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Sample records for auditory temporal processing

  1. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (preceptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  2. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

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    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  3. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

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    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

  4. Fragile Spectral and Temporal Auditory Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Early Language Delay

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    Boets, Bart; Verhoeven, Judith; Wouters, Jan; Steyaert, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We investigated low-level auditory spectral and temporal processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and early language delay compared to matched typically developing controls. Auditory measures were designed to target right versus left auditory cortex processing (i.e. frequency discrimination and slow amplitude modulation (AM)…

  5. Intact spectral but abnormal temporal processing of auditory stimuli in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Orsouw, L. van; Huurne, N.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.; Zwiers, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The perceptual pattern in autism has been related to either a specific localized processing deficit or a pathway-independent, complexity-specific anomaly. We examined auditory perception in autism using an auditory disembedding task that required spectral and temporal integration. 23 children with h

  6. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

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    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  7. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

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    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  8. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

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    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  9. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  10. Temporally selective processing of communication signals by auditory midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliott, Taffeta M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    Perception of the temporal structure of acoustic signals contributes critically to vocal signaling. In the aquatic clawed frog Xenopus laevis, calls differ primarily in the temporal parameter of click rate, which conveys sexual identity and reproductive state. We show here that an ensemble of aud...... compute temporally selective receptive fields are described....

  11. Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairments: Are there Deficits in Frequency Discrimination, Temporal Auditory Processing or General Auditory Processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Nickisch, Andreas; Massinger, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Specific language impairment (SLI) is believed to be associated with nonverbal auditory (NVA) deficits. It remains unclear, however, whether children with SLI show deficits in auditory time processing, time processing in general, frequency discrimination (FD), or NVA processing in general. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven children (aged 8-11) with SLI and 27 control children (CG), matched for age and gender, were retrospectively compared with regard to their performance on ...

  12. Spectral vs. temporal auditory processing in Specific Language Impairment: A developmental ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Čeponienė, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in “temporal” processing, have been implicated in developmental Language Impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral processing, and their interaction, in typical children and those with LI (7–17 years; n=25 per group). The stimuli were 3 CV syllables and 3 consonant-to-vow...

  13. Central Auditory Processing of Temporal and Spectral-Variance Cues in Cochlear Implant Listeners.

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    Carol Q Pham

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI listeners have difficulty understanding speech in complex listening environments. This deficit is thought to be largely due to peripheral encoding problems arising from current spread, which results in wide peripheral filters. In normal hearing (NH listeners, central processing contributes to segregation of speech from competing sounds. We tested the hypothesis that basic central processing abilities are retained in post-lingually deaf CI listeners, but processing is hampered by degraded input from the periphery. In eight CI listeners, we measured auditory nerve compound action potentials to characterize peripheral filters. Then, we measured psychophysical detection thresholds in the presence of multi-electrode maskers placed either inside (peripheral masking or outside (central masking the peripheral filter. This was intended to distinguish peripheral from central contributions to signal detection. Introduction of temporal asynchrony between the signal and masker improved signal detection in both peripheral and central masking conditions for all CI listeners. Randomly varying components of the masker created spectral-variance cues, which seemed to benefit only two out of eight CI listeners. Contrastingly, the spectral-variance cues improved signal detection in all five NH listeners who listened to our CI simulation. Together these results indicate that widened peripheral filters significantly hamper central processing of spectral-variance cues but not of temporal cues in post-lingually deaf CI listeners. As indicated by two CI listeners in our study, however, post-lingually deaf CI listeners may retain some central processing abilities similar to NH listeners.

  14. Relations between perceptual measures of temporal processing, auditory-evoked brainstem responses and speech intelligibility in noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Alexandra; Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates behavioural and objective measures of temporal auditory processing and their relation to the ability to understand speech in noise. The experiments were carried out on a homogeneous group of seven hearing-impaired listeners with normal sensitivity at low frequencies (up to...

  15. State-dependent and cell type-specific temporal processing in auditory thalamocortical circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzo Sakata

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing spontaneous activity in cortical circuits defines cortical states, but it still remains unclear how cortical states shape sensory processing across cortical laminae and what type of response properties emerge in the cortex. Recording neural activity from the auditory cortex (AC) and medial geniculate body (MGB) simultaneously with electrical stimulations of the basal forebrain (BF) in urethane-anesthetized rats, we investigated state-dependent spontaneous and auditory-evoked activitie...

  16. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on the Processing of Auditory Temporal Fine Structure.

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    Moore, Brian C J

    2016-01-01

    Within the cochlea, broadband sounds like speech and music are filtered into a series of narrowband signals, each of which can be considered as a relatively slowly varying envelope (ENV) imposed on a rapidly oscillating carrier (the temporal fine structure, TFS). Information about ENV and TFS is conveyed in the timing and short-term rate of nerve spikes in the auditory nerve. There is evidence that both hearing loss and increasing age adversely affect the ability to use TFS information, but in many studies the effects of hearing loss and age have been confounded. This paper summarises evidence from studies that allow some separation of the effects of hearing loss and age. The results suggest that the monaural processing of TFS information, which is important for the perception of pitch and for segregating speech from background sounds, is adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, the former being more important. The monaural processing of ENV information is hardly affected by hearing loss or by increasing age. The binaural processing of TFS information, which is important for sound localisation and the binaural masking level difference, is also adversely affected by both hearing loss and increasing age, but here the latter seems more important. The deterioration of binaural TFS processing with increasing age appears to start relatively early in life. The binaural processing of ENV information also deteriorates somewhat with increasing age. The reduced binaural processing abilities found for older/hearing-impaired listeners may partially account for the difficulties that such listeners experience in situations where the target speech and interfering sounds come from different directions in space, as is common in everyday life. PMID:27080640

  17. Auditory processing performance in blind people Desempenho do processamento auditivo temporal em uma população de cegos

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    Ludmilla Vilas Boas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Hearing has an important role in human development and social adaptation in blind people. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of temporal auditory processing in blind people; to characterize the temporal resolution ability; to characterize the temporal ordinance ability and to compare the performance of the study population in the applied tests. METHODS: Fifteen blind adults participated in this study. A cross-sectional study was undertaken; approval was obtained from the Pernambuco Catholic University Ethics Committee, no. 003/2008. RESULTS: Temporal auditory processing was excellent - the average composed threshold in the original RGDT version was 4. 98 ms; it was 50 ms for all frequencies in the expanded version. PPS and DPS results ranged from 95% to 100%. There were no quantitative differences in the comparison of tests; but oral reports suggested that the original RGDT original version was more difficult. CONCLUSIONS: The study sample performed well in temporal auditory processing; it also performed well in temporal resolution and ordinance abilitiesA audição exerce um papel importantíssimo no desenvolvimento e adaptação social dos pacientes cegos. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o desempenho do processamento temporal de cegos; caracterizar a habilidade de resolução temporal, segundo tempo e frequência; a ordenação temporal de cegos usando o teste de padrão de frequência e comparar o desempenho da população estudada para os testes de processamento aplicados. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 12 adultos portadores de cegueira. O estudo foi do tipo transversal, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Universidade Católica de Pernambuco sob nº 003/2008. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado o RGDT em suas duas versões e os testes de padrão de duração (TPD e de frequência (TPF. RESULTADOS: Foi evidenciado excelente desempenho para o processamento temporal, média de 4,98 para o limiar composto na versão original do RGDT e 50 ms de

  18. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

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    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  19. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  20. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

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    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  1. Sub-second temporal processing : effects of modality and spatial change on brief visual and auditory time judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Retsa, Chryssoula

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis set out to investigate how sensory modality and spatial presentation influence visual and auditory duration judgments in the millisecond range. The effects of modality and spatial location were explored by considering right and left side presentations of mixed or blocked visual and auditory stimuli. Several studies have shown that perceived duration of a stimulus can be affected by various extra-temporal factors such as modality and spatial position. Audit...

  2. Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral–Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    ChristoPantev; HidehikoOkamoto

    2012-01-01

    Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoe...

  3. Tracking cortical entrainment in neural activity: Auditory processes in human temporal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Thwaites, Andrew; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Fonteneau, Elisabeth; Patterson, Roy D.; Buttery, Paula; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A primary objective for cognitive neuroscience is to identify how features of the sensory environment are encoded in neural activity. Current auditory models of loudness perception can be used to make detailed predictions about the neural activity of the cortex as an individual listens to speech. We used two such models (loudness-sones and loudness-phons), varying in their psychophysiological realism, to predict the instantaneous loudness contours produced by 480 isolated words. These two set...

  4. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: Contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

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    Christian Füllgrabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60-79 years participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125-6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18-27 years participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1 identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2 identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3 detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE at frequencies 5-180 Hz; (4 monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS; (5 various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background and spatial masking release (benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in audiometric

  5. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

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    ChristoPantev

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  6. Species specificity of temporal processing in the auditory midbrain of gray treefrogs: long-interval neurons.

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    Hanson, Jessica L; Rose, Gary J; Leary, Christopher J; Graham, Jalina A; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    In recently diverged gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis and H. versicolor), advertisement calls that differ primarily in pulse shape and pulse rate act as an important premating isolation mechanism. Temporally selective neurons in the anuran inferior colliculus may contribute to selective behavioral responses to these calls. Here we present in vivo extracellular and whole-cell recordings from long-interval-selective neurons (LINs) made during presentation of pulses that varied in shape and rate. Whole-cell recordings revealed that interplay between excitation and inhibition shapes long-interval selectivity. LINs in H. versicolor showed greater selectivity for slow-rise pulses, consistent with the slow-rise pulse characteristics of their calls. The steepness of pulse-rate tuning functions, but not the distributions of best pulse rates, differed between the species in a manner that depended on whether pulses had slow or fast-rise shape. When tested with stimuli representing the temporal structure of the advertisement calls of H. chrysoscelis or H. versicolor, approximately 27 % of LINs in H. versicolor responded exclusively to the latter stimulus type. The LINs of H. chrysoscelis were less selective. Encounter calls, which are produced at similar pulse rates in both species (≈5 pulses/s), are likely to be effective stimuli for the LINs of both species. PMID:26614093

  7. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

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    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  8. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

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    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  9. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex.

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    Muñoz-López, M; Insausti, R; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Mishkin, M; Saunders, R C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10-20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30-40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38 DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys. PMID:26041980

  10. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

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    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  11. Neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during sensorimotor synchronization

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    Nadine ePecenka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical ensemble performance requires temporally precise interpersonal action coordination. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably rely on anticipatory mechanisms that enable them to predict the timing of sounds produced by co-performers. Previous studies have shown that individuals differ in their ability to predict upcoming tempo changes in paced finger-tapping tasks (indexed by cross-correlations between tap timing and pacing events and that the degree of such prediction influences the accuracy of sensorimotor synchronization (SMS and interpersonal coordination in dyadic tapping tasks. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of auditory temporal predictions during SMS in a within-subject design. Hemodynamic responses were recorded from 18 musicians while they tapped in synchrony with auditory sequences containing gradual tempo changes under conditions of varying cognitive load (achieved by a simultaneous visual n-back working-memory task comprising three levels of difficulty: observation only, 1-back, and 2-back object comparisons. Prediction ability during SMS decreased with increasing cognitive load. Results of a parametric analysis revealed that the generation of auditory temporal predictions during SMS recruits (1 a distributed network in cortico-cerebellar motor-related brain areas (left dorsal premotor and motor cortex, right lateral cerebellum, SMA proper and bilateral inferior parietal cortex and (2 medial cortical areas (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex. While the first network is presumably involved in basic sensory prediction, sensorimotor integration, motor timing, and temporal adaptation, activation in the second set of areas may be related to higher-level social-cognitive processes elicited during action coordination with auditory signals that resemble music performed by human agents.

  12. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

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    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  13. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system. PMID:24793771

  14. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  15. Auditory processing models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  16. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  17. 功能磁共振成像观察左颞前部在汉语听觉词加工中的机制%Functional MRI observation on auditory Chinese lexical processing mechanism in left anterior temporal lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓怡; 卢洁; 李坤成; 张苗; 徐国庆; 舒华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the neural mechanism for auditory Chinese lexical processing in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) of the healthy participants with functional magnetic imaging (fMRI). Methods Fifteen right-handed healthy participants, including 5 males and 10 females, were asked to repeat the auditory words or judge whether the auditory items were semantically dangerous. AFNI was used to process fMRI data and localize functional areas and the difference in the anterior temporal lobe. Results The results revealed the phonological processing on auditory Chinese lexical information was located in the anterior superior temporal gyrus, and the semantic processing was located in the anterior middle temporal gyrus. There existed segregation between the phonological processing and the semantic processing of the auditory Chinese words. Conclusion There was the function of semantic integration in the ATL. Two pathways to semantic access include the direct pathway in the dorsal temporal lobe for repetition task and the indirect in ventral temporal lobe for semantic judgment task.%目的 探讨左侧颞前部在汉语听觉信息加工中的作用机制.方法 应用3.0T磁共振成像系统与标准头线圈对15名健康志愿者(男5名,女10名)进行功能磁共振成像(fMRI).要求受试者完成听觉复述任务和听觉语义危险判断任务.应用软件包AFNI分析两种听觉任务在左颞前部的任务功能定位及其差异.结果 正常成人听觉语义判断任务相比听觉复述任务更多激活左侧颞中回及颞下回前部,而听觉语音复述任务相比听觉语义判断任务更多激活左侧颞上回前部.结论 脑内存在左颞前部对汉语听觉语音语义信息加工的分离,颞上前部对语音分析更强,颞前中下部对语义分析更强.

  18. Multimodal Lexical Processing in Auditory Cortex Is Literacy Skill Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    McNorgan, Chris; Awati, Neha; Desroches, Amy S.; Booth, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is a uniquely human cross-modal cognitive process wherein visual orthographic representations become associated with auditory phonological representations through experience. Developmental studies provide insight into how experience-dependent changes in brain organization influence phonological processing as a function of literacy. Previous investigations show a synchrony-dependent influence of letter presentation on individual phoneme processing in superior temporal sulcus; others d...

  19. Effects of different types of auditory temporal training on language skills: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferraz Borges Murphy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated the effects of auditory temporal training on language disorders. Recently, the effects of new approaches, such as musical training and the use of software, have also been considered. To investigate the effects of different auditory temporal training approaches on language skills, we reviewed the available literature on musical training, the use of software and formal auditory training by searching the SciELO, MEDLINE, LILACS-BIREME and EMBASE databases. Study Design: Systematic review. Results: Using evidence levels I and II as the criteria, 29 of the 523 papers found were deemed relevant to one of the topics (use of software - 13 papers; formal auditory training - six papers; and musical training - 10 papers. Of the three approaches, studies that investigated the use of software and musical training had the highest levels of evidence; however, these studies also raised concerns about the hypothesized relationship between auditory temporal processing and language. Future studies are necessary to investigate the actual contribution of these three types of auditory temporal training to language skills.

  20. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  1. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  2. Auditory Perception, Phonological Processing, and Reading Ability/Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Betty U.; Miller, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    This study of 94 college undergraduates, including 24 with a reading disability, found that speech perception was strongly related to 3 of 4 phonological variables, including short-term and long-term auditory memory and phoneme segmentation, which were in turn strongly related to reading. Nonverbal temporal processing was not related to any…

  3. Subthreshold outward currents enhance temporal integration in auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirskis, Gytis; Dodla, Ramana; Rinzel, John

    2003-11-01

    Many auditory neurons possess low-threshold potassium currents ( I(KLT)) that enhance their responsiveness to rapid and coincident inputs. We present recordings from gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons in vitro and modeling results that illustrate how I(KLT) improves the detection of brief signals, of weak signals in noise, and of the coincidence of signals (as needed for sound localization). We quantify the enhancing effect of I(KLT) on temporal processing with several measures: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), reverse correlation or spike-triggered averaging of input currents, and interaural time difference (ITD) tuning curves. To characterize how I(KLT), which activates below spike threshold, influences a neuron's voltage rise toward threshold, i.e., how it filters the inputs, we focus first on the response to weak and noisy signals. Cells and models were stimulated with a computer-generated steady barrage of random inputs, mimicking weak synaptic conductance transients (the "noise"), together with a larger but still subthreshold postsynaptic conductance, EPSG (the "signal"). Reduction of I(KLT) decreased the SNR, mainly due to an increase in spontaneous firing (more "false positive"). The spike-triggered reverse correlation indicated that I(KLT) shortened the integration time for spike generation. I(KLT) also heightened the model's timing selectivity for coincidence detection of simulated binaural inputs. Further, ITD tuning is shifted in favor of a slope code rather than a place code by precise and rapid inhibition onto MSO cells (Brand et al. 2002). In several ways, low-threshold outward currents are seen to shape integration of weak and strong signals in auditory neurons. PMID:14669013

  4. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  5. Rapid auditory learning of temporal gap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2016-07-01

    The rapid initial phase of training-induced improvement has been shown to reflect a genuine sensory change in perception. Several features of early and rapid learning, such as generalization and stability, remain to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that learning effects from brief training on a temporal gap detection task using spectrally similar narrowband noise markers defining the gap (within-channel task), transfer across ears, however, not across spectrally dissimilar markers (between-channel task). The learning effects associated with brief training on a gap detection task were found to be stable for at least a day. These initial findings have significant implications for characterizing early and rapid learning effects. PMID:27475211

  6. Hierarchical auditory processing directed rostrally along the monkey's supratemporal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-09-29

    Connectional anatomical evidence suggests that the auditory core, containing the tonotopic areas A1, R, and RT, constitutes the first stage of auditory cortical processing, with feedforward projections from core outward, first to the surrounding auditory belt and then to the parabelt. Connectional evidence also raises the possibility that the core itself is serially organized, with feedforward projections from A1 to R and with additional projections, although of unknown feed direction, from R to RT. We hypothesized that area RT together with more rostral parts of the supratemporal plane (rSTP) form the anterior extension of a rostrally directed stimulus quality processing stream originating in the auditory core area A1. Here, we analyzed auditory responses of single neurons in three different sectors distributed caudorostrally along the supratemporal plane (STP): sector I, mainly area A1; sector II, mainly area RT; and sector III, principally RTp (the rostrotemporal polar area), including cortex located 3 mm from the temporal tip. Mean onset latency of excitation responses and stimulus selectivity to monkey calls and other sounds, both simple and complex, increased progressively from sector I to III. Also, whereas cells in sector I responded with significantly higher firing rates to the "other" sounds than to monkey calls, those in sectors II and III responded at the same rate to both stimulus types. The pattern of results supports the proposal that the STP contains a rostrally directed, hierarchically organized auditory processing stream, with gradually increasing stimulus selectivity, and that this stream extends from the primary auditory area to the temporal pole. PMID:20881120

  7. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  8. Auditory dominance in motor-sensory temporal recalibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yoshimori; Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Perception of synchrony between one's own action (e.g. a finger tap) and the sensory feedback thereof (e.g. a flash or click) can be shifted after exposure to an induced delay (temporal recalibration effect, TRE). It remains elusive, however, whether the same mechanism underlies motor-visual (MV) and motor-auditory (MA) TRE. We examined this by measuring crosstalk between MV- and MA-delayed feedbacks. During an exposure phase, participants pressed a mouse at a constant pace while receiving visual or auditory feedback that was either delayed (+150 ms) or subjectively synchronous (+50 ms). During a post-test, participants then tried to tap in sync with visual or auditory pacers. TRE manifested itself as a compensatory shift in the tap-pacer asynchrony (a larger anticipation error after exposure to delayed feedback). In experiment 1, MA and MV feedback were either both synchronous (MV-sync and MA-sync) or both delayed (MV-delay and MA-delay), whereas in experiment 2, different delays were mixed across alternating trials (MV-sync and MA-delay or MV-delay and MA-sync). Exposure to consistent delays induced equally large TREs for auditory and visual pacers with similar build-up courses. However, with mixed delays, we found that synchronized sounds erased MV-TRE, but synchronized flashes did not erase MA-TRE. These results suggest that similar mechanisms underlie MA- and MV-TRE, but that auditory feedback is more potent than visual feedback to induce a rearrangement of motor-sensory timing. PMID:26610349

  9. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  10. Increment of brain temporal perfusion during auditory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the dynamic exploration of the auditory pathway is presented, in which technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) was used in volunteers with normal hearing. Changes in 99mTc-HMPAO distribution were calculated using a region of interest/whole-brain count ratio. The results showed a temporal perfusion increment of 17% (right) and 19% (left) during tonal supraliminar stimulation, which was significantly different from the control ROI. Sensitivity tests for the method were requested before any clinical application. (orig.)

  11. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. PMID:27255816

  12. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Alters Auditory-motor Integration For Voice Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Ziyi; Yan, Nan; Jones, Jeffery A.; Guo, Zhiqiang; Huang, Xiyan; Chen, Shaozhen; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common drug-refractory focal epilepsy in adults. Previous research has shown that patients with TLE exhibit decreased performance in listening to speech sounds and deficits in the cortical processing of auditory information. Whether TLE compromises auditory-motor integration for voice control, however, remains largely unknown. To address this question, event-related potentials (ERPs) and vocal responses to vocal pitch errors (1/2 or 2 semitones upward) heard in auditory feedback were compared across 28 patients with TLE and 28 healthy controls. Patients with TLE produced significantly larger vocal responses but smaller P2 responses than healthy controls. Moreover, patients with TLE exhibited a positive correlation between vocal response magnitude and baseline voice variability and a negative correlation between P2 amplitude and disease duration. Graphical network analyses revealed a disrupted neuronal network for patients with TLE with a significant increase of clustering coefficients and path lengths as compared to healthy controls. These findings provide strong evidence that TLE is associated with an atypical integration of the auditory and motor systems for vocal pitch regulation, and that the functional networks that support the auditory-motor processing of pitch feedback errors differ between patients with TLE and healthy controls. PMID:27356768

  13. The effect of exogenous spatial attention on auditory information processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Kenichi; Ikeda, Kazuo; Tayama, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exogenous spatial attention on auditory information processing. In Experiments 1, 2 and 3, temporal order judgment tasks were performed to examine the effect. In Experiment 1 and 2, a cue tone was presented to either the left or right ear, followed by sequential presentation of two target tones. The subjects judged the order of presentation of the target tones. The results showed that subjects heard both tones simultaneously when the target tone, which wa...

  14. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  15. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  16. Heritability of non-speech auditory processing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carmen C; Zalewski, Christopher K; King, Kelly A; Zobay, Oliver; Riley, Alison; Ferguson, Melanie A; Bird, Jonathan E; McCabe, Margaret M; Hood, Linda J; Drayna, Dennis; Griffith, Andrew J; Morell, Robert J; Friedman, Thomas B; Moore, David R

    2016-08-01

    Recent insight into the genetic bases for autism spectrum disorder, dyslexia, stuttering, and language disorders suggest that neurogenetic approaches may also reveal at least one etiology of auditory processing disorder (APD). A person with an APD typically has difficulty understanding speech in background noise despite having normal pure-tone hearing sensitivity. The estimated prevalence of APD may be as high as 10% in the pediatric population, yet the causes are unknown and have not been explored by molecular or genetic approaches. The aim of our study was to determine the heritability of frequency and temporal resolution for auditory signals and speech recognition in noise in 96 identical or fraternal twin pairs, aged 6-11 years. Measures of auditory processing (AP) of non-speech sounds included backward masking (temporal resolution), notched noise masking (spectral resolution), pure-tone frequency discrimination (temporal fine structure sensitivity), and nonsense syllable recognition in noise. We provide evidence of significant heritability, ranging from 0.32 to 0.74, for individual measures of these non-speech-based AP skills that are crucial for understanding spoken language. Identification of specific heritable AP traits such as these serve as a basis to pursue the genetic underpinnings of APD by identifying genetic variants associated with common AP disorders in children and adults. PMID:26883091

  17. Specialized prefrontal “auditory fields”: organization of primate prefrontal-temporal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaMedalla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No other modality is more frequently represented in the prefrontal cortex than the auditory, but the role of auditory information in prefrontal functions is not well understood. Pathways from auditory association cortices reach distinct sites in the lateral, orbital, and medial surfaces of the prefrontal cortex in rhesus monkeys. Among prefrontal areas, frontopolar area 10 has the densest interconnections with auditory association areas, spanning a large antero-posterior extent of the superior temporal gyrus from the temporal pole to auditory parabelt and belt regions. Moreover, auditory pathways make up the largest component of the extrinsic connections of area 10, suggesting a special relationship with the auditory modality. Here we review anatomic evidence showing that frontopolar area 10 is indeed the main frontal “auditory field” as the major recipient of auditory input in the frontal lobe and chief source of output to auditory cortices. Area 10 is thought to be the functional node for the most complex cognitive tasks of multitasking and keeping track of information for future decisions. These patterns suggest that the auditory association links of area 10 are critical for complex cognition. The first part of this review focuses on the organization of prefrontal-auditory pathways at the level of the system and the synapse, with a particular emphasis on area 10. Then we explore ideas on how the elusive role of area 10 in complex cognition may be related to the specialized relationship with auditory association cortices.

  18. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997......)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell transduction stage, a squaring expansion, an adaptation stage, a 150-Hz lowpass modulation filter, a bandpass...... modulation filterbank, a constant-variance internal noise, and an optimal detector stage. The model was evaluated in experimental conditions that reflect, to a different degree, effects of compression as well as spectral and temporal resolution in auditory processing. The experiments include intensity...

