitting radionuclide 125I. The method of calculation includes use of a molecular model of plasmid DNA duplex with bound TFO carrying a labelled 125I at position C5 of a single deoxycytosine residue, a source of Auger spectra, Monte Carlo electron track structure and the ensuing chemistry codes, to simulate the distribution of breaks produced in both strands of a plasmid DNA. Frequencies of fragment length distributions were obtained for the TFO, the purine and the pyrimidine strands. The frequency of breaks in the purine strand showed good correlation with the published experimental results, while that for the pyrimidine strand is lower by a factor of 3. It is concluded that the true structure of triplex DNA may not be purely of B-form

  15. Distribution of strand breaks produced by Auger electrons in decay of iodine 125 in triplex DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikjoo, H.; Panyutin, I.G.; Terrissol, M.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Laughton, C.A. [MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2000-11-01

    In this study we investigate the possibility of using Auger electrons as a probing agent for the study of structures of nucleic acids. To this end, we present the distribution of breaks produced in strands of a DNA duplex and a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) carrying Auger emitting radionuclide {sup 125}I. The method of calculation includes use of a molecular model of plasmid DNA duplex with bound TFO carrying a labelled {sup 125}I at position C5 of a single deoxycytosine residue, a source of Auger spectra, Monte Carlo electron track structure and the ensuing chemistry codes, to simulate the distribution of breaks produced in both strands of a plasmid DNA. Frequencies of fragment length distributions were obtained for the TFO, the purine and the pyrimidine strands. The frequency of breaks in the purine strand showed good correlation with the published experimental results, while that for the pyrimidine strand is lower by a factor of 3. It is concluded that the true structure of triplex DNA may not be purely of B-form.

  16. Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2016-07-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is an enhancement of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. Covering about 17km2, AERA is the world-largest antenna array for cosmic-ray observation. It consists of more than 150 antenna stations detecting the radio signal emitted by air showers, i.e., cascades of secondary particles caused by primary cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere. At the beginning, technical goals had been in focus: first of all, the successful demonstration that a large-scale antenna array consisting of autonomous stations is feasible. Moreover, techniques for calibration of the antennas and time calibration of the array have been developed, as well as special software for the data analysis. Meanwhile physics goals come into focus. At the Pierre Auger Observatory air showers are simultaneously detected by several detector systems, in particular water-Cherenkov detectors at the surface, underground muon detectors, and fluorescence telescopes, which enables cross-calibration of different detection techniques. For the direction and energy of air showers, the precision achieved by AERA is already competitive; for the type of primary particle, several methods are tested and optimized. By combining AERA with the particle detectors we aim for a better understanding of cosmic rays in the energy range from approximately 0.3 to 10 EeV, i.e., significantly higher energies than preceding radio arrays.

  17. Chemical-state imaging of Li using scanning Auger electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Scanning Auger electron microscopy is used to image chemical states of Li. •The combined use of AES and EELS signals for the elemental mapping is powerful. •Distribution corresponding to metallic and oxidized states of Li can be imaged. -- Abstract: The demand for measurement tools to detect Li with high spatial resolution and precise chemical sensitivity is increasing with the spread of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for use in a wide range of applications. In this work, scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM) is used to image chemical states of a partially oxidized Li surface on the basis of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data obtained during an oxidation process of a metal Li. We show that distribution of metallic and oxidized states of Li is clearly imaged by mapping the intensity of the corresponding AES and EELS peaks. Furthermore, a tiny difference in the extent of oxidation can be distinguished by comparing the elemental map of an AES peak with that of an EELS peak owing to the different behaviors of those signals to the chemical states of Li

  18. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  19. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  20. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  1. Mining Ostrava '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the Proceedings contains 55 contributions, out of which 2 deal with environmental impacts of undermining during coal mining, and of shocks and vibrations during underground coal mining. (Z.S.)

  2. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined...

  3. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  4. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  5. Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, Petra

    2007-01-01

    General characteristic of web mining including methodology and procedures incorporated into this term. Relation to other areas (data mining, artificial intelligence, statistics, databases, internet technologies, management etc.) Web usage mining - data sources, data pre-processing, characterization of analytical methods and tools, interpretation of outputs (results), and possible areas of usage including examples. Suggestion of solution method, realization and a concrete example's outputs int...

  6. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Uwe

    2013-10-30

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 10{sup 18} eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼10{sup 17} eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  7. Firmware, detector performance and first data of the AMIGA muon counters for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory, being the largest air shower detector setup in the world, ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are studied with full trigger efficiency above E=3 x 1018 eV. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding of cosmic ray physics at lower energies down to E∼1017 eV, e.g. the transition from galactic to extragalactic sources and a possible change in the composition of the primary cosmic rays, the observatory is currently upgraded by the AMIGA enhancement (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array). The muon counters of AMIGA, buried underground, will allow for dedicated measurements of the number of muons in air showers, thus increasing the precision in determining the type of the primary particle. Until middle of 2012, eight prototype muon counters of the AMIGA enhancement were installed at the experimental site of the Pierre Auger Observatory at Malargue, Argentina, forming one detector hexagon referred to as the pre-unitary cell (PUC). Each muon counter comprises a highly modular electronics readout system. Following the production of these systems, tests of single components as well as of the full readout electronics were carried out. In the framework of this thesis dedicated firmware, allowing for the commissioning and first data taking with the PUC, has been developed and tested. Among other features, this firmware includes a self-trigger of the muon counters as well as algorithms for the synchronization of the muon detector (MD) with the existing surface detector (SD) array. The functionality and performance of the electronics readout system with regard to this firmware has been investigated. In addition, first analyses of combined MD and SD data have been performed.

  8. Calculations of Auger-cascade-induced reactions with DNA in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of radionuclides incorporated into mammalian cells are of considerable interest for radiation biology and radiation protection. Simulation of the nuclear and atomic events associated with the decay of several Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides was accomplished using Monte Carlo calculational techniques. Calculations of the energies of Auger electrons produced from a number of decays have been performed for the radionuclides Pt-195m, Pt-193m, I-125, In-111, and Fe-55. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code OREC (8, 11-13) has been used to transport the electrons produced during the Auger cascades through liquid water surrounding the decay site and to calculate the physical and chemical interactions produced. In order to estimate the interactions that might be produced with a DNA molecule, a very simple model has been assumed. A segment of double-stranded DNA is represented as a right circular cylinder of radius 1 nm with ''sugar'' and ''base'' reactive sites alternating along two helical strands on the surface. For the purposes of this paper two types of interactions with the DNA are considered. During the charged-particle transport the DNA cylinder is treated as though it were water, and if an inelastic energy loss event occurs within the cylinder it is considered to represent a ''direct'' physical event. An ''indirect'' chemical event is considered to result when a reactive chemical species interacts with a ''sugar'' or ''base'' site on the DNA. Although no attempt is made to identify the consequences of these direct or indirect events, it is interesting to compare the relative numbers of such events for various types of radiation. 13 refs., 4 figs

  9. Observing muon decays in water Cherenkov detectors at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, P; Bertou, X; Busca, N G; Ghia, P L; Medina, C; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Ibarguen, H S; Ranchon, S; Urban, M; Villaseñor, L

    2005-01-01

    Muons decaying in the water volume of a Cherenkov detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory provide a useful calibration point at low energy. Using the digitized waveform continuously recorded by the electronics of each tank, we have devised a simple method to extract the charge spectrum of the Michel electrons, whose typical signal is about 1/8 of a crossing vertical muon. This procedure, moreover, allows continuous monitoring of the detector operation and of its water level. We have checked the procedure with high statistics on a test tank at the Observatory base and applied with success on the whole array.

  10. Enhancement of radiative Auger emission in lithium-like 23V20+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of projectile X-ray spectra coincident with single electron losss in collisions of 3.5-9.0 MeV amu-123Vq+ (q = 19, 20, 21) ions with He targets under single collision conditions. Non-monoenergetic X-rays observed in the coincidence spectra for V20+ (lithium-like) projectiles are attributed to the radiative Auger effect (RAE). The intensity of RAE photons relative to the characteristic K x-ray yield is more than an order of magnitude larger than expected from theoretical calculations and from earlier measurements for atomic targets. (author)

  11. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  12. Accelerator based Production of Auger-Electron-emitting Isotopes for Radionuclide Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Augerelectron- emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Augeremitter 119Sb has been identified...... isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able...

  13. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  14. Radiotoxicity induced by Auger electron emitters in human osteosarcoma cell line using comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yu-Jie; LI Qing-Nuan; ZHU Ran; ZHU Ben-Xing; ZHANG Yong-Ping; ZHANG Xiao-Dong; FAN Wo; HONG Cheng-Jiao; LI Wen-Xin

    2003-01-01

    The comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis assay) was used to evaluate the radiotoxicity of Augerelectron emitters in the human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-8603). After internal exposure to 67Ga-EDTMP, the sar-coma cell has been injured severely. The comet length was longer along with the increase of dose, the appearance ofcomet tail was different from that with respect to the 60Co γ-ray irradiation. DNA damage of cell was mainly due tothe radiation effect of Auger electrons. The 67Ga may be a therapeutic radionuclide with good prospect for tumortreatment and palliation of bone pain induced by metastasis.

  15. The thermal behaviour of three different auger pressure grouted piles used as heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, F.; Olgun, C.G.; Brettmann, T.; Powrie, W.

    2014-01-01

    Three auger pressure grouted (APG) test piles were constructed at a site in Richmond, Texas. The piles were each equipped with two U-loops of heat transfer pipes so that they could function as pile heat exchangers. The piles were of two different diameters and used two different grouts, a standard APG grout and a thermally enhanced grout. Thermal response tests, where fluid heated at a constant rate is circulated through the pipe loops, were carried out on the three piles, utilising either ...

  16. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The successful installation, commissioning, and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and adminis- trative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organiza- tions for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in grat...

  17. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, C/ Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia (Spain); Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J-J.; Bertin, V. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, F-13288 Marseille (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Technical University of Catalonia, Rambla Exposicio, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Astraatmadja, T.; Beemster, L. J.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baret, B.; Bouhou, B. [APC-Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris) 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie 38, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bigongiari, C. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna CSIC, Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); and others

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E {sup -2} energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} per source is derived.

  18. SEARCH FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN ANTARES NEUTRINOS AND PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY UHECRs ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E –2 energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 × 10–8 GeV cm–2 s–1 per source is derived

  19. Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gallo, F; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pepe, I M; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Strafella, F; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valbuena-Delgado, A; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yelos, D; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (E_CM = 110-170 TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33 +- 0.16 (1.61 +- 0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

  20. The performance of the corrector lenses for the Auger fluorescence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Ricardo; Escobar, Carlos O.; /Campinas State U.

    2005-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effect that the corrector lenses (Schmidt Optics) have on the overall performance of the Auger Fluorescence Detector. The analysis uses real data from the telescopes. Figures of merit for the corrector lenses performance include shower trigger rate and the distribution of the distance of closest approach to the shower axis. As a result of this analysis we may say that the effective light collection area of a telescope nearly doubles with the use of a corrector lens at its aperture.

  1. Properties and performance of the prototype instrument for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, I.C.; Albrow, M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Muniz, J.; Amaral, M.G. do; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrews, R.; Anguiano, M.; Anjos, J.C. dos; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arteaga, J.C.; Atulugama, S.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baggio, R.; Bai, X.; Barbosa, A.F.; Barbosa, H.M.J.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S.L.C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bellido, J.A.; Bello, P.; Bergmann, T.; Berman, E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P.; Billoir, P.; Biral, R.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bollmann, E.; Bonifazi, C.; Boratav, M.; Boselli, A.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J.-M.; Bui-Duc, H.; Cabrera, V.; Camin, D.V.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Carreno, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, L.A. de; Casanova, S.; Casimiro, E.; Castellina, A.; Castro, J.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, N.; Cheam, D.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J.A.; Chiosso, M.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Cillis, A.; Civit, B.; Claes, D.; Clark, P.D.J.; Clay, R.W.; Cohen, F.; Cordero, A.; Cordier, A.; Cormier, E.; Cotzomi, J.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C.E.; Creusot, A.; Cronin, J.W.; Cuautle, M.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang-Quang, T.; Silva, P. da; Darling, J.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B.R.; Bruijn, L. de; Capoa, A. de; Oliveira, M.A.L. de; Souza, V. de; Della Selva, A.; Deligny, O.; Diaz, J.C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dye, A.; DuVernois, M.A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.N.; Eschstruth, P.; Escobar, C.O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fauth, A.C.; Fazzini, N.; Fernandez, A.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fonte, R.; Fulgione, W.; Gamez, E.; Garcia, B.; Garcia, C.A.; Geenen, H.; Gemmeke, H.; Germain-Renaud, C.; Ghia, P.L.; Gibbs, K.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P.F.; Gonzalez, J.; Gora, D.; Goodwin, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.F.; Grunfeld, C.; Grygar, J.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G.; Guerard, C. [and others

    2004-05-01

    Construction of the first stage of the Pierre Auger Observatory has begun. The aim of the Observatory is to collect unprecedented information about cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV. The first phase of the project, the construction and operation of a prototype system, known as the engineering array, has now been completed. It has allowed all of the sub-systems that will be used in the full instrument to be tested under field conditions. In this paper, the properties and performance of these sub-systems are described and their success illustrated with descriptions of some of the events recorded thus far.

  2. Resonant Auger-intercoulombic hybridized decay in the photoionization of endohedral fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Javani, Mohammad H; De, Ruma; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T; Chakraborty, Himadri S

    2013-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of Ar@C60, we predict resonant femtosecond decays of both Ar and C60 vacancies through the continua of atom-fullerene hybrid final states. The resulting resonances emerge from the interference between simultaneous autoionizing and intercoulombic decay (ICD) processes. For Ar 3s-->np excitations, these resonances are far stronger than the Ar-to-C60 resonant ICDs, while for C60 excitations they are strikingly larger than the corresponding Auger features. The results indicate the power of hybridization to enhance decay rates, and modify lifetimes and line profiles.

  3. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Tapia, I Fajardo; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Guzman, A; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Ruiz, C G Tavera; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2011.12.002

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malarg\\"ue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  4. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shun; Miyazato, Akio; Ebitani, Kohki

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  5. Improvements upon the continuum wavefunctions of Auger electrons by use of the least-squares variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variational least-squares technique is developed to obtain an iterative improvements upon the wavefunctions of Auger electrons emitted by the ion Ar2+. The core potentials seen by the Auger electrons are evaluated on the basis of the Hartree-Fock orbitals delivered by the conventional Hartree-Fock programs. In order to illustrate our technique, the transition rates of the Auger electrons emitted from Ar corresponding to different configurations, namely 1s → 3p 3p, 1s → 3s 3s, 1s → 2s 2s, 1s → 2p 2p, 1s → 2s 3s and 1s → 2p 3p are calculated. (author)

  6. Depth resolution at profile Auger analysis of the ZnS-PbxSn1-xTe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons have been studied of anomalously large broadening of profiles at the interface at profile Auger-analysis of the structures ZnS-PbxSn1-xTe, grown by a moleclar-beam epitaxy method. It is shown that this broadening is not related with the existance of the extended region of a valiable composition. Other possible mechanisms of profile persistance have been studied experimentally. In place of the analysis an effectively greater rate of ion etching is observed. It is found that the Auger-profile shape near the interface is determined by the surface relief formation at ion etching. It is shown that the reason of the formation of a developed relief of the surface in the place periodically irradiated by the electron beam during obtaining the Auger-spectra has an electrostatic character. Two possible mechanisms of such relies formation are discussed

  7. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  8. Mining planing introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts concerning mining parameters, plan establishment and typical procedure methods applied throughout the physical execution of mining operations are here determined, analyzed and discussed. Technological and economic aspects of the exploration phase are presented as well as general mathematical and statistical methods for estimating, analyzing and representing mineral deposits which are virtually essential for good mining project execution. The characterization of important mineral substances and the basic parameters of mining works are emphasized in conjunction with long, medium and short term mining planning. Finally, geological modelling, ore reserves calculations and final economic evaluations are considered using a hypothetical example in order to consolidate the main elaborated ideas. (D.J.M.)

  9. Data mining in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  10. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  11. Multiparametric topological analysis (MTA) for the study of the primary CR composition: Performances with Auger simulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, D.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Guarino, F.; Valore, L.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2008-04-01

    We describe the application of a multiparametric analysis to estimate the UHE Cosmic Rays composition. The proposed method, MTA (Multiparametric Topological Analysis), is based on the study of the correlations among different shower observables. This technique is designed to fully exploit the complementarity of Auger fluorescence and ground array data. In the present work, we report the results of the application to Conex showers, fully simulated through the Auger detector, using only parameters describing the longitudinal development of air showers as recorded by fluorescence detector for hybrid data.

  12. The dynamic Auger Doppler effect in HF and DF: control of fragment velocities in femtosecond dissociation through photon energy detuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, K.; Naves de Brito, A.; Sorensen, S. L.; Burmeister, F.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Svensson, S.; Björneholm, O.

    2002-03-01

    The Auger-Doppler effect in the experimental spectra of HF and DF is presented, and the dynamics of ultra-fast dissociation in the core-excited state are discussed. The Doppler splitting of the atomic Auger peak is calculated and simulated using a classical model and a very good agreement is found between experiment and simulation. It is shown that the difference in photon energy relative to the resonance is transferred completely into the kinetic energy release (KER). This is expected to be a general phenomenon, but is clearly illuminated in the HF/DF case. Thus the fragment velocity can be controlled through photon energy detuning.

