WorldWideScience

Sample records for aufbau principle

  1. Aufbau eines Wertermittlungsinformationssystems

    OpenAIRE

    Mürle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Das Buch beschreibt die Konzeption eines Geo-Informationssystems zur Eingabe, Verwaltung, Analyse und Präsentation von Geofachdaten des Grundstücksmarktes. Die Entwicklung von Zielkomponenten für den Aufbau eines Wertermittlungsinformationssystems orientiert sich an dem gesetzlichen Aufgabenkatalog der Gutachterausschüsse nach dem Baugesetzbuch. Zur sukzes-siven Analyse von Grundstücksmarktdaten wird eine stufenweise Analysestrategie auf der Grundlage von Ausgleichungsmodellen vorgeschlag...

  2. Aufbau und Wirkungsweise des Logistik-Systems "Logo"

    OpenAIRE

    Binner, Hartmut F.

    2008-01-01

    Das Logistik-System "Logo" für die Bereiche Beschaffung, Produktion und Vertrieb entwickelte der Verfasser zusammen mit der Space GmbH. Im Folgenden wird der Aufbau und Wirkungsweise von "Logo" beschrieben.

  3. Spor o Carnapův Aufbau: Quine vs. Friedman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Childers, Timothy

    Praha : Filosofia, 2005 - (Nitsche, M.; Sousedík, P.; Šimsa, M.), s. 179-194 ISBN 80-7007-224-5 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/04/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Carnap * Aufbau * Friedman Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. Aufbau einer Infrastruktur für Information Retrieval-Evaluationen

    OpenAIRE

    Schirrmeister, Nils-Peter; Keil, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes some aspects of a project called "Aufbau einer Infrastruktur für Information Retrieval-Evaluationen" (AIIRE). Its goal is to build a software-infrastructure which supports the evaluation of information retrieval algorithms.

  5. Aufbau von regionalen Schülerforschungszentren Berichte und Praxisempfehlungen

    CERN Document Server

    Bayatloo, Annabel

    2013-01-01

    Angesichts des sich verschärfenden Fachkräftemangels ist es wichtig, die vorhandenen Begabungspotenziale noch wirkungsvoller zu identifizieren und auszuschöpfen. Vor allem im Bereich von Mathematik, Informatik, Naturwissenschaft und Technik (MINT) erweist es sich als zielführend, künftig stärker auf forschendes Lernen zu setzen. Dieser pädagogische Ansatz wird auf vorbildliche Weise an Schülerforschungszentren verwirklicht. Aufgrund der Chancen für die Nachwuchsförderung, die mit diesen außerschulischen MINT-Bildungszentren verbunden sind, haben der Deutsche Industrie- und Handelskammertag (DIHK), die IHK Darmstadt, LernortLabor - Bundesverband der Schülerlabore e. V. und die Stiftung Jugend forscht e. V. gemeinsam einen Leitfaden für den „Aufbau regionaler Schülerforschungszentren“ erarbeitet. Die neue Publikation ist als Best Practice-Handreichung konzipiert und soll vor allem regionale Entscheidungsträger in die Lage versetzen, auf diesem Feld selbst aktiv zu werden und den begonnenen Pr...

  6. Situierter Aufbau von Wissen bei Studierenden? Lohnt sich eine anwendungsorientierte Lehre im Lehramtsstudium?

    OpenAIRE

    Lankes, Eva-Maria; Hartinger, Andreas; Marenbach, Dieter; Molfenter, Judith; Fölling-Albers, Maria

    2000-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Forschungsprojekt wurde geprüft, ob durch Lernen in einem anwendungsbezogenen Kontext flexibel anwendbares Wissen aufgebaut werden kann. Der Aufbau der Untersuchung lehnte sich an eine experimentelle Untersuchung an. Studierende des Lehramts Grundschule erhielten in einer Veranstaltung zur Schriftsprachdidaktik Texte zum Thema und die Gelegenheit, eigene Erfahrungen in authentischen Situationen zu machen. Ein Vergleich der Lernfortschritte der Experimentalgruppen mit denen...

  7. Setup and proof of principle of SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), a novel source of polarized H{sup -}/D{sup -} ions; Aufbau und Funktionsnachweis von SAPIS (Stored Atoms Polarized Ion Source), einer neuartigen Quelle polarisierter H{sup -}/D{sup -}-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R.

    2007-02-14

    The objective of this work was the setup and the proof-of-principle of a new type of negative polarized hydrogen or deuterium ion source, which is based on the charge-exchange reaction (vector)H{sup 0}+Cs{sup 0}{yields}(vector)H{sup -}+Cs{sup +}, as for instance the Colliding-Beams-Source (CBS) at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Juelich. In contrast to the CBS, the use of a storage cell for the charge-exchange region promises an increase in H{sup -} current by at least an order of magnitude without considerable polarization losses. For these purposes, a new laboratory was equipped and both a polarized hydrogen/deuterium atomic beam source and an intense neutral cesium-beam source have been build-on. A Lambshift polarimeter, which allows the measurement of the nuclear polarization of the atomic as well as ionic beams, was completed with the construction of a new spin-filter. After commissioning and optimizing each of these sources, a storage cell was developed and installed in the charge-exchange region with a magnetic field. Additionally, components for the extraction, detection and analysis of the negative ion beam were installed. Following the decisive proof of principle, investigation of the properties of the storage cell, especially as to H recombination and depolarisation, was begun. Furthermore, a number of software programs was developed for the control and monitoring of different components of the sources as well as a universal measuring software for the complete installation, including the measurement and calculation of the beam polarization. At the same time, the remote control system of the Cologne source of polarized ions LASCO at the FN tandem accelerator was completely modernized. (orig.)

  8. Aufbau eines Photolumineszenz-Messplatzes zur Charakterisierung von Wafern und Solarzellen aus kristallinem Silizium

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Die Arbeit behandelt neben den Grundlagen der Lumineszenz in Silizium den Aufbau und die Entwicklung eines Photolumineszenz-Messplatzes. Bei der Photolumineszenz-Methode kommt die optische Anregung von Ladungsträgern mittels eines Infrarotlasers bzw. mittels eines LED-Arrays zum Einsatz. Die im Silizium auftretende Rekombinationsstrahlung (Lumineszenz) wird mittels einer sensitiven Infrarotkamera detektiert, wodurch sich unter anderem Informationen über Ladungsträger-Lebensdauern in Siliziumw...

  9. Aufbau einer Hochdruckapparatur zur absorptionsspektrophotometrischen Untersuchung von Reaktionen, Mikroemulsionen und mizellären Lösungen in flüssigem und überkritischem Kohlendioxid

    OpenAIRE

    Bittner, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Es wurde eine Hochdruckanlage zur absorptionsspektrometrischen Untersuchung von Reaktionen, mizellären Lösungen und Mikroemulsionen in komprimiertem CO2 errichtet (pmax=500bar;Tmax=60°C). Ihr Aufbau und das sie steuernde Computerprogramm werden genau beschrieben. Mehrere Injektionsmethoden werden diskutiert. Neben Kinetiken sind auch Spektren mit der Apparatur erfaßbar. Mit der Anlage wurden einige Experimente durchgeführt, um ihre Funktionstüchtigkeit zu demonstrieren. Ein Teil erstreckte si...

  10. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  11. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  12. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  13. Enhancing the dewatering properties of sludge through aimed building-up of floc structures on the basis of detailed morphological analyses; Verbesserung der Entwaesserungseigenschaften von Schlaemmen durch den gezielten Aufbau von Flockenstrukturen auf der Basis detaillierter morphologischer Analysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, M.; Ay, P. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Aufbereitungstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Aimed building-up of aggregates as they originate in flocculation processes, for instance in sewage and sludge treatment, have especially lately been meeting with increasing resonance: they permit to influence, inter alia, important properties (e.g., the dewatering properties) of such systems. As conventional mathematical methods for the characterization of flocs - as a basis for process optimization - are inadequate or flawed, a concept for the effective characterization of the inner getup of such structures needs to be sought. One approach is cluster analysis, which is demonstrated and discussed in the present paper by means of the evaluation of sectional views of floc structures. (orig.) [German] Der gezielte Aufbau von Aggregaten, wie sie bei Flockungsprozessen z.B. in der Abwasser- und Schlammbehandlung entstehen, findet besonders in juengerer Zeit zunehmend Beachtung, da sich damit unter anderem wichtige Eigenschaften (z.B. die Entwaesserungseigenschaften) dieser Systeme beeinflussen lassen. Da herkoemmliche mathematische Methoden zur Charakterisierung von Flocken - als Basis fuer eine Prozessoptimierung - nur unzureichend bzw. fehlerbehaftet sind, ergibt sich daraus die Notwendigkeit, nach einem Konzept zur effektiven Charakterisierung des inneren Aufbaus solcher Strukturen zu suchen. Ein Ansatz ist die Clusteranalyse, die im Beitrag durch die Auswertung von Schnittbildern von Flockenstrukturen vorgestellt und diskutiert wird. (orig.)

  14. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  15. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  16. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  17. Polluter Pays Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie; Aigul, Myrzabekova

    2015-01-01

    A group presenation to Identify and outline the main features of the polluter pays principle. Show how polluter pays principle (PPP) may be the most effective instrument for ‘greening’ (rejuvenating) the current global economy, and identify any limitations of the polluter pays principle (PPP).

  18. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  19. Principles of Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mourachkine, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the main principles of superconductivity as a phenomenon, valid for every superconductor independently of its characteristic properties and material. The underlying mechanisms of superconductivity can be different for various materials, but certain principles must be satisfied. The chapter introduces four principles of superconductivity. (The chapter is slightly nodified from the original one in order to be self-contained.)

  20. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  1. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  2. Hamilton's Principle for Beginners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a…

  3. Principled Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Rob; Ellis, Rod

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the acquisition of grammar for second language learners involves learning how to make appropriate connections between grammatical forms and the meanings which they typically signal. We argue that learning form/function mappings involves three interrelated principles. The first is the Given-to-New Principle, where existing world…

  4. The Principles of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gerald P.

    The primary but not exclusive concern in this monograph is the principles and qualities of dynamic leaders of people rather than of ideas or cultural and artistic pursuits. Theories of leadership in the past, present, and future are discussed, as are the principles, rewards, exercise, and philosophy of leadership. A bibliography is included. (MSE)

  5. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  6. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  7. Guiding Principles for Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The 12 articles (including an index) of this theme issue are devoted to documenting and critiquing the American Evaluation Association's "Guiding Principles for Evaluators," a code of ethics and standards. The development of these principles is traced, and their strengths and weaknesses are analyzed at general and specific levels. (SLD)

  8. A new computing principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle

  9. The principle of proportionateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of proportionateness is a subject that has been dealt with in numerous court decisions and in a great number of scientific studies, some of them of a very fundamental nature. Still, this principle keeps posing problems both with regard to interpretation and practical application. The study in hand is an attempt towards finding outline solutions for principal problems by first collecting, analysing and harmonising the terminology used, in order to explain the applicability of the principle in the field of legislation, administration, and adjudication. Atomic energy law is then chosen as a subject field of law well suited to demonstrating the great significance of the principle, as decisions taken in this field frequently are governed by this principle (e.g. definition of 'remaining risk' and limits of provisions for damage prevention). (orig.)

  10. Principlism and communitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, D

    2003-10-01

    The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help. PMID:14519838

  11. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  12. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  13. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  14. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  15. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  16. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives by...

  17. Global ethics and principlism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817

  18. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Online Marketing: Aufbau eines Virtual‐Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Cina, Christian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz‐Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Das Internet bietet für viele Klein‐ und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) eine Riesenchance im Marketing. Jedoch zeigt uns das Internet ein anderes Bild. KMU nutzen das Potenzial des Online Marketings zu wenig. Oft aus Zeitgründen, aber viel mehr aus Desinteresse und Geldmangel. Dabei muss Online Marketing nicht teuer sein. Aus diesem Grund wurde ein Kurs auf dem LHR‐ und GBBcampus8 eingerichtet, der kostenlos zur Verfügung steht. Im Selbststudium und mit dem dazugehörigen Buch Marketing – Erfolg i...

  20. Informationssystem "Datentransparenz" bei DIMDI im Aufbau

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, W.

    2012-01-01

    Mit dem Inkrafttreten der "Verordnung zur Umsetzung der Vorschriften über die Datentransparenz" (Datentransparenzverordnung nach §§ 303a bis 303e Sozialgesetzbuch V) am 18.09.2012 wird dem DIMDI die Aufgabe übertragen, den für den morbiditätsorientierten Risikostrukturausgleich (sog. Morbi-RSA) beim Bundesversicherungsamt zusammenfließenden Datenpool der gesetzlichen Krankenkassen einem gesetzlich vorgegebenen Nutzerkreis zugänglich zu machen. Dazu gehören auch die wissenschaftlich tätigen Mi...

  1. Aufbau von Navigationshilfen durch Analyse von Suchanfragen

    OpenAIRE

    Höchstötter, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Nadine Höchstötter, Karlsruhe, berichtete über den letzten Stand ihrer Forschungen zum Suchverhalten in Suchmaschinen. Anhand von Datensätzen in Lycos lassen sich Muster von Suchanfragen ermitteln, aus denen Trends abgeleitet werden können. Es kann dabei zwischen vier grundsätzlichen Klassen unterschieden werden: „Eintagsfliegen“ treten im Erhebungszeitraum nur einmal auf, „Dauerbrenner“ hingegen während der Erhebungsperiode nahezu in jedem definierten Zeitintervall. Kleinere Ausschläge, bei ...

  2. Aufbau und Untersuchung multivalenter metallosupramolekularer Wirtsysteme

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis describes the construction of differently shaped di- to hexavalent crown ethers by coordination-driven self-assembly and their investigations according (pseudo¬-) rotaxane formation and kinetics of the dynamic ligand exchange. First, bipyridine and terpyridine ligand moieties as well as crown ether host moieties were synthesized. Then a toolbox of crown ether-substituted bi- and terpyridines was created by connecting the host and ligand moieties by Sonogashira reactio...

  3. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  4. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  5. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation

  6. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  7. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  8. Two Coherence Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    1999-01-01

    The paper proposes two principles of coherence (thus taking up work started in Spohn (1991) "A Reason for Explanation: Explanations Provide Stable Reasons"). The latter indeed serves as a weak, but precise explication of the notion of coherence as it is used in the current epistemological discussion. After discussing their epistemological setting, the paper considers four ways of establishing these principles. They may be inferred neither from enumerative induction, nor from the nature of pro...

  9. Heisenberg's observability principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, JE

    2014-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper ‘Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations’ marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be ‘founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable’. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpr...

  10. Are political principles stable?

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor R. Machan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Aims to question whether political principles, for example, those of socialism or libertarianism, have lasting significance. Design/methodology/approach – Lays out a case for the stability of at least one variety of political principle, namely that of libertarianism or classical liberalism and argues that the normative version of these positions does manage to have lasting stability and significance. Findings – There is much that is true that people do not necessarily attend to – in...

  11. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  12. The traveltime holographic principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.

  13. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  14. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  15. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding of...... the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium......-sized enterprises. Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  16. Teaching/learning principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  17. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  18. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  19. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  20. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  1. Extended Mach Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the meaning of symmetry of the laws of physics and symmetry of the universe and the connection between symmetries and asymmetries of the laws of physics and those of the universe. An explanation of Hamilton's principle is offered. The material is suitable for informal discussions with students. (Author/SK)

  2. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  3. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  4. Jaynes principle versus entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard

    1997-01-01

    We show that the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy when applied to compound quantum system can produce states with non-minimal entanglement. The resulting surplus of entanglement occurs for the sets of both local and nonlocal observables. We also point out that the estimation of the parameters of quantum noise should be based on minimization of entanglement rather than maximization of entropy.

  5. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  6. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  7. Matters of Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    1999-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at individuals who have stood on principle against authority or popular opinion. The first article investigates John Adams and his defense of British soldiers at the Boston Massacre trials. The second article explores Archbishop Thomas Becket's fatal conflict with England's King Henry II. The final…

  8. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇岚

    2007-01-01

    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications. Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications. But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle. This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners, and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle. At the ending of the essay, the guiding significance of politeness principle is p...

  9. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  10. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  11. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  12. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  13. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  14. Procedure system principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures establish how an organization performs specific tasks to accomplish its basic goals and objectives. In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) started the process of defining requirements to be used for procedures throughout the DOE nuclear complex. In response to the customer needs of the complex, the department's initial steps in this process were to develop two documents: a writer's guide for technical procedures and the principles of procedure writing upon which it was based. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Institute for Nuclear Power Operations literature addresses the control and use of procedures. There was, however, no regulatory guidance on developing and managing a procedure system. In 1991, an effort was undertaken to provide such guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. A companion paper by Grider and Plung describes how a performance-tested advisory group developed this guidance. This paper describes the procedure system principles that were developed through this process

  15. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  16. Uncertainty Principle Respects Locality

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The notion of nonlocality implicitly implies there might be some kind of spooky action at a distance in nature, however, the validity of quantum mechanics has been well tested up to now. In this work it is argued that the notion of nonlocality is physically improper, the basic principle of locality in nature is well respected by quantum mechanics, namely, the uncertainty principle. We show that the quantum bound on the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality can be recovered from the uncertainty relation in a multipartite setting, and the same bound exists classically which indicates that nonlocality does not capture the essence of quantum and then distinguish quantum mechanics and classical mechanics properly. We further argue that the super-quantum correlation demonstrated by the nonlocal box is not physically comparable with the quantum one, as the result, the physical foundation for the existence of nonlocality is falsified. The origin of the quantum structure of nature still remains to be exp...

  17. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  18. Principles of Natural Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2016-01-01

    Nature relies on a unique and intricate biochemical setup to achieve sunlight-driven water splitting. Combined experimental and computational efforts have produced significant insights into the structural and functional principles governing the operation of the water-oxidizing enzyme Photosystem II in general, and of the oxygen-evolving manganese-calcium cluster at its active site in particular. Here we review the most important aspects of biological water oxidation, emphasizing current knowledge on the organization of the enzyme, the geometric and electronic structure of the catalyst, and the role of calcium and chloride cofactors. The combination of recent experimental work on the identification of possible substrate sites with computational modeling have considerably limited the possible mechanistic pathways for the critical O-O bond formation step. Taken together, the key features and principles of natural photosynthesis may serve as inspiration for the design, development, and implementation of artificial systems. PMID:26099285

  19. Principles of radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major contributions that the study of meteorites has made to our understanding of the origin of the solar system is in defining when that event took place. In addition, several other important events in early solar-system history have been dated using radiochronological techniques applied to meteorites. The principles on which those applications of radiometric dating are based are outlined. 24 references

  20. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  1. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  2. Principles of (Behavioral) Economics

    OpenAIRE

    David Laibson; List, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...

  3. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  4. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  5. PRINCIPLES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard IONESCU; Rodica DRAGOMIROIU; Lacramioara Rodica HURLOIU; Petru ROSCA

    2014-01-01

    Change management process needs to define certain principles and apply them effectively in order to achieve the best possible results. Understanding how certain members of the organization react to change will greatly influence how they will cope with the implementation of change, how their work will be productive during and after the implementation of change and that will be the result the end of the process.