  19. Temporal correlation between auditory neurons and the hippocampal theta rhythm induced by novel stimulations in awake guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Tamara; Velluti, Ricardo A; Pedemonte, Marisa

    2009-11-17

    The hippocampal theta rhythm is associated with the processing of sensory systems such as touch, smell, vision and hearing, as well as with motor activity, the modulation of autonomic processes such as cardiac rhythm, and learning and memory processes. The discovery of temporal correlation (phase locking) between the theta rhythm and both visual and auditory neuronal activity has led us to postulate the participation of such rhythm in the temporal processing of sensory information. In addition, changes in attention can modify both the theta rhythm and the auditory and visual sensory activity. The present report tested the hypothesis that the temporal correlation between auditory neuronal discharges in the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICc) and the hippocampal theta rhythm could be enhanced by changes in sensory stimulation. We presented chronically implanted guinea pigs with auditory stimuli that varied over time, and recorded the auditory response during wakefulness. It was observed that the stimulation shifts were capable of producing the temporal phase correlations between the theta rhythm and the ICc unit firing, and they differed depending on the stimulus change performed. Such correlations disappeared approximately 6 s after the change presentation. Furthermore, the power of the hippocampal theta rhythm increased in half of the cases presented with a stimulation change. Based on these data, we propose that the degree of correlation between the unitary activity and the hippocampal theta rhythm varies with--and therefore may signal--stimulus novelty. PMID:19716364

  20. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  1. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Molholm

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  2. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex sounds in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    audibility when embedded in similar background interferers, a phenomenon referred to as comodulation masking release (CMR). Knowledge of the auditory processing of amplitude modulations provides therefore crucial information for a better understanding of how the auditory system analyses acoustic scenes. The......Most sounds encountered in our everyday life carry information in terms of temporal variations of their envelopes. These envelope variations, or amplitude modulations, shape the basic building blocks for speech, music, and other complex sounds. Often a mixture of such sounds occurs in natural...... acoustic scenes, with each of the sounds having its own characteristic pattern of amplitude modulations. Complex sounds, such as speech, share the same amplitude modulations across a wide range of frequencies. This "comodulation" is an important characteristic of these sounds since it can enhance their...

  3. Auditory priming of frequency and temporal information: Effects of lateralized presentation

    OpenAIRE

    List, Alexandra; Justus, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of function between the cerebral hemispheres has been widely investigated in the auditory modality. The current approach borrows heavily from visual local-global research in an attempt to determine whether, as in vision, local-global auditory processing is lateralized. In vision, lateralized local-global processing likely relies on spatial frequency information. Drawing analogies between visual spatial frequency and auditory dimensions, two sets of auditory stimuli wer...

  4. Auditory and speech processing and reading development in Chinese school children: behavioural and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Sai, Xiaoguang; Wang, Cixin; Wang, Jue; Sha, Shuying; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2005-11-01

    By measuring behavioural performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) this study investigated the extent to which Chinese school children's reading development is influenced by their skills in auditory, speech, and temporal processing. In Experiment 1, 102 normal school children's performance in pure tone temporal order judgment, tone frequency discrimination, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination was measured. Results showed that children's auditory processing skills correlated significantly with their reading fluency, phonological awareness, word naming latency, and the number of Chinese characters learned. Regression analyses found that tone temporal order judgment, temporal interval discrimination and composite tone pattern discrimination could account for 32% of variance in phonological awareness. Controlling for the effect of phonological awareness, auditory processing measures still contributed significantly to variance in reading fluency and character naming. In Experiment 2, mismatch negativities (MMN) in event-related brain potentials were recorded from dyslexic children and the matched normal children, while these children listened passively to Chinese syllables and auditory stimuli composed of pure tones. The two groups of children did not differ in MMN to stimuli deviated in pure tone frequency and Chinese lexical tones. But dyslexic children showed smaller MMN to stimuli deviated in initial consonants or vowels of Chinese syllables and to stimuli deviated in temporal information of composite tone patterns. These results suggested that Chinese dyslexic children have deficits in auditory temporal processing as well as in linguistic processing and that auditory and temporal processing is possibly as important to reading development of children in a logographic writing system as in an alphabetic system. PMID:16355749

  5. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  6. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

  7. Neural Representations of Complex Temporal Modulations in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Nai; Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sounds such as speech contain multiple levels and multiple types of temporal modulations. Because of nonlinearities of the auditory system, however, the neural response to multiple, simultaneous temporal modulations cannot be predicted from the neural responses to single modulations. Here we show the cortical neural representation of an auditory stimulus simultaneously frequency modulated (FM) at a high rate, fFM ≈ 40 Hz, and amplitude modulation (AM) at a slow rate, fAM

  8. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D; Chait, Maria

    2016-09-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence-the coincidence of sound elements in and across time-is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals ("stochastic figure-ground": SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as "figures" popping out of a stochastic "ground." Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the "figure" from the randomly varying "ground." Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the "classic" auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis." PMID:27325682

  9. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  10. Auditory processing abilities in children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarghazalani, Bahare; Farahani, Farhad; Emadi, Maryam; Hosseni Dastgerdi, Zahra

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion The study results indicate that children with a history of otitis media with effusion (OME) suffer from auditory processing disorder to some degree. The findings support the hypothesis that fluctuating hearing loss may affect central auditory processing during critical periods. Objectives Evidence suggests that prolonged OME in children can result in an auditory processing disorder, presumably because hearing has been disrupted during an important developmental period. A lack of auditory stimulation leads to the abnormal development of the hearing pathways in the brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OME on binaural auditory function and auditory temporal processing. Method In the present study, the dichotic digit test (DDT) was used for binaural hearing, and the gap in noise (GIN) test was used to evaluate temporal hearing processing. Results The average values of GIN differed significantly between children with a history of OME and normal controls (p < 0.001). The mean values of the DDT score were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.002). PMID:26881324

  11. Near-Term Fetuses Process Temporal Features of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Aurelie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Bassereau, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The perception of speech and music requires processing of variations in spectra and amplitude over different time intervals. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, but whether they can process complex auditory streams, such as speech sequences and more specifically their temporal variations, fast or…

  12. Age-related improvements in auditory temporal resolution in reading-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautus, Michael J; Setchell, Gregory J; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2003-02-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia show impairments in processing that require precise timing of sensory events. Here, we show that in a test of auditory temporal acuity (a gap-detection task) children ages 6-9 years with dyslexia exhibited a significant deficit relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, this deficit was not observed in groups of older reading-impaired individuals (ages 10-11 years; 12-13 years) or in adults (ages 23-25 years). It appears, therefore, that early temporal resolution deficits in those with reading impairments may significantly ameliorate over time. However, the occurrence of an early deficit in temporal acuity may be antecedent to other language-related perceptual problems (particularly those related to phonological processing) that persist after the primary deficit has resolved. This result suggests that if remedial interventions targeted at temporal resolution deficits are to be effective, the early detection of the deficit and early application of the remedial programme is especially critical. PMID:12625375

  13. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  14. Temporal asymmetries in auditory coding and perception reflect multi-layered nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux, Thomas; Kempf, Alexandre; Daret, Aurélie; Ponsot, Emmanuel; Bathellier, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans. Analysis of cortical activity patterns revealed that auditory cortex implements a map of spatially clustered neuronal ensembles, detecting specific combinations of spectral and intensity modulation features. Comparing different models, we show that cortical responses result from multi-layered nonlinearities, which, contrary to standard receptive field models of auditory cortex function, build divergent representations of sounds with similar spectral content, but different temporal structure. PMID:27580932

  15. Resolução temporal auditiva em idosos Auditory temporal resolution in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Duarte Liporaci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processamento auditivo em idosos por meio do teste de resolução temporal Gaps in Noise e verificar se a presença de perda auditiva influencia no desempenho nesse teste. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco ouvintes idosos, entre 60 e 79 anos, foram avaliados por meio do teste Gaps In Noise. Para seleção da amostra foram realizados: anamnese, mini-exame do estado mental e avaliação audiológica básica. Os participantes foram alocados e estudados em um grupo único e posteriormente divididos em três grupos segundo os resultados audiométricos nas frequências de 500 Hz, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 kHz. Assim, classificou-se o G1 com audição normal, o G2 com perda auditiva de grau leve e o G3 com perda auditiva de grau moderado. RESULTADOS: Em toda a amostra, as médias de limiar de detecção de gap e de porcentagem de acertos foram de 8,1 ms e 52,6% para a orelha direita e de 8,2 ms e 52,2% para a orelha esquerda. No G1, estas medidas foram de 7,3 ms e 57,6% para a orelha direita e de 7,7 ms e 55,8% para a orelha esquerda. No G2, estas medidas foram de 8,2 ms e 52,5% para a orelha direita e de 7,9 ms e 53,2% para a orelha esquerda. No G3, estas medidas foram de 9,2 ms e 45,2% para as orelhas direita e esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de perda auditiva elevou os limiares de detecção de gap e diminuiu a porcentagem de acertos no teste Gaps In Noise.PURPOSE: To assess the auditory processing of elderly patients using the temporal resolution Gaps-in-Noise test, and to verify if the presence of hearing loss influences the performance on this test. METHODS: Sixty-five elderly listeners, with ages between 60 and 79 years, were assessed with the Gaps-in-Noise test. To meet the inclusion criteria, the following procedures were carried out: anamnesis, mini-mental state examination, and basic audiological evaluation. The participants were allocated and studied as a group, and then were divided into three groups, according to audiometric results

  16. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. PMID:26343343

  17. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  18. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  19. On Optimality in Auditory Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study limits for the detection and estimation of weak sinusoidal signals in the primary part of the mammalian auditory system using a stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and an action-reaction model for synaptic plasticity. Our overall model covers the chain from a hair cell to a point just after the synaptic connection with a cell in the cochlear nucleus. The information processing performance of the system is evaluated using so called phi-divergences from statistics which quantify a dissimilarity between probability measures and are intimately related to a number of fundamental limits in statistics and information theory (IT). We show that there exists a set of parameters that can optimize several important phi-divergences simultaneously and that this set corresponds to a constant quiescent firing rate (QFR) of the spiral ganglion neuron. The optimal value of the QFR is frequency dependent but is essentially independent of the amplitude of the signal (for small amplitudes). Consequently, optimal proce...

  20. A physiologically inspired model of auditory stream segregation based on a temporal coherence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perceptually separate acoustic sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for our ability to use acoustic information. In this study, a physiologically inspired model of human auditory processing [M. L. Jepsen and T. Dau, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 422...... activity across frequency. Using this approach, the described model is able to quantitatively account for classical streaming phenomena relying on frequency separation and tone presentation rate, such as the temporal coherence boundary and the fission boundary [L. P. A. S. van Noorden, doctoral...... dissertation, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven, NL, (1975)]. The same model also accounts for the perceptual grouping of distant spectral components in the case of synchronous presentation. The most essential components of the front-end and back-end processing in the framework of the presented...

  1. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  2. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  3. Temporal expectation and attention jointly modulate auditory oscillatory activity in the beta band.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Todorovic

    Full Text Available The neural response to a stimulus is influenced by endogenous factors such as expectation and attention. Current research suggests that expectation and attention exert their effects in opposite directions, where expectation decreases neural activity in sensory areas, while attention increases it. However, expectation and attention are usually studied either in isolation or confounded with each other. A recent study suggests that expectation and attention may act jointly on sensory processing, by increasing the neural response to expected events when they are attended, but decreasing it when they are unattended. Here we test this hypothesis in an auditory temporal cueing paradigm using magnetoencephalography in humans. In our study participants attended to, or away from, tones that could arrive at expected or unexpected moments. We found a decrease in auditory beta band synchrony to expected (versus unexpected tones if they were unattended, but no difference if they were attended. Modulations in beta power were already evident prior to the expected onset times of the tones. These findings suggest that expectation and attention jointly modulate sensory processing.

  4. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  5. Processamento linguístico e processamento auditivo temporal em crianças com distúrbio específico de linguagem Linguistic and auditory temporal processing in children with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Talita Fortunato-Tavares; Caroline Nunes Rocha; Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade; Débora Maria Befi-Lopes; Eliane Schochat; Arild Hestvik; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    TEMA: diversos estudos sugerem a associação do distúrbio específico de linguagem (DEL) ao déficit no processamento auditivo. Pesquisas fornecem evidência de que a discriminação de estímulos breves estaria comprometida em crianças com DEL. Este déficit levaria a dificuldades em desenvolver habilidades fonológicas necessárias para mapear fonemas e decodificar e codificar palavras e frases efetiva e automaticamente. Entretanto, a correlação entre processamento temporal (PT)e distúrbios de lingua...

  6. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  7. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman-Haran, Edna; Arzi, Anat; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Malach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations. PMID:27310812

  8. Diminished Auditory Responses during NREM Sleep Correlate with the Hierarchy of Language Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Wilf

    Full Text Available Natural sleep provides a powerful model system for studying the neuronal correlates of awareness and state changes in the human brain. To quantitatively map the nature of sleep-induced modulations in sensory responses we presented participants with auditory stimuli possessing different levels of linguistic complexity. Ten participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the waking state and after falling asleep. Sleep staging was based on heart rate measures validated independently on 20 participants using concurrent EEG and heart rate measurements and the results were confirmed using permutation analysis. Participants were exposed to three types of auditory stimuli: scrambled sounds, meaningless word sentences and comprehensible sentences. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, we found diminishing brain activation along the hierarchy of language processing, more pronounced in higher processing regions. Specifically, the auditory thalamus showed similar activation levels during sleep and waking states, primary auditory cortex remained activated but showed a significant reduction in auditory responses during sleep, and the high order language-related representation in inferior frontal gyrus (IFG cortex showed a complete abolishment of responses during NREM sleep. In addition to an overall activation decrease in language processing regions in superior temporal gyrus and IFG, those areas manifested a loss of semantic selectivity during NREM sleep. Our results suggest that the decreased awareness to linguistic auditory stimuli during NREM sleep is linked to diminished activity in high order processing stations.

  9. [Unilateral auditory hallucinations due to left temporal lobe ischemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anegawa, T; Hara, K; Yamamoto, K; Matsuda, M

    1995-10-01

    . The Wechsler adult intelligence scale revealed a verbal IQ of 91 and a performance IQ of 100. Pure tone audiometry revealed bilateral, mild peripheral sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were unrevealing. The EEG showed slow activities in the left temporoparietal region. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain failed to reveal any relevant abnormalities except for an old hemorrhagic parietal infarct. The SPECT with Tc99m-HMPAO, however, showed reduced blood flow in the left temporal lobe including the first temporal convolution as well as in the left parietal lobe. Based on the SPECT findings, unilateral auditory hallucinations in our patient are considered to have resulted from the left temporal lobe ischemia. Our case indicates that unilateral auditory hallucinations may have a clinicoanatomical correlation with contralateral temporal lobe lesions. PMID:8821499

  10. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Cook, Peter F; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L; Marino, Lori

    2015-07-22

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this position induced by expansion of 'associative' regions in lateral and caudal directions. However, the precise location of the auditory cortex and its connections are still unknown. Here, we used a novel diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence in archival post-mortem brains of a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and a pantropical dolphin (Stenella attenuata) to map their sensory and motor systems. Using thalamic parcellation based on traditionally defined regions for the primary visual (V1) and auditory cortex (A1), we found distinct regions of the thalamus connected to V1 and A1. But in addition to suprasylvian-A1, we report here, for the first time, the auditory cortex also exists in the temporal lobe, in a region near cetacean-A2 and possibly analogous to the primary auditory cortex in related terrestrial mammals (Artiodactyla). Using probabilistic tract tracing, we found a direct pathway from the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate nucleus to the temporal lobe near the sylvian fissure. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of post-mortem DTI in archival specimens to answer basic questions in comparative neurobiology in a way that has not previously been possible and shows a link between the cetacean auditory system and those of terrestrial mammals. Given that fresh cetacean specimens are relatively rare, the ability to measure connectivity in archival specimens opens up a plethora of possibilities for investigating neuroanatomy in cetaceans and other species

  12. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  13. Noise-induced hearing loss increases the temporal precision of complex envelope coding by auditory-nerve fibers

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    Michael Gregory Heinz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While changes in cochlear frequency tuning are thought to play an important role in the perceptual difficulties of people with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL, the possible role of temporal processing deficits remains less clear. Our knowledge of temporal envelope coding in the impaired cochlea is limited to two studies that examined auditory-nerve fiber responses to narrowband amplitude modulated stimuli. In the present study, we used Wiener-kernel analyses of auditory-nerve fiber responses to broadband Gaussian noise in anesthetized chinchillas to quantify changes in temporal envelope coding with noise-induced SNHL. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs and temporal windows of sensitivity to acoustic stimulation were computed from 2nd-order Wiener kernels and analyzed to estimate the temporal precision, amplitude, and latency of envelope coding. Noise overexposure was associated with slower (less negative TMTF roll-off with increasing modulation frequency and reduced temporal window duration. The results show that at equal stimulus sensation level, SNHL increases the temporal precision of envelope coding by 20-30%. Furthermore, SNHL increased the amplitude of envelope coding by 50% in fibers with CFs from 1-2 kHz and decreased mean response latency by 0.4 ms. While a previous study of envelope coding demonstrated a similar increase in response amplitude, the present study is the first to show enhanced temporal precision. This new finding may relate to the use of a more complex stimulus with broad frequency bandwidth and a dynamic temporal envelope. Exaggerated neural coding of fast envelope modulations may contribute to perceptual difficulties in people with SNHL by acting as a distraction from more relevant acoustic cues, especially in fluctuating background noise. Finally, the results underscore the value of studying sensory systems with more natural, real-world stimuli.

  14. Disentangling Sub-Millisecond Processes within an Auditory Transduction Chain

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    Gollisch Tim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Every sensation begins with the conversion of a sensory stimulus into the response of a receptor neuron. Typically, this involves a sequence of multiple biophysical processes that cannot all be monitored directly. In this work, we present an approach that is based on analyzing different stimuli that cause the same final output, here defined as the probability of the receptor neuron to fire a single action potential. Comparing such iso-response stimuli within the framework of nonlinear cascade models allows us to extract the characteristics of individual signal-processing steps with a temporal resolution much finer than the trial-to-trial variability of the measured output spike times. Applied to insect auditory receptor cells, the technique reveals the sub-millisecond dynamics of the eardrum vibration and of the electrical potential and yields a quantitative four-step cascade model. The model accounts for the tuning properties of this class of neurons and explains their high temporal resolution under natural stimulation. Owing to its simplicity and generality, the presented method is readily applicable to other nonlinear cascades and a large variety of signal-processing systems.

  15. Morphometrical Study of the Temporal Bone and Auditory Ossicles in Guinea Pig

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    Ahmadali Mohammadpour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, anatomical descriptions of the structure of the temporal bone and auditory ossicles have been performed based on dissection of ten guinea pigs. The results showed that, in guinea pig temporal bone was similar to other animals and had three parts; squamous, tympanic and petrous .The tympanic part was much better developed and consisted of oval shaped tympanic bulla with many recesses in tympanic cavity. The auditory ossicles of guinea pig concluded of three small bones; malleus, incus and stapes but the head of the malleus and the body of incus were fused and forming a malleoincudal complex. The average of morphometric parameters showed that the malleus was 3.53 ± 0.22 mm in total length. In addition to head and handle, the malleus had two distinct process; lateral and muscular. The incus had a total length 1.23 ± 0.02mm. It had long and short crus although the long crus was developed better than short crus. The lenticular bone was a round bone that articulated with the long crus of incus. The stapes had a total length 1.38 ± 0.04mm. The anterior crus(0.86 ± 0.08mm was larger than posterior crus (0.76 ± 0.08mm. It is concluded that, in the guinea pig, the malleus and the incus are fused, forming a junction called incus-malleus, while in the other animals these are separate bones. The stapes is larger and has a triangular shape and the anterior and posterior crus are thicker than other rodents. Therefore, for otological studies, the guinea pig is a good lab animal.

  16. Inactivation of the left auditory cortex impairs temporal discrimination in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Šuta, Daniel; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 209, č. 1 (2010), s. 123-130. ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : auditory cortex * temporal discrimination * hemispheric lateralization Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  17. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS. PMID:25603839

  18. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Ye Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (around 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted...... from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al., 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions...

  19. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-08-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  20. Association between language development and auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is crucial to understand the complex processing of acoustic stimuli along the auditory pathway ;comprehension of this complex processing can facilitate our understanding of the processes that underlie normal and altered human communication. AIM: To investigate the performance and lateralization effects on auditory processing assessment in children with specific language impairment (SLI, relating these findings to those obtained in children with auditory processing disorder (APD and typical development (TD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study. Seventy-five children, aged 6-12 years, were separated in three groups: 25 children with SLI, 25 children with APD, and 25 children with TD. All went through the following tests: speech-in-noise test, Dichotic Digit test and Pitch Pattern Sequencing test. RESULTS: The effects of lateralization were observed only in the SLI group, with the left ear presenting much lower scores than those presented to the right ear. The inter-group analysis has shown that in all tests children from APD and SLI groups had significantly poorer performance compared to TD group. Moreover, SLI group presented worse results than APD group. CONCLUSION: This study has shown, in children with SLI, an inefficient processing of essential sound components and an effect of lateralization. These findings may indicate that neural processes (required for auditory processing are different between auditory processing and speech disorders.

  1. Encoding of Temporal Information by Timing, Rate, and Place in Cat Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Imaizumi, Kazuo; Priebe, Nicholas J.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Cheung, Steven W.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2010-01-01

    A central goal in auditory neuroscience is to understand the neural coding of species-specific communication and human speech sounds. Low-rate repetitive sounds are elemental features of communication sounds, and core auditory cortical regions have been implicated in processing these information-bearing elements. Repetitive sounds could be encoded by at least three neural response properties: 1) the event-locked spike-timing precision, 2) the mean firing rate, and 3) the interspike interval (...

  2. Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory/Language Interventions: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Richard, Gail J.; Geffner, Donna; Kamhi, Alan G.; Medwetsky, Larry; Paul, Diane; Ross-Swain, Deborah; Wallach, Geraldine P.; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this systematic review, the peer-reviewed literature on the efficacy of interventions for school-age children with auditory processing disorder (APD) is critically evaluated. Method: Searches of 28 electronic databases yielded 25 studies for analysis. These studies were categorized by research phase (e.g., exploratory, efficacy) and…

  3. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  4. An auditory illusion of infinite tempo change based on multiple temporal levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Madison

    Full Text Available Humans and a few select insect and reptile species synchronise inter-individual behaviour without any time lag by predicting the time of future events rather than reacting to them. This is evident in music performance, dance, and drill. Although repetition of equal time intervals (i.e. isochrony is the central principle for such prediction, this simple information is used in a flexible and complex way that accommodates both multiples, subdivisions, and gradual changes of intervals. The scope of this flexibility remains largely uncharted, and the underlying mechanisms are a matter for speculation. Here I report an auditory illusion that highlights some aspects of this behaviour and that provides a powerful tool for its future study. A sound pattern is described that affords multiple alternative and concurrent rates of recurrence (temporal levels. An algorithm that systematically controls time intervals and the relative loudness among these levels creates an illusion that the perceived rate speeds up or slows down infinitely. Human participants synchronised hand movements with their perceived rate of events, and exhibited a change in their movement rate that was several times larger than the physical change in the sound pattern. The illusion demonstrates the duality between the external signal and the internal predictive process, such that people's tendency to follow their own subjective pulse overrides the overall properties of the stimulus pattern. Furthermore, accurate synchronisation with sounds separated by more than 8 s demonstrate that multiple temporal levels are employed for facilitating temporal organisation and integration by the human brain. A number of applications of the illusion and the stimulus pattern are suggested.