  13. Energy and Auger Widths of Triply Excited 3p3p3p 2po State of Lithium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟秉聪; 俞开智

    2003-01-01

    The high-lying triply excited 3p3p3p 2po state of the double hollow lithium atom is studied by using the saddlepoint complex-rotation method. The energy and Auger widths of this resonance are calculated. The relativistic corrections and mass polarization are included. The total Auger width is obtained by coupling the important open channels and summing over the other channels. The oscillator strength is also calculated. The results are compared with other theoretical and experimental data in the literature.

  14. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 1019 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang Quang, T.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-03-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 1019 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  15. Revised final report for tank 241-C-203, auger samples 95-AUG-20 and 95-AUG-21. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two auger samples from tank 241-C-203 (C-203) were received at the 222-S Laboratories and underwent safety screening analyses, consisting of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and total alpha activity. No notification limits were exceeded for the analyses. Two samples were submitted for a density determination at the request of Characterization Plant Engineering. SCOPE This document is the revised final report for the tank C-203 auger samples collected on April 5, 1995 (samples 95-AUG-20 and 95-AUG-021)

  16. Modification of valence-band symmetry and Auger threshold energy in biaxially compressed InAs1-xSbx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strained-layer superlattices (SLS's) with biaxially compressed InAs1-xSbx were characterized using magnetophotoluminescence and compared with unstrained InAs1-xSbx alloys. Holes in the SLS exhibited a decrease in effective mass, approaching that of the electrons. In the two-dimensional limit, a large increase in the Auger threshold energy accompanies this strain-induced change in SLS valence-band symmetry. Correspondingly, the activation energy for nonradiative recombination in the SLS's displayed a marked increase compared with that of the unstrained alloys. Strained-layer superlattices and alloy activation energies are in agreement with estimated Auger threshold energies

  17. New electronics for the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleifges, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest installation worldwide for the investigation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Air showers are detected using a hybrid technique with 27 fluorescence telescopes and 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD) distributed over about 3000 km2. The Auger Collaboration has decided to upgrade the electronics of the WCD and complement the surface detector with scintillators (SSD). The objective is to improve the separation between the muonic and the electron/photon shower component for better mass composition determination during an extended operation period of 8-10 years. The surface detector electronics records data locally and generates time stamps based on the GPS timing. The performance of the detectors is significantly improved with a higher sampling rate, an increased dynamic range, new generation of GPS receivers, and FPGA integrated CPU power. The number of analog channels will be increased to integrate the new SSD, but the power consumption needs to stay below 10 W to be able to use the existing photovoltaic system. In this paper, the concept of the additional SSD is presented with a focus on the design and performance of the new surface detector electronics.

  18. Site-selective resonant Auger spectroscopy of iso-dichloroethylene at the carbon K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We provide detailed results on electron decay following core excitations to two carbon atoms to the LUMO in different chemical environments to the LUMO in CH2=CCl2. ► The experimental results are compared with high-quality theoretical calculations. ► We report calculated valence spectra in the ground-state, C (CH2) and C (CCl2) core-excited states. -- Abstract: This study focuses on the two C1s-to-LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) excitations of the iso-dichloroethylene (H2C=CCl2) and the subsequent Auger decay. We investigate the effect of the two different carbon core excitations on the population of the cation produced after electronic relaxation. The resonant Auger spectra are interpreted by comparison to the valence shells photoionization spectrum and with the help of theoretical calculations. Several consequences of the core-hole localization on the electronic decay are observed. In particular, the resonant excitation of the C1s(CH2) to the LUMO leads to a large intensity increase in the region of the first satellite state, whereas no dramatic changes are observed for the C1s(CCl2) excitation.

  19. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—50125 Firenze (Italy); Berezinsky, V., E-mail: aloisio@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: berezinsky@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), viale F. Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate X{sub max}(E) and dispersion σ(X{sub max}) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ∼ E{sup -γ} with γ∼ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ∼ 5Z× 10{sup 18} eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ∼ E{sup -2.7}). In this sense, at the ankle E{sub A}≈ 5× 10{sup 18} eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

  20. Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy studies of grain-boundary segregation in Type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning Auger electron spectroscopy studies have been conducted on grain-boundary surfaces of Type 304 stainless steel that were fractured in situ. To enhance the probability of intergranular fracture, the specimens were first subjected to creep deformation for 1000 h at 7000C. A semiquantitative surface chemical composition was calculated from the peak heights of Auger electron spectra. The concentration of Cr at the fracture surface was not different from the bulk value. This indicates that the long-term heat treatment caused healing of the sensitization. The concentrations of S, C, and Si at the fracture surface were at least an order of magnitude higher than the bulk values. Chemical composition profiles obtained by ion-sputtering indicated that segregation of S, C, P, and Si occurred within a depth of several atomic monolayers from the grain-boundary surface. Mo, Mn and Cu were not detected. The concentrations of Ni and Fe are in good agreement with the bulk chemical analysis

  1. The characterisation of non-evaporable getters by Auger electron spectroscopy Analytical potential and artefacts

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M

    2002-01-01

    The surfaces of getter materials are particularly difficult to analyse because of their high chemical reactivity. The results obtained can be strongly influenced by the experimental set-up and procedures. In this paper the experimental influence on the Auger electron spectroscopy results is discussed, based on the measurements of more than 100 different non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials. There are four typical changes in the Auger electron spectra when a NEG becomes activated. The oxygen peak intensity decreases, the shape of the metal peaks changes, the carbon peak shape changes shape and intensity and a chlorine peak occurs. All these changes are affected by instrumental artefacts. The Zr-MNV peak shape changes occurring during the reduction of ZrO2 are well suited to determine the onset of NEG activation, while the slope with which the O-KLL peak intensity decreases in a certain temperature range is a better criterion for the determination of the temperature at which activation is complete. The O-KLL i...

  2. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, Alexander; Aglietta, Marco; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Samarai, Imen Al; Albuquerque, Ivone; Allekotte, Ingomar; Allison, Patrick; Almela, Alejandro; Castillo, Jesus Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Batista, Rafael Alves; Ambrosio, Michelangelo; Aminaei, Amin; Anastasi, Gioacchino Alex; Anchordoqui, Luis; Andringa, Sofia; Aramo, Carla; Arqueros, Fernando; Arsene, Nicusor; Asorey, Hernán Gonzalo; Assis, Pedro; Aublin, Julien; Avila, Gualberto; Awal, Nafiun; Badescu, Alina Mihaela; Baus, Colin; Beatty, Jim; Becker, Karl Heinz; Bellido, Jose A; Berat, Corinne; Bertaina, Mario Edoardo; Bertou, Xavier; Biermann, Peter; Billoir, Pierre; Blaess, Simon G; Blanco, Alberto; Blanco, Miguel; Blazek, Jiri; Bleve, Carla; Blümer, Hans; Boháčová, Martina; Boncioli, Denise; Bonifazi, Carla; Borodai, Nataliia; Brack, Jeffrey; Brancus, Iliana; Bretz, Thomas; Bridgeman, Ariel; Brogueira, Pedro; Buchholz, Peter; Bueno, Antonio; Buitink, Stijn; Buscemi, Mario; Caballero-Mora, Karen S; Caccianiga, Barbara; Caccianiga, Lorenzo; Candusso, Marina; Caramete, Laurentiu; Caruso, Rossella; Castellina, Antonella; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cazon, Lorenzo; Cester, Rosanna; Chavez, Alan G; Chiavassa, Andrea; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; Chudoba, Jiri; Cilmo, Marco; Clay, Roger W; Cocciolo, Giuseppe; Colalillo, Roberta; Coleman, Alan; Collica, Laura; Coluccia, Maria Rita; Conceição, Ruben; Contreras, Fernando; Cooper, Mathew J; Cordier, Alain; Coutu, Stephane; Covault, Corbin; Cronin, James; Dallier, Richard; Daniel, Bruno; Dasso, Sergio; Daumiller, Kai; Dawson, Bruce R; de Almeida, Rogerio M; de Jong, Sijbrand J; De Mauro, Giuseppe; Neto, Joao de Mello; De Mitri, Ivan; de Oliveira, Jaime; de Souza, Vitor; del Peral, Luis; Deligny, Olivier; Dhital, Niraj; Di Giulio, Claudio; Di Matteo, Armando; Diaz, Johana Chirinos; Castro, Mary Lucia Díaz; Diogo, Francisco; Dobrigkeit, Carola; Docters, Wendy; D'Olivo, Juan Carlos; Dorofeev, Alexei; Hasankiadeh, Qader Dorosti; Anjos, Rita dos; Dova, Maria Teresa; Ebr, Jan; Engel, Ralph; Erdmann, Martin; Erfani, Mona; Escobar, Carlos O; Espadanal, Joao; Etchegoyen, Alberto; Falcke, Heino; Fang, Ke; Farrar, Glennys; Fauth, Anderson; Fazzini, Norberto; Ferguson, Andrew P; Fick, Brian; Figueira, Juan Manuel; Filevich, Alberto; Filipčič, Andrej; Fratu, Octavian; Freire, Martín Miguel; Fujii, Toshihiro; García, Beatriz; Garcia-Gamez, Diego; Garcia-Pinto, Diego; Gate, Florian; Gemmeke, Hartmut; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Ghia, Piera Luisa; Giaccari, Ugo; Giammarchi, Marco; Giller, Maria; Głas, Dariusz; Glaser, Christian; Glass, Henry; Golup, Geraldina; Berisso, Mariano Gómez; Vitale, Primo F Gómez; González, Nicolás; Gookin, Ben; Gordon, Jacob; Gorgi, Alessio; Gorham, Peter; Gouffon, Philippe; Griffith, Nathan; Grillo, Aurelio; Grubb, Trent D; Guarino, Fausto; Guedes, Germano; Hampel, Matías Rolf; Hansen, Patricia; Harari, Diego; Harrison, Thomas A; Hartmann, Sebastian; Harton, John; Haungs, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heck, Dieter; Heimann, Philipp; Herve, Alexander E; Hill, Gary C; Hojvat, Carlos; Hollon, Nicholas; Holt, Ewa; Homola, Piotr; Hörandel, Jörg; Horvath, Pavel; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Huber, Daniel; Huege, Tim; Insolia, Antonio; Isar, Paula Gina; Jandt, Ingolf; Jansen, Stefan; Jarne, Cecilia; Johnsen, Jeffrey A; Josebachuili, Mariela; Kääpä, Alex; Kambeitz, Olga; Kampert, Karl Heinz; Kasper, Peter; Katkov, Igor; Keilhauer, Bianca; Kemp, Ernesto; Kieckhafer, Roger; Klages, Hans; Kleifges, Matthias; Kleinfeller, Jonny; Krause, Raphael; Krohm, Nicole; Kuempel, Daniel; Mezek, Gasper Kukec; Kunka, Norbert; Awad, Alaa Metwaly Kuotb; LaHurd, Danielle; Latronico, Luca; Lauer, Robert; Lauscher, Markus; Lautridou, Pascal; Coz, Sandra Le; Lebrun, Didier; Lebrun, Paul; de Oliveira, Marcelo Augusto Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle; Link, Katrin; Lopes, Luis; López, Rebeca; Casado, Aida López; Louedec, Karim; Lucero, Agustin; Malacari, Max; Mallamaci, Manuela; Maller, Jennifer; Mandat, Dusan; Mantsch, Paul; Mariazzi, Analisa; Marin, Vincent; Mariş, Ioana; Marsella, Giovanni; Martello, Daniele; Martinez, Humberto; Bravo, Oscar Martínez; Martraire, Diane; Meza, Jimmy Masías; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Mathys, Sebastian; Matthews, James; Matthews, John; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, Daniela; Mayotte, Eric; Mazur, Peter; Medina, Carlos; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Meissner, Rebecca; Mello, Victor; Melo, Diego; Menshikov, Alexander; Messina, Stefano; Micheletti, Maria Isabel; Middendorf, Lukas; Minaya, Ignacio A; Miramonti, Lino; Mitrica, Bogdan; Molina-Bueno, Laura; Mollerach, Silvia; Montanet, François; Morello, Carlo; Mostafá, Miguel; Moura, Celio A; Muller, Marcio Aparecido; Müller, Gero; Müller, Sarah; Navas, Sergio; Necesal, Petr; Nellen, Lukas; Nelles, Anna; Neuser, Jens; Nguyen, Phong H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai; Niechciol, Marcus; Niemietz, Lukas; Niggemann, Tim; Nitz, Dave; Nosek, Dalibor; Novotny, Vladimir; Nožka, Lyberis; Núñez, Luis; Ochilo, Livingstone; Oikonomou, Foteini; Olinto, Angela; Pacheco, Noelia; Selmi-Dei, Daniel Pakk; Palatka, Miroslav; Pallotta, Juan; Papenbreer, Philipp; Parente, Gonzalo; Parra, Alejandra; Paul, Thomas; Pech, Miroslav; Pękala, Jan; Pelayo, Rodrigo; Pepe, Iuri; Perrone, Lorenzo; Petermann, Emily; Peters, Christine; Petrera, Sergio; Petrov, Yevgeniy; Phuntsok, Jamyang; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pierog, Tanguy; Pieroni, Pablo; Pimenta, Mário; Pirronello, Valerio; Platino, Manuel; Plum, Matthias; Porcelli, Alessio; Porowski, Czeslaw; Prado, Raul Ribeiro; Privitera, Paolo; Prouza, Michael; Quel, Eduardo J; Querchfeld, Sven; Quinn, Sean; Rautenberg, Julian; Ravel, Olivier; Ravignani, Diego; Reinert, Darius; Revenu, Benoît; Ridky, Jan; Risse, Markus; Ristori, Pablo; Rizi, Vincenzo; de Carvalho, Washington Rodrigues; Rojo, Jorge Rubén Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, Maria Dolores; Rogozin, Dmytro; Rosado, Jaime; Roth, Markus; Roulet, Esteban; Rovero, Adrian; Saffi, Steven J; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Salazar, Humberto; Saleh, Ahmed; Greus, Francisco Salesa; Salina, Gaetano; Gomez, Jose Sanabria; Sánchez, Federico; Sanchez-Lucas, Patricia; Santos, Edivaldo Moura; Santos, Eva; Sarazin, Fred; Sarkar, Biswaijt; Sarmento, Raul; Sarmiento-Cano, Christian; Sato, Ricardo; Scarso, Carlos; Schauer, Markus; Scherini, Viviana; Schieler, Harald; Schmidt, David; Scholten, Olaf; Schoorlemmer, Harm; Schovánek, Petr; Schröder, Frank G; Schulz, Alexander; Schulz, Johannes; Schumacher, Johannes; Sciutto, Sergio; Segreto, Alberto; Settimo, Mariangela; Shadkam, Amir; Shellard, Ronald C; Sigl, Guenter; Sima, Octavian; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej; Šmída, Radomir; Snow, Gregory; Sommers, Paul; Sonntag, Sebastian; Sorokin, J; Squartini, Ruben; Srivastava, Yogendra N; Stanca, Denis; Stanič, Samo; Stapleton, James; Stasielak, Jaroslaw; Stephan, Maurice; Stutz, Anne; Suarez, Federico; Durán, Mauricio Suarez; Suomijärvi, Tiina; Supanitsky, A Daniel; Sutherland, Michael; Swain, John; Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Taborda, Oscar Alejandro; Tapia, Alex; Tepe, Andreas; Theodoro, Vanessa Menezes; Tibolla, Omar; Timmermans, Charles; Peixoto, Carlos J Todero; Toma, Gabriel; Tomankova, Lenka; Tomé, Bernardo; Tonachini, Aurelio; Elipe, Guillermo Torralba; Machado, Diego Torres; Travnicek, Petr; Trini, Marta; Ulrich, Ralf; Unger, Michael; Urban, Martin; Galicia, Jose F Valdés; Valiño, Ines; Valore, Laura; van Aar, Guus; van Bodegom, Patrick; Berg, Ad M van den; van Velzen, Sjoert; van Vliet, Arjen; Varela, Enrique; Cárdenas, Bernardo Vargas; Varner, Gary; Vasquez, Rafael; Vázquez, Jose R; Vázquez, Ricardo; Veberič, Darko; Verzi, Valerio; Vicha, Jakub; Videla, Mariela; Villaseñor, Luis; Vlcek, Brian; Vorobiov, Serguei; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wainberg, Oscar; Walz, David; Watson, Alan; Weber, Marc; Weidenhaupt, Klaus; Weindl, Andreas; Welling, Christoph; Werner, Felix; Widom, Allan; Wiencke, Lawrence; Wilczyński, Henryk; Winchen, Tobias; Wittkowski, David; Wundheiler, Brian; Wykes, Sarka; Yang, Lili; Yapici, Tolga; Yushkov, Alexey; Zas, Enrique; Zavrtanik, Danilo; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zepeda, Arnulfo; Zimmermann, Benedikt; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zuccarello, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving per...

  3. Particle physics @ $\\sqrt{s_{pp}}$ > 50 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Travnicek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina provides the largest data sample of the cosmic ray events with energy above 10$^{18}$ eV. These high energy events can be used to test our understanding of the hadronic interactions at energies beyond the reach of colliders and to probe the basic properties of these interactions such as the inelastic cross-section of proton-air collisions. The combination of an array of surface detectors and the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory reduces significantly the dependency of the shower energy estimation on MC simulations. Despite that, the interpretation of mass sensitive quantities such as the shower maximum in terms of chemical composition of cosmic rays still depends on the hadronic interaction models. This contribution describes the main results of the observatory concerning the chemical composition of the cosmic rays and focuses on the problem of muon deficit in hadronic interaction models and on the estimation of proton-air cross-section from air-...