  6. Principles of Safety Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...

  7. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  8. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled FUDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLESpublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  9. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  10. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively. PMID:27117119

  11. Protective relay principles

    CERN Document Server

    Sleva, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    This title lets you improve failure detection and optimize protection. In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer's personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. With invaluable insights from an experienced expert, ""Protective Relay Principles"" focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures.This book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier

  12. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  13. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  14. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  15. Principles of electromagnetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book emphasizes the fundamental understanding of the laws governing the behavior of charge and current carrying bodies. Electromagnetism is presented as a classical theory, based-like mechanics-on principles that are independent of the atomic constitution of matter. This book is unique among electromagnetic texts in its treatment of the precise manner in which electromagnetism is linked to mechanics and thermodynamics. Applications include electrostriction, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation from charged particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and guided waves. There are many worked examples of dynamical and thermal effects of electromagnetic fields, and of effects resulting from the motion of bodies

  16. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  17. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  18. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  19. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  20. Principles of copula theory

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Copula Theory explores the state of the art on copulas and provides you with the foundation to use copulas in a variety of applications. Throughout the book, historical remarks and further readings highlight active research in the field, including new results, streamlined presentations, and new proofs of old results.After covering the essentials of copula theory, the book addresses the issue of modeling dependence among components of a random vector using copulas. It then presents copulas from the point of view of measure theory, compares methods for the approximation of copulas,

  1. Principles of sustainable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank; Kreider, Jan F

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to one that uses renewable energy has become inevitable; this transition will not only be an engineering challenge, but will also be an economic and environmental one. Offering an interdisciplinary, quantitative approach, Principles of Sustainable Energy presents a comprehensive overview of the major renewable energy technologies currently available, including biomass and biofuels, solar thermal conversion, photovoltaics, and wind energy conversion. Written by renowned expert Frank Kreith, the book emphasizes economics as well as energy return on i

  2. Principles of lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Harry J

    2011-01-01

    The publication of Principles of Lithography, Third Edition just five years after the previous edition is evidence of the quickly changing and exciting nature of lithography as applied to the production of integrated circuits and other micro- and nanoscale devices. This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography, but also covers several subjects in depth, making it useful to the experienced lithographer as well. Topics directly related to manufacturing tools are addressed, including overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. This updated edi

  3. Euphemism and the Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥榕

    2014-01-01

    In linguistic communication, euphemism is a lubricant, whereas the politeness principle is a norm of moderating lin⁃guistic behavior. This paper aims to analyze the euphemism and the politeness principle, showing the relationship between euphe⁃mism and the politeness principle. In order to help people know how to behave in the daily communication and make their talk more effective.

  4. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  5. Plastic variational principle based on the least work consumption principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐松花; 罗迎社; 周筑宝; 王智超

    2008-01-01

    Plastic variational principles are foundation to solve the boundary-value problems of plastic mechanics with the variational method(or energy method) and finite element method.The most convenient way of establishing different kinds of variational principles is to set up the extreme principle related to the studied problem.Based on a general new extreme principle-the Least work consumption principle,the variational principles of the rigid-plastic and rigid-viscoplastic material were derived.In comparison with existing methods,the method in this paper is more clear and direct,and the physical meaning is clear-cut.This method can offer a new way for establishing other kinds of variational principles.

  6. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  7. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  8. THE RESPONSIBILITY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?

  9. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  10. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇岚

    2007-01-01

    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications.Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications.But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle.This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners,and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle.At the ending of the essay,the guiding significance of politeness principle is pointed out.And it also points out seeking common understanding of various cultures.In some aspects,this paper is useful for effective intercultural communications.

  11. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  12. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  13. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  14. Uranium enrichment. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment industry is a more than 60 years old history and has developed without practically no cost, efficiency or profit constraints. However, remarkable improvements have been accomplished since the Second World War and have led to the development of various competing processes which reflect the diversity of uranium compositions and of uranium needs. Content: 1 - general considerations: uranium isotopes, problem of uranium enrichment, first realizations (USA, Russia, Europe, Asia, other countries), present day situation, future needs and market evolution; 2 - principles of isotopic separation: processes classification (high or low enrichment), low elementary enrichment processes, equilibrium time, cascade star-up and monitoring, multi-isotopes case, uranium reprocessing; 3 - enrichment and proliferation. (J.S.)

  15. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  16. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  17. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  18. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention...... mechanisms are described in a set of simple equations, which allow TVA to mathematically model a large number of classical results in the attention literature. The theory explains psychological and neuroscientific findings by the same equations; TVA is a complete theory of visual attention, linking mind and...... brain. Aimed at advanced students and professional researchers, Principles of Visual Attention contains a detailed review of the most important research done on attention in vision, spanning cognitive psychology, brain imaging, patient studies, and recordings from single cells in the visual cortex. The...

  19. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  20. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  1. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  2. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    OpenAIRE

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-01-01

    Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works. The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violate...

  3. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what...... extent they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  4. Electrodynamics basics and duality principle

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanitckiy, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The given report proposes general and consistent statement of the classical electrodynamics basis using axiomatic and duality principles for its construct. Vector algebra and vector analysis are created by the application of the duality principle. The last fact allows formulating Maxwell equations in strictly symmetric form. It means the statement of electrodynamics postulates (axioms) under a principle of duality. Electrodynamics basis construction begins immediately using its postulates for...

  5. Principles of alternative gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. PMID:27017907

  6. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  7. Magnetism: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Derek J.

    2003-09-01

    If you are studying physics, chemistry, materials science, electrical engineering, information technology or medicine, then you'll know that understanding magnetism is fundamental to success in your studies and here is the key to unlocking the mysteries of magnetism....... You can: obtain a simple overview of magnetism, including the roles of B and H, resonances and special techniques take full advantage of modern magnets with a wealth of expressions for fields and forces develop realistic general design programmes using isoparametric finite elements study the subtleties of the general theory of magnetic moments and their dynamics follow the development of outstanding materials appreciate how magnetism encompasses topics as diverse as rock magnetism, chemical reaction rates, biological compasses, medical therapies, superconductivity and levitation understand the basis and remarkable achievements of magnetic resonance imaging In his new book, Magnetism, Derek Craik throws light on the principles and applications of this fascinating subject. From formulae for calculating fields to quantum theory, the secrets of magnetism are exposed, ensuring that whether you are a chemist or engineer, physicist, medic or materials scientist Magnetism is the book for our course.

  8. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.

  9. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  10. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  11. Principles of Instructed Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to draw together findings from a range of second language acquisition studies in order to formulate a set of general principles for language pedagogy. These principles address such issues as the nature of second language (L2) competence (as formulaic and rule-based knowledge), the contributions of both focus on…

  12. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  13. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  14. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using such...

  15. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  16. An Inconvenient Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    At the end of the XIXth century, physics was dominated by two main theories: classical (or Newtonian) mechanics and electromagnetism. To be entirely correct, we should add thermodynamics, which seemed to be grounded on different principles, but whose links with mechanics were progressively better understood thanks to the work of Maxwell and Boltzmann, among others. Classical mechanics, born with Galileo and Newton, claimed to explain the motion of lumps of matter under the action of forces. The paradigm for a lump of matter is a particle, or a corpuscle, which one can intuitively think of as a billiard ball of tiny dimensions, and which will be dubbed a micro-billiard ball in what follows. The second main component of XIXth century physics, electromagnetism, is a theory of the electric and magnetic fields and also of optics, thanks to the synthesis between electromagnetism and optics performed by Maxwell, who understood that light waves are nothing other than a particular case of electromagnetic waves. We had, on the one hand, a mechanical theory where matter exhibiting a discrete character (particles) was carried along well localized trajectories and, on the other hand, a wave theory describing continuous phenomena which did not involve transport of matter. The two theories addressed different domains, the only obvious link being the law giving the force on a charged particle submitted to an electromagnetic field, or Lorentz force. In 1905, Einstein put an end to this dichotomic wave/particle view and launched two revolutions of physics: special relativity and quantum physics. First, he showed that Newton's equations of motion must be modified when the particle velocities are not negligible with respect to that of light: this is the special relativity revolution, which introduces in mechanics a quantity characteristic of optics, the velocity of light. However, this is an aspect of the Einsteinian revolution which will not interest us directly, with the exception

  17. The Rigid Relation Principle, a New Weak Choice Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Hamkins, Joel David

    2011-01-01

    The rigid relation principle, introduced in this article, asserts that every set admits a rigid binary relation. This follows from the axiom of choice, because well-orders are rigid, but we prove that it is neither equivalent to the axiom of choice nor provable in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory without the axiom of choice. Thus, it is a new weak choice principle. Nevertheless, the restriction of the principle to sets of reals (among other general instances) is provable without the axiom of choice.

  18. Global versus Local -- Mach's Principle versus the Equivalence Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Singleton, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The equivalence principle is the conceptual basis for general relativity. In contrast Mach's principle, although said to have been influential on Einstein in his formulation of general relativity, has not been shown to be central to the structure of general relativity. In this essay we suggest that the quantum effects of Hawking and Unruh radiation are a manifestation of a {\\it thermal} Mach's principle, where the local thermodynamic properties of the system are determined by the non-local structure of the quantum fields which determine the vacuum of a given spacetime. By comparing Hawking and Unruh temperatures for the same local acceleration we find a violation of the Einstein elevator version of the equivalence principle, which vanishes in the limit that the horizon is approached.

  19. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  20. Voltammetry-Principles and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gulaboski, Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Voltammetry is a potentiodynamic technique that is inevitable tool in everyday experiments in many physicochemical and biological laboratories. The principles, potential applications and the advantages/disadvantages of various voltammetric techniques are described.

  1. Economy Principle in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Hong

    2015-01-01

    Languages evolve unceasingly according to the economy principle: to exchange the maximal amount of information through the minimal language codes expenditure.This paper analyzes economy in advertisements,especially the concise wording which saves layout,time and energy.

  2. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

  3. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.

  4. Does the relativity principle violate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental data about a possible existence in Nature of some preferred reference frame with a violation of the principle of relativity are considered. The Einstein's and Lorentz's points of view are compared. Although some experiments are known which, in opinion of their authors, indicate the relativity principle violation persuasive evidences supporting this conclusion are absent for the present. The proposals of new experiments in this region, particularly with electron spin precession, are discussed. 55 refs., 4 figs

  5. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    1998-01-01

    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  6. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  7. Toward a principle of quantumness

    CERN Document Server

    Stoica, Ovidiu-Cristinel

    2014-01-01

    Quantum correlations and other phenomena characteristic to a quantum world can be understood as simply consequences of a principle derived from the Born rule. This principle states that these specifically quantum phenomena are caused by the tension between initial conditions imposed by incompatible observations. This tension is found to be at the root of Bohr's complementarity, Heisenberg's uncertainty, results concerning non-locality, contextuality, quantum correlations in time and space.

  8. Economizing Principle in Accounting Research

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder

    2007-01-01

    Joel S. Demski's work is characterized by the austere discipline of applying the economizing principle to accounting and management phenomena. In natural sciences optimization is used as a structural principle for understanding the organization of the physical universe. As social scientists applied it to our self-conscious selves, economizing acquired a behavioral interpretation, leading to unnecessary and avoidable confusion with the findings of cognitive sciences. Important aspects of aggre...

  9. Notes on Cloud computing principles

    OpenAIRE

    Sandholm, Thomas; Lee, Dongman

    2015-01-01

    This letter provides a review of fundamental distributed systems and economic Cloud computing principles. These principles are frequently deployed in their respective fields, but their inter-dependencies are often neglected. Given that Cloud Computing first and foremost is a new business model, a new model to sell computational resources, the understanding of these concepts is facilitated by treating them in unison. Here, we review some of the most important concepts and how they relate to ea...

  10. Privacy principles, risks and harms

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, David; Raab, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The protection of privacy is predicated on the individual’s right to privacy and stipulates a number of principles that are primarily focused on information privacy or data protection and, as such, are insufficient to apply to other types of privacy and to the protection of other entities beyond the individual. This article identifies additional privacy principles that would apply to other types of privacy and would enhance the consideration of risks or harms to the individual, to groups and ...

  11. Principles for Reliable Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    Peter J. Denning reminisces about joint work in 1975 with Roger Needham on design principles for reliable operating systems. He recounts vivid memories of two findings, about interrupts and about capability addressing. These principles are still valid a quarter century later and remain in wide use. Back in the summer of 1975, Dorothy Denning and I, then still newlyweds, spent a month at Cambridge. During that time Roger Needham and I met daily to discuss topics in the design of opera...

  12. Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

    2005-01-01

    It is possible to enhance our understanding of what has happened on a computer system by using forensic techniques that do not require prediction of the nature of the attack, the skill of the attacker, or the details of the system resources or objects affected. These techniques address five fundamental principles of computer forensics. These principles include recording data about the entire operating system, particularly user space events and environments, and interpreting events at differen...

  13. Corporate Governance: Principles and Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    PĂCALĂ Anca

    2012-01-01

    Corporate governance is only part of the broader economic context in which firms operate and includes, for example, macroeconomic policies,competition, or the markets of production factors. Contemporary debate on corporate governance refers in particular to the principles mentioned in three papers published after 1990: the UK Cadbury Report(1992), OECD Principles of Corporate Governance (1998 and 2004), and the Sarbanes-Oxley Law in the U.S. (2002). Cadbury and the OECD reports present genera...

  14. Market principles toward the land plots assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koshel

    2015-01-01

    Market principles toward the agricultural land plots assessment and the features are analyzed. The detailed study of economic valuation principles of agricultural land is conducted. Application of the principles of such evaluation in the process of mass valuation is suggested

  15. RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT AND RELATIVE PRINCIPLE COMPONENT ANALYSIS ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chenglin; Wang Tianzhen; Hu Jing

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, the new concept of Relative Principle Component (RPC) and method of RPC Analysis (RPCA) are put forward. Meanwhile, the concepts such as Relative Transform (RT), Rotundity Scatter (RS) and so on are introduced. This new method can overcome some disadvantages of the classical Principle Component Analysis (PCA) when data are rotundity scatter. The RPC selected by RPCA are more representative, and their significance of geometry is more notable, so that the application of the new algorithm will be very extensive. The performance and effectiveness are simply demonstrated by the geometrical interpretation proposed.

  16. Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalo, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.

  17. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  18. Quantum measurements and Landauer's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.

    2015-05-01

    Information processing systems must obey laws of physics. One of particular examples of this general statement is known as Landauer's principle - irreversible operations (such as erasure) performed by any computing device at finite temperature have to dissipate some amount of heat bound from below. Together with other results of this kind, Landauer's principle represents a fundamental limit any modern or future computer must obey. We discuss interpretation of the physics behind the Landauer's principle using a model of Unruh-DeWitt detector. Of particular interest is the validity of this limit in quantum domain. We systematically study finite time effects. It is shown, in particular, that in high temperature limit finiteness of measurement time leads to renormalization of the detector's temperature.

  19. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Li

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. Variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying this principle to planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From it, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of error propagation from equation of state to mass-radius relation, and a form of virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  20. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  1. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  2. Pauli principle and parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccella, F. [Universita di Napoli - Federico 2 (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Different facts conspire to show the role of the Pauli principle for parton distributions. Fermi-Dirac functions, where the broader shape in x for higher first moment correlation dictated by Pauli principle is evident, give rise to a fair description of deep inelastic processes. The interpretation of the defect in the Gottfried sum rule as a consequence of Pauli blocking in the proton against the parton u{up_arrow}, the one dominating at high x and with the first moment higher than for the other quarks, leads to corresponding defects for the spin sum rules consistent with the present experimental knowledge. (orig.)

  3. Pauli principle and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different facts conspire to show the role of the Pauli principle for parton distributions. Fermi-Dirac functions, where the broader shape in x for higher first moment correlation dictated by Pauli principle is evident, give rise to a fair description of deep inelastic processes. The interpretation of the defect in the Gottfried sum rule as a consequence of Pauli blocking in the proton against the parton u↑, the one dominating at high x and with the first moment higher than for the other quarks, leads to corresponding defects for the spin sum rules consistent with the present experimental knowledge. (orig.)

  4. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  5. Teaching Spreadsheets: Curriculum Design Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Tort, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    EuSpRIG concerns direct researchers to revisit spreadsheet education, taking into account error auditing tools, checklists, and good practices. This paper aims at elaborating principles to design a spreadsheet curriculum. It mainly focuses on two important issues. Firstly, it is necessary to establish the spreadsheet invariants to be taught, especially those concerning errors and good practices. Secondly, it is important to take into account the learners' ICT experience, and to encourage them to attitudes that foster self-learning. We suggest key principles for spreadsheet teaching, and we illustrate them with teaching guidelines.

  6. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  7. Radiation protection principles of NCRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2004-09-01

    The current recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) relative to ionizing radiation are based on radiation protection principles that developed historically as information about radiation effects on human populations became available. Because the NCRP Charter states that the NCRP will cooperate with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the basic principles and recommendations for radiation protection of the NCRP are closely coupled with those of the ICRP. Thus, the fundamental principles of justification, optimization, and dose limitation as initially stated in ICRP Publication 26 have been adopted and applied by the NCRP in its recommendations. ICRP and NCRP recommendations on dose limitation for the general public and for occupationally exposed individuals are based on the same analyses of radiation risk, and, while similar, there are differences reflecting the aspects of radiation application and exposure circumstances unique to the United States. The NCRP has recently extended its guidance to address exposure to individuals engaged in space activities. Several reports have been issued or are in preparation to provide recommendations on dose limitation and the development of radiation safety programs to apply the radiation protection principles in space activities. The biological basis for these recommendations is provided in these and accompanying NCRP reports. Recommendations for the application of basic radiation protection principles have been made in many reports over the years. Those that are most current appear in approximately 50 reports published in the last 15 y. These address radiation safety practices in industrial and medical institutions, control of radionuclides in the environment, protection of the public, and assessment of radiation risk. Some of the aspects of these recommendations will be discussed. Current recommendations related to radiation safety practice are based

  8. Development of a monitor system for gas based detectors and measurement of electron attachment in the chamber gas; Aufbau eines Monitorsystems fuer gasbasierte Detektoren und Messung der Elektronenanlagerung im Kammergas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2009-01-15

    In the framework of an international collaboration a new electron-positron linear accelerator (ILC) with a c. m. energy up to 500 GeV is planned. For the International Large Detector Concept (ILD) a time projection chamber (TPC) shall perform precise measurements of the particle tracks. In order to fulfil the high requirements on the resolution, a microstructure gas-amplification system is used for read-out. For research and development of the detector principle for the application at the ILC at DESY a large TPC prototype is developed. For the operation of the detector it is necessary to monitor its state and especially that of the measurement gas. For this purpose in the framework of this thesis a slow control system is built, which shall make possible for the different collaboration partners to operate the prototype and to integrate the slow control data into their measurement. For this with an object-oriented control system a graphic user interface was created, which makes an overview over the applied measurement devices and a driving allows. Furthermore the influence of impurities of the gas mixture by oxygen was studied. For this with a small TPC prototype measurements of the electron attachment coefficient at different oxygen concentrations were performed with a magnetic flux density of 4 T. From the amplitude of the measurement signal a rate for the electron attachment could be determined. The values obtained for this agree sufficiently in comparison with literature values. [German] Im Rahmen einer internationalen Kollaboration ist ein neuer Elektronen-Positronen-Linearbeschleuniger (ILC) mit einer Schwerpunktsenergie bis zu 500 GeV geplant. Fuer das International Large Detector Concept (ILD) soll eine Zeitprojektionskammer (TPC) praezise Vermessungen der Teilchenspuren durchfuehren. Um die hohen Anforderungen an die Aufloesung zu erfuellen, wird ein Mikrostruktur-Gasverstaerkungssystem zur Auslese verwendet. Zur Erforschung und Entwicklung des

  9. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113 Section 49.113 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in...

  10. PRINCIPLES OF NOTARIAL ACTIVITY IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ільєва, Н. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on defining the principles of notarial activity. The author allocated and analyzed the general principles of activity of all bodies of the public power, the special principles which characterize specifics of notarial activity, the principles of administrative and legal regulation of notarial activity.

  11. The principles of garden design

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This ebook explains the 3 classic design principles: gardens should be useful, gardens should be well-made and gardens should be beautiful. They derive from Vitruvius and have influenced the design of gardens since ancient times and are as important today as they have always been.

  12. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario SASSONE

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spanning...

  13. Entropy and the uncertainty principle

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Rupert L

    2011-01-01

    We generalize, improve and unify theorems of Rumin, and Maassen--Uffink about classical entropies associated to quantum density matrices. These theorems refer to the classical entropies of the diagonals of a density matrix in two different bases. Thus they provide a kind of uncertainty principle. Our inequalities are sharp because they are exact in the high-temperature or semi-classical limit.

  14. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  15. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  16. Contextuality: Wheeler's universal regulating principle

    CERN Document Server

    Durham, Ian T

    2013-01-01

    In this essay I develop quantum contextuality as a potential candidate for Wheeler's universal regulating principle, arguing -- \\textit{contrary} to Wheeler -- that this ultimately implies that `bit' comes from `it.' In the process I develop a formal definition of physical determinism in the languages of domain theory and category theory.

  17. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  18. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept but...

  19. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators are...

  20. Nuclear fusion - principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the principles of nuclear fusion, plasma properties and approaches for the generation of energy from the fusion of hydrogen nuclei. It is intended for high-school students and laymen interested in a broad prespective on the subject matter and current state-of-affairs. (author)

  1. Fermat Principle for spinning light

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, C.; Horvathy, Z.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    Mimicking the description of spinning particles in General Relativity, the Fermat Principle is extended to spinning photons. Linearization of the resulting Papapetrou-Souriau type equations yields the semiclassical model used recently to derive the ``Optical Hall Effect'' (alias the ``Optical Magnus Effect'') for polarized light.