  5. Temporal Processing Capabilities in Repetition Conduction Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Kyriakos; Ackermann, Hermann; Wannke, Michael; Hertrich, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the temporal resolution capacities of the central-auditory system in a subject (NP) suffering from repetition conduction aphasia. More specifically, the patient was asked to detect brief gaps between two stretches of broadband noise (gap detection task) and to evaluate the duration of two biphasic (WN-3) continuous noise…

  6. Evidence for Neural Computations of Temporal Coherence in an Auditory Scene and Their Enhancement during Active Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, James A; Shamma, Shihab A; Lalor, Edmund C

    2015-05-01

    The human brain has evolved to operate effectively in highly complex acoustic environments, segregating multiple sound sources into perceptually distinct auditory objects. A recent theory seeks to explain this ability by arguing that stream segregation occurs primarily due to the temporal coherence of the neural populations that encode the various features of an individual acoustic source. This theory has received support from both psychoacoustic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that use stimuli which model complex acoustic environments. Termed stochastic figure-ground (SFG) stimuli, they are composed of a "figure" and background that overlap in spectrotemporal space, such that the only way to segregate the figure is by computing the coherence of its frequency components over time. Here, we extend these psychoacoustic and fMRI findings by using the greater temporal resolution of electroencephalography to investigate the neural computation of temporal coherence. We present subjects with modified SFG stimuli wherein the temporal coherence of the figure is modulated stochastically over time, which allows us to use linear regression methods to extract a signature of the neural processing of this temporal coherence. We do this under both active and passive listening conditions. Our findings show an early effect of coherence during passive listening, lasting from ∼115 to 185 ms post-stimulus. When subjects are actively listening to the stimuli, these responses are larger and last longer, up to ∼265 ms. These findings provide evidence for early and preattentive neural computations of temporal coherence that are enhanced by active analysis of an auditory scene. PMID:25948273

  7. Decision processes in temporal discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Fuat; Simen, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The processing dynamics underlying temporal decisions and the response times they generate have received little attention in the study of interval timing. In contrast, models of other simple forms of decision making have been extensively investigated using response times, leading to a substantial disconnect between temporal and non-temporal decision theories. An overarching decision-theoretic framework that encompasses existing, non-temporal decision models may, however, account both for interval timing itself and for time-based decision-making. We sought evidence for this framework in the temporal discrimination performance of humans tested on the temporal bisection task. In this task, participants retrospectively categorized experienced stimulus durations as short or long based on their perceived similarity to two, remembered reference durations and were rewarded only for correct categorization of these references. Our analysis of choice proportions and response times suggests that a two-stage, sequential diffusion process, parameterized to maximize earned rewards, can account for salient patterns of bisection performance. The first diffusion stage times intervals by accumulating an endogenously noisy clock signal; the second stage makes decisions about the first-stage temporal representation by accumulating first-stage evidence corrupted by endogenous noise. Reward-maximization requires that the second-stage accumulation rate and starting point be based on the state of the first-stage timer at the end of the stimulus duration, and that estimates of non-decision-related delays should decrease as a function of stimulus duration. Results are in accord with these predictions and thus support an extension of the drift-diffusion model of static decision making to the domain of interval timing and temporal decisions. PMID:24726447

  8. Assessment of auditory processing in children with dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodarczyk £.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to assess occurrence of central auditory processing disorders in children with dyslalia. Material and method. The material included 30 children at the age 798 years old being under long-term speech therapy care due to articulation disorders. All the children were subjected to the phoniatric and speech examination, including tonal and impedance audiometry, speech therapist's consultation and psychologist's consultation. Electrophysi-ological (N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 record and following psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions were performed (Frequency Pattern Test. Results. Analysis of the results revealed disorders in the process of sound analysis within frequency and P300 wave latency prolongation in children with dyslalia. Conclusions. Auditory processing disorders may be significant in development of correct articulation in children, they also may explain unsatisfactory results of long-term speech therapy

  9. Spectral and Temporal Acoustic Features Modulate Response Irregularities within Primary Auditory Cortex Columns.

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    Andres Carrasco

    Full Text Available Assemblies of vertically connected neurons in the cerebral cortex form information processing units (columns that participate in the distribution and segregation of sensory signals. Despite well-accepted models of columnar architecture, functional mechanisms of inter-laminar communication remain poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of sensory information features on columnar response properties. Using acute recording techniques, extracellular response activity was collected from the right hemisphere of eight mature cats (felis catus. Recordings were conducted with multichannel electrodes that permitted the simultaneous acquisition of neuronal activity within primary auditory cortex columns. Neuronal responses to simple (pure tones, complex (noise burst and frequency modulated sweeps, and ecologically relevant (con-specific vocalizations acoustic signals were measured. Collectively, the present investigation demonstrates that despite consistencies in neuronal tuning (characteristic frequency, irregularities in discharge activity between neurons of individual A1 columns increase as a function of spectral (signal complexity and temporal (duration acoustic variations.

  10. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  11. Effects of Auditory Distraction on Cognitive Processing of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Leonard L.; Heald, Gary R.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Kemker, Brett E.; Maurice, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The effects of interference, competition, and distraction on cognitive processing are unclearly understood, particularly regarding type and intensity of auditory distraction across a variety of cognitive processing tasks. Method: The purpose of this investigation was to report two experiments that sought to explore the effects of types…

  12. Modulating Human Auditory Processing by Transcranial Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimrath, Kai; Fiene, Marina; Rufener, Katharina S; Zaehle, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has become a valuable research tool for the investigation of neurophysiological processes underlying human action and cognition. In recent years, striking evidence for the neuromodulatory effects of transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, and transcranial random noise stimulation has emerged. While the wealth of knowledge has been gained about tES in the motor domain and, to a lesser extent, about its ability to modulate human cognition, surprisingly little is known about its impact on perceptual processing, particularly in the auditory domain. Moreover, while only a few studies systematically investigated the impact of auditory tES, it has already been applied in a large number of clinical trials, leading to a remarkable imbalance between basic and clinical research on auditory tES. Here, we review the state of the art of tES application in the auditory domain focussing on the impact of neuromodulation on acoustic perception and its potential for clinical application in the treatment of auditory related disorders. PMID:27013969

  13. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets. PMID:26253323

  14. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  15. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  16. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  17. Temporal Processing Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine A.; Boggs, Jennifer; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. Despite the growing interest and centrality of time-dependent conceptualizations of the…

  18. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise. PMID:26778471

  19. Contact process with temporal disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of time-varying environmental noise, i.e., temporal disorder, on the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process. Combining a real-time renormalization group, scaling theory, and large scale Monte-Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions, we show that the temporal disorder gives rise to an exotic critical point. At criticality, the effective noise amplitude diverges with increasing time scale, and the probability distribution of the density becomes infinitely broad, even on a logarithmic scale. Moreover, the average density and survival probability decay only logarithmically with time. This infinite-noise critical behavior can be understood as the temporal counterpart of infinite-randomness critical behavior in spatially disordered systems, but with exchanged roles of space and time. We also analyze the generality of our results, and we discuss potential experiments.

  20. Can Spectro-Temporal Complexity Explain the Autistic Pattern of Performance on Auditory Tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fabienne; Mottron, Laurent; Jemel, Boutheina; Belin, Pascal; Ciocca, Valter

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that level of neural complexity explain the relative level of performance and brain activity in autistic individuals, available behavioural, ERP and imaging findings related to the perception of increasingly complex auditory material under various processing tasks in autism were reviewed. Tasks involving simple material…

  1. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients’ speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  2. Core auditory processing deficits in primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Bruffaerts, Rose; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Neyens, Veerle; De Weer, An-Sofie; Seghers, Alexandra; Bergmans, Bruno; Dries, Eva; Griffiths, Timothy D; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which non-linguistic auditory processing deficits may contribute to the phenomenology of primary progressive aphasia is not established. Using non-linguistic stimuli devoid of meaning we assessed three key domains of auditory processing (pitch, timing and timbre) in a consecutive series of 18 patients with primary progressive aphasia (eight with semantic variant, six with non-fluent/agrammatic variant, and four with logopenic variant), as well as 28 age-matched healthy controls. We further examined whether performance on the psychoacoustic tasks in the three domains related to the patients' speech and language and neuropsychological profile. At the group level, patients were significantly impaired in the three domains. Patients had the most marked deficits within the rhythm domain for the processing of short sequences of up to seven tones. Patients with the non-fluent variant showed the most pronounced deficits at the group and the individual level. A subset of patients with the semantic variant were also impaired, though less severely. The patients with the logopenic variant did not show any significant impairments. Significant deficits in the non-fluent and the semantic variant remained after partialling out effects of executive dysfunction. Performance on a subset of the psychoacoustic tests correlated with conventional verbal repetition tests. In sum, a core central auditory impairment exists in primary progressive aphasia for non-linguistic stimuli. While the non-fluent variant is clinically characterized by a motor speech deficit (output problem), perceptual processing of tone sequences is clearly deficient. This may indicate the co-occurrence in the non-fluent variant of a deficit in working memory for auditory objects. Parsimoniously we propose that auditory timing pathways are altered, which are used in common for processing acoustic sequence structure in both speech output and acoustic input. PMID:27060523

  3. Auditory disturbances promote temporal clustering of yawning and stretching in small groups of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael L; Gallup, Andrew C; Vogel, Andrea R; Clark, Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Yawning may serve both social and nonsocial functions. When budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) are briefly held, simulating capture by a predator, the temporal pattern of yawning changes. When this species is observed in a naturalistic setting (undisturbed flock), yawning and also stretching, a related behavior, are mildly contagious. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that a stressful event would be followed by the clustering of these behaviors in a group of birds, which may be facilitated both by a standard pattern of responding to a startling stressor and also contagion. In this study, we measured yawning and stretching in 4-bird groups following a nonspecific stressor (loud white noise) for a period of 1 hr, determining whether auditory disturbances alter the timing and frequency of these behaviors. Our results show that stretching, and to a lesser degree yawning, were nonrandomly clumped in time following the auditory disturbances, indicating that the temporal clustering is sensitive to, and enhanced by, environmental stressors while in small groups. No decrease in yawning such as found after handling stress was observed immediately after the loud noise but a similar increase in yawning 20 min after was observed. Future research is required to tease apart the roles of behavioral contagion and a time-setting effect following a startle in this species. This research is of interest because of the potential role that temporal clumping of yawning and stretching could play in both the collective detection of, and response to, local disturbances or predation threats. PMID:22268553

  4. Sistema auditivo eferente: efeito no processamento auditivo Efferent auditory system: its effect on auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Acaui Ribeiro Burguetti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O processamento da informação sonora depende da integridade das vias auditivas aferentes e eferentes. O sistema auditivo eferente pode ser avaliado por meio dos reflexos acústicos e da supressão das emissões otoacústicas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a atividade do sistema auditivo eferente, por meio da supressão das emissões otoacústicas (EOA e da sensibilização do reflexo acústico no distúrbio de processamento auditivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo: 50 crianças com alteração de processamento auditivo (grupo estudo e 38 sem esta alteração (grupo controle, avaliadas por meio das EOA na ausência e presença de ruído contralateral e da pesquisa dos limiares do reflexo acústico na ausência e presença de estímulo facilitador contralateral. RESULTADOS: O valor médio da supressão das EOA foi de até 1,50 dB para o grupo controle e de até 1,26 dB para o grupo estudo. O valor médio da sensibilização dos reflexos foi de até 14,60 dB para o grupo estudo e de até 15,21 dB para o grupo controle. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as respostas dos grupos controle e estudo em ambos os procedimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo estudo apresentou valores reduzidos na supressão das EOA e valores aumentados na sensibilização do reflexo acústico, em relação ao grupo controle.Auditory processing depends on afferent and efferent auditory pathways integrity. The efferent auditory system may be assessed in humans by two non-invasive and objective methods: acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions suppression. AIM: Analyze the efferent auditory system activity by otoacoustic emission suppression and acoustic reflex sensitization in human subjects with auditory processing disorders. METHOD: Prospective study: fifty children with auditory processing disorders (study group and thirty-eight children without auditory processing disorders (control group were evaluated using otoacoustic emission with and without

  5. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  6. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution....... Throughout the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  7. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, David; Harkrider, Ashley W; Thornton, David; Bowers, Andrew L; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. Perception tasks required "active" discrimination of syllable pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required overt production of syllable pairs and nouns. ICA performed on concatenated raw 68 channel EEG data from all tasks identified bilateral "auditory" alpha (α) components in 15 of 29 participants localized to pSTG (left) and pMTG (right). ERSP analyses were performed to reveal fluctuations in the spectral power of the α rhythm clusters across time. Production conditions were characterized by significant α event related synchronization (ERS; pFDR < 0.05) concurrent with EMG activity from speech production, consistent with speech-induced auditory inhibition. Discrimination conditions were also characterized by α ERS following stimulus offset. Auditory α ERS in all conditions temporally aligned with PMC activity reported in Jenson et al. (2014). These findings are indicative of speech-induced suppression of auditory regions, possibly via efference copy. The presence of the same pattern following stimulus offset in discrimination conditions suggests that sensorimotor contributions following speech perception reflect covert replay, and that covert replay provides one source of the motor activity previously observed in some speech perception tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that inhibition of auditory regions by speech has been observed in real-time with the ICA/ERSP technique. PMID:26500519

  8. Do dyslexics have auditory input processing difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether a...

  9. Assessment of auditory processing in children with dyslalia

    OpenAIRE

    Wlodarczyk £.; Szkielkowska A.; Ratynska J.; Skarzynski P. H.; Skarzynski H.; Ganc M.; Pilka A.; Obrycka A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work was to assess occurrence of central auditory processing disorders in children with dyslalia. Material and method. The material included 30 children at the age 798 years old being under long-term speech therapy care due to articulation disorders. All the children were subjected to the phoniatric and speech examination, including tonal and impedance audiometry, speech therapist's consultation and psychologist's consultation. Electrophysi-ological (N2, P2, N2,...

  10. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno; D’Andrea Karlin Fabianne; Cordeiro Mara L; Zeigelboim Bianca; Marques Jair; Jurkiewicz Ari

    2012-01-01

    AbstractBackgroundSleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP). Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse informat...

  11. Quantifying auditory temporal stability in a large database of recorded music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ellis

    Full Text Available "Moving to the beat" is both one of the most basic and one of the most profound means by which humans (and a few other species interact with music. Computer algorithms that detect the precise temporal location of beats (i.e., pulses of musical "energy" in recorded music have important practical applications, such as the creation of playlists with a particular tempo for rehabilitation (e.g., rhythmic gait training, exercise (e.g., jogging, or entertainment (e.g., continuous dance mixes. Although several such algorithms return simple point estimates of an audio file's temporal structure (e.g., "average tempo", "time signature", none has sought to quantify the temporal stability of a series of detected beats. Such a method--a "Balanced Evaluation of Auditory Temporal Stability" (BEATS--is proposed here, and is illustrated using the Million Song Dataset (a collection of audio features and music metadata for nearly one million audio files. A publically accessible web interface is also presented, which combines the thresholdable statistics of BEATS with queryable metadata terms, fostering potential avenues of research and facilitating the creation of highly personalized music playlists for clinical or recreational applications.

  12. Quantifying Auditory Temporal Stability in a Large Database of Recorded Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J.; Duan, Zhiyan; Wang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    “Moving to the beat” is both one of the most basic and one of the most profound means by which humans (and a few other species) interact with music. Computer algorithms that detect the precise temporal location of beats (i.e., pulses of musical “energy”) in recorded music have important practical applications, such as the creation of playlists with a particular tempo for rehabilitation (e.g., rhythmic gait training), exercise (e.g., jogging), or entertainment (e.g., continuous dance mixes). Although several such algorithms return simple point estimates of an audio file’s temporal structure (e.g., “average tempo”, “time signature”), none has sought to quantify the temporal stability of a series of detected beats. Such a method-a “Balanced Evaluation of Auditory Temporal Stability” (BEATS)–is proposed here, and is illustrated using the Million Song Dataset (a collection of audio features and music metadata for nearly one million audio files). A publically accessible web interface is also presented, which combines the thresholdable statistics of BEATS with queryable metadata terms, fostering potential avenues of research and facilitating the creation of highly personalized music playlists for clinical or recreational applications. PMID:25469636

  13. Encoding of temporal information by timing, rate, and place in cat auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Imaizumi

    Full Text Available A central goal in auditory neuroscience is to understand the neural coding of species-specific communication and human speech sounds. Low-rate repetitive sounds are elemental features of communication sounds, and core auditory cortical regions have been implicated in processing these information-bearing elements. Repetitive sounds could be encoded by at least three neural response properties: 1 the event-locked spike-timing precision, 2 the mean firing rate, and 3 the interspike interval (ISI. To determine how well these response aspects capture information about the repetition rate stimulus, we measured local group responses of cortical neurons in cat anterior auditory field (AAF to click trains and calculated their mutual information based on these different codes. ISIs of the multiunit responses carried substantially higher information about low repetition rates than either spike-timing precision or firing rate. Combining firing rate and ISI codes was synergistic and captured modestly more repetition information. Spatial distribution analyses showed distinct local clustering properties for each encoding scheme for repetition information indicative of a place code. Diversity in local processing emphasis and distribution of different repetition rate codes across AAF may give rise to concurrent feed-forward processing streams that contribute differently to higher-order sound analysis.

  14. Temporal information processing technology and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong; Tang, Na

    2011-01-01

    Presenting a systematic introduction to temporal model and time calculation, this volume explores temporal information processing technology and its applications. Topics include the time model in terms of calculus and logic, temporal data models and database concepts, temporal query language, and more.

  15. Multiobjective optimization of temporal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhe; Kusiak, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a dynamic predictive-optimization framework of a nonlinear temporal process. Data-mining (DM) and evolutionary strategy algorithms are integrated in the framework for solving the optimization model. DM algorithms learn dynamic equations from the process data. An evolutionary strategy algorithm is then applied to solve the optimization problem guided by the knowledge extracted by the DM algorithm. The concept presented in this paper is illustrated with the data from a power plant, where the goal is to maximize the boiler efficiency and minimize the limestone consumption. This multiobjective optimization problem can be either transformed into a single-objective optimization problem through preference aggregation approaches or into a Pareto-optimal optimization problem. The computational results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed optimization framework. PMID:19900853

  16. Auditory Cortical Deactivation during Speech Production and following Speech Perception: An EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    David E Jenson; Bowers, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration within the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of EEG data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex; PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. ...

  17. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Jenson, David; Harkrider, Ashley W.; Thornton, David; Bowers, Andrew L.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dors...

  18. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  19. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz; Débora Maria Befi-Lopes; Eliane Schochat

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing.OBJECTIVE: To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory proce...

  20. Contribution of psychoacoustics and neuroaudiology in revealing correlation of mental disorders with central auditory processing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadou, V; Iakovides, S

    2003-01-01

    Background Psychoacoustics is a fascinating developing field concerned with the evaluation of the hearing sensation as an outcome of a sound or speech stimulus. Neuroaudiology with electrophysiologic testing, records the electrical activity of the auditory pathways, extending from the 8th cranial nerve up to the cortical auditory centers as a result of external auditory stimuli. Central Auditory Processing Disorders may co-exist with mental disorders and complicate diagnosis and outcome. Desi...

  1. Visualization process of Temporal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Daassi, Chaouki; Nigay, Laurence; Fauvet, Marie-Christine

    2004-01-01

    International audience Temporal data are abundantly present in many application domains such as banking, financial, clinical, geographical applications and so on. Temporal data have been extensively studied from data mining and database perspectives. Complementary to these studies, our work focuses on the visualization techniques of temporal data: a wide range of visualization techniques have been designed to assist the users to visually analyze and manipulate temporal data. All the techni...

  2. Auditory Cortical Deactivation during Speech Production and following Speech Perception: An EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Jenson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor integration within the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014 used independent component analysis (ICA and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP analysis of EEG data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex; PMC activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. Perception tasks required ‘active’ discrimination of syllable pairs (/ba/ and /da/ in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required overt production of syllable pairs and nouns. ICA performed on concatenated raw 68 channel EEG data from all tasks identified bilateral ‘auditory’ alpha (α components in 15 of 29 participants localized to pSTG (left and pMTG (right. ERSP analyses were performed to reveal fluctuations in the spectral power of the α rhythm clusters across time. Production conditions were characterized by significant α event related synchronization (ERS; pFDR < .05 concurrent with EMG activity from speech production, consistent with speech-induced auditory inhibition. Discrimination conditions were also characterized by α ERS following stimulus offset. Auditory α ERS in all conditions also temporally aligned with PMC activity reported in Jenson et al. (2014. These findings are indicative of speech-induced suppression of auditory regions, possibly via efference copy. The presence of the same pattern following stimulus offset in discrimination conditions suggests that sensorimotor contributions following speech perception reflect covert replay, and that covert replay provides one source of the motor activity previously observed in some speech perception tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that inhibition of auditory regions by speech has been observed in real-time with the ICA/ERSP technique.

  3. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth' C; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O'Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  4. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism: An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Elizabeth’ C.; Murphy, Brandi; Rajmohan, Ravi; Anderson, Ronald C.; Baker, Mary; Zupancic, Stephen; O’Boyle, Michael; Richman, David

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imagining (BOLD fMRI) assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD) and 10 neurotypical (NT) controls between the ages of 20–28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block vs. the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2-VV2).We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs. PMID:27148020

  5. Implicit learning of between-group intervals in auditory temporal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J; Stevens, C J; Weidemann, G; Tillmann, B

    2016-08-01

    Implicit learning of temporal structure has primarily been reported when events within a sequence (e.g., visual-spatial locations, tones) are systematically ordered and correlated with the temporal structure. An auditory serial reaction time task was used to investigate implicit learning of temporal intervals between pseudorandomly ordered syllables. Over exposure, participants identified syllables presented in sequences with weakly metrical temporal structures. In a test block, the temporal structure differed from exposure only in the duration of the interonset intervals (IOIs) between groups. It was hypothesized that reaction time (RT) to syllables following between-group IOIs would decrease with exposure and increase at test. In Experiments 1 and 2, the sequences presented over exposure and test were counterbalanced across participants (Pattern 1 and Pattern 2 conditions). An RT increase at test to syllables following between-group IOIs was only evident in the condition that presented an exposure structure with a slightly stronger meter (Pattern 1 condition). The Pattern 1 condition also elicited a global expectancy effect: Test block RT slowed to earlier-than-expected syllables (i.e., syllables shifted to an earlier beat) but not to later-than-expected syllables. Learning of between-group IOIs and the global expectancy effect extended to the Pattern 2 condition when meter was strengthened with an external pulse (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 further demonstrated implicit learning of a new weakly metrical structure with only earlier-than-expected violations at test. Overall findings demonstrate learning of weakly metrical rhythms without correlated event structures (i.e., sequential syllable orders). They further suggest the presence of a global expectancy effect mediated by metrical strength. PMID:27301354

  6. The role of the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system in temporal attention and uncertainty processing

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation explores the involvement of the locus-coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system in both temporal attention and uncertainty processing. To this end, a number of cognitive tasks are used (Stroop, passive viewing, attentional blink, accessory stimulus, auditory oddball) and a number of techniques are utilized (electroencephalogram [EEG], pupillometry, phsychopharmacology).

  7. The Importance of Rapid Auditory Processing Abilities to Early Language Development: Evidence from Converging Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Benasich, April A.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Choudhury, Naseem; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. Likewise, deficits in rapid auditory processing of both verbal and nonverbal stimuli are characteristic of individuals with developmental language disorders such as Specific Language Impairment. Auditory processing abilities are well developed in infancy, and thus such deficits should be detectable in infants. In the studies presented here, converging met...

  8. Auditory processing in dysphonic children Processamento auditivo em crianças disfônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Aratangy Arnaut

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary cross-sectional cohort study. There is evidence of the auditory perception influence on the development of oral and written language, as well as on the self-perception of vocal conditions. The auditory system maturation can impact on this process. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the auditory skills of temporal ordering and localization in dysphonic children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 42 children (4 to 8 years. Study group: 31 dysphonic children; Comparison group: 11 children without vocal change complaints. They all had normal auditory thresholds and also normal cochleo-eyelid reflexes. They were submitted to a Simplified assessment of the auditory process (Pereira, 1993. In order to compare the groups, we used the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Level of significance: 0.05 (5%. RESULTS: Upon simplified assessment, 100% of the Control Group and 61.29% of the Study Group had normal results. The groups were similar in the localization and verbal sequential memory tests. The nonverbal sequential memory showed worse results on dysphonic children. In this group, the performance was worse among the four to six years. CONCLUSION: The dysphonic children showed changes on the localization or temporal ordering skills, the skill of non-verbal temporal ordering differentiated the dysphonic group. In this group, the Sound Location improved with age.Estudo de coorte contemporânea com corte transversal. Há evidências da influência da percepção auditiva sobre o desenvolvimento da linguagem oral e escrita e da autopercepção das condições vocais. A maturação do sistema auditivo pode interferir nesse processo. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar habilidades auditivas de Localização e de Ordenação Temporal em crianças disfônicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Avaliaram-se 42 crianças (4 a 8 anos. Grupo Pesquisa: 31 crianças disfônicas, Grupo de Comparação: 11 crianças sem queixas de alterações vocais. Todas apresentaram

  9. Auditory Stream Biasing in Children with Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Tialee; Balaban, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Reading impairments have previously been associated with auditory processing differences. We examined "auditory stream biasing", a global aspect of auditory temporal processing. Children with reading impairments, control children and adults heard a 10 s long stream-bias-inducing sound sequence (a repeating 1000 Hz tone) and a test sequence (eight…

  10. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Rissling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42 and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47 participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR, comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.

  11. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH,...