  4. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muon counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The mechanical setup, which allows access to the electronics for maintenance, is also described in addition to tests of the modules' response and integrity. The completed Unitary Cell has measured a number of air showers of which a first analysis of a sample event is included here.

  5. Secondary electron yield and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements on oxides, carbide, and nitride of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary electron yield measurements before and after Ar ion sputtercleaning were made on Nb and Nb compounds of interest for rf superconductingcavities. Total secondary electron yields (sigma) for primary energies 20--1500 eV were measured for solid Nb (sigma/sub max/ = 1.3 at 300 eV), anodized Nb2O5 (sigma/sub max/ = 1.2 at 300 eV), and powders of Nb(sigma/sub max/ = 1.0 at 400 eV), NbO (sigma/sub max/ = 0.9 at 400 eV), NbO2 (sigma/sub max/ = 1.0 at 400 eV), Nb2O5 (sigma/sub max/ = 0.95 at 400 eV), NbC(sigma/sub max/ = 0.8 at 400 eV), and NbN (sigma/sub max/ = 0.8 at 500 eV). Determinations were made for Auger elemental sensitivities, and the relationship between Auger peak heights and oxide stoichiometry is discussed. The sputter etch rate of anodized Nb2O5 was measured by depth profiling anodic coatings of known thickness

  6. 123I: Calculation of the Auger electron spectrum and assessment of the strand breakage efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger cascades induced by electron capture in 123I have been simulated by the Monte Carlo technique with special emphasis on the determination of the electron kinetic energies. By using an approach which considers the individual electron population of all electronic shells before and after a transition, errors in the electron energy normally introduced when applying the so-called (Z+1)-approximation are avoided. Thus, the energy of the electrons released in transitions between higher shells were found to be about half the value mentioned in the literature. An average total number of 7.6 electrons (6.4 Auger-, and 1.2 shake-off electrons) has been determined to be emitted per decay, a number which is considerably lower than those reported in similar studies. The efficiency of strand break induction has been assessed to be 0.4 DSB and 1.1 additional SSB per decay of DNA bound 123I. A comparison with the corresponding DSB values of 125I reveals that 125I is 2.5 times more effective than 123I. This is about the same ratio as that determined by Makrigiorgos on the basis of cell killing experiments

  7. Subcellular Distribution of Gallium-67 and other Auger-emitting Radionuclides in Human and Animal Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distributions of the Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals 67Ga citrate, 111In-bleomycin, 63Zn-bleomycin, 123/125/I-Conray and 123/125I-Biligram in human and animal tumours and normal tissues were studied using differential centrifugation. For 67Ga, at 19 to 54 h after injection, the observed subcellular distribution patterns were similar in all the tissues studied with 2-5% of the total tissue radioactivity being associated with the cell nuclei. For 63Zn and 111In administered as the bleomycin complex or as chloride, as well as for the X ray contrast media 135/125I-Conray and 123/125I-Biligram the fraction associated with the nuclei was only 1-2%. The studies indicate that, for the 67Ga, 111In, 63Zn complexes or compounds studied, only γ1 to 4% of the Auger emissions are likely to arise in the cell nucleus. (author)

  8. Kinetic energies to analyze the experimental auger electron spectra by density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kazunaka

    2016-02-01

    In the Auger electron spectra (AES) simulations, we define theoretical modified kinetic energies of AES in the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The modified kinetic energies correspond to two final-state holes at the ground state and at the transition-state in DFT calculations, respectively. This method is applied to simulate Auger electron spectra (AES) of 2nd periodic atom (Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F)-involving substances (LiF, beryllium, boron, graphite, GaN, SiO2, PTFE) by deMon DFT calculations using the model molecules of the unit cell. Experimental KVV (valence band electrons can fill K-shell core holes or be emitted during KVV-type transitions) AES of the (Li, O) atoms in the substances agree considerably well with simulation of AES obtained with the maximum kinetic energies of the atoms, while, for AES of LiF, and PTFE substance, the experimental F KVV AES is almost in accordance with the spectra from the transitionstate kinetic energy calculations.

  9. Sputtering measurements on controlled thermonuclear reactor materials using Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous auger electron spectroscopy and ion sputtering have been used to measure the sputter yield, S (atom/ion), for Ar+ on carbon, tungsten, niobium, and silver in the energy range from 0.5 to 1.5 keV and for H+ on tungsten, carbon, and silver at 11 keV. All measurements were performed on thin films, ranging in thickness from 150 to 6000 A, which were maintained at room temperature during bombardment. These films were produced by vacuum vapor deposition, and the thicknesses were measured by surface profilometry. The auger electron signals were used to determine the time required to etch through a film; from these measurements and a knowledge of the ion current density, the sputter yield was determined. For Ar+, 0.7 less than or equal to S less than or equal to 5.1 and for H+, 0.004 less than or equal to S less than or equal to 0.04 for the various materials studied in this energy range. Agreement with earlier experimental results is generally within +-25 percent

  10. Weathering behavior of mine tailings and waste rock: A surface investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study focusing on the ion movement in the near surface of sulfide minerals was conducted to better understand the weathering mechanisms of mine waste materials. Tailings and waste rock samples from Canadian mines were subjected to controlled weathering studies using various chemical leachants. Leachates were analyzed for various parameters, and petrographic analyses were conducted on the solid residues. Laboratory oxidation studies of pure pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite were carried out using the surface techniques X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The data derived from the weathering study and the surface techniques were correlated to determine mechanisms of oxidation. Several results were observed during the project: ferric iron constitutes one third of the iron present in pyrrhotite, sulfide oxidation is initiated when rock is blasted, sulfide sulfur is oxidized to di- and poly-sulfides prior to forming sulfates, and significantly more sulfate is produced upon exposure to aqueous environments than to air alone

  11. Text Mining Perspectives in Microarray Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Current microarray data mining methods such as clustering, classification, and association analysis heavily rely on statistical and machine learning algorithms for analysis of large sets of gene expression data. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in methods that attempt to discover patterns based on multiple but related data sources. Gene expression data and the corresponding literature data are one such example. This paper suggests a new approach to microarray data mining as ...

  12. Collaborative Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  13. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  14. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...

  15. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  16. Mining in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewis, T.

    1992-09-01

    Poor metals prices, high inflation, rapid political change and (in the case of gold) hot, deep mines all pose challenging problems. Nevertheless, mining plays an essential role in the South African economy and the long-term outlook is positive. The article discusses recent developments in technology and gives production figures for mining of gold, coal, platinum, diamonds, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and industrial minerals. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

  17. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10(18) eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the flux of cosmic rays with unprecedented precision and Statistics using the Pierre Auger Observatory Based on fluorescence observations in coincidence with at least one Surface detector we derive a spectrum for energies above 10(18) eV We also update the previously publi

  18. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, J. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castilo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, Ni.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Tapia, I. Fajardo; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Ruiz, C. G. Tavera; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported. evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > E(th) = 5.5 x 10(19) eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the directi

  19. Production and dosimetric aspects of the potent Auger emitter Co-58m for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisgaard, Helge; Elema, Dennis Ringkjøbing; Jensen, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculations, the Auger emitter 58mCo has been identified as a potent nuclide for targeted radionuclide therapy of small tumors. During the production of this isotope, the coproduction of the long-lived ground state 58gCo is unfortunately unavoidable, as is ingrowth...

  20. Energies and radiative and Auger rates of doubly-excited states of multiply charged Be-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟秉聪; 陈信义

    1995-01-01

    The energy levels, radiative and Auger rates of Be-iike ions are calculated using the conventional configuration-interaction method. The Be-like ions are different from He-like ions because the excited electrons in the former deviate from O(4) symmetry.

  1. Limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory are used to establish an upper limit on the diffuse flux of tau neutrinos in the cosmic radiation. Earth-skimming nu(tau) may interact in the Earth's crust and produce a tau lepton by means of charged-current interactions. The tau lepton may emerge from

  2. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schroeder, F. G.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Kowski, A. Smial; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E >= 6 x 10(19) eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E >= 5 x 10(18) eV arriving within a

  3. Search for first harmonic modulation in the right ascension distribution of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J. J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Cardenas, B. Vargas; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above 2.5 x 10(17) eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distri

  4. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2011-01-01

    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosm

  5. Measurement of the Proton-Air Cross Section at root s=57 TeV with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almeda, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Diaz, J. Chirinos; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Robledo, C.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H. H.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tavera Ruiz, C. G.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of the proton-air cross section for particle production at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon of 57 TeV. This is derived from the distribution of the depths of shower maxima observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory: systematic uncertainties are studied in detail. Analyzi

  6. Calculations of energies and absolute intensities of Auger electrons and X-rays arising from electron capture decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chun-Mei; WU Zhen-Dong; HUANG Xiao-Long

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of energies and absolute intensities of Auger electron and X-ray arising from electron capture are introduced briefly. The calculation codes and main process are also presented. The application is also given by taking 55Fe ε decay as an example.

  7. Relationship Between Chromatin Structure and Sensitivity to Molecularly Targeted Auger Electron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A. [CR-UK/MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Vallis, Katherine A., E-mail: katherine.vallis@oncology.ox.ac.uk [CR-UK/MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The open structure of euchromatin renders it susceptible to DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) compared with compact heterochromatin. The effect of chromatin configuration on the efficacy of Auger electron radiotherapy was investigated. Methods and Materials: Chromatin structure was altered in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N human breast cancer cells by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, or hypertonic treatment. The extent and duration of chromatin structural changes were evaluated using the micrococcal nuclease assay. DNA damage ({gamma}H2AX assay) and clonogenic survival were evaluated after exposure to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF, an Auger electron-emitting radiopharmaceutical, or IR. The intracellular distribution of {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF after chromatin modification was investigated in cell fractionation experiments. Results: Chromatin remained condensed for up to 20 minutes after NaCl and in a relaxed state 24 hours after SAHA treatment. The number of {gamma}H2AX foci per cell was greater in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (0.5 Gy) plus SAHA (1 {mu}M) compared with IR alone (16 {+-} 0.6 and 14 {+-} 0.3 vs. 12 {+-} 0.4 and 11 {+-} 0.2, respectively). More {gamma}H2AX foci were observed in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells exposed to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF (6 MBq/{mu}g) plus SAHA vs. {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF alone (11 {+-} 0.3 and 12 {+-} 0.7 vs. 9 {+-} 0.4 and 7 {+-} 0.3, respectively). 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced the DNA damage caused by IR and {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF. Clonogenic survival was reduced in MDA-MB-468 and 231-H2N cells after IR (6 Gy) plus SAHA (1 {mu}M) vs. IR alone (0.6% {+-} 0.01 and 0.3% {+-} 0.2 vs. 5.8% {+-} 0.2 and 2% {+-} 0.1, respectively) and after {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF plus SAHA compared to {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF alone (21% {+-} 0.4% and 19% {+-} 4.6 vs. 33% {+-} 2.3 and 32% {+-} 3.7). SAHA did not affect {sup 111}In-DTPA-hEGF nuclear localization. Hypertonic treatment resulted in fewer {gamma}H2AX foci per cell

  8. The intelligent deep mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejny, Horst [Mineral Industry Research Organisation (MIRO), Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The intended 'Intelligent Deep Mine'' (IDM) initiative will cope with the challenges the mining industry is currently facing. The main focus will be on technological issues. An increasing share of the total mining production will be by underground mining. The mineral deposits will be found in gradually greater depths, including all problems associated with it. It involves an increase in overburden pressure with subsequent rock stability problems and risks of structural collapse. There is a need for new and safe technologies for deep underground mining. This need targets at nearly all parts of a modern mine, the infrastructure including the communication network, logistics and transport and will reach up to mine preparation work and the winning operation itself including maintenance. Additionally, the concept of near-to-face preparation will be considered in order to step into an ''Invisible Mine'' approach. The IDM project marks the start of a series of development activities aiming to realise the concept of an invisible, zero-impact mine. The extractive sector, still seen as being old-fashioned and highly environment polluting, will join forces to revise this image showing that minerals extraction and processing can be done in a highly innovative manner with low impact underground and zero impact above ground. (orig.)

  9. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  10. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  11. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60 deg. and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions we define X(mu)max as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of X(mu)max as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  12. Interfering line in trace analysis by X-ray spectrometry: Radiative auger satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong characteristic X-ray lines (e.g. Kα and Kβ) are accompanied by broad low-energy satellites caused by the radiative Auger effect (RAE). In order to prove how the RAE satellites interfere the analysis of minor elements, low-energy side spectra of Ca and Ti Kβ, and Ca-Fe Kα were measured. The obtained RAE intensities are summarized together with published experimental and theoretical data. The integrated intensities of satellites due to K → MM, K → LM and K → LL RAE relative to that of Kα are determined to be of the order of 0.01-0.1%. This warns that the neglecting of the RAE satellites will introduce a serious error in trace analysis. (author)

  13. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  14. Atomic and molecular photoelectron and Auger-electron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were also measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of the ejected electrons. The double-angle-TOF method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collection efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. An electron spectroscopy study of inner-shell photoexcitation and ionization of Xe, photoelectron angular distributions from H2 and D2, and photoionization cross sections and photoelectron asymmetries of the valence orbitals of NO are reported

  15. Interference of O Kα ghost features in X-ray-excited Auger spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have noted the interference of O Kα ghost peaks in spectra obtained using unmonochromatized X-ray sources, particularly in C(KVV) and O(KVV) X-ray-excited Auger spectra. The source of the undesirable O Kα photons is a surface oxide on the Mg or Al anode of the polychromatic X-ray sources used. A calculation of the oxide thickness required to give the observed ghost intensity in measurements on a gold sample using a heavily oxidized Mg anode is given and the estimated oxide thickness found plausible. Since it may be impossible to operate the anode with no oxide present, the use of standard Au sample is suggested as an excellent test for the presence of O Kα X-radiation from unmonochromatized X-ray sources. (orig.)

  16. Cosmic rays at the highest energies — first data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Pierre Auger Observatory, presently under construction in Malargue, Argentina, is nearing completion. The instrument is designed to measure extensive air-showers with energies ranging from 1018-1020eV and beyond. It combines two complementary observation techniques; the detection of particles at ground and the coincident observation of associated fluorescence light generated in the atmosphere above the ground. This is being realized by employing an array of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors, distributed over an area of 3000 km2, and operating 24 wide-angle Schmidt telescopes, positioned at four sites at the border of the ground array. The Observatory will reach its full size only in 2007 but data are routinely recorded already and have started to provide relevant science results. This talk will focus on the detector characterizations and presents first results on the arrival direction of extremely-high energy cosmic rays, their energy spectrum, and on the upper limit of the photon fraction. (author)

  17. Performance of the Pierre Auger Fluorescence Detector and Analysis of well recontructed events

    CERN Document Server

    Argiro, S

    2003-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to elucidate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays using a hybrid detection technique. A first run of data taking with a prototype version of both detectors (the so called Engineering Array) took place in 2001-2002, allowing the Collaboration to evaluate the performance of the two detector systems and to approach an analysis strategy. In this contribution, after a brief description of the system, we will report some results on the behavior of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) Prototype. Performance studies, such as measurements of noise, sensitivity and duty cycle, will be presented. We will illustrate a preliminary analysis of selected air showers. This analysis is performed using exclusively the information from the FD, and includes reconstruction of the shower geometry and of the longitudinal profile

  18. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, R; Blasi, P

    2013-01-01

    We use a kinetic-equation approach to propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei to infer possible implications of the data on spectrum and chemical composition collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Using a homogeneous source distribution, we show that a simultaneous fit to the spectrum, elongation rate $X_{max}(E)$ and dispersion $\\sigma(X_{max})$ implies the injection of nuclei with very hard spectra. This leads however to underestimate the flux at energies $E\\leq 5\\times 10^{18}$ eV, thereby implying that an additional cosmic ray component is required, which needs to be of extragalactic origin. We discuss the nature of this additional component in terms of the recent findings of KASCADE-Grande on fluxes and chemical composition, which allows to describe the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays.

  19. Third Level Trigger for the Fluorescence Telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, A; Gemmeke, H; Kleifges, M; Mathes, H -J; Menchikov, A; Schüssler, F; Tcherniakhovski, D

    2008-01-01

    The trigger system for the Auger fluorescence telescopes is implemented in hard- and software for an efficient selection of fluorescence light tracks induced by high-energy extensive air showers. The algorithm of the third stage uses the multiplicity signal of the hardware for fast rejection of lightning events with above 99% efficiency. In a second step direct muon hits in the camera and random triggers are rejected by analyzing the space-time correlation of the pixels. The trigger algorithm was tested with measured and simulated showers and implemented in the electronics of the fluorescence telescopes. A comparison to a prototype trigger without multiplicity shows the superiority of this approach, e.g. the false rejection rate is a factor 10 lower.