  2. The splitting principle and singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Sándor J.

    2011-01-01

    The splitting principle states that morphisms in a derived category do not "split" accidentally. This has been successsfully applied in several characterizations of rational, DB, and other singularities. In this article I prove a general statement that implies many of the previous individual statements and improves some of the characterizations in the process.

  3. Electrical craft principles, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, John

    2008-01-01

    The two volumes of Whitfield's Electrical Craft Principles have been substantially revised and updated in 2008, reflecting changes in practice and legislation (e.g. BS 7671/Requirements for Electrical Installations). Volume 2 in particular has new material to accompany course changes. The volumes are presented in a new format, are highly illustrated and contain full problems and solutions.

  4. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  5. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction of...

  6. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  7. Electrical craft principles, v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, John

    2008-01-01

    The two volumes of Whitfield's Electrical Craft Principles have been substantially revised and updated in 2008, reflecting changes in practice and legislation (e.g. BS 7671/Requirements for Electrical Installations). The volumes are presented in a new format, are highly illustrated and contain full problems and solutions.

  8. The Application of Cooperation Principle and Politeness Principle in Oral Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石洁

    2014-01-01

    The pragmatic principle that people should comply with in communicative activities are the principles of cooperation and politeness principle. The principles of cooperation play a regulatory role in communication while politeness principle actually has a greater binding. In teaching, teachers should always teach basing on language and make students understand the Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle in pragmatics in order to improve oral communication skills.

  9. Principles of justice in health care rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, R; Dolan, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts three different substantive (as opposed to procedural) principles of justice for making health care priority-setting or "rationing" decisions: need principles, maximising principles and egalitarian principles. The principles are compared by tracing out their implications for a hypothetical rationing decision involving four identified patients. This decision has been the subject of an empirical study of public opinion based on small-group discussions, which fo...

  10. Principles of Atomic Structure and the Valence Electron Configurations of the Transition Elements%原子构造原理与过渡元素原子的价电子组态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承东

    2001-01-01

    According to the Aufbau build-up principle and the order of filling atomic orbits, the valence electron configuration of ground state atoms of the d-block transition elements seems only to be (n-1) dx-2ns2(x here denotes the number of the electron in (n-1) d and ns orbits). But the result of the spectra test shows that the atomic electron structure of the d-block transition elements also has the configurations (n-1) dx-1 ns1 and (n-1) dx nso. These two types of electron configurations are usually considered as "out of the ordinary". In addition, the another important phenomenon is that the electronic structure of the atoms for all of the elements can not attain the configuration (n-1)d6 ns1. The reasons why these exceptional electron configurations can be formed and why the configuration (n-1) d 6 ns1 can not exist are not properly understood and at present no theory of the many-electron atom structure is entirely satisfactory[1-7]. For this, it seems that the theoretical difficulty lies in accounting for the diversification of electron configurations and for the non-existence of configuration (n-1) d6 ns1 as we did not pay more attention to the control effect of symmetry principle in atom structure. We know that the stability of a mass system depends on the mechanics conservation law in the system and each conservation law is always relative to the invariance of the certain symmetry. In atom structure, the main interaction is the electromagnetic interaction. So the stability of atom structure system must be bounded up with the symmetry of the electromagnetic interaction in the atom system. The direct expression of this interconnection is that,when the electrons are allotted to the orbits with energy equivalent or close to one another in many-electron atoms, they would always distribute themselves in such a way that there is a relative highest symmetry configuration. That is to say, the way of the distribution of electrons(include electron spin states) in orbits is

  11. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  12. Principle Based Semantics for HPSG

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, A I

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents a constraint based semantic formalism for HPSG. The advantages of the formlism are shown with respect to a grammar for a fragment of German that deals with (i) quantifier scope ambiguities triggered by scrambling and/or movement and (ii) ambiguities that arise from the collective/distributive distinction of plural NPs. The syntax-semantics interface directly implements syntactic conditions on quantifier scoping and distributivity. The construction of semantic representations is guided by general principles governing the interaction between syntax and semantics. Each of these principles acts as a constraint to narrow down the set of possible interpretations of a sentence. Meanings of ambiguous sentences are represented by single partial representations (so-called U(nderspecified) D(iscourse) R(epresentation) S(tructure)s) to which further constraints can be added monotonically to gain more information about the content of a sentence. There is no need to build up a large number of alternative...

  13. On a generalized bootstrap principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The S-matrices for non-simply-laced affine Toda field theories are considered in the context of a generalized bootstrap principle. The S-matrices, and in particular their poles, depend on a parameter whose range lies between the Coxeter numbers of dual pairs of the corresponding non-simply-laced algebras. It is proposed that only odd order poles in the physical strip with positive coefficients throughout this range should participate in the bootstrap. All other singularities have an explanation in principle in terms of a generalized Coleman-Thun mechanism. Besides the S-matrices introduced by Delius, Grisaru and Zanon, the missing case (F4(1), e6(2)), is also considered and provides many interesting examples of pole generation. (author)

  14. Action Principle for Potential Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Frønsdal, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The restriction of hydrodynamics to non-viscous, potential (gradient, irrotational) flows is a theory both simple and elegant; a favorite topic of introductory textbooks. It is known that this theory (under the stated limitations) can be formulated as an action principle. It finds its principle application to adiabatic systems and cannot account for viscosity or dissipation. However, it can be generalized to include non-potential flows, as this paper shows. The new theory is a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrodynamics, with an extension to thermodynamics. It describes adiabatic phenomena but does not account for viscosity or dissipation. Nevertheless, it is an approach within which quasi-static processes can be described. In the adiabatic context it appears to be an improvement of the Navier-Stokes equation, the principal advantage being a natural concept of energy in the form of a first integral of the motion, conserved by virtue of the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  15. Mechanics, cosmology and Mach's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is pointed out that recent cosmological findings seem to support the view that the mass/energy distribution of the universe defines the Newtonian inertial frames, as originally suggested by Mach. The background concepts of inertial frame, Newton's second law and fictitious forces are clarified. A precise definition of Mach's principle is suggested. Then, an approximation to general relativity discovered by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann is used and it is found that this precise formulation of Mach's principle is realized provided the mass/energy density of the universe has a specific value. This value turns out to be twice the critical density. The implications of this approximate result are put into context. (paper)

  16. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  17. Principle and use of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The institute of nuclear physics of Orsay is accepted by the Ministry of Labour to insure the surveillance of workers individual external exposure against the danger of ionizing radiations and to execute monitoring of radiation protection. The dosemeters studied in this report are the photographic film dosemeters ( for x rays, gamma rays and beta - rays), the trace detectors (fast neutrons) and the radio thermo luminescent dosemeters. For each type, the principle and how to use it are given. (N.C.)

  18. Cosmology with an Action Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Fronsdal, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The Friedman universe is re-examined in a context that is non-standard only in that the properties of matter are postulated in the form of an action principle. Applications to equilibrium configurations of ideal stars have already been reported. In this paper we apply the same theory to a fresh examination of the Friedman universe. The results agree with standard theory in the case of low densities. A suggestion is made to replace "vacuum energy" by "external force".

  19. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  20. Design Principles for Responsive Web

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Chandra Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis project was to study the responsive design paradigms and development approaches for creating web pages that are optimised for adaptive web design. The additional goals were to analyse the design principles and implement prototype to find out whether it is feasible to achieve responsive design for various screen resolution of devices. The theoretical part of the thesis work explains more details of primary development approaches and design consideratio...

  1. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is...... presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  2. Principles of the Olympic movement

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to clarify, review and reflect on the importance of the Olympic movement main principles on nowadays sporting society. For this purpose, the paper goes through the contents of the Olympic Charter, the threats to humanist thinking, the Olympic Games history and the most recent contributions to the Olympic philosophy. Similarly, this article goes deep on the figure of Pierre de Coubertin as the precursor of modern Olympic Games leading to the development of a relation...

  3. Molecular fluorescence principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Valeur, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This second edition of the well-established bestseller is completely updated and revised with approximately 30 % additional material, including two new chapters on applications, which has seen the most significant developments. The comprehensive overview written at an introductory level covers fundamental aspects, principles of instrumentation and practical applications, while providing many valuable tips. For photochemists and photophysicists, physical chemists, molecular physicists, biophysicists, biochemists and biologists, lecturers and students of chemistry, physic

  4. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  5. Positron emission tomography. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of positron emission tomography (PET) technique are reviewed. lt allows to obtain functional images from gamma rays produced by annihilation of a positron, a positive beta particle. This paper analyzes positron emitters production in a cyclotron, its general mechanisms, and the various detection systems. The most important clinical applications are also mentioned, related to oncological uses of fluor-l8-deoxyglucose

  6. Design principles underlying circadian clocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, D.A.; Shulgin, B. V.; D. Salazar; Millar, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental problem for regulatory networks is to understand the relation between form and function: to uncover the underlying design principles of the network. Circadian clocks present a particularly interesting instance, as recent work has shown that they have complex structures involving multiple interconnected feedback loops with both positive and negative feedback. While several authors have speculated on the reasons for this, a convincing explanation is still lacking.We analyse both t...

  7. Theoretical principles for biology: organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mossio, Matteo; Montévil, Maël; Longo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    International audience In the search of a theory of biological organisms, we propose to adopt organization as a theoretical principle. Organization constitutes an overarching hypothesis that frames the intelligibility of biological objects, by characterizing their relevant aspects. After a succinct historical survey on the understanding of organization in the organicist tradition, we offer a specific characterization in terms of closure of constraints. We then discuss some implications of ...

  8. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  9. Politeness Principle and Business Correspondence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雅婷

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the process of global economy, the international economic cooperation and exchanges are increasing. It is impossible that we meet al our trading partners face to face, a courteous and descent business letter can help to build a favorable business image for the company and do business better. This paper aims to analyze the politeness principle make people understand the importance of politeness in business letters better.

  10. Minimum Length from First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Calmet, Xavier; Graesser, Michael; Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2005-01-01

    We show that no device or gedanken experiment is capable of measuring a distance less than the Planck length. By "measuring a distance less than the Planck length" we mean, technically, resolve the eigenvalues of the position operator to within that accuracy. The only assumptions in our argument are causality, the uncertainty principle from quantum mechanics and a dynamical criteria for gravitational collapse from classical general relativity called the hoop conjecture. The inability of any g...

  11. Mechanics, cosmology and Mach's principle

    OpenAIRE

    Essen, Hanno

    2012-01-01

    It is pointed out that recent cosmological findings seem to support the view that the mass/energy distribution of the universe defines the Newtonian inertial frames as originally suggested by Mach. The background concepts of inertial frame, Newton's second law, and fictitious forces are clarified. A precise definition of Mach's principle is suggested. Then an approximation to general relativity discovered by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann is used and it is found that this precise formulation ...

  12. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  13. Physical principles of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified overview is given of the physical principles of digital radiography as used in X-ray transmission computed tomography and digital fluoroscopy. The advantages of the digital method over conventional radiography are pointed out. After discussing the analogue to digital conversion stage, the storage space and resolution constraints are considered as well as the resulting limitations on the maximum frame rates for picture acquisition. (U.K.)

  14. Archimedes’ principle for Brownian liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Chen, Zhen-Qing; Pal, Soumik

    2011-01-01

    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known ...

  15. Archimedes' principle for Brownian liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Pal, Soumik

    2009-01-01

    We consider a family of hard core objects moving as independent Brownian motions confined to a vessel by reflection. These are subject to gravitational forces modeled by drifts. The stationary distribution for the process has many interesting implications, including an illustration of the Archimedes' principle. The analysis rests on constructing reflecting Brownian motion with drift in a general open connected domain and studying its stationary distribution. In dimension two we utilize known results about sphere packing.

  16. Safety assessment principles for nuclear chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, as follows: foreword; introduction (functions of Health and Safety Executive and Nuclear Installations Inspectorate; scope of document and principles); fundamental requirements and policy; basic principles (radiological principles; principles for the evaluation of (a) radiation exposures under normal operating conditions, and (b) fault conditions and protection systems); engineering principles (general; radioactive materials control; movement of radioactive materials; radioactive waste and scrap control; radiological protection practice; protection systems; essential resources; plant containment and ventilation; plant operation; analysis of plant faults, transients and abnormal conditions; reliability analysis; external hazards; layout; installation checks and commissioning; servicing; decommissioning); management principles (the management of safety; quality assurance). (U.K.)

  17. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA - PART II

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Vaidya Navnitlal B.

    1983-01-01

    In this second part, the diagnostic principles and the principles of treatment are explained in the maintenance of health through a balanced and harmonius function of the TRIDOSAS through an understanding of the factors involved in the function of TRIDOSAS.

  19. Fundamental Principles and Conduct Rules in Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Dan TOGOE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main principles applicable in audit activity. Those people involve in audit activities are obliged to respect these principles, therefore engaging themselves in the achievement of ethical and legitimate objectives of the company.

  20. The Precautionary Principle: a Political Economy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel, Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2015-01-01

    This essay evaluates the precautionary principle in the context of political economy and environmental regulation. Even though sustainability and precautionary principle are not well defined as a stable concept or a principle due to the status quo of political power that supersedes. Yet, the future of precautionary principle looks promising if the understanding of the concept is advocated to establish the influence it deserves. Within this essay, there will be a review on the theories of sust...

  1. Liberal Egalitarianism and the Harm Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Michele; Veneziani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses Rawls's celebrated difference principle, and its lexicographic extension, in societies with a finite and an infinite number of agents. A unified framework of analysis is set up, which allows one to characterise Rawlsian egalitarian principles by means of a weaker version of a new axiom - the Harm Principle - recently proposed by marven09. This is quite surprising, because the Harm principle is meant to capture a liberal requirement of noninterference and it incorporates no...

  2. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona Iulia (Dieaconescu) Țarțavulea

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework). The corporate governance (CG) principles refer to issues regarding board composition, tra...

  3. Who believes in the Taylor Principle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists.......The Livingston survey data are used to investigate whether economists’ forecasts are consistent with the Taylor principle. Consistency with the Taylor principle is strong for academics and Federal Reserve economists, and less strong for private-sector economists....

  4. The Operating Principles of Public Service

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Orlov; Vlad Cantir

    2012-01-01

    A public service has always been an activity of public interest managed by the publicadministration. There are many operating rules of public services. Some of these rules, the most significant ones, are generally seen as general principles, such as the principles of continuity, of equality and mutability of public service. Within Republic of Moldova, these principles were established by Law no. 1402/2002 regarding the municipal public services. In this study we shall describe those principle...

  5. The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle correspondence proposes a connection between the Uncertainty Principle on microscopic scales and black holes on macroscopic scales. This is manifested in a unified expression for the Compton wavelength and Schwarzschild radius. It is a natural consequence of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, which suggests corrections to the Uncertainty Principle as the energy increases towards the Planck value. It also entails corrections to the event horizon size as...

  6. Dynamic Programming Foundations and Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Sniedovich, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on the modeling and solution of deterministic multistage decision problems, this book looks at dynamic programming as a problem-solving optimization method. With over 400 useful references, this edition discusses the dynamic programming analysis of a problem, illustrates the rationale behind this analysis, and clarifies the theoretical grounds that justify the rationale. It also explains the meaning and role of the concept of state in dynamic programming, examines the purpose and function of the principle of optimality, and outlines solution strategies for problems defiant of conventi

  7. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  8. Review on Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some "thought" experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in understanding recent PLANCK observations on the cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta.

  9. Slurry flow principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shook, C A; Brenner, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Slurry Flow: Principles and Practice describes the basic concepts and methods for understanding and designing slurry flow systems, in-plan installations, and long-distance transportation systems. The goal of this book is to enable the design or plant engineer to derive the maximum benefit from a limited amount of test data and to generalize operating experience to new situations. Design procedures are described in detail and are accompanied by illustrative examples needed by engineers with little or no previous experience in slurry transport.The technical literature in this field is extensive:

  10. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  11. Dye laser principles with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Frank J; Liao, Peter F; Kelley, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the field of dye lasers, Dye Laser Principles also serves as an up-to-date overview for those using dye lasers as research and industrial tools. A number of the issues discussed in this book are pertinent not only to dye lasers but also to lasers in general. Most of the chapters in the book contain problem sets that expand on the material covered in the chapter.Key Features* Dye lasers are among the most versatile and successful laser sources currently available in use Offering both pulsed and continuous-wave operation and tunable from the near ultraviole

  12. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    1964-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l-Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plat

  13. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples of...... nonlinear phenomena, it describes nonlinear wave propagation in bulk and in waveguiding structures, and includes specific examples of applied nonlinear wave propagation through crystals, optical waveguides, and optical fibers. Providing a theoretical description of nonlinear interaction between light and...

  14. Minimum Length from First Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, X; Hsu, S D H; Calmet, Xavier; Graesser, Michael; Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2005-01-01

    We show that no device or gedanken experiment is capable of measuring a distance less than the Planck length. By "measuring a distance less than the Planck length" we mean, technically, resolve the eigenvalues of the position operator to within that accuracy. The only assumptions in our argument are causality, the uncertainty principle from quantum mechanics and a dynamical criteria for gravitational collapse from classical general relativity called the hoop conjecture. The inability of any gedanken experiment to measure a sub-Planckian distance suggests the existence of a minimal length.

  15. Elementary principles in statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbs, J Willard

    2014-01-01

    Written by J. Willard Gibbs, the most distinguished American mathematical physicist of the nineteenth century, this book was the first to bring together and arrange in logical order the works of Clausius, Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Gibbs himself. The lucid, advanced-level text remains a valuable collection of fundamental equations and principles. Topics include the general problem and the fundamental equation of statistical mechanics, the canonical distribution of the average energy values in a canonical ensemble of systems, and formulas for evaluating important functions of the energies of a sys

  16. Information security principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Stamp, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Now updated-your expert guide to twenty-first century information security Information security is a rapidly evolving field. As businesses and consumers become increasingly dependent on complex multinational information systems, it is more imperative than ever to protect the confidentiality and integrity of data. Featuring a wide array of new information on the most current security issues, this fully updated and revised edition of Information Security: Principles and Practice provides the skills and knowledge readers need to tackle any information security challenge. Taking a pract

  17. The Physical Principles of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrish, Allan H.

    2001-01-01

    " The Physical Principles of Magnetism . . . is such a classic a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of magnetism . . . The corrected reissue is a welcome addition to this much-needed archival series. Dr. Morrish presents an excellent introduction to the physics and mathematics of magnetism without oversimplification . . . This respected and timeless book clearly elucidates these principles."" Edward Della Torre, The George Washington University, President of the IEEE Magnetics Society The IEEE Press is pleased to reissue this essential book for understanding the basis of modern magnetic materials. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and antiferromagnetism are covered in an integrated manner unifying subject matter from physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and engineering. Magnetic phenomena are discussed both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The underlying physical principles are presented first, followed by macroscopic or microscopic theories. Although quantum mechanical theories are given, a phenomenological approach is emphasized. More than half the book is devoted to a discussion of strongly coupled dipole systems, where the molecular field theory is emphasized. THE PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETISM is a classic must read for anyone working in the magnetics, electromagnetics, computing, and communications fields. About the Author Allan Henry Morrish is a distinguished professor of physics at the University of Manitoba, Canada. He received a B.Sc. degree from the University of Manitoba in 1943, an M.A. from the University of Toronto in 1946, and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1949, specializing in nuclear physics. From 1953 to 1964, Dr. Morrish was with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, where he held the rank of professor from 1959. During 1974-1975, Dr. Morrish was president of the Canadian Association of Physicists and in 1977 he was awarded their gold

  18. Chemosensors Principles, Strategies, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Binghe

    2011-01-01

    A thorough, accessible, and general overview of chemosensors Providing a comprehensive overview of chemosensors?organic molecules designed to bind and sense small molecules or metal ions?and their applications, Chemosensors: Principles, Strategies, and Applications is an accessible one-stop resource for analysts, clinicians, and graduate students studying advanced chemistry and chemosensing. Chemosensors function on a molecular level, generating a signal upon binding. The book reviews their synthesis, design, and applications for detecting biological and organic molecules as well as metal i

  19. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  20. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, R

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics: Principles and Formalism gives importance to the exposition of the fundamental bases of quantum mechanics. This text first discusses the physical basis of quantum theory. This book then provides some simple solutions of Schrödinger's equation, eigenvalue equations, and general formulation of quantum mechanics. The general theory of representations is also tackled. In discussing this topic, this text specifically looks into the harmonic oscillator, Dirac notation, time-evolution, Schrödinger equation in momentum space, and transformation theory. This publication will be inv

  1. Principles of modern digital design

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2007-01-01

    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  2. The Spurious Paternity of Business Communication Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagge, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the history of business communication principles. Concludes that principles supposedly developed for business communication can be found in turn-of-the-century composition textbooks and can be traced to a 2000-year-old tradition of epistolographic writings. Questions the viability of principles whose validity depends on rhetorical…

  3. Directional Uncertainty Principle for Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives a new directional uncertainty principle for quaternion valued functions subject to the quaternion Fourier transformation. This can be generalized to establish directional uncertainty principles in Clifford geometric algebras with quaternion subalgebras. We demonstrate this with the example of a directional spacetime algebra function uncertainty principle related to multivector wave packets.