  12. Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Ability in Normal Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Bailey, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between rapid auditory processing and phonological processing in 82 typical children and compared 17 children with dyslexia to controls. Children with dyslexia performed at a level similar to reading-age controls on auditory processing but obtained scores that were significantly below those of the…

  13. Auditory evoked potentials to spectro-temporal modulation of complex tones in normal subjects and patients with severe brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Vaz Pato, M; Sprague, L; Stokes, M; Munday, R; Haque, N

    2000-05-01

    In order to assess higher auditory processing capabilities, long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were recorded to synthesized musical instrument tones in 22 post-comatose patients with severe brain injury causing variably attenuated behavioural responsiveness. On the basis of normative studies, three different types of spectro-temporal modulation were employed. When a continuous 'clarinet' tone changes pitch once every few seconds, N1/P2 potentials are evoked at latencies of approximately 90 and 180 ms, respectively. Their distribution in the fronto-central region is consistent with generators in the supratemporal cortex of both hemispheres. When the pitch is modulated at a much faster rate ( approximately 16 changes/s), responses to each change are virtually abolished but potentials with similar distribution are still elicited by changing the timbre (e.g. 'clarinet' to 'oboe') every few seconds. These responses appear to represent the cortical processes concerned with spectral pattern analysis and the grouping of frequency components to form sound 'objects'. Following a period of 16/s oscillation between two pitches, a more anteriorly distributed negativity is evoked on resumption of a steady pitch. Various lines of evidence suggest that this is probably equivalent to the 'mismatch negativity' (MMN), reflecting a pre-perceptual, memory-based process for detection of change in spectro-temporal sound patterns. This method requires no off-line subtraction of AEPs evoked by the onset of a tone, and the MMN is produced rapidly and robustly with considerably larger amplitude (usually >5 microV) than that to discontinuous pure tones. In the brain-injured patients, the presence of AEPs to two or more complex tone stimuli (in the combined assessment of two authors who were 'blind' to the clinical and behavioural data) was significantly associated with the demonstrable possession of discriminative hearing (the ability to respond differentially to verbal commands

  14. Processing of spatial sounds in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris

    of two such cues on speech intelligibility was studied. First, the benefit from early reflections (ER’s) in a room was determined using a virtual auditory environment. ER’s were found to be useful for speech intelligibility, but to a smaller extent than the direct sound (DS). The benefit was...... intelligibility, the exact ILD information is not crucial. The results from an additional experiment demonstrated that the ER benefit was maintained with independent as well as with linked hearing aid compression. Overall, this work contributes to the understanding of ER processing in listeners with normal and...... quantified with an intelligibility-weighted “efficiency factor” which revealed that the spectral characteristics of the ER’s caused the reduced benefit. Hearing-impaired listeners were able to utilize the ER energy as effectively as normal-hearing listeners, most likely because binaural processing was not...

  15. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  16. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...... filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...

  17. Pediatric central auditory processing disorder showing elevated threshold on pure tone audiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yukihide; Nakagawa, Atsuko; Nagayasu, Rie; Sugaya, Akiko; Omichi, Ryotaro; Kariya, Shin; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) is a condition in which dysfunction in the central auditory system causes difficulty in listening to conversations, particularly under noisy conditions, despite normal peripheral auditory function. Central auditory testing is generally performed in patients with normal hearing on the pure tone audiogram (PTA). This report shows that diagnosis of CAPD is possible even in the presence of an elevated threshold on the PTA, provided that the normal function of the peripheral auditory pathway was verified by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), auditory brainstem response (ABR), and auditory steady state response (ASSR). Three pediatric cases (9- and 10-year-old girls and an 8-year-old boy) of CAPD with elevated thresholds on PTAs are presented. The chief complaint was difficulty in listening to conversations. PTA showed elevated thresholds, but the responses and thresholds for DPOAE, ABR, and ASSR were normal, showing that peripheral auditory function was normal. Significant findings of central auditory testing such as dichotic speech tests, time compression of speech signals, and binaural interaction tests confirmed the diagnosis of CAPD. These threshold shifts in PTA may provide a new concept of a clinical symptom due to central auditory dysfunction in CAPD. PMID:26922127

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of dolphin brains reveals direct auditory pathway to temporal lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Berns, Gregory S.; Cook, Peter F.; Foxley, Sean; Jbabdi, Saad; Miller, Karla L.; Marino, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The brains of odontocetes (toothed whales) look grossly different from their terrestrial relatives. Because of their adaptation to the aquatic environment and their reliance on echolocation, the odontocetes' auditory system is both unique and crucial to their survival. Yet, scant data exist about the functional organization of the cetacean auditory system. A predominant hypothesis is that the primary auditory cortex lies in the suprasylvian gyrus along the vertex of the hemispheres, with this...

  19. Development of working memory, speech perception and auditory temporal resolution in children with allention deficit hyperactivity disorder and language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2002-01-01

    Speech perception (SP), verbal working memory (WM) and auditory temporal resolution (ATR) have been studied in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and language impairment (LI), as well as in reference groups of typically developed children. A computerised method was developed, in which discrimination of same or different pairs of stimuli was tested. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study a similar test was used to explore the neural...

  20. Auditory processing in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Beynon, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Broek, P. van den

    2003-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: It is unclear whether Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, type 1A, causes auditory processing disorders. Therefore, auditory processing abilities were investigated in five CMT1A patients with normal hearing. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have failed to separate peripheral from central audi

  1. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  2. Time and Time Again: Temporal Processing Demands Implicate Perceptual and Gating Deficits in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Landhing M.; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) afflict up to 50% of HIV-1-positive individuals, despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) in reducing the prevalence of more severe neurocognitive impairment. Alterations in brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), a measure of temporal processing, are one of the earliest neurological abnormalities of HIV-1-positive individuals. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response (ASR), a measure of sens...

  3. The impact of educational level on performance on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F.B. Murphy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor years of schooling was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  4. Neural Correlates of Auditory Processing, Learning and Memory Formation in Songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, R.; Terleph, T. A.; Wynne, R. D.; Tremere, L. A.

    Songbirds have emerged as powerful experimental models for the study of auditory processing of complex natural communication signals. Intact hearing is necessary for several behaviors in developing and adult animals including vocal learning, territorial defense, mate selection and individual recognition. These behaviors are thought to require the processing, discrimination and memorization of songs. Although much is known about the brain circuits that participate in sensorimotor (auditory-vocal) integration, especially the ``song-control" system, less is known about the anatomical and functional organization of central auditory pathways. Here we discuss findings associated with a telencephalic auditory area known as the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). NCM has attracted significant interest as it exhibits functional properties that may support higher order auditory functions such as stimulus discrimination and the formation of auditory memories. NCM neurons are vigorously dr iven by auditory stimuli. Interestingly, these responses are selective to conspecific, relative to heterospecific songs and artificial stimuli. In addition, forms of experience-dependent plasticity occur in NCM and are song-specific. Finally, recent experiments employing high-throughput quantitative proteomics suggest that complex protein regulatory pathways are engaged in NCM as a result of auditory experience. These molecular cascades are likely central to experience-associated plasticity of NCM circuitry and may be part of a network of calcium-driven molecular events that support the formation of auditory memory traces.

  5. Grasping the sound: Auditory pitch influences size processing in motor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Luca; Lega, Carlotta; Cattaneo, Zaira; Girelli, Luisa; Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that individuals consistently match auditory pitch with visual size. For instance, high-pitched sounds are perceptually associated with smaller visual stimuli, whereas low-pitched sounds with larger ones. The present study explores whether this crossmodal correspondence, reported so far for perceptual processing, also modulates motor planning. To address this issue, we carried out a series of kinematic experiments to verify whether actions implying size processing are affected by auditory pitch. Experiment 1 showed that grasping movements toward small/large objects were initiated faster in response to high/low pitches, respectively, thus extending previous findings in the literature to more complex motor behavior. Importantly, auditory pitch influenced the relative scaling of the hand preshaping, with high pitches associated with smaller grip aperture compared with low pitches. Notably, no effect of auditory pitch was found in case of pointing movements (no grasp implied, Experiment 2), as well as when auditory pitch was irrelevant to the programming of the grip aperture, that is, in case of grasping an object of uniform size (Experiment 3). Finally, auditory pitch influenced also symbolic manual gestures expressing "small" and "large" concepts (Experiment 4). In sum, our results are novel in revealing the impact of auditory pitch on motor planning when size processing is required, and shed light on the role of auditory information in driving actions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26280267

  6. Frequency-specific disruptions of neuronal oscillations reveal aberrant auditory processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrynen, Lauren K; Hamm, Jordan P; Sponheim, Scott R; Clementz, Brett A

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in evoked brain responses in oddball paradigms. These could result from (a) insufficient salience-related cortical signaling (P300), (b) insufficient suppression of irrelevant aspects of the auditory environment, or (c) excessive neural noise. We tested whether disruption of ongoing auditory steady-state responses at predetermined frequencies informed which of these issues contribute to auditory stimulus relevance processing abnormalities in schizophrenia. Magnetoencephalography data were collected for 15 schizophrenia and 15 healthy subjects during an auditory oddball paradigm (25% targets; 1-s interstimulus interval). Auditory stimuli (pure tones: 1 kHz standards, 2 kHz targets) were administered during four continuous background (auditory steady-state) stimulation conditions: (1) no stimulation, (2) 24 Hz, (3) 40 Hz, and (4) 88 Hz. The modulation of the auditory steady-state response (aSSR) and the evoked responses to the transient stimuli were quantified and compared across groups. In comparison to healthy participants, the schizophrenia group showed greater disruption of the ongoing aSSR by targets regardless of steady-state frequency, and reduced amplitude of both M100 and M300 event-related field components. During the no-stimulation condition, schizophrenia patients showed accentuation of left hemisphere 40 Hz response to both standard and target stimuli, indicating an effort to enhance local stimulus processing. Together, these findings suggest abnormalities in auditory stimulus relevance processing in schizophrenia patients stem from insufficient amplification of salient stimuli. PMID:26933842

  7. Prenatal IV Cocaine: Alterations in Auditory Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Mactutus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One clue regarding the basis of cocaine-induced deficits in attentional processing is provided by the clinical findings of changes in the infants’ startle response; observations buttressed by neurophysiological evidence of alterations in brainstem transmission time. Using the IV route of administration and doses that mimic the peak arterial levels of cocaine use in humans, the present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine on auditory information processing via tests of the acoustic startle response (ASR, habituation, and prepulse inhibition (PPI in the offspring. Nulliparous Long-Evans female rats, implanted with an IV access port prior to breeding, were administered saline, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/injection of cocaine HCL (COC from gestation day (GD8-20 (1x/day-GD8-14, 2x/day-GD15-20. COC had no significant effects on maternal/litter parameters or growth of the offspring. At 18-20 days of age, one male and one female, randomly selected from each litter displayed an increased ASR (>30% for males at 1.0 mg/kg and >30% for females at 3.0 mg/kg. When reassessed in adulthood (D90-100, a linear dose-response increase was noted on response amplitude. At both test ages, within-session habituation was retarded by prenatal cocaine treatment. Testing the females in diestrus vs. estrus did not alter the results. Prenatal cocaine altered the PPI response function across interstimulus interval (ISI and induced significant sex-dependent changes in response latency. Idazoxan, an alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ASR, but less enhancement was noted with increasing doses of prenatal cocaine. Thus, in utero exposure to cocaine, when delivered via a protocol designed to capture prominent features of recreational usage, causes persistent, if not permanent, alterations in auditory information processing, and suggests dysfunction of the central noradrenergic circuitry modulating, if not mediating, these responses.

  8. Postnatal development of synaptic properties of the GABAergic projection from the inferior colliculus to the auditory thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataraman, Yamini; Bartlett, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    The development of auditory temporal processing is important for processing complex sounds as well as for acquiring reading and language skills. Neuronal properties and sound processing change dramatically in auditory cortex neurons after the onset of hearing. However, the development of the auditory thalamus or medial geniculate body (MGB) has not been well studied over this critical time window. Since synaptic inhibition has been shown to be crucial for auditory temporal processing, this st...

  9. Brian hears: online auditory processing using vectorisation over channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand eFontaine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The human cochlea includes about 3000 inner hair cells which filter sounds at frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. This massively parallel frequency analysis is reflected in models of auditory processing, which are often based on banks of filters. However, existing implementations do not exploit this parallelism. Here we propose algorithms to simulate these models by vectorising computation over frequency channels, which are implemented in Brian Hears, a library for the spiking neural network simulator package Brian. This approach allows us to use high-level programming languages such as Python, as the cost of interpretation becomes negligible. This makes it possible to define and simulate complex models in a simple way, while all previous implementations were model-specific. In addition, we show that these algorithms can be naturally parallelised using graphics processing units, yielding substantial speed improvements. We demonstrate these algorithms with several state-of-the-art cochlear models, and show that they compare favorably with existing, less flexible, implementations.

  10. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations. PMID:27054908

  11. Behavioral correlates of auditory streaming in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Christison-Lagay, Kate L.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual representations of auditory stimuli (i.e., sounds) are derived from the auditory system’s ability to segregate and group the spectral, temporal, and spatial features of auditory stimuli—a process called “auditory scene analysis”. Psychophysical studies have identified several of the principles and mechanisms that underlie a listener’s ability to segregate and group acoustic stimuli. One important psychophysical task that has illuminated many of these principles and mechanisms is th...

  12. Developmental differences in visual and auditory processing of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J R; MacWhinney, B; Harasaki, Y

    2000-01-01

    Children aged 8 through 11 (N = 250) were given a word-by-word sentence task in both the visual and auditory modes. The sentences included an object relative clause, a subject relative clause, or a conjoined verb phrase. Each sentence was followed by a true-false question, testing the subject of either the first or second verb. Participants were also given two memory span measures: digit span and reading span. High digit span children slowed down more at the transition from the main to the relative clause than did the low digit span children. The findings suggest the presence of a U-shaped learning pattern for on-line processing of restrictive relative clauses. Off-line accuracy scores showed different patterns for good comprehenders and poor comprehenders. Poor comprehenders answered the second verb questions at levels that were consistently below chance. Their answers were based on an incorrect local attachment strategy that treated the second noun as the subject of the second verb. For example, they often answered yes to the question "The girl chases the policeman" after the object relative sentence "The boy that the girl sees chases the policeman." Interestingly, low memory span poor comprehenders used the local attachment strategy less consistently than high memory span poor comprehenders, and all poor comprehenders used this strategy less consistently for harder than for easier sentences. PMID:11016560

  13. Accounting for the phenomenology and varieties of auditory verbal hallucination within a predictive processing framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Two challenges that face popular self-monitoring theories (SMTs) of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) are that they cannot account for the auditory phenomenology of AVHs and that they cannot account for their variety. In this paper I show that both challenges can be met by adopting a predictive processing framework (PPF), and by viewing AVHs as arising from abnormalities in predictive processing. I show how, within the PPF, both the auditory phenomenology of AVHs, and three subtypes of AVH, can be accounted for. PMID:25286243

  14. Which People with Specific Language Impairment have Auditory Processing Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, G M; Bishop, D V M

    2004-02-01

    An influential theory attributes developmental disorders of language and literacy to low-level auditory perceptual difficulties. However, evidence to date has been inconsistent and contradictory. We investigated whether this mixed picture could be explained in terms of heterogeneity in the language-impaired population. In Experiment 1, the behavioural responses of 16 people with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 control listeners (aged 10 to 19 years) to auditory backward recognition masking (ABRM) stimuli and unmasked tones indicated that a subgroup of people with SLI are less able to discriminate between the frequencies of sounds regardless of their rate of presentation. Further, these people tended to be the younger participants, and were characterised by relatively poor nonword reading. In Experiment 2, the auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) of the same groups to unmasked tones were measured. Listeners with SLI tended to have age-inappropriate waveforms in the N1-P2-N2 region, regardless of their auditory discrimination scores in Experiment 1. Together, these results suggest that SLI may be characterised by immature development of auditory cortex, such that adult-level frequency discrimination performance is attained several years later than normal. PMID:21038192

  15. Psychometric profile of children with auditory processing disorder and children with dyslexia.

    OpenAIRE

    DAWES, P; Bishop, DV

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to address the controversy that exists over the extent to which auditory processing disorder (APD) is a separate diagnostic category with a distinctive psychometric profile, rather than a reflection of a more general learning disability. METHODS: Children with an APD diagnosis (N=25) were compared with children with dyslexia (N=19) on a battery of standardised auditory processing, language, literacy and non-verbal intelligence quotient measures as well as parental repor...

  16. Characteristics of auditory processing disorder in primary school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Melanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this research were to identify and compare auditory processing, speech intelligibility, cognitive, listening, language and communication abilities in (i) typically developing, mainstream school (MS) children (n = 122) for direct comparison with (ii) children presenting to clinical services with auditory processing disorder (APD) (n = 19) or specific language impairment (SLI) (n = 22), and in (iii) a large population sample (n = 1469) who were categorised by their functional listen...

  17. Learning-stage-dependent plasticity of temporal coherence in the auditory cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Ryo; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2015-05-01

    Temporal coherence among neural populations may contribute importantly to signal encoding, specifically by providing an optimal tradeoff between encoding reliability and efficiency. Here, we considered the possibility that learning modulates the temporal coherence among neural populations in association with well-characterized map plasticity. We previously demonstrated that, in appetitive operant conditioning tasks, the tone-responsive area globally expanded during the early stage of learning, but shrank during the late stage. The present study further showed that phase locking of the first spike to band-specific oscillations of local field potentials (LFPs) significantly increased during the early stage of learning but decreased during the late stage, suggesting that neurons in A1 were more synchronously activated during early learning, whereas they were more asynchronously activated once learning was completed. Furthermore, LFP amplitudes increased during early learning but decreased during later learning. These results suggest that, compared to naïve encoding, early-stage encoding is more reliable but energy-consumptive, whereas late-stage encoding is more energetically efficient. Such a learning-stage-dependent encoding strategy may underlie learning-induced, non-monotonic map plasticity. Accumulating evidence indicates that the cholinergic system is likely to be a shared neural substrate of the processes for perceptual learning and attention, both of which modulate neural encoding in an adaptive manner. Thus, a better understanding of the links between map plasticity and modulation of temporal coherence will likely lead to a more integrated view of learning and attention. PMID:24615394

  18. Auditory processing deficits among language-learning disordered children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Ratree; Lombardino, Linda

    2003-10-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 5%-9% of school-aged children in the United States are diagnosed with some kind of learning disorders. Moreover, previous research has established that many of these children exhibited perceptual deficits in response to auditory stimuli, suggesting that an auditory perceptual deficit may underlie their learning disabilities. The goal of this research is to examine the ability to auditorily process speech and nonspeech stimuli among language-learning disabled (LLD) children and adults. The two questions that will be addressed in this study are: (a) Are there subtypes of LLD children/adults based on their auditory processing deficit, and (b) Is there any relationship between types of auditory processing deficits and types of language deficits as measured by a battery of psychoeducational tests.

  19. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  20. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  1. Tuned with a Tune: Talker Normalization via General Auditory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Erika J C; Liu, Ran; Lotto, Andrew J; Holt, Lori L

    2012-01-01

    Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker's speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) of a talker's speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences' LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by non-speech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization. PMID:22737140

  2. Tuned with a tune: Talker normalization via general auditory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J C Laing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by nonspeech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization.

  3. Visual, Auditory, and Cross Modal Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism:An EEG Power and BOLD fMRI Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hames

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining (BOLD fMRI assessed the neurocorrelates of sensory processing of visual and auditory stimuli in 11 adults with autism (ASD and 10 neurotypical (NT controls between the ages of 20-28. We hypothesized that ASD performance on combined audiovisual trials would be less accurate with observable decreased EEG power across frontal, temporal, and occipital channels and decreased BOLD fMRI activity in these same regions; reflecting deficits in key sensory processing areas. Analysis focused on EEG power, BOLD fMRI, and accuracy. Lower EEG beta power and lower left auditory cortex fMRI activity were seen in ASD compared to NT when they were presented with auditory stimuli as demonstrated by contrasting the activity from the second presentation of an auditory stimulus in an all auditory block versus the second presentation of a visual stimulus in an all visual block (AA2­VV2. We conclude that in ASD, combined audiovisual processing is more similar than unimodal processing to NTs.

  4. Processing of spatial sounds in human auditory cortex during visual, discrimination and 2-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TeemuRinne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous imaging studies on the brain mechanisms of spatial hearing have mainly focused on sounds varying in the horizontal plane. In this study, we compared activations in human auditory cortex (AC and adjacent inferior parietal lobule (IPL to sounds varying in horizontal location, distance, or space (i.e., different rooms. In order to investigate both stimulus-dependent and task-dependent activations, these sounds were presented during visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, and auditory 2-back memory tasks. Consistent with previous studies, activations in AC were modulated by the auditory tasks. During both auditory and visual tasks, activations in AC were stronger to sounds varying in horizontal location than along other feature dimensions. However, in IPL, this enhancement was detected only during auditory tasks. Based on these results, we argue that IPL is not primarily involved in stimulus-level spatial analysis but that it may represent such information for more general processing when relevant to an active auditory task.

  5. Temporal encoding precision of bat auditory neurons tuned to target distance deteriorates on the way to the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Silvio; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-03-01

    During echolocation, bats estimate distance to avoid obstacles and capture moving prey. The primary distance cue is the delay between the bat's emitted echolocation pulse and the return of an echo. In the bat's auditory system, echo delay-tuned neurons that only respond to pulse-echo pairs having a specific echo delay serve target distance calculation. Accurate prey localization should benefit from the spike precision in such neurons. Here we show that delay-tuned neurons in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat respond with higher temporal precision, shorter latency and shorter response duration than those of the auditory cortex. Based on these characteristics, we suggest that collicular neurons are best suited for a fast and accurate response that could lead to fast behavioral reactions while cortical neurons, with coarser temporal precision and longer latencies and response durations could be more appropriate for integrating acoustic information over time. The latter could be important for the formation of biosonar images. PMID:26785850

  6. Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweet, Robert A; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Lewis, David A

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). Current evidence indicates that...

  7. Hierarchical and serial processing in the spatial auditory cortical pathway is degraded by natural aging

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-Salinas, Dina L.; Engle, James R.; Navarro, Xochi O.; Gregg H Recanzone

    2010-01-01

    The compromised abilities to localize sounds and to understand speech are two hallmark deficits in aged individuals. The auditory cortex is necessary for these processes, yet we know little about how normal aging affects these early cortical fields. In this study, we recorded the spatial tuning of single neurons in primary (area A1) and secondary (area CL) auditory cortical areas in young and aged alert rhesus macaques. We found that the neurons of aged animals had greater spontaneous and dri...

  8. Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Beate Sabisch; Benjamin Weiss; Barry, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ), socioeconomic status (SES) and m...

  9. Habituation of the blink reflex in the neonatal period and development of auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia Tochetto; Luciane da Costa Pacheco; Celina Rech Maggi; Fleming Salvador Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To check the existence of an association between the presence/absence of the blink reflex habituation in the neonatal period and auditory processing development. Methods: The occurrence of blink reflex habituation was studied in 33 neurologically normal neonates, aged between 9 and 25 months, who had their behavioral responses analyzed and classified according to Azevedo (1993). Habituation of the blink reflex was verified using 90-dB sound stimulus. The stage of auditory processin...

  10. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.;

    2013-01-01

    human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...... vocalization, compared with during passive listening. One network of regions appears to encode an “error signal” regardless of acoustic features of the error: this network, including right angular gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and bilateral cerebellum, yielded consistent neural patterns across...... presented as auditory concomitants of vocalization. A third network, showing a distinct functional pattern from the other two, appears to capture aspects of both neural response profiles. Together, our findings suggest that auditory feedback processing during speech motor control may rely on multiple...

  11. Interference by process, not content, determines semantic auditory distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, J. E.; Hughes, Rob; Jones, D M

    2009-01-01

    Distraction by irrelevant background sound of visually-based cognitive tasks illustrates the vulnerability of attentional selectivity across modalities. Four experiments centred on auditory distraction during tests of memory for visually-presented semantic information. Meaningful irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category-exemplars more than meaningless irrelevant sound (Experiment 1). This effect was exacerbated when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the...

  12. Monkey׳s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26707975

  13. Logarithmic temporal axis manipulation and its application for measuring auditory contributions in F0 control using a transformed auditory feedback procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaga, Ryuichiro; Kawahara, Hideki

    2003-10-01

    A new parameter extraction procedure based on logarithmic transformation of the temporal axis was applied to investigate auditory effects on voice F0 control to overcome artifacts due to natural fluctuations and nonlinearities in speech production mechanisms. The proposed method may add complementary information to recent findings reported by using frequency shift feedback method [Burnett and Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112 (2002)], in terms of dynamic aspects of F0 control. In a series of experiments, dependencies of system parameters in F0 control on subjects, F0 and style (musical expressions and speaking) were tested using six participants. They were three male and three female students specialized in musical education. They were asked to sustain a Japanese vowel /a/ for about 10 s repeatedly up to 2 min in total while hearing F0 modulated feedback speech, that was modulated using an M-sequence. The results replicated qualitatively the previous finding [Kawahara and Williams, Vocal Fold Physiology, (1995)] and provided more accurate estimates. Relations with designing an artificial singer also will be discussed. [Work partly supported by the grant in aids in scientific research (B) 14380165 and Wakayama University.