  20. Third level trigger for the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A.; Asch, T.; Gemmeke, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kleifges, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: Matthias.Kleifges@ipe.fzk.de; Mathes, H.-J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik (FZK-IK), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Menchikov, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuessler, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kernphysik (FZK-IK), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tcherniakhovski, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und ELektronik (FZK-IPE), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-04-01

    The trigger system for the Auger fluorescence telescopes is implemented in hard- and software for an efficient selection of fluorescence light tracks induced by high-energy extensive air showers. The algorithm of the third stage uses the multiplicity signal of the hardware for fast rejection of lightning events with above 99% efficiency. In a second step direct muon hits in the camera and random triggers are rejected by analyzing the space-time correlation of the pixels. The trigger algorithm was tested with measured and simulated showers and implemented in the electronics of the fluorescence telescopes. A comparison to a prototype trigger without multiplicity shows the superiority of this approach, e.g. the false rejection rate is a factor 10 lower.

  1. New method for atmospheric calibration at the Pierre Auger Observatory using FRAM, a robotic astronomical telescope

    CERN Document Server

    BenZvi, Segev; Connolly, Brian; Grygar, Jiri; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Karova, Tatiana; Mandat, Dusan; Necesal, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Nozka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Ridky, Jan; Schovanek, Petr; Smida, Radomir; Travnicek, Petr; Vitale, Primo; Westerhoff, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    FRAM - F/(Ph)otometric Robotic Atmospheric Monitor is the latest addition to the atmospheric monitoring instruments of the Pierre Auger Observatory. An optical telescope equipped with CCD camera and photometer, it automatically observes a set of selected standard stars and a calibrated terrestrial source. Primarily, the wavelength dependence of the attenuation is derived and the comparison between its vertical values (for stars) and horizontal values (for the terrestrial source) is made. Further, the integral vertical aerosol optical depth can be obtained. A secondary program of the instrument, the detection of optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, has already proven successful. The hardware setup, software system, data taking procedures, and first analysis results are described in this paper.

  2. New method for atmospheric calibration at the Pierre Auger Observatory using FRAM, a robotic astronomical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Petr; Benzvi, Segev; Boháčová, Martina; Connolly, Brian; Grygar, Jiří; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; sPech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Vitale, Primo; Westerhoff, Stefan

    FRAM - F/(Ph)otometric Robotic Atmospheric Monitor is the latest addition to the atmospheric monitoring instruments of the Pierre Auger Observatory. An optical telescope equipped with CCD camera and photometer, it automatically observes a set of selected standard stars and a calibrated terrestrial source. Primarily, the wavelength dependence of the attenuation is derived and the comparison between its vertical values (for stars) and horizontal values (for the terrestrial source) is made. Further, the integral vertical aerosol optical depth can be obtained. A secondary program of the instrument, the detection of optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, has already proven successful. The hardware setup, software system, data taking procedures, and first analysis results are described in this paper.

  3. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory Using Meteorological Measurements and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known well for reconstructing observed extensive air showers, especially when measured using the fluorescence technique. For the Pierre Auger Observatory, a sophisticated network of atmospheric monitoring devices has been conceived. Part of this monitoring was a weather balloon program to measure atmospheric state variables above the Observatory. To use the data in reconstructions of air showers, monthly models have been constructed. Scheduled balloon launches were abandoned and replaced with launches triggered by high-energetic air showers as part of a rapid monitoring system. Currently, the balloon launch program is halted and atmospheric data from numerical weather prediction models are used. A description of the balloon measurements, the monthly models as well as the data from the numerical weather prediction are presented.

  4. Optical relative calibration and stability monitoring for the Auger fluorescence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramo, Carla; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; D' Urso, D.; Fazio, D.; Fonte, R.; Gemmeke, H.; Kleifges, M.; Knapik, R.; Insolia, A.; /Catania U.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.; Miller, W.; Privitera, P.; Rodriguez Martino, J.

    2005-07-01

    The stability of the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory is monitored with the optical relative calibration setup. Optical fibers distribute light pulses to three different diffuser groups within the optical system. The total charge per pulse is measured for each pixel and compared with reference calibration measurements. This allows monitoring the short and long term stability with respect of the relative timing between pixels and the relative gain for each pixel. The designs of the LED calibration unit (LCU) and of the Xenon flash lamp used for relative calibration, are described and their capabilities to monitor the stability of the telescope performances are studied. We report the analysis of relative calibration data recorded during 2004. Fluctuations in the relative calibration constants provide a measure of the stability of the FD.

  5. The Absolute, Relative and Multi-Wavelength Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory Fluorescence Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, R.; Bauleo, P.; Becker, B.R.; Brack, J.; Caruso, R.; Fratte, C.Delle; Dorofeev, A.; Harton, J.; Insolia, A.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Menshikov, A.

    2007-08-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a 375 nm light source at the telescope aperture. This end-to-end technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The relative response has been measured at wavelengths of 320, 337, 355, 380 and 405 nm, defining a spectral response curve which has been normalized to the absolute calibration. Before and after each night of data taking a relative calibration of the phototubes is performed. This relative calibration is used to track both short and long term changes in the detector's response. A cross check of the calibration in some phototubes is performed using an independent laser technique. Overall uncertainties, current results and future plans are discussed.

  6. Measurement of the sky photon background flux at the Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.; Insolia, A.; Petrera, Sergio; /INFN, Aquila; Privitera, P.; Salamida, F.; Verzi, V.

    2005-07-01

    The sky photon background flux has been measured at the southern Auger site in Malargue, Argentina, using the observatory's fluorescence detectors (FD). The analysis is based on ADC variances of pixels not triggered by the First Level Trigger. Photon fluxes are calculated for each individual pixel at each telescope. The statistics from each night of data taking allows a study of local variations in the photon flux. Results show a clear dependence of the flux on elevation angle. Time variations, possibly related to different atmospheric conditions, do not mask this dependence. In particular the flux excess above the horizon shows a rather stable and reproducible behavior with elevation. Correlation of this dependence with atmospheric parameters can be of interest as it offers the promise of extracting those parameters directly from FD data, thus allowing cross checks with independent methods based on different monitoring devices.

  7. Trigger and aperture of the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J. [National Technological University, Faculty Mendoza (CONICET/CNEA), Mendoza (Argentina); Abreu, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahn, E.J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ambrosio, M. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Anticic, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Anzalone, A. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo (INAF), Palermo (Italy); Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Arganda, E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Arisaka, K. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Arqueros, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Assis, P. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Aublin, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France)

    2010-01-21

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single detector, amongst a large background (mainly random single cosmic ray muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences. Such trigger makes the surface detector array fully efficient for the detection of EAS with energy above 3x10{sup 18}eV, for all zenith angles between 0 deg. and 60 deg., independently of the position of the impact point and of the mass of the primary particle. In these range of energies and angles, the exposure of the surface array can be determined purely on the basis of the geometrical acceptance.

  8. Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; Aramo, C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, IAFE /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.

    2006-07-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ''hybrid'' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  9. Beyond the Galaxy: UHECR results from the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    The beginning of the 21st century has brought much progress into the field of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays particularly through the completion of the Pierre Auger Observatory first and the Telescope Array later on. The success of these detectors follows from their hybrid character combining the advantages of the fluorescence technique for energy determination with the larger exposure provided by an array of particle detectors. In this article we review the important contributions made by both experiments concerning the spectrum, anisotropy searches and composition studies. We discuss how these measurements have contributed to progress in the field, partially solving long standing puzzles, and how they have also led to new challenges that are likely to constitute the driving force of the field in the immediate future.

  10. Exploring cosmic rays at the highest-energy frontier with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrigkeit Carola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the most energetic cosmic rays arriving at Earth, those with energies from 1017 eV up to 1020 eV and beyond. In continuous operation since 2004, the Observatory employs two complementary detection techniques for measuring air showers induced by those extremely energetic particles. For the past few years new detectors and techniques are being added in order to augment the sensitivity of the measurements. Data accumulated in ten years have led to major advances in our knowledge of the origin and nature of cosmic rays. We present a summary of the latest results for the spectrum of cosmic rays, their arrival directions and composition, as well as the challenges for the future operation of the Observatory.

  11. Method to deduce the energy spectrum by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, I.; Roth, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schuessler, F.; Unger, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Taken into account the great advantage of having a hybrid detector it has been developed a method, simulation independent, to determine the energy of the comic rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The method assumes that the cosmic ray flux has the same distribution in zenith angle for all energy ranges. Therefore one can relate the calorimetric measurement of the fluorescence detector of the CR energy with a SD quantity, e.g. shower size at 1000m distance from the core, corrected for the different attenuations in the atmosphere. The method of measuring and calibrating the primary energy and the influence of reconstruction uncertainties on the energy spectrum are presented. (orig.)

  12. Techniques for Measuring Aerosol Attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarg\\"ue, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1018 eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aerosols is an important atmospheric correction. The aerosol concentration is highly variable, so that the aerosol attenuation needs to be evaluated hourly. We use light from the Central Laser Facility, located near the center of the observatory site, having an optical signature comparable to that of the highest energy showers detected by the FD. This paper presents two procedures developed to retrieve the aerosol attenuation of fluorescence light from CLF laser shots. Cross checks between the two methods demonstrate that re...

  13. Trigger and Aperture of the Surface Detector Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Amaral, M Gonçalves do; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2011-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consists of 1600 water-Cherenkov detectors, for the study of extensive air showers (EAS) generated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We describe the trigger hierarchy, from the identification of candidate showers at the level of a single detector, amongst a large background (mainly random single cosmic ray muons), up to the selection of real events and the rejection of random coincidences. Such trigger makes the surface detector array fully efficient for the detection of EAS with energy above $3\\times 10^{18}$ eV, for all zenith angles between 0$^\\circ$ and 60$^\\circ$, independently of the position of the impact point and of the mass of the primary particle. In these range of energies and angles, the exposure of the surface array can be determined purely on the basis of the geometrical acceptance.

  14. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Backer, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Oliveira, L F A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; Vanden Berg, A M; Van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vo Van, T; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Waldenmaier, T; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G J; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Xu, J; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Zha, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius $A$. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the `hybrid' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  15. Auger transitions and plasmon decay produced by hollow atoms at an Al(1 1 1) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Stolterfoht, N; Hoffmann, V; Rösler, M; Baragiola, R A

    2002-01-01

    Low-energy electron emission induced by 1-4 keV Ne sup 4 sup + ion impact on an Al surface was analyzed. Distinct lines observed near 22 eV are attributed to Auger electrons ejected from doubly excited Ne sup 2 sup * decaying well above the surface. Spectral structures near 11 eV are primarily associated with the decay of bulk plasmons. After instrumental effort of extending the capability of the spectrometer to measure electrons with energies as low as 2 eV, we made observations of intense spectral structures near 6.5 eV, which are likely to be due to the decay of surface plasmons. Absolute electron yields were studied as a function of the incidence angle of the Ne sup 4 sup + projectile and were interpreted by means of model calculations.

  16. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoľko Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length. The numerical analyses were executed using two types of software, i.e., Ansys and Plaxis, which are based on FEM calculations. Both types of software are different from each other in the way they create numerical models, model the interface between the pile and soil, and use constitutive material models. The analyses have been prepared in the form of a parametric study, where the method of modelling the interface and the material models of the soil are compared and analysed.

  17. The exposure of the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a detector for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. It consists of a surface array to measure secondary particles at ground level and a fluorescence detector to measure the development of air showers in the atmosphere above the array. The 'hybrid' detection mode combines the information from the two subsystems. We describe the determination of the hybrid exposure for events observed by the fluorescence telescopes in coincidence with at least one water-Cherenkov detector of the surface array. A detailed knowledge of the time dependence of the detection operations is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the exposure. We discuss the relevance of monitoring data collected during operations, such as the status of the fluorescence detector, background light and atmospheric conditions, that are used in both simulation and reconstruction.

  18. Atmospheric calorimetry above 1019 ev: Shooting lasers at the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory uses the earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter to measure extensive air-showers created by particles of astrophysical origin. Some of these particles carry joules of energy. At these extreme energies, test beams are not available in the conventional sense. Yet understanding the energy response of the observatory is important. For example, the propagation distance of the highest energy cosmic-rays through the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is predicted to be strong function of energy. This paper will discuss recently reported results from the observatory and the use of calibrated pulsed UV laser 'test-beams' that simulate the optical signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The status of the much larger 200,000 km3 companion detector planned for the northern hemisphere will also be outlined.

  19. Anisotropy studies around the galactic centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Quang, T. Dang; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Thi, T. Nguyen; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2007-04-01

    Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ‘hybrid’ data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.

  20. The Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (CALOR2010 Proceedings)

    CERN Document Server

    Necesal, Petr

    2010-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a facility designed for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Observatory combines two different types of detectors: a surface array of 1600 water Cherenkov stations placed on a 1.5 km triangular grid covering over 3000 km$^2$; and a fluorescence detector of 24 telescopes located in 4 buildings at the perimeter of the surface array. The fluorescence telescopes, each consisting of 440 photomultipliers, collect the ultraviolet light produced when the charged secondary particles in an air shower excite nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere. Because the intensity of the nitrogen fluorescence is proportional to the energy deposited in the atmosphere during the air shower, the air fluorescence measurements can be used to make a calorimetric measurement of the cosmic ray primary energy. Showers observed independently by the surface array and fluorescence telescopes, called hybrid events, are critical to the function of the Observatory, as they allow for a model-independent ca...

  1. Contribution to the identification of primary ultra high energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis focuses on an apparent mismatch noticed during experiments performed by the Pierre Auger Observatory on ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and mass composition. Surface detectors are used to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by particle flurry, and record data in fast analog/digital converters in order to identify the presence of sudden jumps with that of muons. The author studied the separation between light (protons) and heavy (iron) primers which can be expected from the total jump value. An energy analysis in then applied to the study of detected flurries which confirmed the mismatch with the predictions of flurry development models. The jump method is applied to UHECRs pointing towards Cen A. The second part of the thesis reports the development of a simplified simulation code (simulation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers)

  2. Deterministic Assessment of Continuous Flight Auger Construction Durations Using Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam E. Hosny

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary functions of construction equipment management is to calculate the production rate of equipment which will be a major input to the processes of time estimates, cost estimates and the overall project planning. Accordingly, it is crucial to stakeholders to be able to compute equipment production rates. This may be achieved using an accurate, reliable and easy tool. The objective of this research is to provide a simple model that can be used by specialists to predict the duration of a proposed Continuous Flight Auger job. The model was obtained using a prioritizing technique based on expert judgment then using multi-regression analysis based on a representative sample. The model was then validated on a selected sample of projects. The average error of the model was calculated to be about (3%-6%.

  3. Calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors and the effect on measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gookin, Ben

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is a high-energy cosmic ray observatory located in Malargue, Mendoza, Argentina. It is used to probe the highest energy particles in the Universe, with energies greater than 1018 eV, which strike the Earth constantly. The observatory uses two techniques to observe the air shower initiated by a cosmic ray: a surface detector composed of an array of more than 1600 water Cherenkov tanks covering 3000 km2, and 27 nitrogen fluorescence telescopes overlooking this array. The Cherenkov detectors run all the time and therefore have high statistics on the air showers. The fluorescence detectors run only on clear moonless nights, but observe the longitudinal development of the air shower and make a calorimetric measure of its energy. The energy measurement from the the fluorescence detectors is used to cross calibrate the surface detectors, and makes the measurements made by the Auger Observatory surface detector highly model-independent. The calibration of the fluorescence detectors is then of the utmost importance to the measurements of the Observatory. Described here are the methods of the absolute and multi-wavelength calibration of the fluorescence detectors, and improvements in each leading to a reduction in calibration uncertainties to 4% and 3.5%, respectively. Also presented here are the effects of introducing a new, and more detailed, multi-wavelength calibration on the fluorescence detector energy estimation and the depth of the air shower maximum measurement, leading to a change of 1+-0.03% in the absolute energy scale at 1018 eV, and a negligible change in the measurement on shower maximum.

  4. Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, Alexander [Universitat Siegen (Germany). et al.

    2015-08-19

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy density is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge excess emission components. We found that the spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy – corrected for geometrical effects – is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. Finally we find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  5. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  6. Auger decay mechanism in photon-stimulated desorption of ions from surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.C.

    1983-11-01

    Photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of positive ions was studied with synchrotron radiation using an angle-integrating time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ion yields as functions of photon energy near core levels were measured from condensed gases, alkali fluorides, and other alkali and alkaline earth halides. These results are compared to bulk photoabsorption measurements with emphasis on understanding fundamental desorption mechanisms. The applicability of the Auger decay mechanism, in which ion desorption is strictly proportional to surface absorption, is discussed in detail. The Auger decay model is developed in detail to describe Na/sup +/ and F/sup +/ desorption from NaF following Na(1s) excitation. The major decay pathways of the Na(1s) hole leading to desorption are described and equations for the energetics of ion desorption are developed. Ion desorption spectra of H/sup +/, Li/sup +/, and F/sup +/ are compared to bulk photoabsorption near the F(2s) and Li(1s) edges of LiF. A strong photon beam exposure dependence of ion yields from alkali fluorides is revealed, which may indicate the predominance of metal ion desorption from defect sites. The large role of indirect mechanisms in ion desorption condensed N/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ multilayers is demonstrated and discussed. Ion desorption spectra from several alkali halides and alkaline earth halides are compared to bulk photoabsorption spectra. Relative ion yields from BaF/sub 2/ and a series of alkali halides are discussed in terms of desorption mechanisms.

  7. Energy estimation of cosmic rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A. W.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Louedec, K.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E.

    2016-06-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30-80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy—corrected for geometrical effects—is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.