  4. Cooperative Principle in Oral English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle by American linguist Grice is one of the major principles guiding people's communication. Observing the Cooperative Principle will be helpful for people to improve the flexibility and accuracy of language communication. The ultimate aim of spoken English teaching is to develop students' communicative competence.…

  5. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  6. Expanding Uncertainty Principle to Certainty-Uncertainty Principles with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in different conditions: "certainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously; "uncertainty principle", namely a particle’s position and momentum cannot be known simultaneously; and neutral (fuzzy "indeterminacy principle", namely whether or not a particle’s position and momentum can be known simultaneously is undetermined. The special cases of "certain ty-uncertainty principles" include the original uncertainty principle and Ozawa inequality. In addition, in accordance with the original uncertainty principle, discussing high-speed particle’s speed and track with Newton mechanics is unreasonable; but according to "certaintyuncertainty principles", Newton mechanics can be used to discuss the problem of gravitational defection of a photon orbit around the Sun (it gives the same result of deflection angle as given by general relativity. Finally, for the reason that in physics the principles, laws and the like that are regardless of the principle (law of conservation of energy may be invalid; therefore "certaintyuncertainty principles" should be restricted (or constrained by principle (law of conservation of energy, and thus it can satisfy the principle (law of conservation of energy.

  7. Disease prioritarianism: a flawed principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebari, Karim

    2016-03-01

    Disease prioritarianism is a principle that is often implicitly or explicitly employed in the realm of healthcare prioritization. This principle states that the healthcare system ought to prioritize the treatment of disease before any other problem. This article argues that disease prioritarianism ought to be rejected. Instead, we should adopt 'the problem-oriented heuristic' when making prioritizations in the healthcare system. According to this idea, we ought to focus on specific problems and whether or not it is possible and efficient to address them with medical means. This has radical implications for the extension of the healthcare system. First, getting rid of the binary disease/no-disease dichotomy implicit in disease prioritarianism would improve the ability of the healthcare system to address chronic conditions and disabilities that often defy easy classification. Second, the problem-oriented heuristic could empower medical practitioners to address social problems without the need to pathologize these conditions. Third, the problem-oriented heuristic clearly states that what we choose to treat is a normative consideration. Under this assumption, we can engage in a discussion on de-medicalization without distorting preconceptions. Fourth, this pragmatic and de-compartmentalizing approach should allow us to reconsider the term 'efficiency'. PMID:25976770

  8. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  9. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is 'imaged'. Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  10. Variational principle for quasibound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minimum-variance principle for quasibound states is defined and utilized to investigate the corresponding energy resonances. The variational principle yields simultaneously a resonance energy E and a square-integrable wave function phi, such that minimum variance is obtained for arbitrary variations of a restricted class of square-integrable functions as well as with respect to variations of E. It is further shown that the optimum energy E0 obtained from this method can simultaneously be written as an expectation value of the actual Hamiltonian with respect to phi = phi (E0). The example of the Stark effect in the hydrogen atom is studied. It is shown that the variationally obtained resonance energy coincides with the real part of the complex pole of the m function of Weyl, related to the Green's function of the system under consideration. It is also shown that the corresponding numerical application of the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method only gives meaningful results for field intensities below 0.06 a.u., as compared with the ''exact'' results of Hehenberger, McIntosh, and Brandas

  11. Entwicklung, Aufbau und Messungen eines schnellen Eiskeimzählers

    OpenAIRE

    Nillius, Björn

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde ein neuer Eiskeimzähler FINCH (Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber) entwickelt und erste Messungen von verschiedenen Testaerosolen im Labor und atmosphärischem Aerosol durchgeführt. Die Aerosolpartikel bzw. Ice Nuclei IN werden bei Temperaturen unter dem Gefrierpunkt und Übersättigungen in Bezug auf Eis zum Anwachsen zu Eiskristallen gebracht, um sie mittels optischer Detektion zu erfassen. In FINCH ist dies durch das Prinzip der Mischung realisiert, wodurch eine kontin...

  12. Informationsdesign von Bildungsportalen : Struktur und Aufbau netzbasierter Bildungsressourcen

    OpenAIRE

    Panke, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Sowohl Unternehmen als auch Bildungseinrichtungen, Verlage, politische Organisationen, Verbände, Interessengruppen und Privatpersonen nutzen das Internet, um Informationen zu verbreiten. Die Varianz an Akteuren, Adressaten und Botschaften spiegelt sich wider in einem wachsenden Spektrum an Web-Genres: Suchmaschine, E-Commerce-Auftritt und Online-Zeitung teilen sich die Aufmerksamkeit der Leser unter anderem mit privaten Weblogs und kollaborativen Wissenssammlungen wie der Enzyklopädie Wikiped...

  13. Optimaler Aufbau von Batteriesystemen für Windkraftanlagen

    OpenAIRE

    König, Sebastian; Leibfried, Thomas; Wandschneider, Frank; Röhm, Simon; Fischer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Die Modellierung, Simulation und Optimierung eines großen Batteriespeichersystems wird am Beispiel der Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batterie (VRFB) präsentiert. Das vorgestellte multiphysikalische Gesamtmodell spiegelt das elektrochemi-sche und das hydraulische Verhalten der Batterie wieder. Der elektrische Teil enthält auch eine in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Fraunhofer ICT in Pfinztal/Berghausen entworfene Modellierung der sogenannten Streustromverluste, welche in Flussbatterien auftreten. Das Energiewan...

  14. Ökonomischer Kompetenzerwerb durch kommerzielle Aufbau- und Managerspiele

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In der Arbeit wird davon ausgegangen, dass Jugendliche ihre ökonomische Kompetenz primär nicht in der Schule erwerben, sondern in außerschulischen Settings. Dazu gehören in hohem Maße kommerzielle Computerspiele; bedeutsam für die ökonomische Kompetenz erscheinen die in Deutschland recht erfolgreichen Manager- und Aufbauspiele. Zur ersteren Kategorie gehören zum Beispiel bekannte Titel wie die Fußball-Manager-Reihe, Zoo-Tycoon, Rollercoaster-Tycoon oder Railraoad-Tycoon; zur zweiten Kategorie...

  15. Das Aerosol-Ionenfallen-Massenspektrometer (AIMS) : Aufbau, Charakterisierung und Feldeinsatz

    OpenAIRE

    Fachinger, Johannes Richard Werner

    2012-01-01

    Um die in der Atmosphäre ablaufenden Prozesse besser verstehen zu können, ist es wichtig dort vorhandene Partikel gut charakterisieren zu können. Dazu gehört unter anderem die Bestimmung der chemischen Zusammensetzung der Partikel. Zur Analyse insbesondere organischer Partikel wurde dazu in einer früheren Promotion das Aerosol-Ionenfallen-Massenspektrometer (AIMS) entwickelt.Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Entwicklungsarbeiten durchgeführt, um die Charakteristiken des Prototypen zu verbessern ...

  16. Aufbau eines 500 Hz-Lasersystems zur Summenfrequenzschwingungsspektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Kuß, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the design and performance of a 500 Hz picosecond laser system specifically developed for sum-frequency spectroscopy of molecular vibrations at interfaces, and on its applications to the study of potential-dependent CO adsorption at the Pt(111)/aqueous electrolyte interface. The experimental setup consists of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser system operating with a pulse frequency of 500 Hz, and on optical parametric generator/amplifier system for the generation of tunable picos...

  17. Der Aufbau forschungsintensiver Industrien kommt in Ostdeutschland voran

    OpenAIRE

    Siegfried Beer

    2004-01-01

    For East Germany – also called the New German Länder – it is very important to enlarge human capital intensive production. Starting from this consideration, the empirical study investigates the development of research & development (R&D) intensive industries for the years 1998 to 2002 whereby the different technology classes are also taken into account. The study is based on official statistics for producer goods. The analysis shows that the production of goods from R&D intensive industries i...

  18. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  19. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  20. The Interaction Between the Cooperate Principle and the Politeness Principle in Pragmatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丰田

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle are important contents of pragmatics. In this paper, the writer makes a systematic exposition of what are the Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle and how they interact with each other in people' s conversations.

  1. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; ZHAO Hong-Xia; FANG Jian-Hui; MA Shan-Jun; LU Kai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  2. Anthropology, cultural relativism and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Conderana Cerrillo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists the risk that axiological relativism make educational tasks impossible to perform. This article intends to answer the question of how this risk could be avoided: Is it possible to support the fact that there are certain issues which could be accepted as valid by any culture? Could this fact be achieved without mena- cing the so called legitimate cultural diversity due to human freedom? Professor María García Amilbury offers an answer which stands upon the Aristotelic idea of a «natural» telos of mankind. Once the deficiencies of the Aristotelic argument have been uncove- red, an alternative answer coming from the «ethic intuitionism» theory is considered by the author. Key words: Gnoseologic cultural relativism, Axiologic cultural relativism, Ethical intuitionism, Ethical principles

  3. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489

  4. Optimality Principles of Undulatory Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Nishant; Bale, Rahul; Patankar, Neelesh

    2015-11-01

    A number of dimensionless quantities derived from a fish's kinematic and morphological parameters have been used to describe the hydrodynamics of swimming. In particular, body/caudal fin swimmers have been found to swim within a relatively narrow range of these quantities in nature, e.g., Strouhal number or the optimal specific wavelength. It has been hypothesized or shown that these constraints arise due to maximization of swimming speed, efficiency, or cost of transport in certain domains of this large dimensionless parameter space. Using fully resolved simulations of undulatory patterns, we investigate the existence of various optimality principles in fish swimming. Using scaling arguments, we relate various dimensionless parameters to each other. Based on these findings, we make design recommendations on how kinematic parameters for a swimming robot or vehicle should be chosen. This work is supported by NSF Grants CBET-0828749, CMMI-0941674, CBET-1066575 and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1324585.

  5. Principles of the Lean Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír SMUTNÝ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays companies have to fight not only with the high rate of competition on the global market, but also with problems that relate with the financial crisis. They have to find new ways how they can stay on the global market and it can be talk also about their survival in context of the financial crisis. The way, how they can improve their management, can be the implementation of the Lean Company concept. The basics of this concept were developed in 50th of 20th century in Japan.The aims of this article are to characterize the main principles of the Lean Company, which come out from effective management methods, advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of this concept into the practice. The important part of this article is created SWOT analysis, which shows strong and weak points, opportunities and threats of this concept.

  6. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei M

    2013-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  7. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  8. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  9. Quantum retrodiction and causality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum mechanics is factually a predictive science. But quantum retrodiction may also be needed, e.g., for the experimental verification of the validity of the Schroedinger equation for the wave function in the past if the present state is given. It is shown that in the retrodictive analog of the prediction the measurement must be replaced by another physical process called the retromeasurement. In this process, the reduction of a state vector into eigenvectors of a measured observable must proceed in the opposite direction of time as compared to the usual reduction. Examples of such processes are unknown. Moreover, they are shown to be forbidden by the causality principle stating that the later event cannot influence the earlier one. So quantum retrodiction seems to be unrealizable. It is demonstrated that the approach to the retrodiction given by S.Watanabe and F.Belinfante must be considered as an unsatisfactory ersatz of retrodicting. 20 refs., 3 figs

  10. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  11. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not...

  12. The Franck-Condon principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franck-Condon factors govern intensity or product distributions in many radiation- or collision-induced phenomena. The subject of this paper is the range and nature of the Franck-Condon distribution. Mainly the electronic transitions in diatomic molecules are considered. It is concluded that the primitive semiclassical treatment of Franck-Condon overlap integrals unifies the classical and quantum version of the Franck-Condon Principle. The stationary phase approximation tells us that these integrals accumulate mainly around the classical transition points. The difference potential is important in modern classical methods to be used for the approximate calculation of electronic spectra of polyatomic molecules, and leads to a simplification of tedious calculations through near-exact sum rules. (G.Q.)

  13. Generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noghin, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    The general multicriteria choice problem with m individual preference relations and an asymmetric collective preference relation is considered. The concept of a k-effective alternative is introduced, which coincides with an effective alternative for k = 1 and represents a weakly effective alternative for k = m. For the other integer values of k, it lies somewhere in between. In terms of the general multicriteria choice problem, the Pareto axiom and the exclusion axiom for dominated alternatives are stated. Assuming that these axioms hold, a generalized Edgeworth-Pareto principle is established, which was earlier introduced by the author in the special case k = 1. The results are extended to a fuzzy collective preference relation and to a fuzzy set of initial alternatives.

  14. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo N. Costa Filho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  15. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N.; Braga, João P. M.; Lira, Jorge H. S.; Andrade, José S.

    2016-04-01

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  16. Expanding Uncertainty Principle to Certainty-Uncertainty Principles with Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    The most famous contribution of Heisenberg is uncertainty principle. But the original uncertainty principle is improper. Considering all the possible situations (including the case that people can create laws) and applying Neutrosophy and Quad-stage Method, this paper presents "certainty-uncertainty principles" with general form and variable dimension fractal form. According to the classification of Neutrosophy, "certainty-uncertainty principles" can be divided into three principles in differ...

  17. The precautionary principle and chemicals regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope The paper investigates the development of the institutional basis of the present modes of chemicals regulation and management, with special attention to interrelations with the precautionary principle. Main Features: The paper elucidates on how the precautionary principle...... has been shaped in relation to chemicals regulation and management since Carson's Silent Spring (years before the principle was confirmed as a policy-principle in German and European legislation. Furthermore, it is examined how the precautionary principle interacted with the development of the present...... chemicals regulatory regime, in a complex interplay within the OECD and Member Countries. The present modes of precaution in the new EU chemical legislation – REACH – are investigated with respect to the precautionary principle, and tested against two contemporary problems; brominated flame retardants and...

  18. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.

  19. Deriving and applying generally applicable safety principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.

    1998-08-01

    The nuclear detonation safety of modern nuclear weapons depends on a coordinated safety theme incorporating three general safety principles: isolation, inoperability, and incompatibility. The success of this approach has encouraged them to study whether these and/or other principles might be useful in other applications. Not surprisingly, no additional first-principles (based on physical laws) have been identified. However, a more widely applicable definition and application of the principle-based approach has been developed, resulting in a selection of strategies that are basically subsets and varied combinations of the more general principles above. However, identification of principles to be relied on is only one step in providing a safe design. As one other important example, coordinating overall architecture and strategy is essential: the authors term this a safety theme.

  20. Non-differentiable variational principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresson, Jacky

    2005-07-01

    We develop a calculus of variations for functionals which are defined on a set of non-differentiable curves. We first extend the classical differential calculus in a quantum calculus, which allows us to define a complex operator, called the scale derivative, which is the non-differentiable analogue of the classical derivative. We then define the notion of extremals for our functionals and obtain a characterization in term of a generalized Euler-Lagrange equation. We finally prove that solutions of the Schrödinger equation can be obtained as extremals of a non-differentiable variational principle, leading to an extended Hamilton's principle of least action for quantum mechanics. We compare this approach with the scale relativity theory of Nottale, which assumes a fractal structure of space-time.Résumé (Principes variationnels non différentiable). Nous développons un calcul des variations pour des fonctionnelles définies sur un ensemble de courbes non différentiables. Pour cela, nous étendons le calcul différentiel classique, en calcul appelé calcul quantique, qui nous permet de définir un opérateur à valeur complexes, appelé dérivée d'échelle, qui est l'analogue non différentiable de la dérivée usuelle. On définit alors la notion d'extremale pour ces fonctionnelles pour lesquelles nous obtenons une caractérisation via une équation d'Euler-Lagrange généralisée. On prouve enfin que les solutions de l'équation de Schrödinger peuvent s'obtenir comme solution d'un problème variationnel non différentiable, étendant ainsi le principe de moindre action de Hamilton au cadre de la mécanique quantique. On discute enfin la connexion entre ce travail et la théorie de la relativité d'échelle développée par Nottale, et qui suppose une structure fractale de l'espace-temps.

  1. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  2. Generalized Uncertainty Principle and Angular Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Various models of quantum gravity suggest a modification of the Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, to the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle, between position and momentum. In this work we show how this modification influences the theory of angular momentum in Quantum Mechanics. In particular, we compute Planck scale corrections to angular momentum eigenvalues, the Hydrogen atom spectrum, the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. We also examine effects of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle on multi-particle systems.

  3. Impact of motivation principles on employee turnover

    OpenAIRE

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie; Klupáková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on the analysis of motivation principles in human resource management and their further verification by factor analysis. The objective is to identify the main motivation principles and their impacts on employee turnover as well as formulate suggested practices to eliminate the negative impact of employee disaffection and turnover. The identification of motivation principles is based on a content analysis of professional and scientific publications aimed at moti...

  4. Replicating organizational knowledge: principles or templates?

    OpenAIRE

    Baden-Fuller, Charles; Winter, Sidney G.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how firms can replicate practices and knowledge embedded in practices by following principles, with no direct reference to an extant working example (template). Definitions are provided for the key concepts of templates, principles, and background knowledge. We address the challenges of providing operational measures for successful replication, and for comparing the efficacy of principles and templates. By using two longitudinal case studies of replication across the units of two m...

  5. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  6. Simplified Variational Principles for Barotropic Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Yahalom, Asher; Lynden-Bell, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Variational principles for magnetohydrodynamics were introduced by previous authors both in Lagrangian and Eulerian form. In this paper we introduce simpler Eulerian variational principles from which all the relevant equations of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics can be derived. The variational principle is given in terms of six independent functions for non-stationary barotropic flows and three independent functions for stationary barotropic flows. This is less then the seven variables which a...

  7. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  8. The Principle of Relativity and Inertial Dragging

    OpenAIRE

    Gron, Oyvind G.

    2007-01-01

    Machs principle and the principle of relativity have been discussed by H. I. Hartman and C. Nissim-Sabat in this journal. Several phenomena were said to violate the principle of relativity as applied to rotating motion. These claims have recently been contested. However, in neither of these articles have the general relativistic phenomenon of inertial dragging been invoked, and no calculation have been offered by either side to substantiate their claims. Here I discuss the possible validity o...

  9. Three Principles of Competitive Nonlinear Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Page Junior, Frank H.; Monteiro, Paulo Klinger

    2002-01-01

    We make three contributions to the theory of contracting under asymmetric information. First, we establish a competitive analog to the revelation principle which we call the implementation principle. This principle provides a complete characterization of all incentive compatible, indirect contracting mechanisms in terms of contract catalogs, and allows us to conclude that in competitive contracting situations, firms in choosing their contracting strategies can restrict attention to contract c...

  10. The equivalence principle and spatial curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination is made of the connection between the equivalence principle of general relativity and the non-Euclidean properties of space. The arguments commonly advanced to suggest a necessary connection between these two features of general relativity are reviewed and critically discussed. It is shown that although gravitational time dilation is an immediate consequence of the equivalence principle the corresponding effects on space are not such immediate or logically necessary consequences of this principle. (author)

  11. The similarity principle - on using models correctly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.; Mortensen, N.G.; Rathmann, O.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present some guiding principles on the most accurate use of the WAsP program in particular, but the principle can be applied to the use of any linear model which predicts some quantity at one location based on another. We have felt a need to lay out these principles out explicitly......, due to the many, many users and the uses (and misuses) of the WAsP program. Put simply, the similarity principle states that one should chose a predictor site which – in as many ways as possible – is similar to the predicted site....