  14. Auditory pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-jun; CAO Ke-li; WEI Chao-gang; LIU Yong-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Chinese tones are considered important in Chinese discrimination.However,the relevant reports on auditory central mechanisms concerning Chinese tones are limited.In this study,mismatch negativity (MMN),one of the event related potentials (ERP),was used to investigate pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones,and the differences between the function of oddball MMN and that of control MMN are discussed.Methods Ten subjects (six men and four women) with normal hearing participated in the study.A sequence was presented to these subjects through a loudspeaker,the sequence included four blocks,a control block and three oddball blocks.The control block was made up of five components (one pure tone and four Chinese tones) with equiprobability.The oddball blocks were made up of two components,one was a standard stimulus (tone 1) and the other was a deviant stimulus (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4).Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded when the sequence was presented and MMNs were obtained from the analysis of the EEG data.Results Two kinds of MMNs were obtained,oddball MMN and control MMN.Oddball MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by standard stimulation (tone 1) from that elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4) in the oddball block; control MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by the tone in control block,which was the same tone as the deviant stimulation in the oddball block,from the ERP elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4)in the oddball block.There were two negative waves in oddball MMN,one appeared around 150 ms (oddball MMN 1),the other around 300 ms (oddball MMN 2).Only one negative wave appeared around 300 ms in control MMN,which was corresponding to the oddball MMN 2.We performed the statistical analyses in each paradigm for latencies and amplitudes for oddball MMN 2 in discriminating the three Chinese tones and reported no significant differences.But the latencies and amplitudes

  15. Shaping prestimulus neural activity with auditory rhythmic stimulation improves the temporal allocation of attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Cristoforetti, Giulia; Facoetti, Andrea; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-01-01

    Human attention fluctuates across time, and even when stimuli have identical physical characteristics and the task demands are the same, relevant information is sometimes consciously perceived and at other times not. A typical example of this phenomenon is the attentional blink, where participants show a robust deficit in reporting the second of two targets (T2) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Previous electroencephalographical (EEG) studies showed that neural correlates of correct T2 report are not limited to the RSVP period, but extend before visual stimulation begins. In particular, reduced oscillatory neural activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) before the onset of the RSVP has been linked to lower T2 accuracy. We therefore examined whether auditory rhythmic stimuli presented at a rate of 10 Hz (within the alpha band) could increase oscillatory alpha-band activity and improve T2 performance in the attentional blink time window. Behaviourally, the auditory rhythmic stimulation worked to enhance T2 accuracy. This enhanced perception was associated with increases in the posterior T2-evoked N2 component of the event-related potentials and this effect was observed selectively at lag 3. Frontal and posterior oscillatory alpha-band activity was also enhanced during auditory stimulation in the pre-RSVP period and positively correlated with T2 accuracy. These findings suggest that ongoing fluctuations can be shaped by sensorial events to improve the allocation of attention in time. PMID:26986506

  16. Shaping prestimulus neural activity with auditory rhythmic stimulation improves the temporal allocation of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Luca; Pincham, Hannah L; Cristoforetti, Giulia; Facoetti, Andrea; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-05-01

    Human attention fluctuates across time, and even when stimuli have identical physical characteristics and the task demands are the same, relevant information is sometimes consciously perceived and at other times not. A typical example of this phenomenon is the attentional blink, where participants show a robust deficit in reporting the second of two targets (T2) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Previous electroencephalographical (EEG) studies showed that neural correlates of correct T2 report are not limited to the RSVP period, but extend before visual stimulation begins. In particular, reduced oscillatory neural activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) before the onset of the RSVP has been linked to lower T2 accuracy. We therefore examined whether auditory rhythmic stimuli presented at a rate of 10 Hz (within the alpha band) could increase oscillatory alpha-band activity and improve T2 performance in the attentional blink time window. Behaviourally, the auditory rhythmic stimulation worked to enhance T2 accuracy. This enhanced perception was associated with increases in the posterior T2-evoked N2 component of the event-related potentials and this effect was observed selectively at lag 3. Frontal and posterior oscillatory alpha-band activity was also enhanced during auditory stimulation in the pre-RSVP period and positively correlated with T2 accuracy. These findings suggest that ongoing fluctuations can be shaped by sensorial events to improve the allocation of attention in time. PMID:26986506

  17. Mechanisms and streams for processing of “what” and “where” in auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Rauschecker, Josef P; Tian, Biao

    2000-01-01

    The functional specialization and hierarchical organization of multiple areas in rhesus monkey auditory cortex were examined with various types of complex sounds. Neurons in the lateral belt areas of the superior temporal gyrus were tuned to the best center frequency and bandwidth of band-passed noise bursts. They were also selective for the rate and direction of linear frequency modulated sweeps. Many neurons showed a preference for a limited number of species-specifi...

  18. Nonsyndromic Isolated Temporal Bone Styloid Process Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Hamed; Dehghani, Nima; Aghdashi, Farzad; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fracture of the styloid process (SP) of the temporal bone is a rare traumatic injury in normal individuals who are not suffering from Eagle’s syndrome. Diagnosis and management of this problem requires comprehensive knowledge about its signs and symptoms. This study aimed to present an isolated styloid process fracture in a nonsyndromic patient. Case Presentation: A 50-year-old male patient was referred to our department with a complaint of sore throat. However, presentation of the problem resembled the symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). Fracture of the SP of the temporal bone was detected on the radiographs. Conservative treatment was undertaken for the patient. The symptoms diminished after about four months. Conclusions: Physicians should be aware of the signs and symptoms of different pain sources to prevent misdiagnosis and maltreatment.

  19. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  20. Cerebral processing of auditory stimuli in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viola Andresen; Peter Kobelt; Claus Zimmer; Bertram Wiedenmann; Burghard F Klapp; Hubert Monnikes; Alexander Poellinger; Chedwa Tsrouya; Dominik Bach; Albrecht Stroh; Annette Foerschler; Petra Georgiewa; Marco Schmidtmann; Ivo R van der Voort

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine by brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether cerebral processing of non-visceral stimuli is altered in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients compared with healthy subjects. To circumvent spinal viscerosomatic convergence mechanisms,we used auditory stimulation, and to identify a possible influence of psychological factors the stimuli differed in their emotional quality.METHODS: In 8 IBS patients and 8 controls, fMRI measurements were performed using a block design of 4 auditory stimuli of different emotional quality (pleasant sounds of chimes, unpleasant peep (2000 Hz), neutral words, and emotional words). A gradient echo T2*-weighted sequence was used for the functional scans.Statistical maps were constructed using the general linear model.RESULTS: To emotional auditory stimuli, IBS patients relative to controls responded with stronger deactivations in a greater variety of emotional processing regions, while the response patterns, unlike in controls, did not differentiate between distressing or pleasant sounds.To neutral auditory stimuli, by contrast, only IBS patients responded with large significant activations.CONCLUSION: Altered cerebral response patterns to auditory stimuli in emotional stimulus-processing regions suggest that altered sensory processing in IBS may not be specific for visceral sensation, but might reflect generalized changes in emotional sensitivity and affectire reactivity, possibly associated with the psychological comorbidity often found in IBS patients.

  1. Temporal-order judgment of visual and auditory stimuli: Modulations in situations with and without stimulus discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hendrich

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporal-order judgment (TOJ tasks are an important paradigm to investigate processing times of information in different modalities. There are a lot of studies on how temporal order decisions can be influenced by stimuli characteristics. However, so far it has not been investigated whether the addition of a choice reaction time task has an influence on temporal-order judgment. Moreover, it is not known when during processing the decision about the temporal order of two stimuli is made. We investigated the first of these two questions by comparing a regular TOJ task with a dual task. In both tasks, we manipulated different processing stages to investigate whether the manipulations have an influence on temporal-order judgment and to determine thereby the time of processing at which the decision about temporal order is made. The results show that the addition of a choice reaction time task does have an influence on the temporal-order judgment, but the influence seems to be linked to the kind of manipulation of the processing stages that is used. The results of the manipulations indicate that the temporal order decision in the dual task paradigm is made after perceptual processing of the stimuli.

  2. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  3. Both the middle temporal gyrus and the ventral anterior temporal area are crucial for multimodal semantic processing: Distortion-corrected fMRI evidence for a double gradient of information convergence in the temporal lobes.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Visser, E. Jefferies, K. Embleton, & M.A. Lambon Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Most contemporary theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are formed from the distillation of information arising in distinct sensory and verbal modalities. The neural basis of this distillation or convergence of information was the focus of this study. Specifically, we explored two commonly posed hypotheses: (a) that the human middle temporal gyrus (MTG) provides a crucial semantic interface given the fact that it interposes auditory and visual processing streams and (b) that the an...

  4. Auditory Processing Interventions and Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparison of Phonemic and Rhythmic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two auditory processing interventions for developmental dyslexia, one based on rhythm and one based on phonetic training. Thirty-three children with dyslexia participated and were assigned to one of three groups (a) a novel rhythmic processing intervention designed to highlight auditory…

  5. Modeling auditory processing and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve

    A better understanding of how the human auditory system represents and analyzes sounds and how hearing impairment affects such processing is of great interest for researchers in the fields of auditory neuroscience, audiology, and speech communication as well as for applications in hearing-instrument...... was shown that an accurate simulation of cochlear input-output functions, in addition to the audiogram, played a major role in accounting both for sensitivity and supra-threshold processing. Finally, the model was used as a front-end in a framework developed to predict consonant discrimination in a...

  6. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody. PMID:27519239

  7. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  8. The role of the auditory brainstem in processing musically-relevant pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M. Bidelman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging work has shed light on the cerebral architecture involved in processing the melodic and harmonic aspects of music. Here, recent evidence is reviewed illustrating that subcortical auditory structures contribute to the early formation and processing of musically-relevant pitch. Electrophysiological recordings from the human brainstem and population responses from the auditory nerve reveal that nascent features of tonal music (e.g., consonance/dissonance, pitch salience, harmonic sonority are evident at early, subcortical levels of the auditory pathway. The salience and harmonicity of brainstem activity is strongly correlated with listeners’ perceptual preferences and perceived consonance for the tonal relationships of music. Moreover, the hierarchical ordering of pitch intervals/chords described by the Western music practice and their perceptual consonance is well-predicted by the salience with which pitch combinations are encoded in subcortical auditory structures. While the neural correlates of consonance can be tuned and exaggerated with musical training, they persist even in the absence of musicianship or long-term enculturation. As such, it is posited that the structural foundations of musical pitch might result from innate processing performed by the central auditory system. A neurobiological predisposition for consonant, pleasant sounding pitch relationships may be one reason why these pitch combinations have been favored by composers and listeners for centuries. It is suggested that important perceptual dimensions of music emerge well before the auditory signal reaches cerebral cortex and prior to attentional engagement. While cortical mechanisms are no doubt critical to the perception, production, and enjoyment of music, the contribution of subcortical structures implicates a more integrated, hierarchically organized network underlying music processing within the brain.

  9. Temporal resolution of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A; Colbert, Debborah E; Gaspard, Joseph C; Casper, Brandon M; Cook, Mandy L H; Reep, Roger L; Bauer, Gordon B

    2005-10-01

    Auditory evoked potential (AEP) measurements of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were measured in response to amplitude modulated tones. The AEP measurements showed weak responses to test stimuli from 4 kHz to 40 kHz. The manatee modulation rate transfer function (MRTF) is maximally sensitive to 150 and 600 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) rates. The 600 Hz AM rate is midway between the AM sensitivities of terrestrial mammals (chinchillas, gerbils, and humans) (80-150 Hz) and dolphins (1,000-1,200 Hz). Audiograms estimated from the input-output functions of the EPs greatly underestimate behavioral hearing thresholds measured in two other manatees. This underestimation is probably due to the electrodes being located several centimeters from the brain. PMID:16001184

  10. Spectro-temporal processing of speech – An information-theoretic framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Dau, Torsten; Greenberg, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Hearing – From Sensory Processing to Perception presents the papers of the latest "International Symposium on Hearing," a meeting held every three years focusing on psychoacoustics and the research of the physiological mechanisms underlying auditory perception. The proceedings provide an up...... physiological mechanisms of binaural processing in mammals; integration of the different stimulus features into auditory scene analysis; physiological mechanisms related to the formation of auditory objects; speech perception; and limitations of auditory perception resulting from hearing disorders....

  11. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave, while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  12. Stimulus intensity modulates multisensory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger Fister, Juliane; Stevenson, Ryan A; Nidiffer, Aaron R; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-29

    One of the more challenging feats that multisensory systems must perform is to determine which sensory signals originate from the same external event, and thus should be integrated or "bound" into a singular perceptual object or event, and which signals should be segregated. Two important stimulus properties impacting this process are the timing and effectiveness of the paired stimuli. It has been well established that the more temporally aligned two stimuli are, the greater the degree to which they influence one another's processing. In addition, the less effective the individual unisensory stimuli are in eliciting a response, the greater the benefit when they are combined. However, the interaction between stimulus timing and stimulus effectiveness in driving multisensory-mediated behaviors has never been explored - which was the purpose of the current study. Participants were presented with either high- or low-intensity audiovisual stimuli in which stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were parametrically varied, and were asked to report on the perceived synchrony/asynchrony of the paired stimuli. Our results revealed an interaction between the temporal relationship (SOA) and intensity of the stimuli. Specifically, individuals were more tolerant of larger temporal offsets (i.e., more likely to call them synchronous) when the paired stimuli were less effective. This interaction was also seen in response time (RT) distributions. Behavioral gains in RTs were seen with synchronous relative to asynchronous presentations, but this effect was more pronounced with high-intensity stimuli. These data suggest that stimulus effectiveness plays an underappreciated role in the perception of the timing of multisensory events, and reinforces the interdependency of the principles of multisensory integration in determining behavior and shaping perception. PMID:26920937

  13. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  14. Individual differences in the discrimination of novel speech sounds: effects of sex, temporal processing, musical and cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Thoresen, John C; Kirk, Neil W; Schaeffler, Felix; Brooks, Patricia J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether rapid temporal auditory processing, verbal working memory capacity, non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, musical ability and prior foreign language experience predicted how well native English speakers (N=120) discriminated Norwegian tonal and vowel contrasts as well as a non-speech analogue of the tonal contrast and a native vowel contrast presented over noise. Results confirmed a male advantage for temporal and tonal processing, and also revealed that temporal processing was associated with both non-verbal intelligence and speech processing. In contrast, effects of musical ability on non-native speech-sound processing and of inhibitory control on vowel discrimination were not mediated by temporal processing. These results suggest that individual differences in non-native speech-sound processing are to some extent determined by temporal auditory processing ability, in which males perform better, but are also determined by a host of other abilities that are deployed flexibly depending on the characteristics of the target sounds. PMID:23139806

  15. Fundamental deficits of auditory perception in Wernicke’s aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Holly; Grube, Manon; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Griffiths, Timothy; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This work investigates the nature of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke’s aphasia, by examining the relationship between deficits in auditory processing of fundamental, non-verbal acoustic stimuli and auditory comprehension. Wernicke’s aphasia, a condition resulting in severely disrupted auditory comprehension, primarily occurs following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) to the left temporo-parietal cortex. Whilst damage to posterior superior temporal areas is associated wit...

  16. Peeling the Onion of Auditory Processing Disorder: A Language/Curricular-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Geraldine P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article addresses auditory processing disorder (APD) from a language-based perspective. The author asks speech-language pathologists to evaluate the functionality (or not) of APD as a diagnostic category for children and adolescents with language-learning and academic difficulties. Suggestions are offered from a…

  17. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

  18. The Impacts of Language Background and Language-Related Disorders in Auditory Processing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of language background and language-related disorders (LRDs--dyslexia and/or language impairment) on performance in English speech and nonspeech tests of auditory processing (AP) commonly used in the clinic. Method: A clinical database concerning 133 multilingual children (mostly with English as an additional…

  19. Short-Term Memory and Auditory Processing Disorders: Concurrent Validity and Clinical Diagnostic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are of interest to educators and clinicians, as they impact school functioning. Little work has been completed to demonstrate how children with APDs perform on clinical tests. In a series of studies, standard clinical (psychometric) tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition…

  20. Effect of early onset otitis media on brainstem and cortical auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannarukrishnaiah Jayaram

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Otitis media (OM leads to significant reduction in the hearing sensitivity. The reduced auditory input, if in the early years of life when the auditory neural system is still maturing, may adversely influence the structural as well as functional development of the system. Past research has reported abnormalities in both the structure and function of brainstem nuclei following auditory deprivation, but, it has not necessarily focused on children who had OM in their first year of life. It can also be said that if auditory processing is affected at the brainstem level because of early onset OM (reduced auditory input in the crucial periods of neural development, then, it may be said that auditory processing is also affected at the cortical level because it receives distorted input from the brainstem. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the effects of early onset OM on auditory processing, if any, at the brainstem as well as at cortical levels. A related purpose of the study was to investigate the persistence of the effects of early onset OM, if any, on auditory processing. Methods A cross sectional approach and a standard group comparison design was used in the study. Thirty children, who had OM between 6 and 12 months of age and who were in the age range of 3.1 – 5.6 years participated in the study. Children with OM were divided into 3 groups based on their age. Click evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs and late latency responses (LLRs were recorded from these children, and the responses were compared with those from age and gender matched normal children without any history of OM. The data from the 2 groups was statistically analyzed through independent t test. Pearson's Product Moment correlation was computed to examine the relationship between results of ABR and LLR in children with early onset OM. Results The mean central conduction time was significantly increased and the mean amplitude of wave I

  1. Neural correlates of auditory-cognitive processing in older adult cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Yael; Yaar-Soffer, Yifat; Steinberg, Meidan; Muchnik, Chava

    2014-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults receiving cochlear implants (CI), there is general agreement that substantial benefits can be gained. Nonetheless, variability in speech perception performance is high, and the relative contribution and interactions among peripheral, central-auditory, and cognitive factors are not fully understood. The goal of the present study was to compare auditory-cognitive processing in older-adult CI recipients with that of older normal-hearing (NH) listeners by means of behavioral and electrophysiologic manifestations of a high-load cognitive task. Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) were recorded from 9 older postlingually deafened adults with CI (age at CI >60) and 10 age-matched listeners with NH, while performing an auditory Stroop task. Participants were required to classify the speaker's gender (male/female) that produced the words 'mother' or 'father' while ignoring the irrelevant congruent or incongruent word meaning. Older CI and NH listeners exhibited comparable reaction time, performance accuracy, and initial sensory-perceptual processing (i.e. N1 potential). Nonetheless, older CI recipients showed substantially prolonged and less efficient perceptual processing (i.e. P3 potential). Congruency effects manifested in longer reaction time (i.e. Stroop effect), execution time, and P3 latency to incongruent versus congruent stimuli in both groups in a similar fashion; however, markedly prolonged P3 and shortened execution time were evident in older CI recipients. Collectively, older adults (CI and NH) employed a combined perceptual and postperceptual conflict processing strategy; nonetheless, the relative allotment of perceptual resources was substantially enhanced to maintain adequate performance in CI recipients. In sum, the recording of AERPs together with the simultaneously obtained behavioral measures during a Stroop task exposed a differential time course of auditory-cognitive processing in older CI recipients that

  2. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  3. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  4. Aphasia and Auditory Processing after Stroke through an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Wanigasekara, Iruni; Cañete, Oscar M; Moore, Celia; McCann, Clare M

    2016-08-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language impairment affecting speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Aphasia occurs in about a third of patients who have ischemic stroke and significantly affects functional recovery and return to work. Stroke is more common in older individuals but also occurs in young adults and children. Because people experiencing a stroke are typically aged between 65 and 84 years, hearing loss is common and can potentially interfere with rehabilitation. There is some evidence for increased risk and greater severity of sensorineural hearing loss in the stroke population and hence it has been recommended that all people surviving a stroke should have a hearing test. Auditory processing difficulties have also been reported poststroke. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used as a basis for describing the effect of aphasia, hearing loss, and auditory processing difficulties on activities and participation. Effects include reduced participation in activities outside the home such as work and recreation and difficulty engaging in social interaction and communicating needs. A case example of a young man (M) in his 30s who experienced a left-hemisphere ischemic stroke is presented. M has normal hearing sensitivity but has aphasia and auditory processing difficulties based on behavioral and cortical evoked potential measures. His principal goal is to return to work. Although auditory processing difficulties (and hearing loss) are acknowledged in the literature, clinical protocols typically do not specify routine assessment. The literature and the case example presented here suggest a need for further research in this area and a possible change in practice toward more routine assessment of auditory function post-stroke. PMID:27489401

  5. Event-related desynchronization of frontal-midline theta rhythm during preconscious auditory oddball processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Masaru; Kirino, Eiji; Inoue, Reiichi; Arai, Heii

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the frontal-midline theta rhythm (Fm theta) generation mechanism employing event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analysis in relation to task-irrelevant external stimuli. A dual paradigm was employed: a videogame and the simultaneous presentation of passive auditory oddball stimuli. We analyzed the data concerning ERD/ERS using both Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and wavelet transform (WT). In the FFT data, during the periods with appearance of Fm theta, apparent ERD of the theta band was observed at Fz and Cz. ERD when Fm theta was present was much more prominent than when Fm theta was absent. In the WT data, as in the FFT data, ERD was seen again, but in this case the ERD was preceded by ERS during both the periods with and without Fm theta. Furthermore, the WT analysis indicated that ERD was followed by ERS during the periods without Fm theta. However, during Fm theta, no apparent ERS following ERD was seen. In our study, Fm theta was desynchronized by the auditory stimuli that were independent of the video game task used to evoke the Fm theta. The ERD of Fm theta might be reflecting the mechanism of "positive suppression" to process external auditory stimuli automatically and preventing attentional resources from being unnecessarily allocated to those stimuli. Another possibility is that Fm theta induced by our dual paradigm may reflect information processing modeled by multi-item working memory requirements for playing the videogame and the simultaneous auditory processing using a memory trace. ERS in the WT data without Fm theta might indicate further processing of the auditory information free from "positive suppression" control reflected by Fm theta. PMID:17993201

  6. Inducing attention not to blink: auditory entrainment improves conscious visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Luca; Pincham, Hannah L; Szűcs, Dénes; Facoetti, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Our ability to allocate attention at different moments in time can sometimes fail to select stimuli occurring in close succession, preventing visual information from reaching awareness. This so-called attentional blink (AB) occurs when the second of two targets (T2) is presented closely after the first (T1) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). We hypothesized that entrainment to a rhythmic stream of stimuli-before visual targets appear-would reduce the AB. Experiment 1 tested the effect of auditory entrainment by presenting sounds with a regular or irregular interstimulus interval prior to a RSVP where T1 and T2 were separated by three possible lags (1, 3 and 8). Experiment 2 examined visual entrainment by presenting visual stimuli in place of auditory stimuli. Results revealed that irrespective of sensory modality, arrhythmic stimuli preceding the RSVP triggered an alerting effect that improved the T2 identification at lag 1, but impaired the recovery from the AB at lag 8. Importantly, only auditory rhythmic entrainment was effective in reducing the AB at lag 3. Our findings demonstrate that manipulating the pre-stimulus condition can reduce deficits in temporal attention characterizing the human cognitive architecture, suggesting innovative trainings for acquired and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26215434

  7. Quantifying Auditory Temporal Stability in a Large Database of Recorded Music

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Robert J.; Zhiyan Duan; Ye Wang

    2014-01-01

    "Moving to the beat" is both one of the most basic and one of the most profound means by which humans (and a few other species) interact with music. Computer algorithms that detect the precise temporal location of beats (i.e., pulses of musical "energy") in recorded music have important practical applications, such as the creation of playlists with a particular tempo for rehabilitation (e.g., rhythmic gait training), exercise (e.g., jogging), or entertainment (e.g., continuous dance mixes). A...

  8. Temporal aggregation of an ESTAR process

    OpenAIRE

    I Paya; Peel, D

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear models of deviations from PPP have recently provided an important, theoretically well motivated, contribution to the PPP puzzle. Most of these studies use temporally aggregated data to empirically estimate the nonlinear models. As noted by Taylor (2001), if the true DGP is nonlinear, the temporally aggregated data could exhibit misleading properties regarding the adjustment speeds. We examine the effects of different levels of temporal aggregation on estimates of ESTAR models of rea...

  9. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli...

  10. Comparison of LFP-Based and Spike-Based Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields and Cross-Correlation in Cat Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Jos J.; Munguia, Raymundo; Pienkowski, Martin; Shaw, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP) activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs) based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF) gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that ...