  8. The Penarroya mining railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  9. Ghana - Mining and Development

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Mohan

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the project ($9.37 million, 1996-2001) were to (a) enhance the capacity of the mining sector institutions to carry out their functions of encouraging and regulating investments in the mining sector in an environmentally sound manner and (b) support the use of techniques and mechanisms that will improve productivity, financial viability and reduce the environmental impact of ...

  10. New trigger algorithm of the Auger fluorescence telescopes and validation of their single electron resolution; Neuer Triggeralgorithmus der Auger-Fluoreszenzteleskope und Validierung ihrer Ein-Elektron-Aufloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asch, T.

    2005-12-15

    The Pierre Auger Observatory analyses air shower events of ultra high energy cosmic rays. For the first time the two detector techniques to measure Cherenkov and fluorescence light have been combined to detect primary particle with energies >10{sup 19}eV. The raw data rate, as measured by the telescope's electronics, is in the order of 9 Gigabyte per second. A multi level trigger system, which reduces the data systematically in several levels and complexities without rejecting important shower events, is necessary. The different trigger levels are realised in hardware as well as in software. A new ansatz for the first software trigger and its functionality is developed and discussed. The trigger is based on the so far not used information of the readout electronics. The resulting trigger level is more efficient and rejects sheet lightning better compared with present trigger level. Thus, the trigger rate to the next trigger level is decreased and the DAQ system is released. Different calibration methods, which are made regularly, are essential for an experiment. The results of different calibration methods have to be consistent to each other. The single electron resolution of the photomultiplier tubes play an important role in this context. The single electron resolution is a geometry and material dependent factor and up to now only known from Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental validation through direct measurement and the importance of the single electron resolution are discussed. The measurement was possible with small modifications of the configuration. The result of the single electron resolution is within its error in good agreement with the one known from Monte Carlo simulations. The low statistical error of 4% shows a low manufacturing tolerance, so that we can assume the resolution to be constant for the type of photomultiplier tubes used. (orig.)

  11. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  12. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  13. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  14. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  15. Quantitative auger electron spectroscopy of the interface carbon layer formation on the vacuum cleavage surfaces of layered semiconductor In4Se3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the qualitative Auger electron spectroscopy of the interface carbon layer formation on the high vacuum cleavage surfaces of layered semiconductor In4Se3 crystals are presented. The kinetics of interfacial carbon layer formation on the cleavage surfaces of crystals and the elemental and phase composition of the interface dependent on the exposition time in high vacuum and on the dose of electron irradiation have been studied by the quantitative Auger electron and mass-spectroscopy methods

  16. Towards a Joint Analysis of Data from the IceCube Neutrino Telescope, the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov; Golup, G.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Aublin, J.; Caccianiga, L.; Ghia, P. L.; Roulet, E.; Unger, M.; Sagawa, H.; Tinyakov, P.

    A joint point-source analysis to search for correlations between the arrival directions of neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is being planned by the IceCube, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations. A cross-correlation analysis will be performed using ten years of Auger data, six years of Telescope Array data and a signal-rich set of neutrino candidate events detected at IceCube. Also, a likelihood analysis will be applied to the same sample of neutrinos, stacking their arrival directions, and to UHECRs. Finally, another likelihood analysis will be performed on stacked UHECRs and the IceCube 4-year sample of clean, through-going muons that could be associated with charged-current muon neutrino interactions. An outline of the analyses, their sensitivities and discovery potentials is presented here.

  17. Antennas for the Detection of Radio Emission Pulses from Cosmic-Ray induced Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahlers, M; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Batista, R Alves; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bäuml, J; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boh\\'{čová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buroker, L; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Cheng, S H; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Diaz, J Chirinos; Chudoba, J; Cilmo, M; Clay, R W; Cocciolo, G; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; del Peral, L; del Río, M; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; Docters, W; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fratu, O; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gaior, R; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Roca, S T Garcia; Garcia-Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Bravo, A Gascon; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huber, D; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Jiraskova, S; Josebachuili, M; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauer, R; Lautridou, P; Coz, S Le; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lu, L; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Maller, J; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, J; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Martraire, D; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurel, D; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nhung, P T; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Porcelli, A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rizi, V; Roberts, J; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Cabo, I Rodriguez; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Lopez, H H Silva; Sima, O; Śmia\\lkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Srivastava, Y N; Stanic, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tapia, A; Tartare, M; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Toma, G; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Werner, F; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Widom, A; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Yapici, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Garcia, B Zamorano; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Zhou, J; Zhu, Y; Silva, M Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M; Charrier, D; Denis, L; Hilgers, G; Mohrmann, L; Philipps, B; Seeger, O

    2012-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is exploring the potential of the radio detection technique to study extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) addresses both technological and scientific aspects of the radio technique. A first phase of AERA has been operating since September 2010 with detector stations observing radio signals at frequencies between 30 and 80 MHz. In this paper we present comparative studies to identify and optimize the antenna design for the final configuration of AERA consisting of 160 individual radio detector stations. The transient nature of the air shower signal requires a detailed description of the antenna sensor. As the ultra-wideband reception of pulses is not widely discussed in antenna literature, we review the relevant antenna characteristics and enhance theoretical considerations towards the impulse response of antennas including polarization effects and multiple signal reflections. On the basis of the vector effective l...

  18. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs. Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implem...

  19. Concept of Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Web mining is the use of data mining techniques to automatically discover and extract information from World Wide Web documents and services. This article considers the question: is effective Web mining possible? Skeptics believe that the Web is too unstructured for Web mining to succeed. Indeed, data mining has been applied to databases traditionally, yet much of the information on the Web lies buried in documents designed for human consumption such as home pages or product catalogs. Further...

  20. Languages for Mining and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    De Raedt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Applying machine learning and data mining to novel applications is cumbersome. This observation is the prime motivation for the interest in languages for learning and mining. In this talk, I shall provide a gentle introduction to three types of languages that support machine learning and data mining: inductive query languages, which extend database query languages with primitives for mining and learning, modelling languages, which allow to declaratively specify and solve mining and learning p...

  1. Mine Maps as Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, Linda R. (Pennsylvania State University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2000-01-01

    Mine maps are extremely useful resources for determining regional and local hydrogeologic conditions as well as mineral resources and reserves. Users include mining companies, property owners concerned about risk factors related to mining activities, government inspectors, engineers and planners. Hundreds of thousands of mine maps exist yet how many are collected or cataloged by libraries or archives? This paper examines the characteristics of mine maps, how they are published, their value, a...

  2. Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Bleve, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

  3. Auger and radiative deexcitation of the 1s2l3l-prime configurations of lithium-like neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. H.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray energies, Auger and radiative decay rates, and fluorescence yields have been computed in intermediate coupling for the various states of the 1s2s3s, 1s2s3p, 1s2p3p, 1s2p3s, and 1s2p3d configurations of Ne-10(7+). The results supplement recent experimental work on these transitions.

  4. Limits to the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Bigas, O Blanch

    2007-01-01

    With the Pierre Auger Observatory we have the capability of detecting ultra-high energy neutrinos by searching for very inclined showers with a significant electromagnetic component. In this work we discuss the discrimination power of the instrument for earth skimming tau neutrinos with ultra-high energies. Based on the data collected since January 2004 an upper limit to the diffuse flux of neutrinos atEeV energies is presented and systematic uncertainties are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric Calorimetry above 10$^{19}$ eV: Shooting Lasers at the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Wiencke, L.; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2008-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory uses the earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter to measure extensive air-showers created by particles of astrophysical origin. Some of these particles carry joules of energy. At these extreme energies, test beams are not available in the conventional sense. Yet understanding the energy response of the observatory is important. For example, the propagation distance of the highest energy cosmic-rays through the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is...

  6. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  7. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  8. International mining forum 2004, new technologies in underground mining, safety in mines proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Kicki; Eugeniusz Sobczyk (eds.)

    2004-01-15

    The book comprises technical papers that were presented at the International Mining Forum 2004. This event aims to bring together scientists and engineers in mining, rock mechanics, and computer engineering, with a view to explore and discuss international developments in the field. Topics discussed in this book are: trends in the mining industry; new solutions and tendencies in underground mines; rock engineering problems in underground mines; utilization and exploitation of methane; prevention measures for the control of rock bursts in Polish mines; and current problems in Ukrainian coal mines.

  9. Python data mining environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mrak, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis we compare the systems for data mining that have an interface in the programming language Python. Many open-source systems for data mining and library had implemented their software interfaces to the Python programming language. They choose Python because it is fast and provides object-oriented programming, allows for the integration of other software libraries in Python and is implemented in all major operating systems (Windows, Linux / Unix, OS / 2, Mac, etc..). Our analysis s...

  10. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  11. MINING INDUSTRY IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Vujec

    1996-01-01

    The trends of World and European mine industry is presented with introductory short review. The mining industry is very important in economy of Croatia, because of cover most of needed petroleum and natural gas quantity, total construction raw materials and industrial non-metallic raw minerals. Detail quantitative presentation of mineral raw material production is compared with pre-war situation. The value of annual production is represented for each raw mineral (the paper is published in Cro...

  12. MINING INDUSTRY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The trends of World and European mine industry is presented with introductory short review. The mining industry is very important in economy of Croatia, because of cover most of needed petroleum and natural gas quantity, total construction raw materials and industrial non-metallic raw minerals. Detail quantitative presentation of mineral raw material production is compared with pre-war situation. The value of annual production is represented for each raw mineral (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  14. Web Mining: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. G. S. Mudiraj B. Jabber K. David raju

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is a main research area in Web mining focused on learning about Web users and their interactions with Web sites. The motive of mining is to find users’ access models automatically and quickly from the vast Web log data, such as frequent access paths, frequent access page groups and user clustering. Through web usage mining, the server log, registration information and other relative information left by user provide foundation for decision making of organizations. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. There are generally three tasks in Web Usage Mining: Preprocessing, Pattern analysis and Knowledge discovery. Preprocessing cleans log file of server by removing log entries such as error or failure and repeated request for the same URL from the same host etc... The main task of Pattern analysis is to filter uninteresting information and to visualize and interpret the interesting pattern to users. The statistics collected from the log file can help to discover the knowledge. This knowledge collected can be used to take decision on various factors like Excellent, Medium, Weak users and Excellent, Medium and Weak web pages based on hit counts of the web page in the web site. The design of the website is restructured based on user’s behavior or hit counts which provides quick response to the web users, saves memory space of servers and thus reducing HTTP requests and bandwidth utilization. This paper addresses challenges in three phases of Web Usage mining along with Web Structure Mining.This paper also discusses an application of WUM, an online Recommender System that dynamically generates links to pages that have not yet been visited by a user and might be of his potential interest. Differently from the recommender systems proposed so far, ONLINE MINER does not make use of any off-line component, and is able to manage Web sites made up of pages dynamically generated.

  15. Data mining in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amarjit Singh; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Digish Shah

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed dec...

  16. Scanning Auger microprobe studies of ball cratered CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levenson, L.L.; Burnham, N.A.; Matson, R.J.; Noufi, R.; Kazmerski, L.L.

    1986-05-01

    CdS/CuInSe/sub 2/ solar cell films are typically several micrometers thick. Composition profiles of these films are usually carried out on fracture cross sections by scanning Auger microscopy or by recording Auger spectra during ion milling. For fracture cross sections, the depth resolution depends on the electron beam diameter and the roughness of the fracture surface. Ion milling is time consuming, and artifacts are caused by ion beam faceting. Ball cratering requires only a fraction of an hour and provides significant magnification of the film cross section. There is sufficient contrast, both in optical and electron microscopy, to distinguish between CdS and CuInSe/sub 2/ layers. Auger line scans and point analyses across crater walls have been used to determine composition depth dependence. Artifacts associated with this technique are electron beam damage of CdS and CuInSe/sub 2/ during line scan analysis and smearing of CdS for short distances (approx.1 ..mu..m) along the crater wall during ball cratering.

  17. Features of atomic images reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holography using SPEA-MEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Tomohiro, E-mail: matusita@spring8.or.jp [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsui, Fumihiko [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop a 3D atomic image reconstruction algorithm for photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector holography. • We examine the shapes of the atomic images reconstructed by using a developed kernel function. • We examine refraction effect at surface, limitation effect of the hologram data, energy resolution effect, and angular resolution effect. • These discussions indicate the experimental requirements to obtain the clear 3D atomic image. - Abstract: Three-dimensional atomic images can be reconstructed from photoelectron, Auger electron, and internal detector electron holograms using a scattering pattern extraction algorithm using the maximum entropy method (SPEA-MEM) that utilizes an integral transform. An integral kernel function for the integral transform is the key to clear atomic image reconstruction. We composed the kernel function using a scattering pattern function and estimated its ability. Image distortion caused by multiple scattering was also evaluated. Four types of Auger electron wave functions were investigated, and the effect of these wave function types was estimated. In addition, we addressed refraction at the surface, the effects of data limitation, and energy and angular resolutions.

  18. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  19. The Pierre Auger Research and Development Array (RDA in southeastern Colorado – R&D for a giant ground array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Research and Development Array (RDA was originally designed to be the precursor of the northern Auger observatory, a hybrid array of 4400 surface detector stations and 39 fluorescence telescopes deployed over 20,000 square kilometers. It is conceived as a test bed aiming at validating an improved and more cost-effective 1-PMT surface detector design and a new peer-to-peer communication system. The array of ten surface detector stations and ten communication-only stations is currently being deployed in southeastern Colorado and will be operated at least until late 2013. It is configured in such a way that it allows testing of a new peer-to-peer communication protocol, as well as a new surface detector electronics design with a larger dynamic range aiming at reducing the distance from the shower core where saturation is observed. All these developments are expected in the short term to improve the performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory and enable future enhancements. In the longer term, it is hoped that some of these new developments may contribute to the design of a next-generation giant ground array.

  20. Auger Recombination in III-Nitride Nanowires and Its Effect on Nanowire Light-Emitting Diode Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Wei

    2011-04-13

    We have measured the Auger recombination coefficients in defect-free InGaN nanowires (NW) and InGaN/GaN dot-in-nanowire (DNW) samples grown on (001) silicon by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires have a density of ∼1×1011 cm-2 and exhibit photoluminescence emission peak at λ ∼ 500 nm. The Auger coefficients as a function of excitation power have been derived from excitation dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements over a wide range of optical excitation power density. The values of C0, defined as the Auger coefficient at low excitation, are 6.1 × 10-32 and 4.1×10-33 cm6·s-1 in the NW and DNW samples, respectively, which are in reasonably good agreement with theoretical predictions for InGaN alloy semiconductors. Light-emitting diodes made with the NW and DNW samples exhibit no efficiency droop up to an injection current density of 400 A/cm 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Block copolymer micelles target Auger electron radiotherapy to the nucleus of HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Bryan; Reilly, Raymond M; Allen, Christine

    2012-02-13

    Intracellular trafficking of Auger electron emitting radionuclides to perinuclear and nuclear regions of cells is critical to realizing their full therapeutic potential. In the present study, block copolymer micelles (BCMs) were labeled with the Auger electron emitter indium-111 ((111)In) and loaded with the radiosensitizer methotrexate. HER2 specific antibodies (trastuzumab fab) and nuclear localization signal (NLS; CGYGPKKKRKVGG) peptides were conjugated to the surface of the BCMs to direct uptake in HER2 expressing cells and subsequent localization in the cell nucleus. Cell uptake and intracellular distribution of the multifunctional BCMs were evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines with different levels of HER2 expression. Indeed cell uptake was found to be HER2 density dependent, confirming receptor-mediated internalization of the BCMs. Importantly, conjugation of NLS peptides to the surface of BCMs was found to result in a significant increase in nuclear uptake of the radionuclide (111)In. Successful nuclear targeting was shown to improve the antipoliferative effect of the Auger electrons as measured by clonogenic assays. In addition, a significant radiation enhancement effect was observed by concurrent delivery of low-dose MTX and (111)In in all breast cancer cell lines evaluated.

  2. Investigation and characterization of mining subsidence in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian; BIAN Li

    2007-01-01

    In Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine, serious environmental and safety problems are caused by large scale mining activities in the past 40 years. These problems include mining subsidence, low recovery ratio, too much dead ore in pillars, and pollution of phosphorus gypsum. Mining subsidence falls into four categories: curved ground and mesa, ground cracks and collapse hole, spalling and eboulement, slope slide and creeping. Measures to treat the mining subsidence were put forward: finding out and managing abandoned stopes, optimizing mining method (cut and fill mining method), selecting proper backfilling materials (phosphogypsum mixtures), avoiding disorder mining operation, and treating highway slopes. These investigations and engineering treatment methods are believed to be able to contribute to the safety extraction of ore and sustainable development in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine.