  12. Cooperative Learning Principles Enhance Online Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacobs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that cooperative interactions are associated with enhanced cognitive and affective outcomes. This paper describes eight principles that can be used to promote such interactions among students working in online environments. The principles derive from a well-established approach to education, known variously as cooperative learning and collaborative learning. Each principle is explained as to what it means, why it is important and how it can be deployed. The eight principles are heterogeneous grouping, teaching collaborative skills, group autonomy, maximum peer interactions, equal opportunity to participate, individual accountability, positive interdependence and cooperation as a value.

  13. Finite Frames and Graph Theoretic Uncertainty Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Paul J.

    The subject of analytical uncertainty principles is an important field within harmonic analysis, quantum physics, and electrical engineering. We explore uncertainty principles in the context of the graph Fourier transform, and we prove additive results analogous to the multiplicative version of the classical uncertainty principle. We establish additive uncertainty principles for finite Parseval frames. Lastly, we examine the feasibility region of simultaneous values of the norms of a graph differential operator acting on a function f ∈ l2(G) and its graph Fourier transform.

  14. Challenging the principle of proportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna-Karin Margareta

    2016-04-01

    The first objective of this article is to examine one aspect of the principle of proportionality (PP) as advanced by Alan Gewirth in his 1978 bookReason and Morality Gewirth claims that being capable of exercising agency to some minimal degree is a property that justifies having at least prima facie rights not to get killed. However, according to the PP, before the being possesses the capacity for exercising agency to that minimal degree, the extent of her rights depends on to what extent she approaches possession of agential capacities. One interpretation of PP holds that variations in degree of possession of the physical constitution necessary to exercise agency are morally relevant. The other interpretation holds that only variations in degree of actual mental capacity are morally relevant. The first of these interpretations is vastly more problematic than the other. The second objective is to argue that according to the most plausible interpretation of the PP, the fetus' level of development before at least the 20th week of pregnancy does not affect the fetus' moral rights status. I then suggest that my argument is not restricted to such fetuses, although extending my argument to more developed fetuses requires caution. PMID:26839114

  15. Vapourisers: physical principles and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhulkhed, Vithal; Shetti, Akshaya; Naik, Shraddha; Dhulkhed, Pavan

    2013-09-01

    Vapourisers have evolved from rudimentary inhalers to the microprocessor controlled, temperature compensated and flow sensing devices, which are universal today. The improvements in the design was influenced by the development of potent inhalational anaesthetics, unique properties of some agents, a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action, inherent flaws in the older vapourisers, mechanical problems due to thymol deposition, factors influencing their output such as temperature and pressure variations. It is important to review the principles governing the design of the vapouriser to gain insight into their working. It is fascinating to know how some of the older vapourisers, popularly used in the past, functioned. The descendant of Oxford Miniature Vapourizer, the Triservice vapouriser is still a part of the military anaesthesia draw over equipment meant for field use whereas the Copper Kettle the first precision device is the fore-runner of the Tec 6 and Aladdin cassette vapouriser. Anaesthesia trainees if exposed to draw over techniques get a deeper understanding of equipment and improved skills for disaster situations. In the recent advanced versions of the vapouriser a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine controls the operation by continuously monitoring and adjusting fresh gas flow through the vapouriser to maintain desired concentration of the vapour. PMID:24249878

  16. Vapourisers: Physical principles and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal Dhulkhed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapourisers have evolved from rudimentary inhalers to the microprocessor controlled, temperature compensated and flow sensing devices, which are universal today. The improvements in the design was influenced by the development of potent inhalational anaesthetics, unique properties of some agents, a deeper understanding of their mechanism of action, inherent flaws in the older vapourisers, mechanical problems due to thymol deposition, factors influencing their output such as temperature and pressure variations. It is important to review the principles governing the design of the vapouriser to gain insight into their working. It is fascinating to know how some of the older vapourisers, popularly used in the past, functioned. The descendant of Oxford Miniature Vapourizer, the Triservice vapouriser is still a part of the military anaesthesia draw over equipment meant for field use whereas the Copper Kettle the first precision device is the fore-runner of the Tec 6 and Aladdin cassette vapouriser. Anaesthesia trainees if exposed to draw over techniques get a deeper understanding of equipment and improved skills for disaster situations. In the recent advanced versions of the vapouriser a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine controls the operation by continuously monitoring and adjusting fresh gas flow through the vapouriser to maintain desired concentration of the vapour.

  17. Principles of effective performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-07-01

    As with any endeavor connected with trendy words and phrases, {open_quotes}performance measurement{close_quotes} means different things to different people. To some, performance means {open_quotes}customer satisfaction{close_quotes}, and little, if anything, else. To others, it is productivity; to still others, it is procedural. In most real-world situations there are elements of all three of these dimensions. Whatever your definition of performance, it is important that it be clear in your own mind what you are trying to achieve, and that you make sure that those working with and for you have the same understanding. This paper is written from the point of view that performance is primarily productivity; after acceptable productivity is achieved, performance is customer satisfaction. I consider performance to be procedural only insofar as necessary to maintain legality and propriety. Rather than adopting the standard bureaucratic approach to procedure (i.e., everything not required is forbidden), I believe that consistently excellent performance demands the complementary philosophy: everything not forbidden is permitted. Remember: wars are won by the general who knows when to break the rules. The principles enunciated below are not unique to DOE or to the office environment: They are applicable to any performance measurement program. I have tried, however, to provide examples that apply to the office or that are likely to be familiar to those of us working with office information technology today.

  18. Cell tracking. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell based therapies such as stem cell therapies or adoptive immunotherapies are currently being explored as a potential treatment for a variety of diseases such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes or cancer. However, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of adoptively transferred cells is indispensable for monitoring the efficiency of the treatment. Current approaches mostly analyze transferred cells from peripheral blood, which cannot assess whether transferred cells actuallyhome to and stay in the targeted tissue. Using cell-labeling methods such as direct labeling or transfection with a marker gene in conjunction with various imaging modalities (MRI, optical or nuclear imaging), labeled cells can be followed in vivo in real-time, and their accumulation as well as function in vivo can be monitored and quantified accurately. This method is usually referred to as ''cell tracking'' or ''cell trafficking'' and is also being applied in basic biological sciences, exemplified in the evaluation of genes contributing to metastasis. This review focuses on principles of this promising methodology and explains various approaches by highlighting recent examples. (orig.)

  19. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities. PMID:20222355

  20. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  1. Credibility is the first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first principle of an effective public affairs program on nuclear energy is credibility. If credibility is lacking, no matter how artful the message, it will not be persuasive. There has long been a problem in the United States. For years much of the industry followed the practice, when there was an event at a nuclear power plant that resulted in an unplanned release of radioactivity, to tell the public there was 'no release' if in fact the release was below the technical specifications of what the NRC mandates as being safe. The NRC is a safety regulator. It can tell nuclear power plant operators what to do, or not do, when it comes to safety, but doesn't have the right to tell them what to say to the public. The example of an emergency exercise and the NRC press release on that occasion showed the direction how companies could be influenced to behave in order to prevent such avoidably negative news coverage, i.e. attaining credibility when public anxiety is concerned

  2. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  3. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)

  4. Fundamental principles of alarm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal with alarm presentation or display design issues. A hydraulically powered grinding process is employed as an industrially relevant system to show the applicability of the proposed design methodology with promising results. (author)

  5. Lymph node imaging: Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymph nodes are involved in a wide variety of diseases, particularly in cancer. In the latter, precise nodal staging is essential to guide therapeutic options and to determine prognosis. For long, imaging of the lymphatic system has been limited to lymph vessel,especially via the exclusive use of conventional lymphography, at the expense of invasive procedures and patient's discomfort. Three main technical advances, however, have recently completed the clinical armamentarium for lymph node imaging: first, the refinement of cross sectional imaging, i.e. CT and MRI, combined or not with dedicated contrast agents, has progressively replaced conventional lymphography in oncology situations; second, the development of intra-operative sentinel node mapping has profoundly modified the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in several cancer situations, mostly melanoma and breast cancer; finally, the increased availability of functional imaging, especially through the use of FDG-PET, has greatly contributed to the accuracy improvement of nodal metastases identification. The aim of this review will thus be to briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic systems and to overview the basic principles of up-to-date lymph node imaging

  6. Principle of Duality on Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Samie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL of various components and devices used in complex systems, e.g., airplanes remain to be addressed by scientists and engineers. Currently, there area wide range of innovative proposals put forward that intend on solving this problem. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM has thus far seen some growth in this sector, as a result of the extensive progress shown in demonstrating feasible and viable techniques. The problems related to these techniques were that they often consumed time and were too expensive and resourceful to develop. In this paper we present a radically novel approach for building prognostic models that compensates and improves on the current prognostic models inconsistencies and problems. Broadly speaking, the new approach proposes a state of the art technique that utilizes the physics of a system rather than the physics of a component to develop its prognostic model. A positive aspect of this approach is that the prognostic model can be generalized such that a new system could be developed on the basis and principles of the prognostic model of another system. This paper will mainly explore single switch dc-to-dc converters which will be used as an experiment to exemplify the potential success that can be discovered from the development of a novel prognostic model that can efficiently estimate the remaining useful life of one system based on the prognostics of its dual system.

  7. Microbiological Principles in Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the important microbiological objectives of irradiation treatments, with special reference to the definitions of the proposed new terms, radappertization, radicidation and radurization. Emphasis is placed on the nature of the food in determining the microbiological requirements of the irradiation treatment. It is suggested that, just as with heat-processed foods, classifications into the major groups of ''acid'' or ''cured'' foods will remain valid with the irradiation process, and that different microbiological criteria will apply to these different classes of foods. The differences depend in part on the influence which the nature of the food has on the effectiveness of the irradiation treatment itself, but more especially on the way in which the nature of the food affects the activities of those microorganisms which might survive irradiation. The principles used to calculate the appropriate doses of radiation are discussed, with comments on the reliability of the fundamental assumptions or the need for further experimentation. The microbiological characteristics of irradiated foods are compared with those of corresponding heat- processed foods, to emphasize points of difference, with special reference to the appropriateness of suggested classifications for heat-processed foods. Finally, some general difficulties are considered, such as uncertainty about the significance and behaviour of food-borne viruses, and about the significance of the mutations which might conceivably be induced in microorganisms surviving-an irradiation process. (author)

  8. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  9. TS-1 from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Aldo; Tabacchi, Gloria; Fois, Ettore

    2009-09-01

    First principles studies on periodic TS-1 models at Ti content corresponding to 1.35% and 2.7% in weight of TiO2 are presented. The problem of Ti preferential siting is addressed by using realistic models corresponding to the TS-1 unit cell [TiSi95O192] and adopting for the first time a periodic DFT approach, thus providing an energy scale for Ti in the different crystallographic sites in nondefective TS-1. The structure with Ti in site T3 is the most stable, followed by T4 (+0.3 kcal/mol); the less stable structure, corresponding to Ti in T1, is 5.6 kcal/mol higher in energy. The work has been extended to investigate models with two Ti's per unit cell [Ti2Si94O192] (2.7%). The possible existence of Ti-O-Ti bridges, formed by two corner-sharing TiO4 tetrahedra, is discussed. By using cluster models cut from the optimized periodic DFT structures, both vibrational (DFT) and electronic excitation spectra (TDDFT) have been calculated and favorably compared with the experimental data available on TS-1. Interesting features emerged from excitation spectra: (i) Isolated tetrahedral Ti sites show a Beer-Lambert behavior, with absorption intensity proportional to concentration. Such a behavior is gradually lost when two Ti's occupy sites close to each other. (ii) The UV-vis absorption in the 200-250 nm region can be associated with transitions from occupied states delocalized on the framework oxygens to empty d states localized on Ti. Such extended-states-to-local-states transitions may help the interpretation of the photovoltaic activity recently detected in Ti zeolites.

  10. Principles of condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are many books on solid state physics and condensed matter, I suspect very few cover the same content as that found in 'Principles of Condensed Matter Physics' by Chaikin and Lubensky. The title is rather misleading as it suggests a survey of the important concepts in condensed matter. In spite of this there is much to commend in this book. It isn't a standard text on condensed matter. Instead we have a book with topics that are of current interest. It is, therefore, a thoroughly forward-looking modern book which focuses on the ever-expanding area in between traditional condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics. For example, ideas about liquid crystals, quasi-crystals and fractal structures are introduced right at the start of the book. The next three chapters deal with some of the basic concepts of thermodynamics, statistical physics and mean field theory and are followed by a quite detailed treatment of critical phenomena and phase transitions. Much of the mystery associated with field theories is removed in this treatment making it accessible to those not well versed in these techniques. Symmetry breaking is the means by which generalized elasticity theory is introduced. This in turn allows a natural progression to a chapter on hydrodynamics. Neither of these areas are normally found in texts on condensed matter physics. I think the chapter on topological defects is particularly well written and is a good introduction for the reader to this increasingly important topic. This is a very well written text which should prove a handy reference for those working in these areas of research. Although it would be difficult to envisage the book being used as a standard text in a graduate course, it would certainly be of great value for graduate students of solid state physics to acquaint themselves with the contents of this book. (author)

  11. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  12. Green Engineering Principle #4 Maximize Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    As one reads the twelve principles of Green Engineering, there is one message that stands out and becomes ever increasingly more evident with each principle. Moreover, that message is simplicity! It is simplicity that will allow us, as a society, to become more sustainable.Althou...

  13. Courtesy Principles of English in International Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华云

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates respectlly the importances of abiding by the courtesy principles of English on telephone, writing and negotiation and presents the methods to make diction tactful and tone mild during business English communication. If we use the principles skillfully, it can help both sides to establish business relations on the basis of equality and mutual benefit.

  14. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile…

  15. The precautionary principle and regulation of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    conflicting sciences, and a broader analysis of the development of chemicals regulation and the interrelation to the precautionary principle. It is concluded that the precautionary principle in practise requires a vivid debate at all levels including scientific approaches and public deliberation....

  16. Bilingual Evidence against the Principle of Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Suzanne

    Prior research on early lexical acquisition in bilingual infants has been used by Clark (1987) to support the Principle of Contrast, which states that every two forms contrast in meaning. In this study of an English-Spanish bilingual child, it is argued that the Principle of Contrast is not applicable to bilingual acquisition in general. Daily…

  17. Methodical ecologization principles in construction management

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzhina Irina Pavlovna; Yudakhina Olga Borisovna

    2015-01-01

    In the article the subject of ecologization of construction sector is presented, the necessity of ecologization technology and technological processes is proved. The article also presents principles of ecologically friendly management of construction and investment activities and describes these principles in detail.

  18. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  19. Accounting Principles 30G. Interim Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This curriculum guide was developed for a senior-level introductory accounting course for students in high schools in Manitoba. The course introduces Canadian accounting principles and practices; it applies Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to introductory financial accounting. The guide includes the following components: (1) an…

  20. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  1. Disturbance, the uncertainty principle and quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how a disturbance-type uncertainty principle can be derived from an uncertainty principle for joint measurements. To achieve this, we first clarify the meaning of 'inaccuracy' and 'disturbance' in quantum mechanical measurements. The case of photon number and phase is treated as an example, and it is applied to a quantum non-demolition measurement using the optical Kerr effect.

  2. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  3. American Evaluation Association: Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association (AEA) strives to promote ethical practice in the evaluation of programs, products, personnel, and policy. This article presents the list of principles which AEA developed to guide evaluators in their professional practice. These principles are: (1) Systematic Inquiry; (2) Competence; (3) Integrity/Honesty; (4)…

  4. Operating Principles and Early Lexical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    Two types of operating principles thought to play an important role in early lexical development are discussed. The principles are those concerned with: (1) assignment of reference or meaning to words; and (2) formation and evolution of categories. Discussion also addresses related issues, such as the developmentally important relationship between…

  5. 28 CFR 23.20 - Operating principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating principles. 23.20 Section 23.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS OPERATING POLICIES § 23.20 Operating principles. (a) A project shall collect and maintain criminal intelligence information...

  6. Metaphysics of the Principle of Least Action

    CERN Document Server

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of the possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of the possibles striving from essence to existence. This paper introduces a model of a two-level modality based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. The proposed modal interpretation of the principle of least action replaces the classical representation of the system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by the simultaneous motions ...

  7. Specker's fundamental principle of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, Adan

    2012-01-01

    I draw attention to the fact that three recently proposed physical principles, namely "local orthogonality", "global exclusive disjunction", and "compatible orthogonality" are not new principles, but different versions of a principle that Ernst Specker noticed long ago. I include a video of Specker stating this principle in 2009 in the following terms: "Do you know what, according to me, is the fundamental theorem of quantum mechanics? (...) That is, if you have several questions and you can answer any two of them, then you can also answer all of them". I overview some results that suggest that Specker's principle may be of fundamental importance for explaining quantum contextuality. Specker passed away in December 10, 2011, at the age of 91.

  8. The validity of the extended energy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent analysis of plasma stability based on modifications of the extended energy principle for magnetohydrodynamic stability led to conclusions that are too optimistic. The original interpretation of this principle is indeed applicable. The present analysis demonstrates explicitly the fallacy of using the wrong functional for δW in the extended energy principle. It then shows that the original energy principle functional δWB is also obtained for a model in which a surface mass is incorporated to provide pressure balance. This work therefore indicates, but does not prove, that the eigenfunctions that are obtained from a minimization of the extended energy principle with the proper kinetic energy norm provide a good representation of what would be achieved with an exact treatment

  9. Two Fundamental Principles of Nature's Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian; Wang, Shouhong

    2014-03-01

    In this talk, we present two fundamental principles of nature's interactions, the principle of interaction dynamics (PID) and the principle of representation invariance (PRI). Intuitively, PID takes the variation of the action functional under energy-momentum conservation constraint. PID offers a completely different and natural way of introducing Higgs fields. PRI requires that physical laws be independent of representations of the gauge groups. These two principles give rise to a unified field model for four interactions, which can be naturally decoupled to study individual interactions. With these two principles, we are able to derive 1) a unified theory for dark matter and dark energy, 2) layered strong and weak interaction potentials, and 3) the energy levels of subatomic particles. Supported in part by NSF, ONR and Chinese NSF.

  10. Synchronous Lagrangian variational principles in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremaschini, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The problem of formulating synchronous variational principles in the context of General Relativity is discussed. Based on the analogy with classical relativistic particle dynamics, the existence of variational principles is pointed out in relativistic classical field theory which are either asynchronous or synchronous. The historical Einstein-Hilbert and Palatini variational formulations are found to belong to the first category. Nevertheless, it is shown that an alternative route exists which permits one to cast these principles in terms of equivalent synchronous Lagrangian variational formulations. The advantage is twofold. First, synchronous approaches allow one to overcome the lack of gauge symmetry of the asynchronous principles. Second, the property of manifest covariance of the theory is also restored at all levels, including the symbolic Euler-Lagrange equations, with the variational Lagrangian density being now identified with a $4-$scalar. As an application, a joint synchronous variational principle...

  11. The principle(s) of co-existence in Europe: Social, economic and legal avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2015-01-01

    The European policy of coexistence follows a number of well-established social, economic and legal principles. Applying these principles in practice has resulted in a complex “rag rug” of coexistence policies in Europe. This rag rug makes enforcement of these principles difficult, at times even impo

  12. Priority of the Politeness Principle over the Cooperative Principle in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Li-na

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Principle that Grice proposes explains how conversational implicature is generated but it does not tell us why people are often inclined to convey what they want to say indirectly and implicitly by violating the maxims of the Coop⁃erative Principle. Leech introduces the Politeness Principle to provide a reasonable explanation for this question, that is, for polite⁃ness. From the perspective of the purpose of communication, this article tries to argue that the Politeness Principle has the greater binding force in conversation and it should be given priority over the Cooperative Principle.

  13. Philosophy of democracy and Principles of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand.             Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice.             Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts.             Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.

  14. Diglossic Principles in Shona Lexicography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esau Mangoya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article looks at diglossia in Shona dictionaries. Diglossia is seen here as the differential and preferential use of a language or a dialect in dictionaries. The main language spoken in Zimbabwe is Shona. Over a period of about one and a half century, at least twenty Shona lexicographic publications including glossed word lists and medium-sized dictionaries have appeared, examples of which are used in this article to demonstrate the diglossic principles in Shona lexicography. As is the case with many languages, Shona is also in contact with other languages, among them English, which during the colonial era was declared the official language of the country. As a result the dictionaries that were compiled were bilingual. In these dictionaries, involving English and Shona, the bias was towards satisfying the needs of English-speaking users, as much of the detail, including the headword entries, was in English. However, with the need to empower the indigenous languages of the country, there was a deliberate move to promote Shona. This saw a change from the compilation of bilingual dictionaries to monolingual dictionaries which resulted in a different mode of diglossia as the dialects within Shona itself do not enjoy equal status in the dictionaries, because some dialects are given preference above others. This article traces the diglossic tendencies among languages and within the same language in dictionaries involving Shona.