  11. Stimulus-invariant processing and spectrotemporal reverse correlation in primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David J; Simon, Jonathan Z; Depireux, Didier A; Shamma, Shihab A

    2006-04-01

    The spectrotemporal receptive field (STRF) provides a versatile and integrated, spectral and temporal, functional characterization of single cells in primary auditory cortex (AI). In this paper, we explore the origin of, and relationship between, different ways of measuring and analyzing an STRF. We demonstrate that STRFs measured using a spectrotemporally diverse array of broadband stimuli-such as dynamic ripples, spectrotemporally white noise, and temporally orthogonal ripple combinations (TORCs)-are very similar, confirming earlier findings that the STRF is a robust linear descriptor of the cell. We also present a new deterministic analysis framework that employs the Fourier series to describe the spectrotemporal modulations contained in the stimuli and responses. Additional insights into the STRF measurements, including the nature and interpretation of measurement errors, is presented using the Fourier transform, coupled to singular-value decomposition (SVD), and variability analyses including bootstrap. The results promote the utility of the STRF as a core functional descriptor of neurons in AI. PMID:16518572

  12. Interaural cross correlation of event-related potentials and diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of auditory processing disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, James; Martin, Jeffrey; McColl, Roderick

    2004-01-01

    In a previous publication (Jerger et al, 2002), we presented event-related potential (ERP) data on a pair of 10-year-old twin girls (Twins C and E), one of whom (Twin E) showed strong evidence of auditory processing disorder. For the present paper, we analyzed cross-correlation functions of ERP waveforms generated in response to the presentation of target stimuli to either the right or left ears in a dichotic paradigm. There were four conditions; three involved the processing of real words for either phonemic, semantic, or spectral targets; one involved the processing of a nonword acoustic signal. Marked differences in the cross-correlation functions were observed. In the case of Twin C, cross-correlation functions were uniformly normal across both hemispheres. The functions for Twin E, however, suggest poorly correlated neural activity over the left parietal region during the three word processing conditions, and over the right parietal area in the nonword acoustic condition. Differences between the twins' brains were evaluated using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). For Twin E, results showed reduced anisotropy over the length of the midline corpus callosum and adjacent lateral structures, implying reduced myelin integrity. Taken together, these findings suggest that failure to achieve appropriate temporally correlated bihemispheric brain activity in response to auditory stimulation, perhaps as a result of faulty interhemispheric communication via corpus callosum, may be a factor in at least some children with auditory processing disorder. PMID:15030103

  13. The effects of visual training on multisensory temporal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wilson, Magdalena M.; Powers, Albert R.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of multisensory integration for human behavior and perception is well documented, as is the impact that temporal synchrony has on driving such integration. Thus, the more temporally coincident two sensory inputs from different modalities are, the more likely they will be perceptually bound. This temporal integration process is captured by the construct of the temporal binding window - the range of temporal offsets within which an individual is able to perceptually bind inputs across sensory modalities. Recent work has shown that this window is malleable, and can be narrowed via a multisensory perceptual feedback training process. In the current study, we seek to extend this by examining the malleability of the multisensory temporal binding window through changes in unisensory experience. Specifically, we measured the ability of visual perceptual feedback training to induce changes in the multisensory temporal binding window. Visual perceptual training with feedback successfully improved temporal visual processing and more importantly, this visual training increased the temporal precision across modalities, which manifested as a narrowing of the multisensory temporal binding window. These results are the first to establish the ability of unisensory temporal training to modulate multisensory temporal processes, findings that can provide mechanistic insights into multisensory integration and which may have a host of practical applications. PMID:23307155

  14. The influence of visual information on auditory processing in individuals with congenital amusia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao T; Sun, Yanan; Johnson, Blake W; Thompson, William F

    2016-07-15

    While most normal hearing individuals can readily use prosodic information in spoken language to interpret the moods and feelings of conversational partners, people with congenital amusia report that they often rely more on facial expressions and gestures, a strategy that may compensate for deficits in auditory processing. In this investigation, we used EEG to examine the extent to which individuals with congenital amusia draw upon visual information when making auditory or audio-visual judgments. Event-related potentials (ERP) were elicited by a change in pitch (up or down) between two sequential tones paired with a change in spatial position (up or down) between two visually presented dots. The change in dot position was either congruent or incongruent with the change in pitch. Participants were asked to judge (1) the direction of pitch change while ignoring the visual information (AV implicit task), and (2) whether the auditory and visual changes were congruent (AV explicit task). In the AV implicit task, amusic participants performed significantly worse in the incongruent condition than control participants. ERPs showed an enhanced N2-P3 response to incongruent AV pairings for control participants, but not for amusic participants. However when participants were explicitly directed to detect AV congruency, both groups exhibited enhanced N2-P3 responses to incongruent AV pairings. These findings indicate that amusics are capable of extracting information from both modalities in an AV task, but are biased to rely on visual information when it is available, presumably because they have learned that auditory information is unreliable. We conclude that amusic individuals implicitly draw upon visual information when judging auditory information, even though they have the capacity to explicitly recognize conflicts between these two sensory channels. PMID:27132045

  15. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Koelsch; Daniela Sammler

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians) were investi...

  16. Musical intervention enhances infants’ neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants’ neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants’ neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants’ neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants’ ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing. PMID:27114512

  17. Musical intervention enhances infants' neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-05-10

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants' neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants' neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants' ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing. PMID:27114512

  18. Rhythmic processing in children with developmental dyslexia: auditory and motor rhythms link to reading and spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Potential links between the language and motor systems in the brain have long attracted the interest of developmental psychologists. In this paper, we investigate a link often observed (e.g., [Wolff, P.H., 2002. Timing precision and rhythm in developmental dyslexia. Reading and Writing, 15 (1), 179-206.] between motor tapping and written language skills. We measure rhythmic finger tapping (paced by a metronome beat versus unpaced) and motor dexterity, phonological and auditory processing in 10-year old children, some of whom had a diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. We report links between paced motor tapping, auditory rhythmic processing and written language development. Motor dexterity does not explain these relationships. In regression analyses, paced finger tapping explained unique variance in reading and spelling. An interpretation based on the importance of rhythmic timing for both motor skills and language development is proposed. PMID:18448317

  19. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Haresabadi; Tahereh Sima Shirazi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI), one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the res...

  20. He hears, she hears: are there sex differences in auditory processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kathleen M; Phan, Mimi L; Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S

    2015-03-01

    Songbirds learn individually unique songs through vocal imitation and use them in courtship and territorial displays. Previous work has identified a forebrain auditory area, the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), that appears specialized for discriminating and remembering conspecific vocalizations. In zebra finches (ZFs), only males produce learned vocalizations, but both sexes process these and other signals. This study assessed sex differences in auditory processing by recording extracellular multiunit activity at multiple sites within NCM. Juvenile female ZFs (n = 46) were reared in individual isolation and artificially tutored with song. In adulthood, songs were played back to assess auditory responses, stimulus-specific adaptation, neural bias for conspecific song, and memory for the tutor's song, as well as recently heard songs. In a subset of females (n = 36), estradiol (E2) levels were manipulated to test the contribution of E2, known to be synthesized in the brain, to auditory responses. Untreated females (n = 10) showed significant differences in response magnitude and stimulus-specific adaptation compared to males reared in the same paradigm (n = 9). In hormone-manipulated females, E2 augmentation facilitated the memory for recently heard songs in adulthood, but neither E2 augmentation (n = 15) nor E2 synthesis blockade (n = 9) affected tutor song memory or the neural bias for conspecific song. The results demonstrate subtle sex differences in processing communication signals, and show that E2 levels in female songbirds can affect the memory for songs of potential suitors, thus contributing to the process of mate selection. The results also have potential relevance to clinical interventions that manipulate E2 in human patients. PMID:25220950

  1. Lateralization of Music Processing with Noises in the Auditory Cortex: An fNIRS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik eSantosa; Melissa Jiyoun Hong; Keum-Shik eHong

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing fourteen subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music+noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distingui...

  2. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish s...

  3. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz; Yolanda R. Penaloza-Lopez; Felipe Garcia-Pedroza; Adrian Poblano

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to...

  4. Coevolution in communication senders and receivers: vocal behavior and auditory processing in multiple songbird species

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.; Moore, Jordan M.

    2011-01-01

    Communication is a strong selective pressure on brain evolution because the exchange of information between individuals is crucial for fitness-related behaviors, such as mating. Given the importance of communication, the brains of signal senders and receivers are likely to be functionally coordinated. We study vocal behavior and auditory processing in multiple species of estrildid finches with the goal of understanding how species identity and early experience interact to shape the neural sys...

  5. Auditory and speech processing in specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomainen, O. T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates auditory and speech processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia. One influential theory of SLI and dyslexia postulates that both SLI and dyslexia stem from similar underlying sensory deficit that impacts speech perception and phonological development leading to oral language and literacy deficits. Previous studies, however, have shown that these underlying sensory deficits exist in only a subgroup of language impaired individuals, and ...

  6. Slow wave changes in amygdala to visual, auditory, and social stimuli following lesions of the inferior temporal cortex in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, A S; Lloyd, R L; Perryman, K M

    1987-01-01

    Radiotelemetry of slow wave activity of the amygdala was recorded under a variety of conditions. Power, and the percentage of power in the delta band, increased in response to stimulation. Recordings of monkey vocalizations and slides of ethologically relevant, natural objects produced a greater increase in power than did control stimuli. The responses to auditory stimuli increased when these stimuli were presented in an unrestrained, group setting, yet the responses to the vocalizations remained greater than those following control stimuli. Both the natural auditory and visual stimuli produced a reliable hierarchy with regard to the magnitude of response. Following lesions of inferior temporal cortex, these two hierarchies are disrupted, especially in the auditory domain. Further, these same stimuli, when presented after the lesion, produced a decrease, rather than an increase, in power. Nevertheless, the power recorded from the natural stimuli was still greater than that recorded from control stimuli in that the former produced less of a decrease in power, following the lesion, than did the latter. These data, in conjunction with a parallel report on evoked potentials in the amygdala, before and after cortical lesions, lead us to conclude that sensory information, particularly auditory, available to the amygdala, following the lesion, is substantially the same, and that it is the interpretation of this information, by the amygdala, which is altered by the cortical lesion. PMID:3566692

  7. The early component of middle latency auditory-evoked potentials in the process of deviance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Gong, Qin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate both the encoding mechanism and the process of deviance detection when deviant stimuli were presented in various patterns in an environment featuring repetitive sounds. In adults with normal hearing, middle latency responses were recorded within an oddball paradigm containing complex tones or speech sounds, wherein deviant stimuli featured different change patterns. For both complex tones and speech sounds, the Na and Pa components of middle latency responses showed an increase in the mean amplitude and a reduction in latency when comparing rare deviant stimuli with repetitive standard stimuli in a stimulation block. However, deviant stimuli with a rising frequency induced signals with smaller amplitudes than other deviant stimuli. The present findings indicate that deviant stimuli with different change patterns induce differing responses in the primary auditory cortex. In addition, the Pa components of speech sounds typically feature a longer latency and similar mean amplitude compared with complex tones, which suggests that the auditory system requires more complex processing for the analysis of speech sounds before processing in the auditory cortex. PMID:27203294

  8. Cognitive components of regularity processing in the auditory domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Music-syntactic irregularities often co-occur with the processing of physical irregularities. In this study we constructed chord-sequences such that perceived differences in the cognitive processing between regular and irregular chords could not be due to the sensory processing of acoustic factors like pitch repetition or pitch commonality (the major component of 'sensory dissonance'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two groups of subjects (musicians and nonmusicians were investigated with electroencephalography (EEG. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The ERAN had a latency of around 180 ms after the onset of the music-syntactically irregular chords, and had maximum amplitude values over right anterior electrode sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because irregular chords were hardly detectable based on acoustical factors (such as pitch repetition and sensory dissonance, this ERAN effect reflects for the most part cognitive (not sensory components of regularity-based, music-syntactic processing. Our study represents a methodological advance compared to previous ERP-studies investigating the neural processing of music-syntactically irregular chords.

  9. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BethanyPlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  10. Video Game Players Show More Precise Multisensory Temporal Processing Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Sarah E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. The current study examined whether video game players’ benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting video game players and non-video game players auditory and visual stim...

  11. Auditory Processing in Noise: A Preschool Biomarker for Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Thompson, Elaine C.; Anderson, Samira; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Zecker, Steven G.; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is a fundamental developmental milestone, and achieving reading competency has lifelong consequences. Although literacy development proceeds smoothly for many children, a subset struggle with this learning process, creating a need to identify reliable biomarkers of a child’s future literacy that could facilitate early diagnosis and access to crucial early interventions. Neural markers of reading skills have been identified in school-aged children and adults; many pertain to t...

  12. Multiple benefits of personal FM system use by children with auditory processing disorder (APD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristin N; John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Nicole V; Hall, James W; Crandell, Carl C

    2009-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorders (APD) were fitted with Phonak EduLink FM devices for home and classroom use. Baseline measures of the children with APD, prior to FM use, documented significantly lower speech-perception scores, evidence of decreased academic performance, and psychosocial problems in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. Repeated measures during the school year demonstrated speech-perception improvement in noisy classroom environments as well as significant academic and psychosocial benefits. Compared with the control group, the children with APD showed greater speech-perception advantage with FM technology. Notably, after prolonged FM use, even unaided (no FM device) speech-perception performance was improved in the children with APD, suggesting the possibility of fundamentally enhanced auditory system function. PMID:19925345

  13. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Gleb; Rybacki, Konrad; van Opstal, A John; Bakker, Rembrandt; Shen, Kelly; Vakorin, Vasily A; McIntosh, Anthony R; Kötter, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the visual cortex, which features rather prominent segregation into spatial and non-spatial domains. It has been hypothesised that other sensory systems, including auditory, are organised in a similar way on the cortical level. Recent studies offer rich qualitative evidence for the dual stream hypothesis. Here we provide a new paradigm to quantitatively uncover these patterns in the auditory system, based on an analysis of multiple anatomical studies using multivariate techniques. As a test case, we also apply our assessment techniques to more ubiquitously-explored visual system. Importantly, the introduced framework opens the possibility for these techniques to be applied to other neural systems featuring a dichotomised organisation, such as language or music perception. PMID:24980416

  14. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine eFoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex is well known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of 8 patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75-200ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity towards dissonance.

  15. Performance on tests of central auditory processing by individuals exposed to high-intensity blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six blast-exposed patients and twenty-nine non-blast-exposed control subjects were tested on a battery of behavioral and electrophysiological tests that have been shown to be sensitive to central auditory processing deficits. Abnormal performance among the blast-exposed patients was assessed with reference to normative values established as the mean performance on each test by the control subjects plus or minus two standard deviations. Blast-exposed patients performed abnormally at rates significantly above that which would occur by chance on three of the behavioral tests of central auditory processing: the Gaps-In-Noise, Masking Level Difference, and Staggered Spondaic Words tests. The proportion of blast-exposed patients performing abnormally on a speech-in-noise test (Quick Speech-In-Noise was also significantly above that expected by chance. These results suggest that, for some patients, blast exposure may lead to difficulties with hearing in complex auditory environments, even when peripheral hearing sensitivity is near normal limits.

  16. Psychophysical Estimates of Frequency Discrimination: More than Just Limitations of Auditory Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Sabisch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient auditory processing is hypothesized to support language and literacy development. However, behavioral tasks used to assess this hypothesis need to be robust to non-auditory specific individual differences. This study compared frequency discrimination abilities in a heterogeneous sample of adults using two different psychoacoustic task designs, referred to here as: 2I_6A_X and 3I_2AFC designs. The role of individual differences in nonverbal IQ (NVIQ, socioeconomic status (SES and musical experience in predicting frequency discrimination thresholds on each task were assessed using multiple regression analyses. The 2I_6A_X task was more cognitively demanding and hence more susceptible to differences specifically in SES and musical training. Performance on this task did not, however, relate to nonword repetition ability (a measure of language learning capacity. The 3I_2AFC task, by contrast, was only susceptible to musical training. Moreover, thresholds measured using it predicted some variance in nonword repetition performance. This design thus seems suitable for use in studies addressing questions regarding the role of auditory processing in supporting language and literacy development.

  17. White matter microstructure is associated with auditory and tactile processing in children with and without sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorders (SPD affect up to 16% of school-aged children, and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits impacting affected individuals and their families. While sensory processing differences are now widely recognized in children with autism, children with sensory-based dysfunction who do not meet autism criteria based on social communication deficits remain virtually unstudied. In a previous pilot diffusion tensor imaging (DTI study, we demonstrated that boys with SPD have altered white matter microstructure primarily affecting the posterior cerebral tracts, which subserve sensory processing and integration. This disrupted microstructural integrity, measured as reduced white matter fractional anisotropy (FA, correlated with parent report measures of atypical sensory behavior. In this present study, we investigate white matter microstructure as it relates to tactile and auditory function in depth with a larger, mixed-gender cohort of children 8 to 12 years of age. We continue to find robust alterations of posterior white matter microstructure in children with SPD relative to typically developing children, along with more spatially distributed alterations. We find strong correlations of FA with both parent report and direct measures of tactile and auditory processing across children, with the direct assessment measures of tactile and auditory processing showing a stronger and more continuous mapping to the underlying white matter integrity than the corresponding parent report measures. Based on these findings of microstructure as a neural correlate of sensory processing ability, diffusion MRI merits further investigation as a tool to find biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response in children with SPD. To our knowledge, this work is the first to demonstrate associations of directly measured tactile and non-linguistic auditory function with white matter microstructural integrity -- not just in children with

  18. Auditory-model based assessment of the effects of hearing loss and hearing-aid compression on spectral and temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalewski, Borys; MacDonald, Ewen; Strelcyk, Olaf;

    2016-01-01

    auditory modeling. Inspired by the work of Edwards (2002), we studied the effects of DRC on a set of relatively basic outcome measures, such as forward masking functions (Glasberg and Moore, 1987) and spectral masking patterns (Moore et al., 1998), obtained at several masker levels and frequencies....... Outcomes were simulated using the auditory processing model of Jepsen et al. (2008) with the front end modified to include effects of hearing impairment and DRC. The results were compared to experimental data from normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners....

  19. Simple ears-flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerit PFUHL; Blanka KALINOVA; Irena VALTEROVA; Bente G.BERG

    2015-01-01

    Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats.Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs.With only 1 to 4 receptor cells,they are one of the simplest hearing organs.The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity,neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit.Behaviorally,the response to ultrasound is far from being a simple reflex.Moths' escape behavior is modulated by a variety of cues,especially pheromones,which can alter the auditory response.Neurally the receptor cell(s) diverges onto many intemeurons,enabling pa rallel processing and feature extraction.Ascending interneurons and sound-sensitive brain neurons innervate a neuropil in the ventrolateral protocerebrum.Further,recent electrophysiological data provides the first glimpses into how the acoustic response is modulated as well as how ultrasound influences the other senses.So far,the auditory pathway has been studied in noctuids.The findings agree well with common computational principles found in other insects.However,moth ears also show unique mechanical and neural adaptation.Here,we first describe the variety of moths' auditory behavior,especially the co-option of ultrasonic signals for intraspecific communication.Second,we describe the current knowledge of the neural pathway gained from noctuid moths.Finally,we argue that Galleriinae which show negative and positive phonotaxis,are an interesting model species for future electrophysiological studies of the auditory pathway and multimodal sensory integration,and so are ideally suited for the study of the evolution of behavioral mechanisms given a few receptors [Current Zoology 61 (2):292-302,2015].

  20. Neural correlates of auditory-somatosensory interaction in speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Takayuki; Gracco, Vincent; Ostry, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009). In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech p...

  1. Bilingual language processing after a lesion in the left thalamic and temporal regions. A case report with early childhood onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study concerns an 18-year-old bilingual girl who suffered a radiation lesion in the left (dominant) thalamic and temporal region when she was 4 years old. Language and memory assessment revealed deficits in auditory short-term memory, auditory word comprehension, nonword repetition, syntactic processing, word fluency, and confrontation naming tasks. Both languages (English and Dutch) were found to be affected in a similar manner, despite the fact that one language (English) was acquired before and the other (Dutch) after the period of lesion onset. Most of the deficits appear to be related to verbal (short-term) memory dysfunction. Several hypotheses of subcortical involvement in memory processes are discussed with reference to existing theories in this area

  2. 听觉皮层信号处理%Information processing in auditory cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓勤

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the visual system, the auditory system has longer subcortical pathways and more spiking synapses between the peripheral receptors and the cortex. This unique organization reflects the needs of the auditory system to extract behaviorally relevant information from a complex acoustic environment using strategies different from those used by other sensory systems. The neural representations of acoustic information in auditory cortex include two types of important transformations: the non-isomorphic transformation of acoustic features and the transformation from acoustical to perceptual dimensions. Neural representations in auditory cortex are also modulated by auditory feedback and vocal control signals during speaking or vocalization. The challenges facing auditory neuroscientists and biomedical engineers are to understand neural coding mechanisms in the brain underlying such transformations. I will use recent findings from my laboratory to illustrate how acoustic information is processed in the primate auditory cortex and discuss its implications for neural processing of speech and music in the brain as well as for the design of neural prosthetic devices such as cochlear implants. We have used a combination of neurophysiological techniques and quantitative engineering tools to investigate these problems.%听觉系统和视觉系统的不同之处在于:听觉系统在外周感受器和听皮层间具有更长的皮层下通路和更多的突触联系.该特殊结构反应了听觉系统从复杂听觉环境中提取与行为相关信号的机制与其他感觉系统不同.听皮层神经信号处理包括两种重要的转换机制,声音信号的非同构转换以及从声音感受到知觉层面的转换.听觉皮层神经编码机制同时也受到听觉反馈和语言或发声过程中发声信号的调控.听觉神经科学家和生物医学工程师所面临的挑战便是如何去理解大脑中这些转换的编码机制.我将会用我实验

  3. The quest for universals in temporal processing in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C; Bertrand, D

    2001-06-01

    Music perception and performance rely heavily on temporal processing: for instance, each event must be situated in time in relation to surrounding events, and events must be grouped together in order to overcome memory constraints. The temporal structure of music varies considerably from one culture to another, and so it has often been supposed that the specific implementation of perceptual and cognitive temporal processes will differ as a function of an individual's cultural exposure and experience. In this paper we examine the alternative position that some temporal processes may be universal, in the sense that they function in a similar manner irrespective of an individual's cultural exposure and experience. We first review rhythm perception and production studies carried out with adult musicians, adult nonmusicians, children, and infants in order to identify temporal processes that appear to function in a similar fashion irrespective of age, acculturation, and musical training. This review leads to the identification of five temporal processes that we submit as candidates for the status of "temporal universals." For each process, we select the simplest and most representative experimental paradigm that has been used to date. This leads to a research proposal for future intercultural studies that could test the universal nature of these processes. PMID:11458828

  4. Auditory sequence processing reveals evolutionarily conserved regions of frontal cortex in macaques and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Benjamin; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Sun, Li; Hunter, David; Dick, Frederic; Smith, Kenny; Thiele, Alexander; Griffiths, Timothy D; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-01

    An evolutionary account of human language as a neurobiological system must distinguish between human-unique neurocognitive processes supporting language and evolutionarily conserved, domain-general processes that can be traced back to our primate ancestors. Neuroimaging studies across species may determine whether candidate neural processes are supported by homologous, functionally conserved brain areas or by different neurobiological substrates. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging in Rhesus macaques and humans to examine the brain regions involved in processing the ordering relationships between auditory nonsense words in rule-based sequences. We find that key regions in the human ventral frontal and opercular cortex have functional counterparts in the monkey brain. These regions are also known to be associated with initial stages of human syntactic processing. This study raises the possibility that certain ventral frontal neural systems, which play a significant role in language function in modern humans, originally evolved to support domain-general abilities involved in sequence processing. PMID:26573340

  5. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  6. Auditory target processing in methadone substituted opiate addicts: The effect of nicotine in controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerbin Dieter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P300 component of the auditory evoked potential is an indicator of attention dependent target processing. Only a few studies have assessed cognitive function in substituted opiate addicts by means of evoked potential recordings. In addition, P300 data suggest that chronic nicotine use reduces P300 amplitudes. While nicotine and opiate effects combine in addicted subjects, here we investigated the P300 component of the auditory event related potential in methadone substituted opiate addicts with and without concomitant non-opioid drug use in comparison to a group of control subjects with and without nicotine consumption. Methods We assessed 47 opiate addicted out-patients under current methadone substitution and 65 control subjects matched for age and gender in an 2-stimulus auditory oddball paradigm. Patients were grouped for those with and without additional non-opioid drug use and controls were grouped for current nicotine use. P300 amplitude and latency data were analyzed at electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. Results Patients and controls did not differ with regard to P300 amplitudes and latencies when whole groups were compared. Subgroup analyses revealed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in controls with nicotine use when compared to those without. P300 amplitudes of methadone substituted opiate addicts were in between the two control groups and did not differ with regard to additional non-opioid use. Controls with nicotine had lower P300 amplitudes when compared to patients with concomitant non-opioid drugs. No P300 latency effects were found. Conclusion Attention dependent target processing as indexed by the P300 component amplitudes and latencies is not reduced in methadone substituted opiate addicts when compared to controls. The effect of nicotine on P300 amplitudes in healthy subjects exceeds the effects of long term opioid addiction under methadone substitution.