  3. Coal mining in Ramagundam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraberty, S.

    1979-07-01

    The Ramagundam area in the South Godavari Coalfield is one of the most promising coal-bearing belts in India. It contains total coal reserves of about 1,132,000,000 tons in an area of approximately 150 square kilometers, and holds high potential for development into a vast industrial center. During the past four years production has doubled to 3,500,000 tons in 1978 to 1979. By 1983 to 1984, the total output per year is planned to be doubled again. Increased mechanization and the introduction of more advanced mining techniques will help to achieve this goal. In addition to the present face machinery, i.e., gathering arm loaders/shuttle cars and side dump loaders/chain conveyor combinations, the latest Voest-Alpine AM50 tunneling and roadheading machines have been commissioned for development work. Load-haul-dump machines will be introduced in the near future to ensure higher loading/transport capacities. A double-drum shearer loader with self-advancing supports is due to be commissioned shortly for faster, more efficient longwall mining to supplement conventional bord and pillar mining. In addition, a mechanized open cast mine has come on stream, and a walking dragline will soon be delivered to the mine for removing overburden. The projected annual output from this mine will be about 2,000,000 tons. (LTN)

  4. Atomic and Molecular Photoelectron and Auger Electron SpectroscopyStudies Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron radiation, was used to measure the angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons from atoms and molecules as functions of photon energy. The branching ratios and partial cross sections were a 130 measured in certain cases. By comparison with theoretical calculations, the experimental results are interpreted in terms of the characteristic electronic structure and ionization dynamics of the atomic or molecular sample. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) spectra o f the ejected electrons. The ''a double-angle-TOF'' method for the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions is discussed. This technique offers the advantages of increased electron collect ion efficiency and the elimination of certain systematic errors. Several results were obtained for Xe using photon energies in the range hv {approx_equal} 60-190 eV, where excitation and ionization of the inner-subshell 4d electrons dominates. The 4d asymmetry parameter {beta} exhibits strong oscillations with energy, in agreement with several theoretical calculations. As predicted, the 5p asymmetry parameter was observed to deviate strongly from that calculated using the independent-electron model, due to intershell correlation with the 4d electrons.

  5. Auger neutralization of He{sup +} on Cu surfaces: Simulation of azimuthal scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebl, D., E-mail: dominik.goebl@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria); Primetzhofer, D. [Institutionen för Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala Universitet, Box 516, S-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Abad, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada C5, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Monreal, R.C. [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada C5, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Bauer, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    Charge exchange by Auger neutralization (AN) plays an important role in surface analysis techniques such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Recent advances in the theoretical description of AN have included a model based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approach, which is able to calculate accurate neutralization probabilities of He{sup +} due to AN in LEIS. Previous investigations have shown that the neutralization probability is strongly influenced by the distance dependent shift of the He 1s level. In this study simulations of He{sup +} scattered from Cu(1 0 0) and Cu(1 1 0) surfaces at fixed azimuth angles are presented. Additionally, the azimuth dependence of ion- and neutral-yield for He{sup +} scattered from Cu(1 0 0) is simulated and compared to experimental data. Calculations were performed using the LCAO model in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The excellent agreement between simulation and experiment provides evidence that the obtained values for the level shift are a characteristic property of the surface.

  6. Auger spectrum of a water molecule after single and double core ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhester, L; Burmeister, C F; Groenhof, G; Grubmüller, H

    2012-04-14

    The high intensity of free electron lasers opens up the possibility to perform single-shot molecule scattering experiments. However, even for small molecules, radiation damage induced by absorption of high intense x-ray radiation is not yet fully understood. One of the striking effects which occurs under intense x-ray illumination is the creation of double core ionized molecules in considerable quantity. To provide insight into this process, we have studied the dynamics of water molecules in single and double core ionized states by means of electronic transition rate calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. From the MD trajectories, photoionization and Auger transition rates were computed based on electronic continuum wavefunctions obtained by explicit integration of the coupled radial Schrödinger equations. These rates served to solve the master equations for the populations of the relevant electronic states. To account for the nuclear dynamics during the core hole lifetime, the calculated electron emission spectra for different molecular geometries were incoherently accumulated according to the obtained time-dependent populations, thus neglecting possible interference effects between different decay pathways. We find that, in contrast to the single core ionized water molecule, the nuclear dynamics for the double core ionized water molecule during the core hole lifetime leaves a clear fingerprint in the resulting electron emission spectra. The lifetime of the double core ionized water was found to be significantly shorter than half of the single core hole lifetime.

  7. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  8. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; et al.

    2014-12-31

    Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (Xmax), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the distributions with predictions from a variety of hadronic interaction models for variations in the composition of the primary cosmic rays and examining the quality of the fit. Regardless of what interaction model is assumed, we find that our data are not well described by a mix of protons and iron nuclei over most of the energy range. Acceptable fits can be obtained when intermediate masses are included, and when this is done consistent results for the proton and iron-nuclei contributions can be found using the available models. We observe a strong energy dependence of the resulting proton fractions, and find no support from any of the models for a significant contribution from iron nuclei. However, we also observe a significant disagreement between the models with respect to the relative contributions of the intermediate components.

  9. Auger and photoluminescence analysis of ZnO nanowires grown on AlN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Ramin, E-mail: yousefi.ramin@gmail.com [Solid State Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kamaluddin, Burhanuddin [Solid State Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hajakbari, Fatemeh [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, 14665-678 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    ZnO nanowires were grown on AlN thin film deposited on the glass substrates using a physical vapor deposition method in a conventional tube furnace without introducing any catalysts. The temperature of the substrates was maintained between 500 and 600 deg. C during the growth process. The typical average diameters of the obtained nanowires on substrate at 600 and 500 deg. C were about 57 and 22 nm respectively with several micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction and Auger spectroscopy results showed Al diffused from AlN thin film into the ZnO nanowires for the sample grown at 600 deg. C. Photoluminescence of the nanowires exhibits appearance of two emission bands, one related to ultraviolet emission with a strong peak at 380-382 nm, and the other related to deep level emission with a weak peak at 503-505 nm. The ultraviolet peak of the nanowires grown at 500 deg. C was blue shifted by 2 nm compared to those grown at 600 deg. C. This shift could be attributed to surface effect.

  10. Timing calibration and synchronization of surface and fluorescence detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, P.; Bellido, J.; Bertou, Xavier; Covault, C.E.; /Case Western Reserve U.; Fick, B.E.; Gemmeke, H.; Kleifges, M.; Mostafa, M.; Menshikov, A.; Meyer, F.; Pryke, C.; Sommers, P.; Vanderpan, E.; Vernotte, F.; Wiencke, L.

    2005-08-01

    Reconstruction of cosmic ray arrival directions for Surface Detectors (SD) and Fluorescence Detectors (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory requires accurate timing (25 nanoseconds or better) between measurements at individual detectors and instrument triggers. Timing systems for both SD and FD are based on Motorola Oncore UT+ GPS receivers installed into custom-built time-tagging circuits that are calibrated in the laboratory to a statistical precision of better than 15 ns. We describe timing calibration and synchronization methods applied in the field for both the SD and the FD systems in four areas: (1) checks of timing offsets within the SD using co-located station pairs and timing residuals on reconstructed showers, (2) calibration within the FD using a custom-build LED calibration system, (3) calibration between SD and FD using laser signals fed simultaneously into an SD station and across the FD via the Central Laser Facility (CLF), and (4) studies of synchronization between FD and SD through the analysis of events detected by both systems, called hybrid events. These hybrid events allow for a much more accurate reconstruction of the shower and for relatively tight constraints on timing calibration offsets. We demonstrate that statistical and systematic timing uncertainties have no significant impact on the event reconstruction.

  11. Challenges for lithium species identification in complementary Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M.; Zier, M.; Oswald, S.; Eckert, J.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of high spatial resolution and near-surface chemical information makes Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) a powerful tool for comprehensive surface analysis. The recent interest in lithium metal as an active material in lithium sulphur or lithium air batteries increases the demand for a thorough knowledge of the reactions happening at the electrode interface. Applying AES to the complex surfaces of batteries, however, requires a detailed understanding of the interactions occurring with the highly reactive materials during investigation, especially when using metallic lithium with its passivation layers formed even under glove box atmosphere. The article is focused on the influence of electron beam damage and residual gas under ultra-high vacuum conditions on the observations made. Immediate irradiation effects are shown to highly depend on electron dose leading to misinterpretation the surface composition and a non-sufficient stability of the sample. The results are further supported by coupled X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements that help to understand the beam induced phenomena. An improved output of the spectroscopic measurement could be achieved employing AES mappings. This allows an improved insight into the local distribution of different lithium compounds in the material surface and can also be applied to other battery active materials.

  12. Diffraction and holography with photoelectrons and Auger electrons: Some new directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadley, C.S. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The current status of photoelectron and Auger-electron diffraction is reviewed, with emphasis on new directions of activity. The use of forward scattering in the study of adsorbed molecules, epitaxial overlayers, and clean surfaces is one of the most developed applications, and one that will become more powerful as higher energy resolution and perhaps spin analysis are used to resolve emitters on the basis of chemical state, position at a surface, or magnetic state. The use of larger data sets spanning a considerable fraction of the solid angle above a surface will also much enhance the structural information available, for example, in the growth of epitaxial layers or nanostructures on surfaces. Detailed fitting of experimental data to theoretical calculations based upon either single scattering or multiple scattering should also provide more rich structural information, including such parameters as substrate interlayer relaxation. Surface phase transitions in which near-surface layers become highly disordered can also be studied, with results that are complementary to those from such techniques as low energy electron diffraction and medium energy ion scattering. Short-range magnetic order also can be probed by somehow resolving the spin of the outgoing electrons, e.g. by using multiplet-split core levels.

  13. Search for Ultra-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Balaceanu, A; Luz, R J Barreira; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; Deligny, O; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gaior, R; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gaté, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kemp, J; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Lauscher, M; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Luce, Q; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Nellen, L; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Ramos-Pollan, R; Rautenberg, J; Ravignani, D; Reinert, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Fernandez, G Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rogozin, D; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento, C A; Sato, R; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schimp, M; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Silli, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stasielak, J; Stassi, P; Strafella, F; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taboada, A; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Torri, M; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Quispe, I D Vergara; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yelos, D; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Such particles, possibly a relic of phase transitions in the early universe, would deposit a large amount of energy along their path through the atmosphere, comparable to that of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). The air shower profile of a magnetic monopole can be effectively distinguished by the fluorescence detector from that of standard UHECRs. No candidate was found in the data collected between 2004 and 2012, with an expected background of less than 0.1 event from UHECRs. The corresponding 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits on the flux of ultra-relativistic magnetic monopoles range from $10^{-19}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for a Lorentz factor $\\gamma=10^9$ to $2.5 \\times10^{-21}$ (cm$^{2}$ sr s)$^{-1}$ for $\\gamma=10^{12}$. These results - the first obtained with a UHECR detector - improve previously published limits by up to an order of magnitude.

  14. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Awal, N; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gallo, F; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pepe, I M; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Strafella, F; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valbuena-Delgado, A; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yelos, D; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, $(\\sec \\theta)_\\mathrm{max}$, sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above $3 \\times 10^{18}$ eV. By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understa...

  15. Validation of the real and simulated data of the pierre auger fluorescence telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewers, A.; Greenen, H.; Kampert, K-H.; Perrone, L.; Robbins, S.; Scherini, V.; /Wuppertal U.; Unger, M.; /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum

    2005-07-01

    The fluorescence detector (FD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory is currently operating 18 fluorescence telescopes of the 24 that will be employed in the completed detector. These telescopes, grouped in 4 eyes each consisting of 6 telescopes, measure the longitudinal profile of cosmic ray showers with a 14% duty cycle. The reconstruction capability and triggering efficiency have been studied using a complete simulation and reconstruction production chain, employing both simulated CORSIKA showers and parameterized Gaisser-Hillas profiles. The propagation through the atmosphere and the detector response are taken into account and simulated in detail. These simulated data have been generated in a preliminary analysis using the method of importance sampling to efficiently cover the energy region of 0.3-300 EeV, various shower geometries and impact points and different primary particles. The distributions of observables have then been investigated in both real and simulated data, facilitating the validation of the reconstruction and simulation software. Comparisons of real and simulated data are discussed and used to assess their impact on the data analysis.

  16. Quality studies of the data taking conditions for the Auger fluorescence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, R.; Fonte, R.; Insolia, A.; Petrera, S.; Rodriquez Martino, J.; /Rome U.,Tor Vergata

    2005-07-01

    As more than half of the Fluorescence Detector (FD) of the Auger Observatory is completed, data taking is becoming a routine job. It is then necessary to follow strict procedures to assure the quality of the data. An overview of the data taking methods is given. The nature of the FD background signal is due to the night sky brightness (stars and planet faint light, moonlight, twilight, airglow, zodiacal and artificial light) and to the electronic background (photomultiplier and electronic noise). The analysis of the fluctuations in the FADC signal (variance analysis), directly proportional to the background mean light level, performed for each night of data taking is used to monitor the FD background signal. The data quality is analyzed using different techniques, described in detail. Examples of trigger rates, number of stereo events, dead time due to moonlight, weather or hardware problems are given. The analysis comprises several months of data taking, giving an overview of the FD capabilities, performance and allowing a systematic study of data and their correlation with the environment.

  17. Azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of the surface detector signals of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J. C.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Reinert, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.

    2016-04-01

    The azimuthal asymmetry in the risetime of signals in Auger surface detector stations is a source of information on shower development. The azimuthal asymmetry is due to a combination of the longitudinal evolution of the shower and geometrical effects related to the angles of incidence of the particles into the detectors. The magnitude of the effect depends upon the zenith angle and state of development of the shower and thus provides a novel observable, (sec θ )max , sensitive to the mass composition of cosmic rays above 3 ×1018 eV . By comparing measurements with predictions from shower simulations, we find for both of our adopted models of hadronic physics (QGSJETII-04 and EPOS-LHC) an indication that the mean cosmic-ray mass increases slowly with energy, as has been inferred from other studies. However, the mass estimates are dependent on the shower model and on the range of distance from the shower core selected. Thus the method has uncovered further deficiencies in our understanding of shower modeling that must be resolved before the mass composition can be inferred from (sec θ )max.

  18. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veberič, Darko

    2016-07-01

    The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  19. A Bayesian analysis of the 69 highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanin, Alexander; Mortlock, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    The origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain an open question. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate the arrival directions of the UHECRs with catalogues of potential sources, but no definite conclusion has been reached. We report a Bayesian analysis of the 69 events, from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), that aims to determine the fraction of the UHECRs that originate from known AGNs in the Veron-Cety & Verson (VCV) catalogue, as well as AGNs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT), galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), and an additional volume-limited sample of 17 nearby AGNs. The study makes use of a multilevel Bayesian model of UHECR injection, propagation and detection. We find that for reasonable ranges of prior parameters the Bayes factors disfavour a purely isotropic model. For fiducial values of the model parameters, we report 68 per cent credible intervals for the fraction of source originating UHECRs of 0.09^{+0.05}_{-0.04}, 0.25^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, 0.24^{+0.12}_{-0.10}, and 0.08^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the VCV, Swift-BAT and 2MRS catalogues, and the sample of 17 AGNs, respectively.

  20. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  1. Investigation of grain boundary chemistry in Al-Li 2195 welds using Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.H. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center

    1996-05-01

    Al-Li alloy 2195 is a low-density material with high fracture toughness that is particularly well-suited for aerospace systems. It will replace Al-Cu alloy 2219 in the Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT), a modified version of the external tank being developed for the Space Shuttle to support Space Station deployment. Recent efforts have focused on joining 2195 with variable polarity plasma arc welding, as well as repairing 2195 welds with tungsten inert gas techniques. During this study, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to examine grain boundary chemistry in 2195 welds. Results indicated that weld integrity depends on whether (and how much) the grain boundaries are covered with thin films comprised of a mixture of discontinuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in Al (Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which form during weld solidification. O was probably introduced as a contaminant in the shielding gases, occurring at low levels considered negligible for Al alloys that do not contain Li. However, oxidation kinetics in 2195 are increased by Li enrichment of small quantities of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, further enhancing thin film formation at the grain boundaries. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can ultimately occupy sufficient grain boundary area to degrade the material`s mechanical properties, producing negative effects that are compounded by the cumulative heat input of multi-pass repair welding. (orig.)

  2. A Bayesian analysis of the 69 highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Khanin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The origins of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain an open question. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate the arrival directions of the UHECRs with catalogs of potential sources, but no definite conclusion has been reached. We report a Bayesian analysis of the 69 events from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), that aims to determine the fraction of the UHECRs that originate from known AGNs in the Veron-Cety & Veron (VCV) catalog, as well as AGNs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT), galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), and an additional volume-limited sample of 17 nearby AGNs. The study makes use of a multi-level Bayesian model of UHECR injection, propagation and detection. We find that for reasonable ranges of prior parameters, the Bayes factors disfavour a purely isotropic model. For fiducial values of the model parameters, we report 68% credible intervals for the fraction of source originating UHECRs of 0.09+0.05-0.04, 0.25+0.09-0.08, 0.24+0.12-0....

  3. Channel-resolved photo- and Auger-electron spectroscopy of halogenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, Utuq; Kaderiya, B.; Kumarapan, V.; Kushawaha, R.; Rudenko, A.; Rolles, D.; Xiong, H.; Berrah, N.; Bomme, C.; Savelyev, E.; Kilcoyne, D.

    2016-05-01

    Inner-shell photoelectron and Auger electron spectra of polyatomic molecules such as halogenated hydrocarbons are typically hard to interpret and assign due to many overlapping states that form broad bands even in high-resolution measurements. With the help of electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements performed using the velocity map imaging technique, we are able to detect high-energy (assigning individual components of the electron spectra to specific potential surfaces and final states. In this work, we present measurements on CH3 I, CH2 IBr, and CH2 ICl molecules in the gas-phase using soft x-ray light provided by the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. This project is supported by the DOE, Office of Science, BES, Division of Chemical, Geological and Biological Sciences under Award Number DE-FG02-86ER13491 (U.A., B.K., V.K., A.R., D.R.) and Award Number DE-SC0012376 (H.X., N.B.).