    Keywords: DIGLOSSIA, LEXICOGRAPHY, SHONA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, HIGH VARI-ETY, LOW VARIETY, SYNONYM, PHONOLOGY, ENTRY, TONE, DEFINITION

    Opsomming: Diglossiese beginsels in Sjonaleksikografie. Hierdie artikel beskou diglossie in Sjonawoordeboeke. Diglossie word hier gesien as die diskriminerende en begunstigende gebruik van 'n taal of 'n dialek in woordeboeke. Die hooftaal wat in Zimbabwe gepraat word, is Sjona. Oor 'n tydperk van ongeveer een en 'n half eeu, het ten minste twintig Sjona

  15. Onsager's Variational Principle in Soft Matter Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masao

    2012-02-01

    It is shown that Onsager's variational principle gives us a unified frame-work in discussing various dynamics of soft matter such as diffusion, rheology and their coupling. The variational principle gives kinetic equations which satisfy Onsager's reciprocal relation. With many examples, it is shown that the kinetic equations are usually written as non-linear partial differential equations for state variables and can describe various non-linear and non-equilibrium phenomena in soft matter. The physics underlying the variational principle is discussed.

  16. Electrical and electronic principles and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John O

    2003-01-01

    In this book John Bird introduces electrical principles and technology through examples rather than theory - enabling students to develop a sound understanding of the principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. No previous background in engineering is assumed, making this an ideal text for vocational courses and introductory courses for undergraduates.This new edition of Electrical and Electronic Principles and Technology has been brought fully in line with the new BTEC National specifications in the U.K. for the units: Electri

  17. Further generalization of Fermat’ s principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘卫龙; 吴深尚; 郭弘; 胡巍

    1999-01-01

    From Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic fields, time-averaged energy flow density vector of stable monochromatic linearly polarized light in an isotropic insulative nonmagnetic medium is deduced. By the introduction of time-averaged energy flow density rays and the definition of new generalized refractive index nGl, Fermat’s principle of geometric optics is further generalized and its application conditions are discussed. The generalized Fermat’s principle can be used to describe stable transmission of light in a medium with variable refractive index. The necessary and sufficient conditions of a nondivergent and nonfocusing light beam are derived from this Fermat’s principle.

  18. Principles of e-learning systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Lester

    2007-01-01

    The book integrates the principles of software engineering with the principles of educational theory, and applies them to the problems of e-learning development, thus establishing the discipline of E-learning systems engineering. For the first time, these principles are collected and organised into the coherent framework that this book provides. Both newcomers to and established practitioners in the field are provided with integrated and grounded advice on theory and practice. The book presents strong practical and theoretical frameworks for the design and development of technology-based mater

  19. LAWS AND PRINCIPLS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Golushko, A.

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the main laws and principles at public administration. The author considers the main activities areas and authorities of Rostov Government and Legislative Assembly. The paper presents the central problems of public administration and their solutions.

  20. The Discrepancy Principle in Density Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mildenberger, Thoralf

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the discrepancy principle, a simple method for choosing smoothing parameters for nonparametric density estimation. The main idea is to maximally smooth subject to a constraint on the data. This technique was originally suggested for the regularization of (deterministic) inverse problems, and in this area, it is one of the most widely known methods for choosing a regularization parameter. However, it has only rarely been applied in statistics, although some authors have suggested its use. The most important examples originate in Statistical Learning Theory and the so-called Data Approximation approach. We unify and extend previous results on kernel density estimation with bandwidths chosen by the discrepancy principle and derive some analogous results for regular histograms. We also show that for certain densities with infinite peaks using the discrepancy principle leads inconsistent estimators. Furthermore, we compare the discrepancy principle to standard methods in a simulation study. The resu...

  1. Ethical principles in health care research

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Chapter topics • The history of the evolving recognition of the need to regulate research involving human subjects • Consideration of some key ethical principles relevant to the research process • Applying ethical understanding in the practice of research

  2. NEPR Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  3. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10−29 – 10−30, thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  4. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  5. EXTRACTION OF MEDICINAL PRINCIPLES WITH MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A V

    1994-01-01

    In Ayurveda many formulations are described which milk is used as a solvent for extraction of medicinal principles present in the herbs. The rationale of this technique is analysed in this article from the standpoint of pharmaceutical sciences.

  6. Principles, problems and paradoxes of cosmogony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental problems of cosmogony (such as the irreversible process of energy dissipation, adiabatic expansion of the universe, star and planet-system accretion) based on Newtonian principles are discussed according to Kant's 'Natural History of the Sky'

  7. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  8. Constructing Ethical Principles for Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The ethical discussion over synbio naturally raises metaquestions or questions of methodology: Which ethical principles and values could or should function as orientation or guidelines in discussing these issues?...

  9. A principle for the Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Saldana-Salazar, U J

    2016-01-01

    Yukawa couplings in the Standard Model are introduced in its most general form, that is, completely arbitrary complex numbers. Here we show that their origin could not be general but dictated by a principle.

  10. Principles of the theory of heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains: Historical survey of the development of thermometry. On the determination of high temperatures. Names and numbers. The development of the theory of conduction of heat. Historical survey of the development of calorimetry. Criticism of calorimetric conceptions. The development of thermodynamics. Carnot's principle. Concise development of the laws of thermodynamics. Critical review of the development of thermodynamics. The sources of the principle of energy. Extension of the theorem of Carnot and Clausius. The conformity and the differences of energies. The limits of the principle of energy. The borderland between physics and chemistry. The relation of physical and chemical processes. Comparison as a scientific principle. Causality and explanation. The paths of investigation. The aim of investigation. Indices

  11. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H., E-mail: hcoronado@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico); Okon, E., E-mail: eokon@filosoficas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad, Del. Coyoacán, México (Mexico)

    2013-11-08

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule.

  12. Inertial frames without the relativity principle

    CERN Document Server

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the work of von Ignatowsky circa 1910 it has been known that the relativity principle, combined with the mild physical assumption of linearity and the less mild assumption of isotropy, leads almost uniquely to either the Lorentz transformations of special relativity or to Galileo's transformations of classical Newtonian mechanics. Consequently, if one wishes to entertain the possibility of Lorentz symmetry breaking, then it seems likely that one will have to abandon or at the very least grossly modify the relativity principle. We reassess the notion of spacetime transformations between inertial frames in the absence of the relativity principle, arguing that significant nontrivial physics can still be extracted as long as the transformations are at least linear. An interesting technical aspect of the analysis is that the transformations now form a groupoid/pseudo-group - it is this technical point that permits one to evade the von Ignatowsky argument. Even in the absence of a relativity principle we...

  13. Agile foundations principles, practices and frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Measey, Peter; Gray, Alex; Levy, Richard; Oliver, Les; Roberts, Barbara; Short, Michael; Wilmshurst, Darren; Wolf, Lazaro

    2015-01-01

    Agile practices transform the way organisations carry out business and respond to change. But to realise success, an Agile mindset needs to be adopted throughout an organisation. This book gives a comprehensive introduction to Agile principles and methodologies.

  14. Teaching Principles of Economics Without Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Campbell R.; Lamphear, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Presents important evidence thatstudents taking principles of economics with lectures, and those taking the course on a lectureless basis performed equally well on an intensive battery of objective examinations." (Editor)

  15. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel

  16. Application of Economy Principle in News English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红

    2016-01-01

    The economy principle of language obtained full manifestation in news English. This paper presents major ways in which people make news English economic, i.e. using short words, abbreviations, affixes, compounds and words with extended meanings and conversions.

  17. From Fermat Principle to Wave equation

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, N

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses how the wave equation for light can be derived from the naive Fermat principle. Usually Fermat principle is introduced from wave equation for light and used in geometrical optics. But the opposite deduction: from Fermat principle to wave equation, is not well known. The way to achieve this is to quantize the "time" along the path of light, that is, the superposition of phase factor related to each path of light. By using fourier transformation to introduce physical time, we obtain the usual relativistic massless propagator. This article contains nothing new as physics, but it directly shows Feynman's idea for light. This is just a my notebook, and I might not be the first person to show such an guidance. However, it is helpful when we consider the light by Fermat principle.

  18. Cooperative Principles and the Characterization of Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,some conversations in The Great Gatsby will be examined with an approach of the co-operative principles of conversational implication in order to appreciate Fitzgerald’s perfect art in characterization.

  19. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu (Petrascu), C; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10$^{-29}$ - 10$^{-30}$, thus improving the previous limit by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented.

  20. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  1. Coexisting principles and logics of elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    2015-01-01

    -oriented service that stresses the wishes and priorities of older people. We have studied how these two principles are applied by care workers in Denmark. Is one principle or logic replacing the other, or do they coexist? Do they create tensions between professional knowledge and the autonomy of older people......? Using neo-institutional theory and feminist care theory, we analysed the articulation of the two policy principles in interviews and their logics in observations in four local authorities. We conclude that help to self-help is the dominant principle, that it is deeply entrenched in the identity of the...... professional care worker and that it coexists with consumer-oriented service and without major tensions in the logics identified in their practices....

  2. The twelve principles of CO2 Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Leitner, Walter; Streng, Emelia S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a set of 12 Principles, based on the acronym CO2 CHEMISTRY, which are intended to form a set of criteria for assessing the viability of different processes or reactions for using CO2 as a feedstock for making organic chemicals. The principles aim to highlight the synergy of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDU) with the components of green and sustainable chemistry as well as briefly pointing out the connection to the energy sector.

  3. Angular Operators Violating the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    The description of a quantum system in terms of angle variables may violate Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The familiar case is the azimutal angle $\\phi$ and its canonical moment $L_z$. Although this problem was foreseen almost a century ago, up to the present days there are no criteria to precisely characterize the violation. In this paper, we present a theorem which provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We illustrate our results with analytical examples.

  4. One-deviation principle in coalition formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Vartiainen

    2008-01-01

    We study coalitional one-deviation principle in a framework a la Chwe (1994). The principle requires that an active coalition or any of its subcoalition will not benefit from a single deviation to a strategy that specifies, for each history of coalitional moves, an active coalition and its move. A strategy meeting the one-deviation property is characterized. Moreover, it is shown to exist. Finally, the results are compared to the existing theories of coalitional games.

  5. DEM FROM SAR:PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Deren; Yang Jie

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the principle and application of generating DEM from SAR, including the principle and processing flow of generating DEM from single SAR and SAR interferometry. Afterwards, the application fields of InSAR for terrain surveying, volcanic terrain surveying and D-InSAR for monitoring ground subsiding are listed and described as well.The problem and prospect of application are also pointed out in the last part of this paper.

  6. DEM FROM SAR:PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiDeren; YangJie

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the principle and application of generating DEM from SAR, including the principle and processing flow of generating DEM from single SAR and SAR interferometry. Afterwards, the application fields of InSAR for terrain surveying, volcanic terrain surveying and D—InSAR for monitoring ground subsiding are listed and described as well. The problem and prospect of application are also pointed out in the last part of this paper.

  7. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tanya Elias

    2011-01-01

    The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile devices. The problems and opportunities of mobile learning are discussed as is the need for educators to focus on content design issues rather th...

  8. World Data System (WDS) Data Sharing Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Emerson; Faustman, Elaine M.; Mustapha Mokrane; Sandy Harrison; WDS Scientific Commitee; WDS International Programme Office

    2015-01-01

    The International Council for Science – World Data System (ICSU-WDS) Data Sharing Principles were developed by its Scientific Committee in consultation with its member organizations. The Principles express core ethical commitments that are operationalized in WDS Certification and embody the spirit of ‘open science’ meant to unite diverse communities of data producers and data users, and thus could be adopted by anyone pursuing science for the public good.

  9. Variational principle for large N matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a variational principle for large N matrix models. The partition function and vacuum green functions are determined by the principle of minimization of a free energy. The Schwinger-Dyson equations are the conditions for the free energy to be an extremum. We obtain a parametric representation for the greens functions and ground state energy. The parameter is a change of variable that transforms a reference theory to the one of interest

  10. Principles and Model for Web Dataspace

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengtao Liu; Jiandong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Web information integrated management system requires a powerful and versatile data model that is able to represent a highly heterogeneous mix of data such as web pages, XML, deep web, files, etc. It requires access to both structured and unstructured data. Such collections of data have been referred to as dataspace. In order to build a web dataspace support platform, we described some principles. According to these principles, we design architecture for the web dataspace support platform. Ba...

  11. Holographic Consequences of a No Transmission Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Two quantum field theories whose Hilbert spaces do not overlap cannot transmit energy to one another. From this simple principle, we deduce some highly nontrivial consequences for holographic quantum gravity. These include: (1) certain cosmological bounces are forbidden, (2) generic singularities inside black holes cannot be resolved, and (3) traversable wormholes do not exist. At the classical level, this principle rules out certain types of naked singularities and suggests that new singularity theorems should exist.

  12. Optimal taxation theory and principles of fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurbaey, Marc; Maniquet, François

    2015-01-01

    The achievements and limitations of the classical theory of optimal labor-income taxation based on social welfare functions are now well known, although utilitarianism still dominates public economics. We review the recent interest that has arisen for broadening the normative approach and making room for fairness principles such as desert or responsibility. Fairness principles sometimes provide immediate recommendations about the relative weights to assign to various income ranges, but in gen...

  13. Variation principles for modeling in resource economics

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhanov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    A technique for the construction of the model of nonrenewable resources depletion is offered. The approach is based on the assumption of the fulfillment of a variation principle. The model adequacy is examined with respect to world oil extraction data from 1859 to 2005. The possibilities of the use of the model in forecasting problems and in construction of the path of extraction, satisfying the intergenerational justice principle are discussed. Empirical justification of the hypothesis of th...

  14. Changing principles in European social security

    OpenAIRE

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic changes (e.g. post-industralisation, globalisation) and political developments (e.g. Europeanisation). Universalist programmes seem extraordinarily expensive under tight public budgets, and could be c...

  15. Rotational invariance and the Pauli exclusion principle

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Paul

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the rotational invariance of entangled quantum states is investigated as a possible cause of the Pauli exclusion principle. First, it is shown that a certain class of rotationally invariant states can only occur in pairs. This will be referred to as the coupling principle. This in turn suggests a natural classification of quantum systems into those containing coupled states and those that do not. Surprisingly, it would seem that Fermi-Dirac statistics follows as a consequence...

  16. Applying Software Engineering Principles to Process Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Joel

    1992-01-01

    Process models are constructed using specific modeling methods or techniques. These techniques impart certain characteristics to the models they produce. Application of the software engineering principles of information hiding, top-down functional decomposition and stepwise refinement to process modeling imparts many desirable characteristics to the process models produced. This paper describes an approach to process modeling which applies these software engineering principles to control flow...

  17. On Teacher Politeness Principles in EFL Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄帆

    2016-01-01

    It is proved that teachers' politeness behavior can highly motivate students' learning impulse and improve teaching process. Politeness phenomenon in classroom has been broadly discussed and studied; however, there are still no systematic politeness principles that can be reasonably applied into the teaching process. On the basis of the politeness theories and a case study, this paper tries to seek a more reasonable and more efficient politeness principle in EFL classroom.

  18. THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Denisa BARBU

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental principles of the criminal procedure are general rules applicable throughout the criminal procedure in order to achieve its purpose. The fundamental principles are covered by art. 2-12 C.C.P. and are: the legality of criminal procedure, separating the functions of the judiciary, the presumption of innocence, finding out the truth, ne bis in idem, a requirement for moving and exercising penal action, is fair and reasonable term of the criminal trial, the right to liberty and se...

  19. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    OpenAIRE

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time o...

  20. Principles of Distributed Data Management in 2020?

    OpenAIRE

    Valduriez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    With the advents of high-speed networks, fast commodity hardware, and the web, distributed data sources have become ubiquitous. The third edition of the \\"Ozsu-Valduriez textbook Principles of Distributed Database Systems [10] reflects the evolution of distributed data management and distributed database systems. In this new edition, the fundamental principles of distributed data management could be still presented based on the three dimensions of earlier editions: distribution, heterogeneity...

  1. Observed Spacetime Dimensionality from Fundamental Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Rajat K.

    2013-01-01

    It is shown by very simple arguments that the observed 3+1 dimensionality of spacetime may be understood on the basis of four fundamental principles of physics namely, Causality, General Covariance, Gauge Invariance and Renormalizability. This approach not therefore only fixes the spacetime dimensionality at 3+1, but also imposes the compactification of extra dimensions in higher dimensional theories based on these principles such as string theory as an internal consistency requirement rather...

  2. Large scale inhomogeneities and the cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compatibility of cosmologic principles and possible large scale inhomogeneities of the Universe is discussed. It seems that the strongest symmetry principle which is still compatible with reasonable inhomogeneities, is a full conformal symmetry in the 3-space defined by the cosmological velocity field, but even in such a case, the standard model is isolated from the inhomogeneous ones when the whole evolution is considered. (author)

  3. Coinductive Proof Principles for Stochastic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kozen, Dexter

    2007-01-01

    We give an explicit coinduction principle for recursively-defined stochastic processes. The principle applies to any closed property, not just equality, and works even when solutions are not unique. The rule encapsulates low-level analytic arguments, allowing reasoning about such processes at a higher algebraic level. We illustrate the use of the rule in deriving properties of a simple coin-flip process.

  4. A Principled Approach to the Origin Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Masashi; Kitadai, Norio; Oono, Yoshi

    2015-09-01

    The key issue of the origin of life is the origin of a complex system rather than the abiotic formation of various organic substances, small and large. To consider this "origin problem" it is advantageous to abstract some principles from biology and statistical physics to guide our approach. Referring to these principles, we aim to construct a chemical system called "protometabolism," which would be a precursor of metabolism.

  5. ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES IN ISLAM: SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Azhar Rosly

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of economic principles in Islam. Two types of economic principles are identified. The first type refers to the economic laws derived from revelation-based sources namely the Quran, Sunnah, Ijtihad and Ijma. The second type refers to economic lwas derived from reasoning and experience. The former is the economic system and the latter is economic theory. Both forms of economic laws are in harmony and have no basis for compartmentalization as there is no conflict b...

  6. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  7. The Caux Round Table principles for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L L

    1996-02-01

    In 1994, the Caux Round Table in Switzerland developed what is believed to be the first international code of business ethics. Business leaders from Japan, Europe and the United States collaborated to create a set of principles rooted in two basic ideals: kyosei and human dignity. Because of its importance and its applicability to the conduct of today's health care businesses, this entire column is devoted to reprinting these "Principles for Business." PMID:8632875

  8. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are...... also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of...

  9. Accounting Principles are Simulated on Quantum Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Do Ngoc; Giang, Do Hoang

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new idea of simulation of accounting by quantum computing. We expose the actual accounting principles in a pure mathematics language. After that we simulated the accounting principles on quantum computers. We show that all arbitrary accounting actions are exhausted by the described basic actions. The main problem of accounting are reduced to some system of linear equations in the economic model of Leontief. In this simulation we use our constructed quantum Gau\\ss-Jor...

  10. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account of...... how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  11. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  12. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  13. Unifying generative and discriminative learning principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strickert Marc

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recognition of functional binding sites in genomic DNA remains one of the fundamental challenges of genome research. During the last decades, a plethora of different and well-adapted models has been developed, but only little attention has been payed to the development of different and similarly well-adapted learning principles. Only recently it was noticed that discriminative learning principles can be superior over generative ones in diverse bioinformatics applications, too. Results Here, we propose a generalization of generative and discriminative learning principles containing the maximum likelihood, maximum a posteriori, maximum conditional likelihood, maximum supervised posterior, generative-discriminative trade-off, and penalized generative-discriminative trade-off learning principles as special cases, and we illustrate its efficacy for the recognition of vertebrate transcription factor binding sites. Conclusions We find that the proposed learning principle helps to improve the recognition of transcription factor binding sites, enabling better computational approaches for extracting as much information as possible from valuable wet-lab data. We make all implementations available in the open-source library Jstacs so that this learning principle can be easily applied to other classification problems in the field of genome and epigenome analysis.

  14. A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information

    OpenAIRE

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be be addressed as well in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall, however, also consider H...