  7. Linguistic category structure influences early auditory processing: Converging evidence from mismatch responses and cortical oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Monahan, Philip J; Idsardi, William J

    2016-03-01

    While previous research has established that language-specific knowledge influences early auditory processing, it is still controversial as to what aspects of speech sound representations determine early speech perception. Here, we propose that early processing primarily depends on information propagated top-down from abstractly represented speech sound categories. In particular, we assume that mid-vowels (as in 'bet') exert less top-down effects than the high-vowels (as in 'bit') because of their less specific (default) tongue height position as compared to either high- or low-vowels (as in 'bat'). We tested this assumption in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study where we contrasted mid- and high-vowels, as well as the low- and high-vowels in a passive oddball paradigm. Overall, significant differences between deviants and standards indexed reliable mismatch negativity (MMN) responses between 200 and 300ms post-stimulus onset. MMN amplitudes differed in the mid/high-vowel contrasts and were significantly reduced when a mid-vowel standard was followed by a high-vowel deviant, extending previous findings. Furthermore, mid-vowel standards showed reduced oscillatory power in the pre-stimulus beta-frequency band (18-26Hz), compared to high-vowel standards. We take this as converging evidence for linguistic category structure to exert top-down influences on auditory processing. The findings are interpreted within the linguistic model of underspecification and the neuropsychological predictive coding framework. PMID:26780574

  8. The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Processing in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Costa, Silvana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; Chakravarthi, Ramakrishna; Almeida, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Although the integrity of the visual system is often affected in multiple sclerosis (MS), the potential relationship between the temporal dynamics of visual processing and performance on neuropsychological tests assessing processing speed (PS) remains relatively unexplored. Here, we test if a PS deficit is related to abnormalities within the visual system, rather than impaired higher-level cognitive function. Two groups of participants with MS (1 group with PS deficits and another without) and a healthy control group, matched for age and education, were included. To explore the temporal dynamics of visual processing, we used 2 psychophysical paradigms: attention enhancement/prioritization and rapid serial visual presentation. Visual PS deficits were associated with a decreased capability to detect visual stimuli and a higher limitation in visual temporal-processing capacity. These results suggest that a latent sensorial temporal limitation of the visual system is significantly associated to PS deficits in MS. PMID:26508328

  9. Results from a National Central Auditory Processing Disorder Service: A Real-World Assessment of Diagnostic Practices and Remediation for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Glyde, Helen; Dillon, Harvey; King, Alison; Gillies, Karin

    2015-11-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of a national service to diagnose and remediate central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Data were gathered from 38 participating Australian Hearing centers over an 18-month period from 666 individuals age 6, 0 (years, months) to 24, 8 (median 9, 0). A total of 408 clients were diagnosed with either a spatial processing disorder (n = 130), a verbal memory deficit (n = 174), or a binaural integration deficit (n = 104). A hierarchical test protocol was used so not all children were assessed on all tests in the battery. One hundred fifty clients decided to proceed with deficit-specific training (LiSN & Learn or Memory Booster) and/or be fitted with a frequency modulation system. Families were provided with communication strategies targeted to a child's specific listening difficulties and goals. Outcomes were measured using repeat assessment of the relevant diagnostic test, as well as the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement measure and Listening Inventories for Education teacher questionnaire. Group analyses revealed significant improvements postremediation for all training/management options. Individual posttraining performance and results of outcome measures also are discussed. PMID:27587910

  10. Oxytocin receptor gene associated with the efficiency of social auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattie eTops

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin has been shown to facilitate social aspects of sensory processing, thereby enhancing social communicative behaviors and empathy. Here we report that compared to the AA/AG genotypes, the presumably more efficient GG genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576 that has previously been associated with increased sensitivity of social processing is related to less self-reported difficulty in hearing and understanding people when there is background noise. The present result extends associations between oxytocin and social processing to the auditory and vocal domain. We discuss the relevance of our findings for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, as ASD seems related to specific impairments in the orienting to, and selection of speech sounds from background noise, and some social processing impairments in patients with ASD have been found responsive to oxytocin treatment.

  11. The Effect of Delayed Auditory Feedback on Activity in the Temporal Lobe while Speaking: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaso, Hideki; Eisner, Frank; Wise, Richard J. S.; Scott, Sophie K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback is a technique that can improve fluency in stutterers, while disrupting fluency in many nonstuttering individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the neural basis for the detection of and compensation for such a delay, and the effects of increases in the delay duration. Method: Positron emission…

  12. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lindeberg

    Full Text Available We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC and primary auditory cortex (A1 of mammals.

  13. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  14. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD, we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS. Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to measure alterations in central auditory processing (CAP, such as determination of frequency patterns; sound duration; music pitch recognition; and identification of environmental sounds. We compared results among the two groups. Results Children with DD showed lower performance than CS in all CAP subtests, including those that preferentially engaged the cerebral right hemisphere. Conclusion Our data suggests a significant contribution of the right hemisphere in alterations of CAP in children with DD. Thus, right hemisphere CAP must be considered for examination and rehabilitation of children with DD.

  15. Chinese-English bilinguals processing temporal-spatial metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    The conceptual projection of time onto the domain of space constitutes one of the most challenging issues in the cognitive embodied theories. In Chinese, spatial order (e.g.,/da shu qian/, in front of a tree) shares the same terms with temporal sequence (", /san yue qian/, before March). In comparison, English natives use different sets of prepositions to describe spatial and temporal relationship, i.e., "before" to express temporal sequencing and "in front of" to express spatial order. The linguistic variations regarding the specific lexical encodings indicate that some flexibility might be available in how space-time parallelisms are formulated across different languages. In the present study, ERP (Event-related potentials) data were collected when Chinese-English bilinguals processed temporal ordering and spatial sequencing in both their first language (L1) Chinese (Experiment 1) and the second language (L2) English (Experiment 2). It was found that, despite the different lexical encodings, early sensorimotor simulation plays a role in temporal sequencing processing in both L1 Chinese and L2 English. The findings well support the embodied theory that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensory-motor systems (Gallese and Lakoff, Cogn Neuropsychol 22:455-479, 2005). Additionally, in both languages, neural representations during comprehending temporal sequencing and spatial ordering are different. The time-spatial relationship is asymmetric, in that space schema could be imported into temporal sequence processing but not vice versa. These findings support the weak view of the Metaphoric Mapping Theory. PMID:24889328

  16. Neurobehavioral mechanisms of temporal processing deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L Harrington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD disrupts temporal processing, but the neuronal sources of deficits and their response to dopamine (DA therapy are not understood. Though the striatum and DA transmission are thought to be essential for timekeeping, potential working memory (WM and executive problems could also disrupt timing. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The present study addressed these issues by testing controls and PD volunteers 'on' and 'off' DA therapy as they underwent fMRI while performing a time-perception task. To distinguish systems associated with abnormalities in temporal and non-temporal processes, we separated brain activity during encoding and decision-making phases of a trial. Whereas both phases involved timekeeping, the encoding and decision phases emphasized WM and executive processes, respectively. The methods enabled exploration of both the amplitude and temporal dynamics of neural activity. First, we found that time-perception deficits were associated with striatal, cortical, and cerebellar dysfunction. Unlike studies of timed movement, our results could not be attributed to traditional roles of the striatum and cerebellum in movement. Second, for the first time we identified temporal and non-temporal sources of impaired time perception. Striatal dysfunction was found during both phases consistent with its role in timekeeping. Activation was also abnormal in a WM network (middle-frontal and parietal cortex, lateral cerebellum during encoding and a network that modulates executive and memory functions (parahippocampus, posterior cingulate during decision making. Third, hypoactivation typified neuronal dysfunction in PD, but was sometimes characterized by abnormal temporal dynamics (e.g., lagged, prolonged that were not due to longer response times. Finally, DA therapy did not alleviate timing deficits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that impaired timing in PD arises from nigrostriatal and mesocortical dysfunction

  17. Music perception: information flow within the human auditory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Concha, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Information processing of all acoustic stimuli involves temporal lobe regions referred to as auditory cortices, which receive direct afferents from the auditory thalamus. However, the perception of music (as well as speech or spoken language) is a complex process that also involves secondary and association cortices that conform a large functional network. Using different analytical techniques and stimulation paradigms, several studies have shown that certain areas are particularly sensitive to specific acoustic characteristics inherent to music (e.g., rhythm). This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of the auditory cortices, and highlights specific experiments that suggest the existence of distinct cortical networks for the perception of music and speech. PMID:25358716

  18. Temporal Processing in the Visual System

    OpenAIRE

    Aghdaee, Seyed Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Encoding time is one of the most important features of the mammalian brain. The visual system, comprising almost half of the brain is of no exception. Time processing enables us to make goal-directed behavior in the optimum “time window” and launch a ballistic eye movement, reach/grasp an object or direct our processing resources (attention) from one point of interest to another. In addition, encoding time is critical for higher cognitive functions, enabling us to make causal inferences. The ...

  19. The role of the cerebellum in auditory processing using the SSI test A participação do cerebelo no processamento auditivo com o uso do teste SSI

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Maria Sens; Clemente Isnard Ribeiro de Almeida; Marisa Mara Neves de Souza; Josyane Borges A. Gonçalves; Luiz Claudio do Carmo

    2011-01-01

    The Synthetic Sentence Identification (SSI) test assesses central auditory pathways by measuring auditory and visual sensitivity and testing selective attention. Cerebellum activation in auditory attention and sensorial activity modulation have already been described. Assessing patients with cerebellar lesions alone using the SSI test can confirm the role of the cerebellum in auditory processing. AIM: To evaluate the role of the cerebellum in auditory processing in individuals with normal hea...

  20. Processing of harmonics in the lateral belt of macaque auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2014-01-01

    Many speech sounds and animal vocalizations contain components, referred to as complex tones, that consist of a fundamental frequency (F0) and higher harmonics. In this study we examined single-unit activity recorded in the core (A1) and lateral belt (LB) areas of auditory cortex in two rhesus monkeys as they listened to pure tones and pitch-shifted conspecific vocalizations ("coos"). The latter consisted of complex-tone segments in which F0 was matched to a corresponding pure-tone stimulus. In both animals, neuronal latencies to pure-tone stimuli at the best frequency (BF) were ~10 to 15 ms longer in LB than in A1. This might be expected, since LB is considered to be at a hierarchically higher level than A1. On the other hand, the latency of LB responses to coos was ~10 to 20 ms shorter than to the corresponding pure-tone BF, suggesting facilitation in LB by the harmonics. This latency reduction by coos was not observed in A1, resulting in similar coo latencies in A1 and LB. Multi-peaked neurons were present in both A1 and LB; however, harmonically-related peaks were observed in LB for both early and late response components, whereas in A1 they were observed only for late components. Our results suggest that harmonic features, such as relationships between specific frequency intervals of communication calls, are processed at relatively early stages of the auditory cortical pathway, but preferentially in LB. PMID:25100935

  1. IMPAIRED PROCESSING IN THE PRIMARY AUDITORY CORTEX OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eAnomal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain.

  2. Auditory Stream Segregation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Benefits and Downsides of Superior Perceptual Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Lucie; Mottron, Laurent; Valdois, Sylviane; Donnadieu, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Auditory stream segregation allows us to organize our sound environment, by focusing on specific information and ignoring what is unimportant. One previous study reported difficulty in stream segregation ability in children with Asperger syndrome. In order to investigate this question further, we used an interleaved melody recognition task with children in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this task, a probe melody is followed by a mixed sequence, made up of a target melody interleaved with a distractor melody. These two melodies have either the same [0 semitone (ST)] or a different mean frequency (6, 12 or 24 ST separation conditions). Children have to identify if the probe melody is present in the mixed sequence. Children with ASD performed better than typical children when melodies were completely embedded. Conversely, they were impaired in the ST separation conditions. Our results confirm the difficulty of children with ASD in using a frequency cue to organize auditory perceptual information. However, superior performance in the completely embedded condition may result from superior perceptual processes in autism. We propose that this atypical pattern of results might reflect the expression of a single cognitive feature in autism. PMID:24281422

  3. Developmental Dyslexia: Exploring How Much Phonological and Visual Attention Span Disorders Are Linked to Simultaneous Auditory Processing Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were…

  4. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  5. Differential Processing of Consonance and Dissonance within the Human Superior Temporal Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Francine; King-Stephens, David; Weber, Peter; Laxer, Kenneth; Parvizi, Josef; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex is well-known to be critical for music perception, including the perception of consonance and dissonance. Studies on the neural correlates of consonance and dissonance perception have largely employed non-invasive electrophysiological and functional imaging techniques in humans as well as neurophysiological recordings in animals, but the fine-grained spatiotemporal dynamics within the human auditory cortex remain unknown. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals directly from the lateral surface of either the left or right temporal lobe of eight patients undergoing neurosurgical treatment as they passively listened to highly consonant and highly dissonant musical chords. We assessed ECoG activity in the high gamma (γhigh, 70-150 Hz) frequency range within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and observed two types of cortical sites of interest in both hemispheres: one type showed no significant difference in γhigh activity between consonant and dissonant chords, and another type showed increased γhigh responses to dissonant chords between 75 and 200 ms post-stimulus onset. Furthermore, a subset of these sites exhibited additional sensitivity towards different types of dissonant chords, and a positive correlation between changes in γhigh power and the degree of stimulus roughness was observed in both hemispheres. We also observed a distinct spatial organization of cortical sites in the right STG, with dissonant-sensitive sites located anterior to non-sensitive sites. In sum, these findings demonstrate differential processing of consonance and dissonance in bilateral STG with the right hemisphere exhibiting robust and spatially organized sensitivity toward dissonance. PMID:27148011

  6. The effect of spectrally and temporally altered auditory feedback on speech intonation by hard of hearing listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Tamaki, Chizuko; Thomas, Lannie

    2003-04-01

    Eight listeners with severe to profound hearing loss read a six-sentence passage under spectrally altered and/or delayed auditory feedback. Spectral manipulation was implemented by filtering the speech signal into either one or four frequency bands, extracting respective amplitude envelope(s), and amplitude-modulating the corresponding noise band(s). Thus, the resulting auditory feedback did not preserve intonation information, although the four-band noise signal remained intelligible. The two noise conditions and the unaltered speech were each tested under the simultaneous and three delayed (50 ms, 100 ms, 200 ms) feedback conditions. Auditory feedback was presented via insert earphones at the listener's most comfortable level. Recorded speech was analyzed for the form and domain of the fundamental frequency (f0) declination, the magnitude of the sentence initial f0 peak (P1), and the fall-rise pattern of f0 at the phrasal boundaries. A significant interaction between the two feedback manipulations was found. Intonation characteristics were affected by speech delay only under the spectrally unaltered feedback: The magnitude of P1 and the slope of the f0 topline both increased with the delay. The spectral smearing diminished the fall-rise pattern within a sentence. Individual differences in the magnitude of these effects were significant.

  7. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  8. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, NS; Willmore, BDB; Schnupp, JWH; King, AJ; Schoppe, O

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently- heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet, current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here, we present a model of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the I...

  9. MODIS multi-temporal data retrieval and processing toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiuzzi, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Klisch, A.

    2012-01-01

    The package functionalities are focused for the download and processing of multi-temporal datasets from MODIS sensors. All standard MODIS grid data can be accessed and processed by the package routines. The package is still in alpha development and not all the functionalities are available for now.

  10. On spatio-temporal Lévy based Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokesova, Michaela; Hellmund, Gunnar; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    The paper discusses a new class of models for spatio-temporal Cox point processes. In these models, the driving field is defined by means of an integral of a weight function with respect to a Lévy basis. The relations to other Cox process models studied previously are discussed and formulas for t...

  11. Both the middle temporal gyrus and the ventral anterior temporal area are crucial for multimodal semantic processing: distortion-corrected fMRI evidence for a double gradient of information convergence in the temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maya; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Embleton, Karl V; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-08-01

    Most contemporary theories of semantic memory assume that concepts are formed from the distillation of information arising in distinct sensory and verbal modalities. The neural basis of this distillation or convergence of information was the focus of this study. Specifically, we explored two commonly posed hypotheses: (a) that the human middle temporal gyrus (MTG) provides a crucial semantic interface given the fact that it interposes auditory and visual processing streams and (b) that the anterior temporal region-especially its ventral surface (vATL)-provides a critical region for the multimodal integration of information. By utilizing distortion-corrected fMRI and an established semantic association assessment (commonly used in neuropsychological investigations), we compared the activation patterns observed for both the verbal and nonverbal versions of the same task. The results are consistent with the two hypotheses simultaneously: Both MTG and vATL are activated in common for word and picture semantic processing. Additional planned, ROI analyses show that this result follows from two principal axes of convergence in the temporal lobe: both lateral (toward MTG) and longitudinal (toward the anterior temporal lobe). PMID:22621260

  12. Auditory processing in high-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie R DePape

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder including abnormalities in perceptual processing. We measure perception in a battery of tests across speech (filtering, phoneme categorization, multisensory integration and music (pitch memory, meter categorization, harmonic priming. We found that compared to controls, the ASD group showed poorer filtering, less audio-visual integration, less specialization for native phonemic and metrical categories, and a higher instance of absolute pitch. No group differences were found in harmonic priming. Our results are discussed in a developmental framework where culture-specific knowledge acquired early compared to late in development is most impaired, perhaps because of early-accelerated brain growth in ASD. These results suggest that early auditory remediation is needed for good communication and social functioning.

  13. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  14. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  15. The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in Identifying and Treating Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gail J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prologue is to provide a historical perspective regarding the controversial issues surrounding auditory processing disorder (APD), as well as a summary of the current issues and perspectives that will be discussed in the articles in this forum. Method: An evidence-based systematic review was conducted to examine…

  16. Predictive Power of Attention and Reading Readiness Variables on Auditory Reasoning and Processing Skills of Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present research was to describe the relation of six-year-old children's attention and reading readiness skills (general knowledge, word comprehension, sentences, and matching) with their auditory reasoning and processing skills. This was a quantitative study based on scanning model. Research sampling consisted of 204 kindergarten…

  17. The Process of Auditory Distraction: Disrupted Attention and Impaired Recall in a Simulated Lecture Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Charlotte; Fox Tree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on auditory distraction has generally focused on the effects of particular kinds of sounds on attention to target stimuli. In support of extensive previous findings that have demonstrated the special role of language as an auditory distractor, we found that a concurrent speech stream impaired recall of a short lecture, especially for…

  18. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented as a...... gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  19. Auditory Brain Stem Processing in Reptiles and Amphibians: Roles of Coupled Ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willis, Katie L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the auditory system have yielded great insight into the evolution of sound localization circuits, particularly within the nonmammalian tetrapods. The fossil record demonstrates multiple appearances of tympanic hearing, and examination of the auditory brain stem of various...... groups can reveal the organizing effects of the ear across taxa. If the peripheral structures have a strongly organizing influence on the neural structures, then homologous neural structures should be observed only in groups with a homologous tympanic ear. Therefore, the central auditory systems of...... anurans (frogs), reptiles (including birds), and mammals should all be more similar within each group than among the groups. Although there is large variation in the peripheral auditory system, there is evidence that auditory brain stem nuclei in tetrapods are homologous and have similar functions among...

  20. Frequency processing at consecutive levels in the auditory system of bush crickets (tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Tim Daniel; Stumpner, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    We asked how processing of male signals in the auditory pathway of the bush cricket Ancistrura nigrovittata (Phaneropterinae, Tettigoniidae) changes from the ear to the brain. From 37 sensory neurons in the crista acustica single elements (cells 8 or 9) have frequency tuning corresponding closely to the behavioral tuning of the females. Nevertheless, one-quarter of sensory neurons (approximately cells 9 to 18) excite the ascending neuron 1 (AN1), which is best tuned to the male's song carrier frequency. AN1 receives frequency-dependent inhibition, reducing sensitivity especially in the ultrasound. When recorded in the brain, AN1 shows slightly lower overall activity than when recorded in the prothoracic ganglion close to the spike-generating zone. This difference is significant in the ultrasonic range. The first identified local brain neuron in a bush cricket (LBN1) is described. Its dendrites overlap with some of AN1-terminations in the brain. Its frequency tuning and intensity dependence strongly suggest a direct postsynaptic connection to AN1. Spiking in LBN1 is only elicited after summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by individual AN1-action potentials. This serves a filtering mechanism that reduces the sensitivity of LBN1 and also its responsiveness to ultrasound as compared to AN1. Consequently, spike latencies of LBN1 are long (>30 ms) despite its being a second-order interneuron. Additionally, LBN1 receives frequency-specific inhibition, most likely further reducing its responses to ultrasound. This demonstrates that frequency-specific inhibition is redundant in two directly connected interneurons on subsequent levels in the auditory system. PMID:20533362

  1. Processing of harmonics in the lateral belt of macaque auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YukikoKikuchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many speech sounds and animal vocalizations contain components, referred to as complex tones, that consist of a fundamental frequency (F0 and higher harmonics. In this study we examined single-unit activity recorded in the core (A1 and lateral belt (LB areas of auditory cortex in two rhesus monkeys as they listened to pure tones and pitch-shifted conspecific vocalizations (‘coos’. The latter consisted of complex-tone segments in which F0 was matched to a corresponding pure-tone stimulus. In both animals, neuronal latencies to pure-tone stimuli at the best frequency (BF were ~10 to 15 ms longer in LB than in A1. This might be expected, since LB is considered to be at a hierarchically higher level than A1. On the other hand, the latency of LB responses to coos was ~10 to 20 ms shorter than to the corresponding pure-tone BF, suggesting facilitation in LB by the harmonics. This latency reduction by coos was not observed in A1, resulting in similar coo latencies in A1 and LB. Multi-peaked neurons were present in both A1 and LB; however, harmonically-related peaks were observed in LB for both early and late response components, whereas in A1 they were observed only for late components. Our results suggest that harmonic features, such as relationships between specific frequency intervals of communication calls, are processed at relatively early stages of the auditory cortical pathway, but preferentially in LB.

  2. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  3. Spatial and Temporal Features of Superordinate Semantic Processing Studied with fMRI and EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Costanzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the anatomical representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain and the timing of neurophysiological mechanisms involved in manipulating such information remain unclear. This is the case for superordinate semantic categorization – the extraction of general features shared by broad classes of exemplars (e.g. living vs. non-living semantic categories. We proposed that, because of the abstract nature, of this information, input from diverse input modalities (visual or auditory, lexical or non-lexical should converge and be processed in the same regions of the brain, at similar time scales during superordinate categorization - specifically in a network of heteromodal regions, and late in the course of the categorization process. In order to test this hypothesis, we utilized electroencephalography and event related potentials (EEG/ERP with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to characterize subjects’ responses as they made superordinate categorical decisions (living vs. nonliving about objects presented as visual pictures or auditory words. Our results reveal that, consistent with our hypothesis, during the course of superordinate categorization, information provided by these diverse inputs appears to converge in both time and space: fMRI showed that heteromodal areas of the parietal and temporal cortices are active during categorization of both classes of stimuli. The ERP results suggest that superordinate categorization is reflected as a late positive component (LPC with a parietal distribution and long latencies for both stimulus types. Within the areas and times in which modality independent responses were identified, some differences between living and non-living categories were observed, with a more widespread spatial extent and longer latency responses for categorization of non-living items.  

  4. Spatio-temporal point process filtering methods with an application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frcalová, B.; Beneš, V.; Klement, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-4 (2010), s. 240-252. ISSN 1180-4009 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cox point process * filtering * spatio-temporal modelling * spike Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2010

  5. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  6. Engagement of right temporal cortex during processing of linguistic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, T T; Brammer, M; Tous Andreu, N; Williams, S C; McGuire, P K

    2001-01-01

    Language processing involves the interplay of areas in both cerebral hemispheres. Whereas the left temporal lobe is necessary for most language tasks, the right hemisphere seems to be additionally activated during processing of paragraphs and metaphors. We studied the neural correlates of word generation and selection in a sentence context, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cerebral activation was measured while seven healthy, right handed volunteers read and completed sentence stems, with relatively low Cloze frequency, out loud. During a GENERATION condition, subjects were required to generate a word which completed a sentence stem appropriately. During a DECISION condition, subjects selected and articulated one of two presented terminal words. A READING condition in which subjects read an appropriate completion aloud, served as baseline. When GENERATION was compared to READING or DECISION, the left middle frontal, anterior cingulate, precuneus and right lateral temporal cortex were activated. During DECISION relative to READING, the left inferior frontal and middle/superior temporal cortex bilaterally were activated. The prominent engagement of the right lateral temporal cortex during the GENERATION conditions may reflect the processing of linguistic context, and particularly the activation of multiple meanings in the course of producing an appropriate completion. PMID:11369403

  7. Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Frequency Modulation Devices in Improving Academic Outcomes in Children With Auditory Processing Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Miller Kuhaneck, Heather; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review describes the published evidence related to the effectiveness of frequency modulation (FM) devices in improving academic outcomes in children with auditory processing difficulties. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were used to identify articles published between January 2003 and March 2014. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design approach and the American Occupational Therapy Association process forms were used to guide the article selection and evaluation process. Of the 83 articles screened, 7 matched the systematic review inclusion criteria. Findings were consistently positive, although limitations were identified. Results of this review indicate moderate support for the use of FM devices to improve children's ability to listen and attend in the classroom and mixed evidence to improve specific academic performance areas. FM technology should be considered for school-age children with auditory processing impairments who are receiving occupational therapy services to improve functioning in the school setting. PMID:26709423

  8. Differential bilateral involvement of the parietal gyrus during predicative metaphor processing: an auditory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Portefaix, Christophe; Declercq, Christelle; Pierot, Laurent; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing literature on figurative language processing, there is still debate as to which cognitive processes and neural bases are involved. Furthermore, most studies have focused on nominal metaphor processing without any context, and very few have used auditory presentation. We therefore investigated the neural bases of the comprehension of predicative metaphors presented in a brief context, in an auditory, ecological way. The comprehension of their literal counterparts served as a control condition. We also investigated the link between working memory and verbal skills and regional activation. Comparisons of metaphorical and literal conditions revealed bilateral activation of parietal areas including the left angular (lAG) and right inferior parietal gyri (rIPG) and right precuneus. Only verbal skills were associated with lAG (but not rIPG) activation. These results indicated that predicative metaphor comprehension share common activations with other metaphors. Furthermore, individual verbal skills could have an impact on figurative language processing. PMID:25193417

  9. Assessment of auditory sensory processing in a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia-Gating of auditory-evoked potentials and prepulse inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Oranje, Bob; Yding, Birte;

    2010-01-01

    The use of translational approaches to validate animal models is needed for the development of treatments that can effectively alleviate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia, which are unsuccessfully treated by the current available therapies. Deficits in pre-attentive stages of...... sensory information processing seen in schizophrenia patients, can be assessed by highly homologues methods in both humans and rodents, evident by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle response and the P50 (termed P1 here) suppression paradigms. Treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist...... PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 reliably induce cognitive impairments resembling those presented by schizophrenia patients. Here we evaluate the potential of early postnatal PCP (20mg/kg) treatment in Lister Hooded rats to induce post-pubertal deficits in PPI and changes, such as reduced gating, in...