  4. A study of photons at ultra high energy using Auger surface detector

    CERN Document Server

    Decerprit, Guillaume; Parizot, E

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to derive an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy (UHE) photon flux above a given energy, using the Auger SD events. As previous studies, it takes advantage of the fundamental differences between showers induced by hadrons and showers induced by photons (signal rise time, slope of the Lateral Distribution Function, radius of curvature), but it uses photon shower simulations adapted to the actually observed SD events, on an event-by-event basis. In particular, we find that a limited number of simulations per event allows to reach an upper limit that is very close to the ideal case that would be obtained with an infinite number of simulations. For instance, 10 simulated showers per event are sufficient to reach an upper limit only 10 percent higher than the ideal one. As an illustration, we apply this method to the SD events reconstructed above 55 EeV, which provides an optimized upper limit on the photon flux above 150 EeV, and indicate how this can be easily extended to the lower-energ...

  5. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultra-high energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62{\\deg} and 80{\\deg}. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the Surface Detector array and the Fluorescence Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The muon number for each shower is derived by scaling a simulated reference profile of the lateral muon density distribution at the ground until it fits the data. A $10^{19}$ eV shower with a zenith angle of 67{\\deg}, which arrives at the Surface Detector array at an altitude of 1450 m above sea level, contains on average $(2.68 \\pm 0.04 \\pm 0.48\\,(\\mathrm{sys.})) \\times 10^{7}$ muons with energies larger than 0.3 GeV. The logarithmic gain $\\text{d}\\ln{N_\\mu} / \\text{d}\\ln{E}$ of muons with increasing energy between $4 \\times 10^{18}$ eV and $5\\times 10^{19}$ eV is measured to be $(1.029\\, \\pm\\, 0.024\\, \\pm 0.030\\,(\\mathrm{sys.}))$.

  6. The Pierre Auger observatory's project of detecting photons and neutrinos at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiations of ultra high energy (RCUHE, beyond 1018 eV) are difficult to study because of their low flux on the earth surface: about 1 photon per year and per km2. The observatory Pierre Auger proposes to study RCUHE by designing 2 sites of 3000 km2 (one in each hemisphere) allowing the observation of the shower initiated by cosmic radiation by using 4 fluorescence telescopes and a network of 1600 Cherenkov detectors. The identification of the primary particle is a very delicate point, the detection of neutrino or photon at these energies would bring valuable information for the understanding of potential sources of RCUHE. The first part of this work presents the project and its assets to perform its task. The second part is dedicated to the description of the Cherenkov detectors, of the trigger system, and of the centralized data acquisition system. The last part present the prototype installation that is under construction at Macargue in Argentina. (A.C.)

  7. Modern geodesy approach in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalkovski, Stojance; Despodov, Zoran; Gorgievski, Cvetan; Bogdanovski, Goran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents overview of the development of modern geodesy approach in underground mining. Correct surveying measurements have great importance in mining, especially underground mining as well as a major impact on safety in the development of underground mining facilities.

  8. Colombia, mining country. Vision a year 2019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope of the state action for the mining sector, the performance of the mining sector, regional perceptions of mining development, construction of a long-term vision for the mining sector, the action plan and goals follow-up

  9. Journey from Data Mining to Web Mining to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of big data starting from data mining to web mining to big data. It discusses each of this method in brief and also provides their applications. It states the importance of mining big data today using fast and novel approaches.

  10. Mining and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 30 contributions, out of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. They are concerned with uranium mines and mills in the Czech Republic. The impacts of the mining activities and of the mill tailings on the environment and the population are assessed, and it is concluded that the radiation hazard does not exceed that from natural background. Considerable attention is paid to the monitoring of the surroundings of mines and mills and to landscaping activities. Proposed technologies for the purification of waste waters from the chemical leaching process are described. Ways to eliminate environmental damage from abandoned tailings settling ponds are suggested. (M.D.). 18 tabs., 21 figs., 43 refs

  11. Overview of solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with in situ solution mining. A significant fraction of known U.S. uranium reserves occur as low grade mineralization in sedimentary sandstone deposits located between 40 and 200 meters subsurface. For a variety of reasons, such deposits may not be economically developable by any method other than in situ solution mining. This coupled with the current market price of uranium has led to significant development and application of in situ solution mining for uranium production during the past several years. The process consists of the ore body; well field; lixiviant; uranium recovery process; waste treatment processes; and aquifer restoration. A tabulation of firms involved with a summary of the leach chemistry used is given. 3 refs

  12. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  13. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  14. Databases for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    LANGOF, LADO

    2015-01-01

    This work is about looking for synergies between data mining tools and databa\\-se management systems (DBMS). Imagine a situation where we need to solve an analytical problem using data that are too large to be processed solely inside the main physical memory and at the same time too small to put data warehouse or distributed analytical system in place. The target area is therefore a single personal computer that is used to solve data mining problems. We are looking for tools that allows us to...

  15. Mining protein structure data

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Carlos Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The principal topic of this work is the application of data mining techniques, in particular of machine learning, to the discovery of knowledge in a protein database. In the first chapter a general background is presented. Namely, in section 1.1 we overview the methodology of a Data Mining project and its main algorithms. In section 1.2 an introduction to the proteins and its supporting file formats is outlined. This chapter is concluded with section 1.3 which defines that main problem we...

  16. Mining multidimensional distinct patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kubendranathan, Thusjanthan

    2010-01-01

    How do we find the dominant groups of customers in age, sex and location that were responsible for at least 85% of the sales of iPad, Macbook and iPhone? To answer such types of questions we introduce a novel data mining task – mining multidimensional distinct patterns (DPs). Given a multidimensional data set where each tuple carries some attribute values and a transaction, multidimensional DPs are itemsets whose absolute support ratio in a group-by on the attributes against the rest of the d...

  17. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  18. First aid at mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This Code of Practice has been approved by the Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. It gives practical guidance on the requirements placed on employers and self-employed persons by the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as they now apply to mines and comes into effect on 1 October 1993 which is the date on which the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 come into force.

  19. Blockchain Mining Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kiayias, Aggelos; Koutsoupias, Elias; Kyropoulou, Maria; Tselekounis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    We study the strategic considerations of miners participating in the bitcoin's protocol. We formulate and study the stochastic game that underlies these strategic considerations. The miners collectively build a tree of blocks, and they are paid when they create a node (mine a block) which will end up in the path of the tree that is adopted by all. Since the miners can hide newly mined nodes, they play a game with incomplete information. Here we consider two simplified forms of this game in wh...

  20. Data mining for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Meta S

    2014-01-01

    Delve into your data for the key to success Data mining is quickly becoming integral to creating value and business momentum. The ability to detect unseen patterns hidden in the numbers exhaustively generated by day-to-day operations allows savvy decision-makers to exploit every tool at their disposal in the pursuit of better business. By creating models and testing whether patterns hold up, it is possible to discover new intelligence that could change your business''s entire paradigm for a more successful outcome. Data Mining for Dummies shows you why it doesn''t take a data scientist to gain

  1. Pervasive data mining engine

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Rui Daniel Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão de Sistemas de Informação As ferramentas de Data Mining atuais necessitam de um conhecimento aprofundado na área para obter resultados otimizados. Esta dissertação apresenta como questão de investigação analisar “A viabilidade da construção de um sistema de Data Mining semiautónomo com características pervasive, sem perder a sua identidade e funcionalidades” e como objetivo desenvolver um protótipo de um sistema designado Pervasive D...

  2. In situ auger analysis of surface composition during high fluence ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D. A.; Sartwell, B. D.; Singer, I. L.

    1985-03-01

    A multi-technique ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) target chamber has been used to perform in situ Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) analysis during ion implantation and AES sputter depth profiling of the substrate within 1-2 min after implantation. Iron was implanted with 150 keV Ti + at a 45° angle of incidence in a target chamber with pressures ranging from 8 × 10 -9 Torr of residual gases up to 1 × 10 -5 Torr of intentionally admitted CO gas. A fluence of ∼1.0 × 10 16cm -2 was needed to sputter away the C-covered air-formed oxide. The implanted Ti reached the surface at the 1 at.% level by ∼1.5 × 10 16cm -2. With increasing fluence, the Ti surface concentration increased to ∼15 at.% at steady-state with a curve shape that was concave downward at all fluences. The surface C concentration was found to be proportional to that of Ti for implants in CO, supporting a vacuum carburization model. Substantial O surface concentration (15-20 at.%) was detected for these runs but depth profiles showed only carburization, not oxidation, of the implanted layer. Even in the best vacuum available (8 × 10 -9Torr), some carburization was observed and was attributed to residual gas absorption. An increase in Ti retained dose with increasing CO pressure has been observed but not yet independently confirmed. The Ti/Fe surface concentration ratio is higher for implants done in CO, and this is discussed in terms of modification of the sputter yield for Ti.

  3. Development of DNA-based radiopharmaceuticals carrying Auger-electron emitters for anti-gene radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeting of radiation damage to specific DNA sequences is the essence of antigene radiotherapy. This technique also provides a tool to study molecular mechanisms of DNA repair on a defined, single radio damaged site. It was achieved such sequence-specific radio damage by combining the highly localized DNA damage produced by the decay of Auger-electron-emitters such as 125I with the sequence-specific action of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO). TFO complementary to polypurine-polypyrimidine regions of human genes were synthesized and labeled with 125I-dCTP by the primer extension method. 125I-TFO were delivered into cells with several delivery systems. In addition, human enzymes capable of supporting DNA single-strand-break repair were isolated and assessed for their role in the repair of this lesion. Also, the mutagenicity and repairability of 125I-TFO-induced double strand breaks (DSB) were assessed by repair of plasmid possessing a site-specific DSB lesion. Using plasmids containing target polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts, it was obtained the fine structure of sequence-specific DNA breaks produced by decay of 125I with single-nucleotide resolution. It was showed that the designed 125I-TFO in nanomolar concentrations could bind to and introduce double-strand breaks into the target sequences in situ, i.e., within isolated nuclei and intact digitonin-permeabilized cells. It was also showed 125I-TFO-induced DSB to be highly mutagenic lesions resulting in a mutation frequency of nearly 80%, with deletions comprising the majority of mutations. The results obtained demonstrate the ability of 125I-TFO to target specific sequences in their natural environment - within eukaryotic nucleus. Repair of 125I-TFO-induced DNA damage should typically result in mutagenic gene inactivation

  4. Development of DNA-based radiopharmaceuticals carrying Auger-electron emitters for anti-gene radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panyutin, I.G.; Winters, T.A.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Neumann, R.D. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2000-09-01

    Targeting of radiation damage to specific DNA sequences is the essence of antigen radiotherapy. This technique also provides a tool to study molecular mechanisms of DNA repair on a defined, single radio damaged site. It was achieved such sequence-specific radio damage by combining the highly localized DNA damage produced by the decay of Auger-electron-emitters such as {sup 125}I with the sequence-specific action of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO). TFO complementary to polypurine-polypyrimidine regions of human genes were synthesized and labeled with {sup 125}I-dCTP by the primer extension method. {sup 125}I-TFO were delivered into cells with several delivery systems. In addition, human enzymes capable of supporting DNA single-strand-break repair were isolated and assessed for their role in the repair of this lesion. Also, the mutagenicity and repairability of {sup 125}I-TFO-induced double strand breaks (DSB) were assessed by repair of plasmid possessing a site-specific DSB lesion. Using plasmids containing target polypurine-polypyrimidine tracts, it was obtained the fine structure of sequence-specific DNA breaks produced by decay of {sup 125}I with single-nucleotide resolution. It was showed that the designed {sup 125}I-TFO in nanomolar concentrations could bind to and introduce double-strand breaks into the target sequences in situ, i.e., within isolated nuclei and intact digitonin-permeabilized cells. It was also showed {sup 125}I-TFO-induced DSB to be highly mutagenic lesions resulting in a mutation frequency of nearly 80%, with deletions comprising the majority of mutations. The results obtained demonstrate the ability of {sup 125}I-TFO to target specific sequences in their natural environment - within eukaryotic nucleus. Repair of {sup 125}I-TFO-induced DNA damage should typically result in mutagenic gene inactivation.

  5. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system

  6. Neural Networks in Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Gaur

    2012-01-01

    The application of neural networks in the data mining is very wide. Although neural networks may have complex structure, long training time, and uneasily understandable representation of results, neural networks have high acceptance ability for noisy data and high accuracy and are preferable in data mining. In this paper the data mining based on neural networks is researched in detail, and the key technology and ways to achieve the data mining based on neural networks are also researched.

  7. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  8. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to requests from the public and to provide...

  9. Searching for slow-developing cosmic-ray showers: Looking for evidence of exotic primaries at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayotte, Eric William

    The central purpose of this research was to add the event propagation velocity to the list of shower parameters that the Florescence Detector of Pierre Auger Observatory is capable of measuring. This capability was then leveraged to differentiate exotic slow moving events from the rest of the cosmic ray flux. Clearly, by relativistic necessity, all known cosmic ray primaries can only cause a measurable extensive air shower at velocities indistinguishably close to the speed of light. Therefore any accurate observation of an event propagating slower than the speed of light would provide an unmistakable indicator of new physics. A particle must possess very specific characteristics in order to be capable of producing a slow shower. High mass Strangelets, macroscopic dark matter, and super-symmetric Q-Balls were identified as strong candidates. Theory supporting high mass Strangelets and macroscopic dark matter appeared too late for full inclusion in this work, however super-symmetric Q-Balls were thoroughly examined. CORSIKA simulations were used to show that the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory has sensitivity to Q-Balls with a mass MQ > 3.25 x 1027 GeV c--2 while the surface detector is sensitive at a mass MQ > 1.15 x 10 27GeV c--2. The Pierre Auger Observatory was shown to be capable of accurately measuring a wide range of velocities with two independent methods. These methods were applied to 7 years of data and one candidate slow event was identified. This candidate measurement proved to be due to a rare and interesting, but ultimately, non-exotic effect, which when accounted for resulted in the event being measured normally. As a result of this, no exotic candidate events were found in the search. Recommendations are made for improving the result and promising alternative search methods are presented.

  10. Study of heliospheric effects on galactic cosmic ray fluxes near Earth using low energy modes of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Surface detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory has the capability to observe variations in the flux of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles. Flux rates of low energy particles can be obtained either from particle count rates (scaler mode) or from charge distribution of the pulses (histogram mode), detected by individual water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). In scaler mode, SD is sensitive to particles that deposit energy between ~15 MeV and ~100 MeV in a WCD, while in histogram mode the deposited energy range can be extended up to ~1 GeV. These two low energy detection modes are excellent tools for monitoring modulations of the galactic cosmic ray flux, related to solar activity, such as Forbush decreases (with typical duration of several hours to weeks) and Solar cycle (with a duration of several years), as they provide fluxes of cosmic rays with different energies at the same detector. In this contribution we present an analysis of the effects of space weather and space climate on low energy mode data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in the period between 2006 and 2013. In particular, we focus on the long term trend of the cosmic ray flux. In addition to the standard corrections for atmospheric effects such as pressure, the analysis takes into account also the corrections for the long term evolution of the response of the surface detectors. Results show good correlation of the corrected low energy mode Auger data with neutron flux measurements by the global neutron monitoring network (NMDB).

  11. Frequent pattern mining

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2014-01-01

    Proposes numerous methods to solve some of the most fundamental problems in data mining and machine learning Presents various simplified perspectives, providing a range of information to benefit both students and practitioners Includes surveys on key research content, case studies and future research directions

  12. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  13. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  14. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  15. The Pierre Auger Observatory scaler mode for the study of solar activity modulation of galactic cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin Observ. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples; Aminaei, A.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, LIFEP /Lisbon, IST

    2011-01-01

    Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and transient events are observed. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. In this study, the available data are presented together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, where a strong correlation with neutron monitor data is found.

  16. Auger Processes Mediating the Nonresonant Optical Emission from a Semiconductor Quantum Dot Embedded Inside an Optical Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Nielsen, Per Kær; Lund, Anders Mølbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    We show that Auger processes involving wetting layer transitions mediate emission from a cavity that is detuned from a quantum dot by even tens of meV. The wetting layer thus acts as a reservoir, which by Coulomb scattering can supply or absorb the energy difference between emitter and cavity. We...... that this asymmetry arises naturally from the quasiequilibrium properties of the wetting layer reservoir. Furthermore, we present numerical calculations of both photoluminescence spectra and photon correlations, demonstrating good qualitative agreement with experiments....

  17. Systematic study of atmosphere-induced influences and uncertainties on shower reconstruction at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Prouza, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of atmospheric monitoring instruments is employed at the Pierre Auger Observatory: two laser facilities, elastic lidar stations, aerosol phase function monitors, a horizontal attenuation monitor, star monitors, weather stations, and balloon soundings. We describe the impact of analyzed atmospheric data on the accuracy of shower reconstructions, and in particular study the effect of the data on the shower energy and the depth of shower maximum (Xmax). These effects have been studied using the subset of golden hybrid events - events observed with high quality in the fluorescence and surface detector - used in the calibration of the surface detector energy spectrum.

  18. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, V. M.(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain); Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; García Pinto, Diego; Minaya Flores, Ignacio Andrés; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E >= 6 x 10(19) eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E >= 5 x 10(18) eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15 degrees. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy cor...

  19. Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Arganda, E.; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; García Pinto, Diego; Ortiz Ramis, Montserrat; Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Vázquez Peñas, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported. evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > E-th = 5.5 x 10(19) eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > E-th are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at ener...