  15. The necessity of separation the accounting and reporting principles

    OpenAIRE

    Тягнирядно, Леся Леонідівна

    2015-01-01

    The necessity of separation the accounting principles and reporting principles has been disclosed. problematic aspects of using accounting principles in the preparation, compilation and reporting, use statements in decision making have been considered

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF MULTIMEDIA PRINCIPLE AND EMERGENCE PRINCIPLE FOR THE KNOWLEDGE CIVILISATION AGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej P. WIERZBICKI; Yoshiteru NAKAMORI

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses two basic principles derived from results of studies concerning foundations of micro-theories of knowledge creation; these are Multimedia Principle and Emergence Principle. Their epistemic, systemic and metaphysical importance is discussed, together with their relations to the episteme of technology treated as a separate cultural sphere. A spiral of evolutionary knowledge creation is presented, in which an extended Falsification Principle plays the role of an objectifying feedback; this spiral is related to an episteme of Evolutionary Constructive Objectivism proposed earlier for the coming knowledge civilisation age.

  17. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rjabchenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic positions, characteristics for all pricing system. The essence of such pricing principles as scientific substantiation of prices, target direction of prices, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process, interrelation between pricing policy and general enterprise strategy, principle of legality, planned character, proportionality, adequacy, principle of interdependence between types and forms of selling, flexibility principle is considered.The table of the resulted principles allows us to group them after the followings descriptions:general principles: planned character principle, principle of legality, principle of proportionality, principle of adequacy, principle of flexibility;main principles: principle of scientific prices substantiation, principle of prices target direction, unity principle of pricing process, principle of continuous pricing process;specific principles: principle of connection between pricing policy and general strategy of enterprise, principle of interrelation between types and forms of selling, principle connected with the features of products which will be distribute, principle connected with buyers quality maintenance;individual principles: principle connected with market structure, principle that applies to the choice of reaction type and market conditions change and so on.Conclusions and directions of further researches. Research of theoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing forming

  18. The application of pragmatic principles in competitive business writing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Business English writing, as an important means of communication, plays a vital role in international business communication. And pragmatic principle, as the universal principle, exists in all communication situations. This paper gives a brief introduction to the pragmatic principles and business English writing principles and illustrates the high consistency between these principles. By analyzing samples, it also points out the instructive significance of pragmatic principles in competitive ...

  19. The Alara principle in backfitting Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive backfitting program, the Modifications Project, was carried out at the Borssele Nuclear Power Station. It involved sixteen modifications to technical systems. The scope of activities, and the dose rates encountered in places where work was to be performed, made it obvious from the outset that a high collective dose had to be anticipated. As a consequence, radiation protection within the project was organized in such a way that applicable radiation protection principles were applied in all phases of the project. From the point of view of radiation protection, the Modifications Project had to be subdivided into three phases, i.e., a conceptual design phase in which mainly the justification principle was applied; the engineering phase in which the Alara principle was employed; the execution phase in which management of the (internal) dose limits had to be observed in addition to the Alara principle. Throughout all project phases, radiation protection considerations and results were documented in so-called Alara reports and radiation protection checklists. As a result of the strictest possible observance of radiation protection principles in all phases of the project, a collective dose of 2505 mSv was achieved, which stands for a reduction by a factor of 4 compared to the very first estimate. In view of the scope and complex nature of the activities involved, and the radiation levels in the Borssele Nuclear Power Station, this is an excellent result. (orig.)

  20. THE PRINCIPLES OF LAW. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Any scientific intercession that has as objective, the understanding of the significances of the “principle of law” needs to have an interdisciplinary character, the basis for the approach being the philosophy of the law. In this study we fulfill such an analysis with the purpose to underline the multiple theoretical significances due to this concept, but also the relationship between the juridical principles and norms, respectively the normative value of the principle of the law. Thus are being materialized extensive references to the philosophical and juridical doctrine in the matter. This study is a pleading to refer to the principles, in the work for the law’s creation and applying. Starting with the difference between “given” and ‘constructed” we propose the distinction between the “metaphysical principles” outside the law, which by their contents have philosophical significances, and the “constructed principles” elaborated inside the law. We emphasize the obligation of the law maker, but also of the expert to refer to the principles in the work of legislation, interpretation and applying of the law. Arguments are brought for the updating, in certain limits, the justice – naturalistic concepts in the law.

  1. Coexisting principles and logics of elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    2015-01-01

    Healthy and active ageing has become an ideal in Western societies. In the Nordic countries, this ideal has been supported through a policy of help to self-help in elder care since the 1980s. However, reforms inspired by New Public Management (NPM) have introduced a new policy principle of consumer......-oriented service that stresses the wishes and priorities of older people. We have studied how these two principles are applied by care workers in Denmark. Is one principle or logic replacing the other, or do they coexist? Do they create tensions between professional knowledge and the autonomy of older people...... professional care worker and that it coexists with consumer-oriented service and without major tensions in the logics identified in their practices....

  2. A revision of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2008-01-01

    The Generalized Uncertainty Principle arises from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle when gravity is taken into account, so the leading order correction to the standard formula is expected to be proportional to the gravitational constant $G_N = L_{Pl}^2$. On the other hand, the emerging picture suggests a set of departures from the standard theory which demand a revision of all the arguments used to deduce heuristically the new rule. In particular, one can now argue that the leading order correction to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle is proportional to the first power of the Planck length $L_{Pl}$. If so, the departures from ordinary quantum mechanics would be much less suppressed than what is commonly thought.

  3. Principles of Distributed Data Management in 2020?

    CERN Document Server

    Valduriez, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    With the advents of high-speed networks, fast commodity hardware, and the web, distributed data sources have become ubiquitous. The third edition of the \\"Ozsu-Valduriez textbook Principles of Distributed Database Systems [10] reflects the evolution of distributed data management and distributed database systems. In this new edition, the fundamental principles of distributed data management could be still presented based on the three dimensions of earlier editions: distribution, heterogeneity and autonomy of the data sources. In retrospect, the focus on fundamental principles and generic techniques has been useful not only to understand and teach the material, but also to enable an infinite number of variations. The primary application of these generic techniques has been obviously for distributed and parallel DBMS versions. Today, to support the requirements of important data-intensive applications (e.g. social networks, web data analytics, scientific applications, etc.), new distributed data management tech...

  4. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  5. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  6. Milk fever control principles: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Østergaard, S;

    2002-01-01

    prevention is controversial. Due to toxicity problems and an almost total lack of recent studies on the subject this principle is not described in detail. A few management related issues were discussed briefly, and the following conclusions were made: It is important to supply the periparturient cow with...... prevention as well as prevention of milk fever relapse after intravenous treatment with calcium solutions. However, some drenches have been shown to cause lesions in the forestomacs. When using the DCAD (dietary cation-anion difference) principle, feeding rations with a negative DCAD (measured as (Na + K...... palatability problem. The principle of feeding rations low in calcium is highly efficient in milk fever prevention provided the calcium intake in the dry period is kept below 20 g per day. Calculating the relative risk (RR) of developing milk fever from controlled experiments results in a very low mean RR...

  7. Energy extremum principle for charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Scott; Funkhouser, Shaker Von Price

    2015-11-01

    For a set of N asymptotically flat black holes with arbitrary charges and masses, all initially at rest and well separated, we prove the following extremum principle: the extremal charge configuration (|qi|=mi for each black hole) can be derived by extremizing the total energy, for variations of the black hole apparent horizon areas, at fixed charges and fixed Euclidean separations. We prove this result through second order in an expansion in the inverse separations. If all charges have the same sign, this result is a variational principle that reinterprets the static equilibrium of the Majumdar-Papapetrou-Hartle-Hawking solution as an extremum of total energy, rather than as a balance of forces; this result augments a list of related variational principles for other static black holes, and is consistent with the independently known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) energy minimum.

  8. A Matter of Principle: The Principles of Quantum Theory, Dirac's Equation, and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2015-10-01

    This article is concerned with the role of fundamental principles in theoretical physics, especially quantum theory. The fundamental principles of relativity will be addressed as well, in view of their role in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, specifically Dirac's work, which, in particular Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation of the electron from the principles of relativity and quantum theory, is the main focus of this article. I shall also consider Heisenberg's earlier work leading him to the discovery of quantum mechanics, which inspired Dirac's work. I argue that Heisenberg's and Dirac's work was guided by their adherence to and their confidence in the fundamental principles of quantum theory. The final section of the article discusses the recent work by D'Ariano and coworkers on the principles of quantum information theory, which extend quantum theory and its principles in a new direction. This extension enabled them to offer a new derivation of Dirac's equations from these principles alone, without using the principles of relativity.

  9. The principle of primacy versus the principle of national procedural autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortlep, R.; Verhoeven, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The case law of the Court of Justice on revoking a national final administrative decision or judgement which is not compliant with EU law can illustrate the existing tension between the principle of primacy on the one hand, and the principle of national procedural autonomy on the other. Although the

  10. Principles of radiation protection in medical thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider the issue of principles of radiation protection in medicine as being of great interest for the following reasons: health care practitioners exposed to ionizing radiation represent 75% of all world-wide radiation exposed workers; they are also the ones who, by their radiological practice lead to medical exposure of the population (which represents the largest part among artificial exposure to ionizing radiation of the public - about 11%); the superior medical staff are the advisors and prescribers for radiological investigations and treatments. The authors' experience shows that training in radiation protection system is weak, leading sometimes to abusive use of ionizing radiation in both diagnostic and treatment. Medical staff's perception on the importance and role of radiation protection principles is sometimes distorted by unskilled backgrounds in the field. There are recommendations and regulations on radiation protection principles in the relevant legislation, but there are situations in which they are formally considered, or they are regarded as an obligation and not as a form of personal and patient protection. At a national level, the expansion of informing the public about the principles of radiation protection and its role is required by introducing a corresponding training since elementary school. A beneficial aspect that has developed recently is the introduction of radiation protection courses within university and postgraduate training. They are important for a correct and updated training on the principles of radiation protection, a field in which there are permanent updates and changes, and new concepts are set, such as the 'culture of radiation protection'. Medical thinking and medical research have had a contribution on developing and upgrading the radiation protection principles. (authors)

  11. Derivation of GFDM Based on OFDM Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts with discussing the principle based on which the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals are constructed. It then extends the same principle to construct the newly introduced generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) signals. This novel derivation sheds light on some interesting properties of GFDM. In particular, our derivation seamlessly leads to an implementation of GFDM transmitter which has significantly lower complexity than what has been reported so far. Our derivation also facilitates a trivial understanding of how GFDM (similar to OFDM) can be applied in MIMO channels.

  12. Chemical Principle and PDE of Variational Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Luca, Jayme

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of selecting a bounded two-body orbit exerting a vanishing electrical force on a third charge located outside a core region. The former infinite-dimensional PDE problem is called here the Chemical principle for the hydrogenoid atom of variational electrodynamics. For orbits with velocity discontinuities satisfying mild conditions at breaking points we introduce the delay and synchronization functions and prove a musical Lemma of synchronization-at-a-distance. We derive the leading PDE of the Chemical principle by removing the accelerations using the equations of motion approximated by keeping only the terms with the most singular denominators.

  13. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Mobile Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Elias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The report extends a previous analysis of universal instructional design principles in distance education by applying them to the design of mobile learning. Eight principles with particular relevance for distance education are selected, and their recommendations are discussed in relation to the design of educational materials for a range of mobile devices. The problems and opportunities of mobile learning are discussed as is the need for educators to focus on content design issues rather than on searching for the next new technology.

  14. Mobility management principle, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhi; Hu, Bo; Ai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book devoted to mobility management, covering the important principles, technologies and applications of mobility management based on years of academic research and industry experiences. The content is organized according to the reference models proposed by the authors, and emphasizes on technical principles rather than protocol details; a systematic and comprehensive introduction is presented yet without losing focuses; the existing technologies in cellular system, mobile Internet and IMS/SIP are also extensively compared. This book can be an indispensable reference for mobile communication engineers, computer network engineers, researchers and anyone else involved in academic, industrial and standardization activities on mobility management.

  15. Physical acoustics v.8 principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    1971-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume VIII discusses a number of themes on physical acoustics that are divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 describes the principles and applications of a tool for investigating phonons in dielectric crystals, the spin phonon spectrometer. The next chapter discusses the use of ultrasound in investigating Landau quantum oscillations in the presence of a magnetic field and their relation to the strain dependence of the Fermi surface of metals. The third chapter focuses on the ultrasonic measurements that are made by pulsing methods with velo

  16. Introduction to modern cryptography principles and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Cryptography plays a key role in ensuring the privacy and integrity of data and the security of computer networks. Introduction to Modern Cryptography provides a rigorous yet accessible treatment of modern cryptography, with a focus on formal definitions, precise assumptions, and rigorous proofs.The authors introduce the core principles of modern cryptography, including the modern, computational approach to security that overcomes the limitations of perfect secrecy. An extensive treatment of private-key encryption and message authentication follows. The authors also illustrate design principle

  17. Compositeness effects, Pauli's principle and entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Sancho, P

    2006-01-01

    We analyse some compositeness effects and their relation with entanglement. We show that the purity of a composite system increases, in the sense of the expectation values of the deviation operators, with large values of the entanglement between the components of the system. We also study the validity of Pauli's principle in composite systems. It is valid within the limits of application of the approach presented here. We also present an example of two identical fermions, one of them entangled with a distinguishable particle, where the exclusion principle cannot be applied. This result can be important in the description of open systems.

  18. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  19. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput on...... FPGA-based processor cores: first, superpipelining enables higher-frequency system clocks, and second, predicated instructions circumvent costly pipeline stalls due to branches. To evaluate their effects, we develop Tinuso, a processor architecture optimized for FPGA implementation. We demonstrate...... through the use of micro-benchmarks that our principles guide the design of a processor core that improves performance by an average of 38% over a similar Xilinx MicroBlaze configuration....

  20. Atom interferometry and the Einstein equivalence principle

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Peter; Bordé, Christian J; Reynaud, Serge; Salomon, Christophe; Cohen-Tannoudji, Clande

    2011-01-01

    The computation of the phase shift in a symmetric atom interferometer in the presence of a gravitational field is reviewed. The difference of action-phase integrals between the two paths of the interferometer is zero for any Lagrangian which is at most quadratic in position and velocity. We emphasize that in a large class of theories of gravity the atom interferometer permits a test of the weak version of the equivalence principle (or universality of free fall) by comparing the acceleration of atoms with that of ordinary bodies, but is insensitive to that aspect of the equivalence principle known as the gravitational redshift or universality of clock rates.

  1. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal; Holstein, Barry R.; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry — general coordinate invariance — that is used to organize the effective field theory (EFT).

  2. Electrical principles and technology for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce students to the basic electrical and electronic principles needed by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of the subject, and the author has followed his usual successful formula, incorporating many worked examples and problems (answers supplied) into the learning process.Electrical Principles and Technology for Engineering is John Bird's core text for Further Education courses at BTEC levels N11 and N111 and Advanced GNVQ. It is also designed to provide a comprehe

  3. The Credibility Premiums for Exponential Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min WEN; Wei WANG; Jing Long WANG

    2011-01-01

    In the classical credibility theory,the credibility premium is derived on the basis of pure premium.However,the insurance practice demands that the premium must be charged under some adaptable premium principle and serves the purpose for insurance business.In this paper,the balanced credibility models have been built under exponential principle,and the credibility estimator of individual exponential premium is derived.This result is also extended to the versions of multitude contracts,and the estimation of the structure parameters is investigated.Finally,the simulations have been introduced to show the consistency of the credibility estimator and its differences from the classical one.

  4. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  5. The haling principle-true or false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Haling principle has long been viewed as an idealized control strategy for maximizing thermal margin over the operating cycle of a nuclear reactor core. In essence, the Haling principle states that the time-dependent power distribution that minimizes power peaking over the cycle is that power distribution which remains invariant throughout cycle. Applicable but not strictly limited to boiling water reactor (BWR) operation, maintaining a constant power Haling distribution through manipulation of control materials should, in theory, yield an optimum beyond which further reductions in thermal margin remain unachievable, given a particular arrangement of fuel inventory

  6. Monopoly Profit Maximization: Success and Economic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian von Blanckenburg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classroom experiment on pricing strategies available to monopolists. Each student makes production decisions as a monopolist during the experiment, learning from his/her own experiences what it means to be a price searcher. Full information is provided on cost conditions, while the demand function remains unknown to the participants. Given a sufficient number of periods, students will in principle be able to maximise their profits by applying a simple trial and error strategy. However, one of the objectives of the experiment is to demonstrate to students that search strategies based on economic principles are more efficient.

  7. Electron microscopy - principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 8 minute programme explains the nature of the possible radiation hazard in Electron Microscopy and outlines the ways in which modern equipment is designed and made so that in normal use the worker is not exposed to radiation. The interlock principle is explained and illustrated by an example from the field of X-ray crystallography. By filming machines while they were dismantled for servicing, details of several internal safety devices have been included. In this way workers who normally use the equipment as a 'black box' get some insight into the principles and practice of radiation protection in the field. (author)

  8. Limits on Pauli principle violation by nucleons

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, E.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Teplitz, V. L.

    1998-01-01

    We consider nuclei produced in core collapse supernovae and subjected to a high neutron flux. We show that an accelerator mass spectrometry experiment that searched for traces of anomalous iron isotopes could set limits on the order of $10^{-20}-10^{-25}$ on (or perhaps discover) Pauli principle violation by neutrons. A similar search for anomalous Co isotopes could set limits in the range $10^{-13}-10^{-18}$ on Pauli principle violation by protons. We show that existing data on Oxygen can be...

  9. Limits on Pauli principle violation by nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, E A; Teplitz, V L

    1999-01-01

    We consider nuclei produced in core collapse supernovae and subjected to a high neutron flux. We show that an accelerator mass spectrometry experiment that searched for traces of anomalous iron isotopes could set limits on the order of $10^{-20}-10^{-25}$ on (or perhaps discover) Pauli principle violation by neutrons. A similar search for anomalous Co isotopes could set limits in the range $10^{-13}-10^{-18}$ on Pauli principle violation by protons. We show that existing data on Oxygen can be used to set a limit of about $10^{-17}$ in one proposed model of such violation.

  10. History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysaback-Smith, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. PMID:27437525

  11. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  12. Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hirvijoki, Eero

    2015-01-01

    In this letter we derive an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth potentials. Exact conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles. Being suitable for discretization, the presented action allows construction of variational integrators. Numerical implementation is left for a future study.

  13. Safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and purpose of safety principles for nuclear power plants are discussed. A brief information is presented on safety objectives as given in the INSAG documents. The possible linkage is discussed between the two mentioned elements of nuclear safety and safety culture. Safety culture is a rather new concept and there is more than one interpretation of the definition given by INSAG. The defence in depth is defined by INSAG as a fundamental principle of safety technology of nuclear power. Discussed is the overall strategy for safety measures, and features of nuclear power plants provided by the defence-in-depth concept. (Z.S.) 7 refs

  14. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time on mutual exclusion lock in efficient manner has been discussed in detail.

  15. Topological Principles of Borosilicate Glass Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, J. C.; Youngman, R. E.;

    2011-01-01

    and laboratory glassware to high-tech applications such as liquid crystal displays. In this paper, we investigate the topological principles of borosilicate glass chemistry covering the extremes from pure borate to pure silicate end members. Based on NMR measurements, we present a two-state statistical...

  16. On Resolution Complexity of Matching Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan S.

    Mutilated Chessboard as well as for Tseitin tautologies based on rectangular grid graph. We reduce these problems to Tiling games, a concept introduced by us, which may be of interest on its own. Secondly, we find the exact Tree-Resolution complexity of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle. It is the most studied...... combinatorial principle, but even its Tree-Resolution complexity was unknown prior to our work. We develop a new, more general method for proving Tree-Resolution lower bounds. We also define and prove non-trivial upper bounds on worst-case proofs of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle. The worst-case proofs are...... first introduced by us, as a concept opposite to the optimal proofs. Thirdly, we prove Resolution width-size trade-offs for the Pigeon-Hole Principle. Proving the size lower bounds via the width lower bounds was known since the seminal paper of Haken, who first proved an exponential lower bound for the...

  17. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  18. Basic Principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.

  19. Foundational principles of classical Ayurveda research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somik Raha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs are viewed as the golden standard of drug research in Western medicine. However, RCTs are far from "golden" in many respects. They are impractical for many therapies, such as for surgeries and complex lifestyle changes. They encourage a one-size-fits-all approach to medical treatment that fails to address the huge diversity among individual patients in terms of their physical and emotional symptoms, social and cultural upbringing, and other factors. Perhaps, more importantly, they do not help doctors make the best medical decisions required to produce optimal patient outcomes. To guide a search for an alternate model of medical research, three principles based on Ayurveda, an ancient and powerful system of health care that has stood the test of time, are presented. These principles, arrived at after mining Ayurvedic epistemology, are: Inductive learning, whole systems thinking, and individually optimized therapy. In honor of the ancient sages or "Rishis," whose voice is used to deliver Ayurvedic knowledge in the ancient texts of Ayurveda, these are referred to as the "Rishi principles." Individually optimized therapy is interpreted using the lens of decision analysis. Common research methodologies are examined for embodiment of these principles.

  20. Optical coherence tomography. Development, principles, applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fercher, Adolf Friedrich [Medizinische Univ. Wien, Vienna (Austria). ZBMTP - Medizinische Physik

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a review of the development of optical coherence tomography (OCT), its principles and important applications. Basic OCT systems are described and the physical foundations of OCT signal properties and signal recording systems are reviewed. Recent examples of OCT applications in ophthalmology, cardiology, gastroenterology and dermatology outline the relevance of this advanced imaging modality in the medical field. (orig.)

  1. Hate Speech: A Call to Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, William M.; Bakken, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the history of First Amendment rulings as they relate to speech codes and of other regulations directed at the content of speech. A case study, based on an experience at Trenton State College, details the legal constraints, principles, and practices that Student Affairs administrators should be aware of regarding such situations.…

  2. Perceptual Grouping via Untangling Gestalt Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Yonggang; Guo, Jun; Li, Yi;

    2013-01-01

    Gestalt principles, a set of conjoining rules derived from hu- man visual studies, have been known to play an important role in computer vision. Many applications such as image segmentation, contour grouping and scene understanding of- ten rely on such rules to work. However, the problem of Gesta...

  3. Politeness Principle in Cross-Culture Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongliang

    2008-01-01

    As we all know, different people hold different views about politeness. To be polite, Leech thinks you should follow "Politeness Principle" while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' "Face Wants". Sometimes what the Chinese people considered to be polite may not be true according to western culture. In order to…

  4. XAFS Spectroscopy : Fundamental Principles and Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Mojet, B.L.; Dorssen, G.E. van; Ramaker, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The physical principles of XAFS spectroscopy are given at a sufficiently basic level to enable scientists working in the field of catalysis to critically evaluate articles dealing with XAFS studies on catalytic materials. The described data-analysis methods provide the basic tools for studying the e

  5. Weak invariance principles for regression rank statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušková, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 121-140. ISSN 0747-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0945 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : simple linear rank statistics * weak invariance principle * change point analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  6. Nursing 572: Principles of Family Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Marsha

    A description is provided of "Principles of Family Planning," a course designed for graduate nursing students or practicing nurses seeking continuing education credit. The first sections of the course description provide a rationale for the course, information on its curricular placement, scheduling information, and statements of long-range and…

  7. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  8. Principles for Evaluating Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Regian, J. Wesley

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) focuses on what is required to evaluate the efficacy of an ITS. Research and development aspects of ITS are examined; and seven main principles that may be used to design, plan, and implement an effective ITS evaluation are described. (Contains 40 references.) (LRW)

  9. Quantum measurements and Landauer’s principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss interpretation of the physics behind the Landauer’s principle using a model of Unruh-DeWitt detector. Of particular interest is the validity of this limit in quantum domain. We systematically study finite time effects. It is shown, in particular, that in high temperature limit finiteness of measurement time leads to renormalization of the detector’s temperature.

  10. A Tentative Analysis on Politeness Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹聪骢

    2015-01-01

    Different people hold different views about politeness in communication. To be polite, Leech thinks you should folow Politeness Principle(PP) while Levinson suggests paying attention to others' Face Wants. This paper attempts to shed light on some of the important application of PP in cultures.

  11. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions.

  12. New governance principles for sustainable urban transport

    OpenAIRE

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.; P. Nijkamp

    1996-01-01

    The paper positions the communications and transport in the centre of a rejuvenation policy for a sustainable urban habitat, taking for granted the success of urban govemance will depend on the professionality of local/regional policy-making govemed by sound principles from business practice in corporate organizations.

  13. Facts, Principles and the Third Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Ypi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the dialogue entitled “Parmenides” Plato introduces an objection to his own theory of ideas, one that he never managed to answer, dubbed by Aristotle as the “Third Man” argument. According to that objection, the theory of ideas is threatened with infinite regress when examining why a specific Platonic form (say, justice is predicated of a particular set of facts. This article seeks to show how any defence of fact-insensitive principles like the one offered by G.A. Cohen in his recent book “Rescuing Justice and Equality” is vulnerable to a similar objection. Cohen wants to insist that, when showing why facts support principles, the process of reason-giving is finite and terminates in fact-independent comprehensive principles. But something like the Third Man argument undermines Cohen’s conclusion just as it does Plato’s. The search for ultimate fact-independent principles is indeed threatened by infinite regress.

  14. A Theoretical Foundation for Tilden's Interpretive Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammitt, William E.

    1981-01-01

    Draws from perceptual and cognitive psychology to present a theoretical basis for the principles of interpretation developed by Freeman Tilden. Emphasized is cognitive map theory which holds that information units people receive, code and store are structured into cognitive models intended to represent the environment. (Author/WB)

  15. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  16. Connection Principle, Searle, and Unconscious Intentionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Janovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a critical assessment of the “Connection Principle” (Searle, 1992, 1995 – the principle according to which the two key properties of mental states, intentionality and phenomenality (consciousness, are necessarily co-instantiated. A theory of mind endorsing some version of this principle assumes that all intentional (and therefore mental states are either conscious or otherwise potentially conscious. The Connection Principle, being a subject of much controversy in the past 15 years, has divided the community of philosophers of mind in two, as it were, irreconcilable camps. What poses a special challenge to both friends and foes of the Connection Principle – albeit for different reasons – is a plausible explanation of intentional character of unconscious mental states. We want to point to and comment on certain weaknesses of Searle’s attempt to solve this problem – an attempt drawing on the idea that unconsciousmental states “retain” its “aspectual shape” while unconscious. Eventually, we will venture to show why the notion of aspectual shape cannot play the explanatory role assigned to it by Searle, and why a more restrictive and a more consistent criterion for ascribing intentionality to unconscious states is needed. This new criterion should be sensible to our folk-psychological intuition suggesting that there are dispositional states that play an indispensable causal role in our mental economy and, as such, build a genuine subset of all nconscious, i.e., purely neurophysiological states of our mind/brain.

  17. Applying Pedagogical Principles to CALL Courseware Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, David H.

    This paper on the application of principles to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) first clarifies the the relationships between the capabilities of the computer (and computer-controlled technology) and the main approaches to second language learning. Fourteen common types of CALL programs are briefly reviewed. A "relational" classification…

  18. Principles of the reactor code system RHEIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the principles of the reactor code system RHEIN which is applied in connection with a BESM6-type computer. In transfering data between the components of the system external storage is used. The programme passage is controlled by the input data. (author)

  19. Weak Dynamic Programming Principle for Viscosity Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, Bruno; Touzi, Nizar

    2011-01-01

    We prove a weak version of the dynamic programming principle for standard stochastic control problems and mixed control-stopping problems, which avoids the technical difficulties related to the measurable selection argument. In the Markov case, our result is tailor-maid for the derivation of the dynamic programming equation in the sense of viscosity solutions.

  20. "Essential Principles of Economics:" A Hypermedia Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an electronic textbook called "Essential Principles of Economics." Explains that economic concepts are found by following links from the table of contents, while each chapter includes both expository information and interactive material including online multiple-choice drill questions. States that the textbook is a "work in progress."…

  1. Variational Principles For BS Dimension of Subsets

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chenwei; Chen, Ercai

    2011-01-01

    We redefine BS-dimension for Caratheodory structure by packing method. We have the same dimension properties with respect to the cover method and check the Bowen's equation for the new dimension as well. Besides, we consider the relation between the new BS-dimension and upper and lower BS-density respectively. We extend the variational principles of entropy to BS dimension.

  2. MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES IN SCIENTIFICALLY-EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Management principles in scientifically-educational potential of a megacity are formulated, parameters of quality of the population and ability to live conditions, the factors influencing interaction of a labour market and system of vocational training are offered. Characteristics of the human capital, a labour market and an educational system are specified.

  3. THE PRINCIPLE OF SEPARATION OF JUDICIAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa BARBU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of the criminal procedure are general rules applicable throughout the criminal procedure in order to achieve its purpose. The fundamental principles are covered by art. 2-12 C.C.P. and are: the legality of criminal procedure, separating the functions of the judiciary, the presumption of innocence, finding out the truth, ne bis in idem, a requirement for moving and exercising penal action, is fair and reasonable term of the criminal trial, the right to liberty and security, the right to defence, respect for human dignity and privacy, the official language and the right to an interpreter. The European Court of Human Rights is conscious that by protecting the fundamental principles it does not only aim at the protection of super eminence of the inextricably right tied to the state of law. These principles represent a set of obligations imposed on the State that has as the sole purpose the protection of fundamental rights and freedoms.

  4. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Gui-Lu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of thesub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer,the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer,it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented:the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  5. The principle of superposition in human prehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.; Gao, Fan; Shim, Jae Kun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The experimental evidence supports the validity of the principle of superposition for multi-finger prehension in humans. Forces and moments of individual digits are defined by two independent commands: “Grasp the object stronger/weaker to prevent slipping” and “Maintain the rotational equilibrium of the object”. The effects of the two commands are summed up. PMID:20186284

  6. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  7. 21 CFR 104.5 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on the label or in labeling representing, suggesting, or implying any nutritional or other... CONSUMPTION NUTRITIONAL QUALITY GUIDELINES FOR FOODS General Provisions § 104.5 General principles. (a) A nutritional quality guideline prescribes the minimum level or range of nutrient composition...

  8. MHD turbulence: Relaxation processes and variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbulent relaxation processes seem to play a more prominent role in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) than in hydrodynamics and exhibit a wider variety of behavior. In decaying turbulence, ''relaxed'' states can result from highly unequal decay rates of extensive, cascadable ideal invariants' such as energy, magnetic helicity, etc. In externally driven MHD systems, the relaxed states may result from other processes, less well understood. We are exploring a formulation based on a principle of the minimum rate of energy dissipation. This is a nineteenth century principle from which seems to descend the more modern (and less well accepted) principle of ''the minimum rate of entropy production.'' Consequences of the conjectured principle are described for two cases. (1) For the reversed-field pinch (RFP), an externally-applied electric field supplies magnetic helicity at a constant rate. (2) For the case of a constant rate of dissipation of cross-helicity, a relaxed state with aligned vorticity and current densities is predicted. The former problem models the steady-state operation of a familiar fusion confinement device. The latter models certain features of solar wind turbulence, regarded as a driven, steady-state system. 51 refs

  9. Uncertainty Principles for the Cherednik Transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Daher; S L Hamad; T Kawazoe; N Shimeno

    2012-08-01

    We shall investigate two uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform on the Euclidean space $\\mathfrak{a}$; Miyachi’s theorem and Beurling’s theorem. We give an analogue of Miyachi’s theorem for the Cherednik transform and under the assumption that $\\mathfrak{a}$ has a hypergroup structure, an analogue of Beurling’s theorem for the Cherednik transform.

  10. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  11. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  12. Five operating principles for sustainable cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of regulative ideas grounding the philosophical framework and unfolding agenda of the Center for Sustainable Cities at the University of Kentucky are elaborated. Its core concept--the idea of ecological sustainability--is defined. Key implications of these principles and this concept are then clarified

  13. Fundamental quadratic variational principle underlying general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed

  14. Principle and Program of Evaluating Diffuse Seismicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Xiangdong

    2001-01-01

    Concept and origin of the term "the diffuse seismicity" are illustrated. Some different viewpoints regarding the diffuse seismicity and the influence characteristics on determining seismic design basis of engineering from the seismicity are analyzed. Principle and program for evaluating diffuse seismicity are studied and discussed base on over contents.

  15. Premium Calculation Based on Physical Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Darooneh, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the concept of equilibrium in economic systems from statistical mechanics viewpoint. A new method is suggested for computing the premium on this basis. The B\\"{u}hlmann economic premium principle is derived as a special case of our method.

  16. FINANCIAL TERMS AND PRINCIPLES OF SPEED RAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolov, N.

    2011-01-01

    The article considers the financial terms and principles of accelerating delivery of cargo and passenger railways of Ukraine highlighted the shortcomings of the existing system of financing the development of rail transport, the proposed areas to improve the financial and economic mechanism of acceleration of traffic on railways.

  17. Complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Yuchen

    2006-01-01

    Using the "base forces" as the fundamental unknowns to determine the state of an elastic system, the complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation is constructed for the conjugate quantities being displacement gradients, which possesses exactly the same form as that of classical linear elasticity. It is revealed that the complementary energy contains deformation part and rotation part.

  18. Eigen elastic mechanics and its variation principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental equations and the corresponding boundary condition of elastic mechanics under mechanical representation are given by using the conception of eigen space and elastic variation principle. It is proved theoretically that the solution of anisotropic elastic mechanics consists of modal ones, which are obtained respectively from the modal equation of the different subspaces. A simple application is also given.

  19. Private law principles, pluralism and perfectionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Hesselink

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the legitimacy of general principles of private law as they have been formulated recently by the Court of Justice of the European Union and proposed by the European Commission. It addresses challenges from different strands in political theory including liberal perfectionism, po

  20. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty. PMID:26581728

  1. Principles and practices of sustainable water management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bixia Xu

    2010-01-01

    Literature related to sustainable water management is reviewed to illustrate the relationship among water management, sustainability (sustainable development), and sustainable water management. This review begins with the explanation on the definition of sustainable water management, followed by a discussion of sustainable water management principles and practices.

  2. Principles and management of adrenal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles and Management of Adrenal Cancer is a comprehensive presentation of the medical and surgical management of neoplastic diseases of the adrenal glands. It consists of two parts. The first provides an overview of the embryology, anatomy, physiology, pathology, and advances in methods of diagnosis and imaging techniques. The second deals with specific diseases of the adrenal cortex and medulla. (orig./MG)

  3. A note on weighted premium calculation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kaluszka; R.J.A. Laeven; A. Okolewski

    2012-01-01

    A prominent problem in actuarial science is to determine premium calculation principles that satisfy certain criteria. Goovaerts et al. [Goovaerts, M. J., De Vylder, F., Haezendonck, J., 1984. Insurance Premiums: Theory and Applications. North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 84] establish an optimality-type

  4. On Structure and Organization: An Organizing Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Baas, Nils A.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the nature of structure and organization, and the process of making new Things. Hyperstructures are introduced as binding and organizing principles, and we show how they can transfer from one situation to another. A guiding example is the hyperstructure of higher order Brunnian rings and similarly structured many-body systems.

  5. A Revision to the Principled Polysemy Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎; 袁羽; 杨丹

    2011-01-01

    Polyseiny is an important issue in the current linguistic study. Among the study, the Principled Polysemy Approach proposed by Tyler and Evans (2001, 2003) shows its advantage. However, the present study attempts to revisit this model and probes into prepositional polysemy by revisiting the polysemy of through.

  6. The simplicity principle in perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    The simplicity principle, traditionally referred to as Occam's razor, is the idea that simpler explanations of observations should be preferred to more complex ones. In recent decades the principle has been clarified via the incorporation of modern notions of computation and probability, allowing a more precise understanding of how exactly complexity minimization facilitates inference. The simplicity principle has found many applications in modern cognitive science, in contexts as diverse as perception, categorization, reasoning, and neuroscience. In all these areas, the common idea is that the mind seeks the simplest available interpretation of observations- or, more precisely, that it balances a bias toward simplicity with a somewhat opposed constraint to choose models consistent with perceptual or cognitive observations. This brief tutorial surveys some of the uses of the simplicity principle across cognitive science, emphasizing how complexity minimization in a number of forms has been incorporated into probabilistic models of inference. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:330-340. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1406 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27470193

  7. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  8. Applying bioethical principles to human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Myron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bioethical principles are widely used as a normative framework in areas of human research and medical care. In recent years there has been increasing formalization of their use in public health decisions. The "traditional bioethical principles" are applied in this discussion to the important issue human biomonitoring for environmental exposures. They are: (1 Autonomy – Also known as the "respect for humans" principle, people understand their own best interests; (2 Beneficence – "do good" for people; (3 Nonmaleficence – "do no harm"; (4 Justice – fair distribution of benefits and costs (including risks to health across stakeholders. Some of the points made are: (1 There is not a single generic bioethical analysis applicable to the use of human biomonitoring data, each specific use requires a separate deliberation; (2 Using unidentified, population-based biomonitoring information for risk assessment or population surveillance raises fewer bioethical concerns than personally identified biomonitoring information such as employed in health screening; (3 Companies should proactively apply normative bioethical principles when considering the disposition of products and by-products in the environment and humans; (4 There is a need for more engagement by scholars on the bioethical issues raised by the use of biomarkers of exposure; (5 Though our scientific knowledge of biology will continue to increase, there will always be a role for methods or frameworks to resolve substantive disagreements in the meaning of this data that are matters of belief rather than knowledge.

  9. Guiding Principle 27 and Philippine typhoon response

    OpenAIRE

    Sara McHattie

    2008-01-01

    Oxfam GB’s response to the devastation and displacementcaused by Typhoon Durian included advocacy withPhilippine state, NGO, community and private sectoractors to raise awareness of Principle 27 – obligingproviders of humanitarian assistance to “give due regardto the protection needs and human rights” of IDPs.

  10. Guiding Principle 27 and Philippine typhoon response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara McHattie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxfam GB’s response to the devastation and displacementcaused by Typhoon Durian included advocacy withPhilippine state, NGO, community and private sectoractors to raise awareness of Principle 27 – obligingproviders of humanitarian assistance to “give due regardto the protection needs and human rights” of IDPs.

  11. Variational principle of relativistic perfect fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Erico; Yahagi, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    We reformulate the relativistic perfect fluid system on curved space-time. Using standard variables, the velocity field $u$,energy density $\\rho$ and pressure $p$, the covariant Euler-Lagrange equation is obtained from variational principle. This leads to the Euler equation and the equation of continuity in reparametrization invariant form.

  12. A possible explanation of the superposition principle

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Kent A.

    2002-01-01

    I tentatively suggest that the superposition principle of quantum mechanics is explicable in a mathematically natural way if it is possible to understand probability amplitudes as complex-valued logarithms. This notion is inspired by the fact that the quantum state may be interpreted as a measure of information.

  13. The thermos principle; Das Thermoskannen-Prinzip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2011-12-14

    While Grandma's tea cozy kept the hot liquid warm for an afternoon, a thermos flask still contains residual heat the next morning. This principle is now used by manufacturers of buffer stores. There are now vacuum seasonal stores with low heat losses that will keep the energy of the summer sun for the winter season.

  14. Basic Principles in Holistic Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Outlines principles for holistic technology education by examining the following: (1) knowing and understanding through practical engagement with technology; (2) dialectics and praxis; and (3) the work of Dewey, Hegel, Feuerbach, and Marx. Identifies four interconnected factors: humans, applied setting, environment, and tools. (Contains 20…

  15. Principles of space-time adaptive processing

    CERN Document Server

    Klemm, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This book presents a systematic introduction to airborne MTI (moving target indication) system design for use in the fields of earth observation, surveillance and reconnaissance, with particular regard to the suppression of clutter returns. New developments in the field and special aspects of airborne MTI radar are included and make this book the definitive text on the principles of STAP.

  16. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  17. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  18. Principles of modern radar advanced techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Melvin, William

    2012-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Advanced Techniques is a professional reference for practicing engineers that provides a stepping stone to advanced practice with in-depth discussions of the most commonly used advanced techniques for radar design. It will also serve advanced radar academic and training courses with a complete set of problems for students as well as solutions for instructors.

  19. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  20. Anthropic Principle Favors the Holographic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Li, Miao

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the anthropic principle when applied to the holographic dark energy. We find that if the amplitude of the density fluctution is variable, the holographic dark energy fares better than the cosmological constant. More generally, the anthropic predictions agree better with observation for dark energy with $w_\\d=p_\\d/\\rho_\\d$ decreasing over time.