  20. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1 EeV ? 1018 eV) respectively. These are the first experimental limits on ultra-high energy photons at energies below 10 EeV. The results complement previous constraints on top-down models from array data and...

  1. Upper limit on the cosmic-ray photon fraction at EeV energies from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Pastor, Sergio; Abraham, J.; Pinto Cejas, Teguayco; Abreu, P

    2009-01-01

    From direct observations of the longitudinal development of ultra-high energy air showers performed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, upper limits of 3.8%, 2.4%, 3.5% and 11.7% (at 95% c.l.) are obtained on the fraction of cosmic-ray photons above 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV (1 EeV equivalent to 10(18) eV), respectively. These are the first experimental limits on ultra-high energy photons at energies below 10 EeV. The results complement previous constraints on top-down models from array data and they...

  2. Bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Abreu, P; Pastor, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We derive lower bounds on the density of sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from the lack of significant clustering in the arrival directions of the highest energy events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The density of uniformly distributed sources of equal intrinsic intensity was found to be larger than similar to (0.06 – 5) x 10(-4) Mpc(-3) at 95% CL, depending on the magnitude of the magnetic defections. Similar bounds, in the range (0.2 – 7) x 10(-4) Mpc(-3), were obtained ...

  3. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10(18) eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    PIERRE AUGER Collaboration; Pastor, Sergio; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P

    2010-01-01

    The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Fundación Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperati...

  4. Search for patterns by combining cosmic-ray energy and arrival directions at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M.; Giller, Maria; Śmiałkowski, Andrzej; Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Winchen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-dependent patterns in the arrival directions of cosmic rays are searched for using data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We investigate local regions around the highest-energy cosmic rays with E≥6×10^19 eV by analyzing cosmic rays with energies above E≥5×10^18 eV arriving within an angular separation of approximately 15°. We characterize the energy distributions inside these regions by two independent methods, one searching for angular dependence of energy-energy correlations and one...

  5. Systematic study of atmosphere-induced influences and uncertainties on shower reconstruction at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouza, Michael; Collaboration, for the Pierre Auger

    2007-06-01

    A wide range of atmospheric monitoring instruments is employed at the Pierre Auger Observatory : two laser facilities, elastic lidar stations, aerosol phase function monitors, a horizontal attenuation monitor, star monitors, weather stations, and balloon soundings. We describe the impact of analyzed atmospheric data on the accuracy of shower reconstructions, and in particular study the effect of the data on the shower energy and the depth of shower maximum (X{sub max}). These effects have been studied using the subset of 'golden hybrid' events--events observed with high quality in the fluorescence and surface detector -- used in the calibration of the surface detector energy spectrum.

  6. Simulation of Auger electron emission from nanometer-size gold targets using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, S.; Suerfu, B.; Xu, J.; Ivantchenko, V.; Mantero, A.; Brown, J. M. C.; Bernal, M. A.; Francis, Z.; Karamitros, M.; Tran, H. N.

    2016-04-01

    A revised atomic deexcitation framework for the Geant4 general purpose Monte Carlo toolkit capable of simulating full Auger deexcitation cascades was implemented in June 2015 release (version 10.2 Beta). An overview of this refined framework and testing of its capabilities is presented for the irradiation of gold nanoparticles (NP) with keV photon and MeV proton beams. The resultant energy spectra of secondary particles created within and that escape the NP are analyzed and discussed. It is anticipated that this new functionality will improve and increase the use of Geant4 in the medical physics, radiobiology, nanomedicine research and other low energy physics fields.

  7. Search for First Harmonic Modulation in the Right Ascension Distribution of Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Ahn, E J; Albuquerque, I F M; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Antičić, T; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avenier, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Bardenet, R; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dembinski, H; Denkiewicz, A; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Castro, M L Díaz; Diep, P N; D'Olivo, C Dobrigkeit J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, J C dos; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fuchs, B; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gascon, A; Gemmeke, H; Gesterling, K; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Gookin, B; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Griffith, N; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kampert, K H; Karhan, P; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapp, J; Koang, D -H; Kotera, K; Krohm, N; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, J K; Kunka, N; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Louedec, K; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martin, L; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Mertsch, P; Meurer, C; Mićanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Moura., C A; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Müller, G; Münchmeyer, M; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nožka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pȩkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Phan, N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivera, H; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Rühle, C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Sigl, G; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Šuša, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Szuba, M; Tamashiro, A; Tapia, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tiwari, D K; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; Berg, A M van den; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weidenhaupt, K; Weindl, A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winders, L; Winnick, M G; Wommer, M; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Zamorano, B; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.12.007

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of searches for dipolar-type anisotropies in different energy ranges above $2.5\\times 10^{17}$ eV with the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory, reporting on both the phase and the amplitude measurements of the first harmonic modulation in the right-ascension distribution. Upper limits on the amplitudes are obtained, which provide the most stringent bounds at present, being below 2% at 99% $C.L.$ for EeV energies. We also compare our results to those of previous experiments as well as with some theoretical expectations.

  8. Elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory with PIXE technique complemented with SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheletti, M.I., E-mail: micheletti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, UNR, Suipacha 531 (2000), Rosario (Argentina); CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Murruni, L.G. [Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martin, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosenbusch, M. [CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas), Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Graf, M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (IFIR) - CONICET/UNR, Bv. 27 de Febrero 210 bis (2000), Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize surface aerosols at the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory located at Pampa Amarilla, near Malarguee city, in the Andes region of Argentina, with experimental sampling techniques used for the first time in a cosmic ray observatory, adding to information provided by the existing Auger aerosol monitors. A good knowledge of the optical attenuation due to aerosols is crucial for a good reconstruction of the signals from cosmic ray showers detected by the fluorescence detectors of the Observatory. Aerosols were collected in filters, during the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring in 2008. Concentrations in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 filters were determined by gravimetric analysis and their elemental composition by the PIXE technique, complemented with SEM/EDX. Low aerosol concentrations were measured during the sampling period. The mean total mass PM10 (=PM2.5 + PM2.5-10 fractions) value was [mean(se)] 9.8(1.0) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 5.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3}]. The mean PM10 value during winter was 7(1.1) {mu}g/m{sup 3} [sd = 4.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3}], about half of the 13.1(1.5) [sd = 5.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}] measured during springtime. The PM2.5 fraction was approximately 30% of the PM10 fraction. PIXE results gave levels of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe in the analyzed aerosol samples, showing that these elements correspond to 25% and 13% of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 total mass respectively. The rest of the mass was due to the elements with low Z (below 16) which cannot be detected by our X-ray setup. Comparison with SEM/EDX analysis showed that most of them were Si and Al (aluminosilicates). Our results indicate that most of the aerosols at the Auger Observatory would most likely come from the soil of the region. Due to its vast atmospheric monitoring network, the Auger Observatory is an interesting reference site for further atmospheric studies.

  9. Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of the biocorrosion of copper by alginic acid polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, John G.; Geesey, Gill G.; Hankins, Michael R.; Wright, Randy B.; Wichlacz, Paul L.

    1989-08-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 2% alginic acid polysaccharide aqueous solution. Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that some of the copper was oxidized by the alginic acid solution. Some of the copper was removed from the Cu/Ge interface and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus, biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the alginic acid polysaccharide.

  10. Auger electron spectroscopy in sputtering measurements: Application to low-energy Ar+ sputtering of Ag and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sputtering of Ag and Nb by Ar+ in the energy range from 0.5 to 1.5 keV has been measured. The agreement with extant data, where available, is good. The experimental technique is a new adaptation of certain earlier methods and employs Auger electron spectroscopy of a continuously sputtered area of a thin-film composite structure, produced by vapor deposition. This new method should permit very low sputter yields (Sapproximately-less-than10-3) to be measured in subsequent experiments

  11. Design and implementation of data mining tools

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani; Awad, Mamoun

    2009-01-01

    DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS IntroductionTrendsData Mining Techniques and ApplicationsData Mining for Cyber Security: Intrusion DetectionData Mining for Web: Web Page Surfing PredictionData Mining for Multimedia: Image ClassificationOrganization of This BookNext StepsData Mining TechniquesIntroductionOverview of Data Mining Tasks and TechniquesArtificial Neural NetworksSupport Vector MachinesMarkov ModelAssociation Rule Mining (ARM)Multiclass ProblemImage MiningSummaryData Mining ApplicationsIntroductionIntrusion DetectionWeb Page Surfing PredictionImage ClassificationSummaryDATA MI

  12. Mining and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain the best social and environmental results from mining activities, different solutions, which involve a variety of perspectives, have been proposed. These include the worldwide perspective based in the economy globalization paradigms; the regional perspective, focused in the integration of countries; the national perspective, which emphasizes the natural assets and development options, and finally a local perspective is incorporated to account for the participation of directly affected communities. Within this framework, the mining industry is requested to develop both technological and managerial tools appropriate to evaluate, optimize and communicate the social and environmental performance and output of its related activities, mainly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the governments have been committed to implement regulatory actions, of command and control type, based on an environmental legislation in line with the above mentioned perspectives and also to use economical instruments as a mean to accomplish environmental objectives. In Colombia the direct regulation methods have been traditionally used to prevent the environmental deterioration produced by mining activities, however, since the 1991 political constitution and the law 99 of 1993, the communities' participation and economical instruments were incorporated. A historic summary of the environmental legislation in our country from the early 70's up to now, showing its implications in mining is presented. Then a favorable tendency is indicated in the environmental improvement of the national extractive industry, accomplished as a result of the implementation of new strategies to minimize the impact of mining on the environment and to improve the well being of local communities

  13. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  14. Characteristics of geomagnetic cascading of ultra-high energy photons at the southern and northern sites of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Homola, P.; Risse, M.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Pekala, J.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic-ray photons above 10^19 eV can convert in the geomagnetic field and initiate a preshower, i.e. a particle cascade before entering the atmosphere. We compare the preshower characteristics at the southern and northern sites of the Pierre Auger Observatory. In addition to a shift of the preshower patterns on the sky due to the different pointing of the local magnetic field vectors, the fact that the northern Auger site is closer to the geomagnetic pole results in a different energy depend...

  15. Chemical Effect on K Shell X-ray Fluorescence Parameters and Radiative Auger Ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Küp Aylıkcı, Nuray; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Apaydın, Gökhan; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Kantekin, Halit

    2010-04-01

    The production cross-sections, intensity ratios, and radiative Auger intensity ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn elements in different complexes were measured. The chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence parameters and the radiative Auger intensity ratios of these elements were investigated and the changes in these parameters were interpreted according to the charge transfer process. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV.

  16. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  17. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10^19 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, Luis A; Anjos, J C; Aramo, C; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bacelar, J; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D O; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barbosa, H M J; Barkhausen, M; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boghrat, P; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brunet, J M; Buchholz, P; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Capdevielle, J N; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Claes, D; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Clay, S B; Connolly, B; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dang Quang, T; Darriulat, Pierre; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; De Almeida, R M; De Carvalho, L A; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Oliveira, M A L; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L N; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Ewers, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Fauth, A C; Fazio, D; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fokitis, E; Fonte, R; Fuhrmann, D; Fulgione, W; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrard, L; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Geranios, A; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Gitto, J; Glass, H; Gobbi, F; Gold, M S; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gómez-Herrero, R; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; Gongora, J P; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Grupen, C; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Harakeh, M N; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Hartmann, S; Harton, J L; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Kaducak, M; Kalashev, O; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Kolotaev, Yu; Kopmann, A; Krömer, O; Kuhlman, S; Kuijpers, J; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Longo, G; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lucero, A; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Maltezos, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, N; Martínez, J; Martínez, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurin, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, G; Medina, M C; Medina Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, François; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nichol, R; Nierstenhofer, N; Nitz, D; Nogima, H; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, D; Pham Thi, T N; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pisanti, O; Porter, T A; Pouryamout, J; Prado Junior, L; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reis, H C; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rídky, J; Risi, A; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robbins, S; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodriguez Frias, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roucelle, C; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santos, E M; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Semikoz, Dmitry V; Sequeiros, G; Shellard, R C; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Skelton, P; Slater, W; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smida, R; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Ticona, R; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; Vanden Berg, A M; Van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vo Van, T; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Waldenmaier, T; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wiebusch, C; Wieczorek, G J; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Xu, J; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Zha, M; Ziolkowski, M

    2006-01-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10^19 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favoured.

  18. Correlation between energy deposition and molecular damage from Auger electrons: A case study of ultra-low energy (5–18 eV) electron interactions with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaee, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Rezaee@USherbrooke.ca; Hunting, Darel J.; Sanche, Léon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Département de Médecine Nucléaire et Radiobiologie, Faculté de Médecine et des Sciences de la Santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The present study introduces a new method to establish a direct correlation between biologically related physical parameters (i.e., stopping and damaging cross sections, respectively) for an Auger-electron emitting radionuclide decaying within a target molecule (e.g., DNA), so as to evaluate the efficacy of the radionuclide at the molecular level. These parameters can be applied to the dosimetry of Auger electrons and the quantification of their biological effects, which are the main criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of Auger-electron emitting radionuclides. Methods: Absorbed dose and stopping cross section for the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV emitted by{sup 125}I within DNA were determined by developing a nanodosimetric model. The molecular damages induced by these Auger electrons were investigated by measuring damaging cross section, including that for the formation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Nanoscale films of pure plasmid DNA were prepared via the freeze-drying technique and subsequently irradiated with low-energy electrons at various fluences. The damaging cross sections were determined by employing a molecular survival model to the measured exposure–response curves for induction of DNA strand breaks. Results: For a single decay of{sup 125}I within DNA, the Auger electrons of 5–18 eV deposit the energies of 12.1 and 9.1 eV within a 4.2-nm{sup 3} volume of a hydrated or dry DNA, which results in the absorbed doses of 270 and 210 kGy, respectively. DNA bases have a major contribution to the deposited energies. Ten-electronvolt and high linear energy transfer 100-eV electrons have a similar cross section for the formation of DNA double-strand break, while 100-eV electrons are twice as efficient as 10 eV in the induction of single-strand break. Conclusions: Ultra-low-energy electrons (<18 eV) substantially contribute to the absorbed dose and to the molecular damage from Auger-electron emitting radionuclides; hence, they should

  19. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  20. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  1. Auger-electron spectra of F{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} obtained by using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi, E-mail: nagaoka@ehimegw.dpc.ehime-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nitta, Akiko [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tamenori, Yusuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5198 (Japan); Fukuzawa, Hironobu; Ueda, Kiyoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kakiuchi, Takuhiro [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Mase, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Isao H. [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    A study on Auger-electron spectra of F{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} was performed by using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The normal Si:L{sub 23}VV Auger-electron spectrum was measured in the vapor phase and characterized through the ab initio molecular orbital calculation. The cascade Si:L{sub 23}VV Auger-electron spectra were also obtained by L{sub 23}-holes creation through Si:KL{sub 23}L{sub 23} Auger transitions after Si:1s photoexcitation in the vapor phase or its photoelectron emission in the condensed phase. Further the C:KVV and F:KVV Auger-electron spectra were measured and discussed in comparison with those of some related molecules.

  2. A global autocorrelation study after the first Auger data impact on the number density of UHECR sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cuoco, A; Haugbølle, T; Kachelrieß, M; Serpico, P D

    2009-01-01

    We perform an autocorrelation study of the Auger data with the aim to constrain the number density ns of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) sources, estimating at the same time the effect on ns of the systematic energy scale uncertainty and of the distribution of UHECR. The use of global analysis has the advantage that no biases are introduced, either in ns or in the related error bar, by the a priori choice of a single angular scale. The case of continuous, uniformly distributed sources is nominally disfavored at 99% CL and the fit improves if the sources follow the large-scale structure of matter in the universe. The best-fit values obtained for the number density of proton sources are within a factor ~2 around ns 1 × 10–4Mpc–3 and depend mainly on the Auger energy calibration scale, with lower densities being preferred if the current scale is correct. The data show no significant small-scale clustering on scales smaller than a few degrees. This might be interpreted as a signature of magnetic smearing...

  3. The Use of Auger Spectroscopy for the in situ Elemental Characterization of Sub-micrometer Presolar Grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadermann, Frank J.; Floss, Christine; Bose, Maitrayee P.; Lea, Alan S.

    2009-10-01

    Presolar grains are small samples of stardust which can be found at low abundances in some of the most unaltered types of extraterrestrial materials. These grains condensed in the environments of massive stars before the formation of the solar system and survived incorporation into solar system materials without completely losing their isotopic, elemental and mineralogical makeup. Laboratory analyses of these presolar grains give insights into stellar nucleosynthesis and provide clues about the physical and chemical conditions during their formation as well as about interstellar exposure history and parent body processes. Since most presolar grains are less than 1 micrometer in diameter and represent only a few ppm of their host materials (e.g., meteorites or interplanetary dust particles), locating and studying these particles can be analytically challenging. Recently, we began using scanning Auger spectroscopy for the in situ elemental characterization of presolar grains and found that this technique, especially when paired with spatially matched NanoSIMS isotopic studies, can provide important insights that would be difficult to obtain with other analytical approaches. Here we discuss details of applying Auger spectroscopy to sub-micrometer sized geological samples and address practical issues such as sample preparation, measurement settings, data processing, and elemental quantification.

  4. The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65o. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

  5. Characterisation of the surface over-layer of welded uranium by FIB, SIMS and Auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), focused ion beam (FIB) milling and