  10. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  11. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds. PMID:24936174

  12. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  13. Dysfunctional information processing during an auditory event-related potential task in individuals with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; Choi, J-S; Park, S M; Lee, J-Y; Jung, H Y; Sohn, B K; Kim, S N; Kim, D J; Kwon, J S

    2016-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leading to serious impairments in cognitive, psychological and social functions has gradually been increasing. However, very few studies conducted to date have addressed issues related to the event-related potential (ERP) patterns in IGD. Identifying the neurobiological characteristics of IGD is important to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition. P300 is a useful ERP component for investigating electrophysiological features of the brain. The aims of the present study were to investigate differences between patients with IGD and healthy controls (HCs), with regard to the P300 component of the ERP during an auditory oddball task, and to examine the relationship of this component to the severity of IGD symptoms in identifying the relevant neurophysiological features of IGD. Twenty-six patients diagnosed with IGD and 23 age-, sex-, education- and intelligence quotient-matched HCs participated in this study. During an auditory oddball task, participants had to respond to the rare, deviant tones presented in a sequence of frequent, standard tones. The IGD group exhibited a significant reduction in response to deviant tones compared with the HC group in the P300 amplitudes at the midline centro-parietal electrode regions. We also found a negative correlation between the severity of IGD and P300 amplitudes. The reduced amplitude of the P300 component in an auditory oddball task may reflect dysfunction in auditory information processing and cognitive capabilities in IGD. These findings suggest that reduced P300 amplitudes may be candidate neurobiological marker for IGD. PMID:26812042

  14. To modulate and be modulated: estrogenic influences on auditory processing of communication signals within a socio-neuro-endocrine framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kathleen M; Vicario, David S

    2012-02-01

    Gonadal hormones modulate behavioral responses to sexual stimuli, and communication signals can also modulate circulating hormone levels. In several species, these combined effects appear to underlie a two-way interaction between circulating gonadal hormones and behavioral responses to socially salient stimuli. Recent work in songbirds has shown that manipulating local estradiol levels in the auditory forebrain produces physiological changes that affect discrimination of conspecific vocalizations and can affect behavior. These studies provide new evidence that estrogens can directly alter auditory processing and indirectly alter the behavioral response to a stimulus. These studies show that: 1) Local estradiol action within an auditory area is necessary for socially relevant sounds to induce normal physiological responses in the brains of both sexes; 2) These physiological effects occur much more quickly than predicted by the classical time-frame for genomic effects; 3) Estradiol action within the auditory forebrain enables behavioral discrimination among socially relevant sounds in males; and 4) Estradiol is produced locally in the male brain during exposure to particular social interactions. The accumulating evidence suggests a socio-neuro-endocrinology framework in which estradiol is essential to auditory processing, is increased by a socially relevant stimulus, acts rapidly to shape perception of subsequent stimuli experienced during social interactions, and modulates behavioral responses to these stimuli. Brain estrogens are likely to function similarly in both songbird sexes because aromatase and estrogen receptors are present in both male and female forebrain. Estrogenic modulation of perception in songbirds and perhaps other animals could fine-tune male advertising signals and female ability to discriminate them, facilitating mate selection by modulating behaviors. PMID:22201281

  15. Research on Process-oriented Spatio-temporal Data Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Cunjin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the analysis of the present status and existing problems of spatio-temporal data models developed in last 20 years,this paper proposes a process-oriented spatio-temporal data model (POSTDM,aiming at representing,organizing and storing continuity and gradual geographical entities. The dynamic geographical entities are graded and abstracted into process objects series from their intrinsic characteristics,which are process objects,process stage objects,process sequence objects and process state objects. The logical relationships among process entities are further studied and the structure of UML models and storage are also designed. In addition,through the mechanisms of continuity and gradual changes impliedly recorded by process objects,and the modes of their procedure interfaces offered by the customized ObjcetStorageTable,the POSTDM can carry out process representation,storage and dynamic analysis of continuity and gradual geographic entities. Taking a process organization and storage of marine data as an example,a prototype system (consisting of an object-relational database and a functional analysis platform is developed for validating and evaluating the model's practicability.

  16. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%), the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects' effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects' discerning efforts. PMID:25538583

  17. The role of the medial temporal limbic system in processing emotions in voice and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Subcortical brain structures of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, are thought to decode the emotional value of sensory information. Recent neuroimaging studies, as well as lesion studies in patients, have shown that the amygdala is sensitive to emotions in voice and music. Similarly, the hippocampus, another part of the temporal limbic system (TLS), is responsive to vocal and musical emotions, but its specific roles in emotional processing from music and especially from voices have been largely neglected. Here we review recent research on vocal and musical emotions, and outline commonalities and differences in the neural processing of emotions in the TLS in terms of emotional valence, emotional intensity and arousal, as well as in terms of acoustic and structural features of voices and music. We summarize the findings in a neural framework including several subcortical and cortical functional pathways between the auditory system and the TLS. This framework proposes that some vocal expressions might already receive a fast emotional evaluation via a subcortical pathway to the amygdala, whereas cortical pathways to the TLS are thought to be equally used for vocal and musical emotions. While the amygdala might be specifically involved in a coarse decoding of the emotional value of voices and music, the hippocampus might process more complex vocal and musical emotions, and might have an important role especially for the decoding of musical emotions by providing memory-based and contextual associations. PMID:25291405

  18. Auditory cortical processing: Binaural interaction in healthy and ROBO1-deficient subjects

    OpenAIRE

    LamminmÀki, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Two functioning ears provide clear advantages over monaural listening. During natural binaural listening, robust brain-level interaction occurs between the slightly different inputs from the left and the right ear. Binaural interaction requires convergence of inputs from the two ears somewhere in the auditory system, and it therefore relies on midline crossing of auditory pathways, a fundamental property of the mammalian central nervous system. Binaural interaction plays a significant ro...

  19. A Model of Auditory-Cognitive Processing and Relevance to Clinical Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Hearing loss and cognitive function interact in both a bottom-up and top-down relationship. Listening effort is tied to these interactions, and models have been developed to explain their relationship. The Ease of Language Understanding model in particular has gained considerable attention in its explanation of the effect of signal distortion on speech understanding. Signal distortion can also affect auditory scene analysis ability, however, resulting in a distorted auditory scene that can affect cognitive function, listening effort, and the allocation of cognitive resources. These effects are explained through an addition to the Ease of Language Understanding model. This model can be generalized to apply to all sounds, not only speech, representing the increased effort required for auditory environmental awareness and other nonspeech auditory tasks. While the authors have measures of speech understanding and cognitive load to quantify these interactions, they are lacking measures of the effect of hearing aid technology on auditory scene analysis ability and how effort and attention varies with the quality of an auditory scene. Additionally, the clinical relevance of hearing aid technology on cognitive function and the application of cognitive measures in hearing aid fittings will be limited until effectiveness is demonstrated in real-world situations. PMID:27355775

  20. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  1. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  2. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  3. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  4. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  5. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  6. Avaliação do processamento auditivo na Neurofibromatose tipo 1 Auditory processing evaluation in Neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Barros Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar os resultados obtidos na avaliação do processamento auditivo de um paciente com Neurofibromatose tipo 1. Embora a audição periférica estivesse normal nos testes realizados, foram observadas alterações importantes no processamento auditivo em várias habilidades. Este achado, descrito pela primeira vez na neurofibromatose, pode contribuir para explicar os distúrbios cognitivos e da aprendizagem já amplamente descritos nesta enfermidade genética comum.The aim of this study was to present the results obtained in the auditory processing evaluation of a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. Although the patient presented normal peripheral hearing, auditory processing deficits were identified in several abilities. This finding, described for the first time in neurofibromatosis, might help to explain the cognitive and learning disabilities broadly described for this common genetic disorder.

  7. Impact of the chorus environment on temporal processing of advertisement calls by gray treefrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joshua; Huth, Kenneth; Lasker, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Male gray treefrogs advertise for mates using calls that consist of a series of pulses. Pulse duration, interpulse interval, and pulse shape determine whether a call is recognized as a conspecific signal by females. Females use call rate and call pulse number to assess relative calling performance by males, and prefer males that display high calling efforts. However, within choruses call overlap among males and background noise can compromise the ability of females to detect and correctly interpret temporal information in calls. Phonotaxis tests using calls suffering from different patterns of overlap or with internal gaps were used to investigate specific consequences of interference and masking as well as mechanisms that might alleviate such problems. Our data indicate that females do not employ a process analogous to phonemic restoration to ``fill in'' missing call segments; however, if a sufficient percent of call elements fall within species-specific ranges, females may ignore call anomalies. Additional findings are generally consistent with those from a recent study on anuran auditory midbrain neurons that count and indicate that inappropriate pulse intervals can reset the pulse counting process. [Work supported by NSF and a Pace University Eugene M. Lang Research Fellowship.

  8. Participação do cerebelo no processamento auditivo Participation of the cerebellum in auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Sens

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O cerebelo era tradicionalmente visto como um órgão coordenador da motricidade, entretanto é atualmente considerado como um importante centro de integração de sensibilidades e coordenação de várias fases do processo cognitivo. OBJETIVO: é sistematizar as informações da literatura quanto à participação do cerebelo na percepção auditiva. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados na literatura trabalhos em animais sobre a fisiologia e anatomia das vias auditivas do cerebelo, além de trabalhos em humanos sobre diversas funções do cerebelo na percepção auditiva. Foram discutidos os achados da literatura, que há evidências que o cerebelo participa das seguintes funções cognitivas relacionadas à audição: geração verbal; processamento auditivo; atenção auditiva; memória auditiva; raciocínio abstrato; timing; solução de problemas; discriminação sensorial; informação sensorial; processamento da linguagem; operações lingüísticas. CONCLUSÃO: Foi constatado que são incompletas as informações sobre as estruturas, funções e vias auditivas do cerebelo.The cerebellum, traditionally conceived as a controlling organ of motricity, it is today considered an all-important integration center for both sensitivity and coordination of the various phases of the cognitive process. AIM: This paper aims at gather and sort literature information on the cerebellum’s role in the auditory perception. METHODS: We have selected animal studies of both the physiology and the anatomy of the cerebellum auditory pathway, as well as papers on humans discussing several functions of the cerebellum in auditory perception. As for the literature, it has been discussed and concluded that there is evidence that the cerebellum participates in many cognitive functions related to hearing: speech generation, auditory processing, auditory memory, abstract reasoning, timing, solution of problems, sensorial discrimination, sensorial information, language

  9. Temporal cortex reflects effects of sentence context on phonetic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Salvata, Caden; Blumstein, Sheila E

    2013-05-01

    Listeners' perception of acoustically presented speech is constrained by many different sources of information that arise from other sensory modalities and from more abstract higher-level language context. An open question is how perceptual processes are influenced by and interact with these other sources of information. In this study, we use fMRI to examine the effect of a prior sentence fragment meaning on the categorization of two possible target words that differ in an acoustic phonetic feature of the initial consonant, VOT. Specifically, we manipulate the bias of the sentence context (biased, neutral) and the target type (ambiguous, unambiguous). Our results show that an interaction between these two factors emerged in a cluster in temporal cortex encompassing the left middle temporal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. The locus and pattern of these interactions support an interactive view of speech processing and suggest that both the quality of the input and the potential bias of the context together interact and modulate neural activation patterns. PMID:23281778

  10. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...

  11. Development of visuo-auditory integration in space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adults integrate multisensory information optimally (e.g. Ernst & Banks, 2002 while children are not able to integrate multisensory visual haptic cues until 8-10 years of age (e.g. Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008. Before that age strong unisensory dominance is present for size and orientation visual-haptic judgments maybe reflecting a process of cross-sensory calibration between modalities. It is widely recognized that audition dominates time perception, while vision dominates space perception. If the cross sensory calibration process is necessary for development, then the auditory modality should calibrate vision in a bimodal temporal task, and the visual modality should calibrate audition in a bimodal spatial task. Here we measured visual-auditory integration in both the temporal and the spatial domains reproducing for the spatial task a child-friendly version of the ventriloquist stimuli used by Alais and Burr (2004 and for the temporal task a child-friendly version of the stimulus used by Burr, Banks and Morrone (2009. Unimodal and bimodal (conflictual or not conflictual audio-visual thresholds and PSEs were measured and compared with the Bayesian predictions. In the temporal domain, we found that both in children and adults, audition dominates the bimodal visuo-auditory task both in perceived time and precision thresholds. Contrarily, in the visual-auditory spatial task, children younger than 12 years of age show clear visual dominance (on PSEs and bimodal thresholds higher than the Bayesian prediction. Only in the adult group bimodal thresholds become optimal. In agreement with previous studies, our results suggest that also visual-auditory adult-like behaviour develops late. Interestingly, the visual dominance for space and the auditory dominance for time that we found might suggest a cross-sensory comparison of vision in a spatial visuo-audio task and a cross-sensory comparison of audition in a temporal visuo-audio task.

  12. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  13. Characterizing auditory processing and perception in individual listeners with sensorineural hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    –438 (2008)] was used as a framework. The parameters of the cochlear processing stage of the model were adjusted to account for behaviorally estimated individual basilar-membrane inputoutput functions and the audiogram, from which the amounts of inner hair-cell and outer hair-cell losses were estimated as a......This study considered consequences of sensorineural hearing loss in ten listeners. The characterization of individual hearing loss was based on psychoacoustic data addressing audiometric pure-tone sensitivity, cochlear compression, frequency selectivity, temporal resolution, and intensity...

  14. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    Many challenges exist when it comes to understanding and compensating for hearing impairment. Traditional methods, such as pure tone audiometry and speech intelligibility tests, offer insight into the deficiencies of a hearingimpaired listener, but can only partially reveal the mechanisms that...... underlie the hearing loss. An alternative approach is to investigate the statistical representation of sounds for hearing-impaired listeners along the auditory pathway. Using models of the auditory periphery and sound synthesis, we aimed to probe hearing impaired perception for sound textures – temporally...... homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  15. Age-related changes in auditory temporal processing in the rat.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šuta, Daniel; Rybalko, Natalia; Pelánová, Jana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 739-746. ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/07/1336; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : aging * gap in noise * cortical evoked potentials Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.741, year: 2011

  16. Auditory temporal processing and aging: implications for speech understanding of older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gordon-Salant

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Current estimates of the prevalence of age-related hearing loss among those over 65 years in the U.S. converge on an overall prevalence rate of approximately 50%, suggesting that there are currently 20 million senior citizens with significant hearing loss (Agrawal et al., 2008; Cruickshanks et al., 1998; Moscicki et al., 1985. Because the post-World War II baby generation (generally known as the Baby Boomers is approaching retirement age (and hence known as the Golden Boomers, it is anticipated that the population of those over 65 years with age-related hearing loss will increase to 36 million by the year 2030. Perhaps the #1 communication challenge reported by older adults is difficulty understanding speech in less-than-ideal conditions. These conditions include poor acoustic environments (noise or reverberation or speech that is produced by individuals with accents or fast speaking rates. The problems in speech understanding in demanding communication situations are reported by older people with hearing loss as well as those with normal hearing. One key challenge for researchers is to identify those aspects of the communication breakdown that are attributed to loss of hearing sensitivity vs. those that are associated with other factors that accompany aging...

  17. Processamento auditivo de militares expostos a ruído ocupacional Auditory processing of servicemen exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cassandra de Souza Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o processamento auditivo de militares expostos a ruído ocupacional. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 41 militares, com exposição a ruído superior a 10 anos, subdivididos em Grupo A (n =16, sem perda auditiva e Grupo B (n = 25, com perda auditiva. Foram realizadas avaliação audiológica básica e testes de processamento auditivo (testes de Fala Filtrada, SSW em Português e de Padrão de Freqüência. RESULTADOS: observou-se altas incidências de alteração de processamento auditivo, especialmente no teste de Fala Filtrada (43,75% e 68% nos grupos A e B, respectivamente e teste de Padrão de Freqüência (68,75% e 48%, nos grupos A e B, respectivamente. O teste SSW não se mostrou eficiente para avaliar as habilidades auditivas centrais de indivíduos expostos a elevados níveis de pressão sonora. CONCLUSÃO: a exposição a ruído ocupacional interfere no processamento auditivo de militares. As alterações na via auditiva central podem ser verificadas independente da presença de alteração auditiva periférica.PURPOSE: to evaluate the auditory processing of military personnel exposed to occupational noise. METHODS: 41 servicemen, exposed to noise for at least 10 years were evaluated, divided into Group A (n= 16, without hearing loss and Group B (n= 25, with hearing loss. The following evaluations were carried through: basic audilogic evaluation and auditory processing tests (low-filtered, SSW and Pitch Pattern Sequence tests. RESULTS: there were high incidences of auditory processing alterations, especially at low-filtered test (43.75% and 68% on groups A e B, respectively and Pitch Pattern Sequence test (68.75% and 48%, on groups A e B, respectively. The SSW test was not efficient to evaluate the central hearing abilities of people exposed to high levels of sound pressure. CONCLUSION: the occupational noise exposure interferes in the auditory processing of military personnel. The alterations on central auditory pathways

  18. Spatial, temporal and spectral pre-processing for colour vision

    OpenAIRE

    van Hateren, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Fourier transforms of the spectral radiance of natural objects were investigated. The average spectral power spectrum Sc(fc) is well described by Sc(fc) = exp(-βfc), with fc the spectral frequency (cycles µm-1), and β = 0.419±0.097 µm. Average spectral contrast {cc = [Σ(fc≠0)Sc(fc)/Sc(0)]½} was 0.224 ± 0.127. Optimal filters for colour pre-processing were derived using a recently developed theory of early vision. The theory assumes that the surrounding world is first sampled spatially, tempor...

  19. Processing of acoustic motion in the auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi

    OpenAIRE

    Firzlaff, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the representation of acoustic motion in different fields of auditory cortex of the rufous horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus rouxi. Motion in horizontal direction (azimuth) was simulated using successive stimuli with dynamically changing interaural intensity differences presented via earphones. The mechanisms underlying a specific sensitivity of neurons to the direction of motion were investigated using microiontophoretic application of γ-aminobutyric acid (GAB...

  20. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  1. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming...... spatio-temporal separability of the intensity function, we clarify different meanings of second-order spatio-temporal separability. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates e.g. to log-Gaussian Cox processes with an additive covariance structure of the underlying spatio......-temporal Gaussian process. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data (the UK 2001 epidemic foot and mouth disease data)....

  2. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘background’. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13 and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17 underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology.

  3. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Goll, Johanna C; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known 'cocktail party effect' as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory 'foreground' and 'background'. Patients with typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (n = 13) and age-matched healthy individuals (n = 17) underwent functional 3T-MRI using a sparse acquisition protocol with passive listening to auditory stimulus conditions comprising the participant's own name interleaved with or superimposed on multi-talker babble, and spectrally rotated (unrecognisable) analogues of these conditions. Name identification (conditions containing the participant's own name contrasted with spectrally rotated analogues) produced extensive bilateral activation involving superior temporal cortex in both the AD and healthy control groups, with no significant differences between groups. Auditory object segregation (conditions with interleaved name sounds contrasted with superimposed name sounds) produced activation of right posterior superior temporal cortex in both groups, again with no differences between groups. However, the cocktail party effect (interaction of own name identification with auditory object segregation processing) produced activation of right supramarginal gyrus in the AD group that was significantly enhanced compared with the healthy control group. The findings delineate an altered functional neuroanatomical profile of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease that may constitute a novel computational signature of this neurodegenerative pathology. PMID:26029629

  4. Comparison of LFP-based and spike-based spectro-temporal receptive fields and cross-correlation in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    Full Text Available Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that for 2-40 Hz-filtered LFP-based FTCs, indicating greatly reduced frequency selectivity for LFPs. We also present comparisons for LFPs band-pass filtered between 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 16-40 Hz, with spike-based STRFs, on the basis of their marginal frequency distributions. We find on average a significantly larger correlation between the spike based marginal frequency distributions and those based on the 16-40 Hz filtered LFP, compared to those based on the 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 2-40 Hz filtered LFP. This suggests greater frequency specificity for the 16-40 Hz LFPs compared to those of lower frequency content. For spontaneous LFP and spike activity we evaluated 1373 pair correlations for pairs with >200 spikes in 900 s per electrode. Peak correlation-coefficient space constants were similar for the 2-40 Hz filtered LFP (5.5 mm and the 16-40 Hz LFP (7.4 mm, whereas for spike-pair correlations it was about half that, at 3.2 mm. Comparing spike-pairs with 2-40 Hz (and 16-40 Hz LFP-pair correlations showed that about 16% (9% of the variance in the spike-pair correlations could be explained from LFP-pair correlations recorded on the same electrodes within the same electrode array. This larger correlation distance combined with the reduced CF gradient and much broader frequency selectivity suggests that LFPs are not a substitute for spike activity in primary auditory cortex.

  5. Comparison of LFP-based and spike-based spectro-temporal receptive fields and cross-correlation in cat primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Jos J; Munguia, Raymundo; Pienkowski, Martin; Shaw, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Multi-electrode array recordings of spike and local field potential (LFP) activity were made from primary auditory cortex of 12 normal hearing, ketamine-anesthetized cats. We evaluated 259 spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) and 492 frequency-tuning curves (FTCs) based on LFPs and spikes simultaneously recorded on the same electrode. We compared their characteristic frequency (CF) gradients and their cross-correlation distances. The CF gradient for spike-based FTCs was about twice that for 2-40 Hz-filtered LFP-based FTCs, indicating greatly reduced frequency selectivity for LFPs. We also present comparisons for LFPs band-pass filtered between 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 16-40 Hz, with spike-based STRFs, on the basis of their marginal frequency distributions. We find on average a significantly larger correlation between the spike based marginal frequency distributions and those based on the 16-40 Hz filtered LFP, compared to those based on the 4-8 Hz, 8-16 Hz and 2-40 Hz filtered LFP. This suggests greater frequency specificity for the 16-40 Hz LFPs compared to those of lower frequency content. For spontaneous LFP and spike activity we evaluated 1373 pair correlations for pairs with >200 spikes in 900 s per electrode. Peak correlation-coefficient space constants were similar for the 2-40 Hz filtered LFP (5.5 mm) and the 16-40 Hz LFP (7.4 mm), whereas for spike-pair correlations it was about half that, at 3.2 mm. Comparing spike-pairs with 2-40 Hz (and 16-40 Hz) LFP-pair correlations showed that about 16% (9%) of the variance in the spike-pair correlations could be explained from LFP-pair correlations recorded on the same electrodes within the same electrode array. This larger correlation distance combined with the reduced CF gradient and much broader frequency selectivity suggests that LFPs are not a substitute for spike activity in primary auditory cortex. PMID:21625385

  6. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing. PMID:26332785

  7. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  8. Intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connections of the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammoun, Leila; Thiran, Jean Philippe; Griffa, Alessandra; Meuli, Reto; Hagmann, Patric; Clarke, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    The human auditory cortex comprises the supratemporal plane and large parts of the temporal and parietal convexities. We have investigated the relevant intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connections using in vivo DSI tractography combined with landmark-based registration, automatic cortical parcellation and whole-brain structural connection matrices in 20 right-handed male subjects. On the supratemporal plane, the pattern of connectivity was related to the architectonically defined early-stage auditory areas. It revealed a three-tier architecture characterized by a cascade of connections from the primary auditory cortex to six adjacent non-primary areas and from there to the superior temporal gyrus. Graph theory-driven analysis confirmed the cascade-like connectivity pattern and demonstrated a strong degree of segregation and hierarchy within early-stage auditory areas. Putative higher-order areas on the temporal and parietal convexities had more widely spread local connectivity and long-range connections with the prefrontal cortex; analysis of optimal community structure revealed five distinct modules in each hemisphere. The pattern of temporo-parieto-frontal connectivity was partially asymmetrical. In conclusion, the human early-stage auditory cortical connectivity, as revealed by in vivo DSI tractography, has strong similarities with that of non-human primates. The modular architecture and hemispheric asymmetry in higher-order regions is compatible with segregated processing streams and lateralization of cognitive functions. PMID:25173473

  9. Enhanced spontaneous functional connectivity of the superior temporal gyrus in early deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Ding; Dong Ming; Baikun Wan; Qiang Li; Wen Qin; Chunshui Yu

    2016-01-01

    Early auditory deprivation may drive the auditory cortex into cross-modal processing of non-auditory sensory information. In a recent study, we had shown that early deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) bilaterally during visual spatial working memory; however, the changes in the organization of the STG related spontaneous functional network, and their cognitive relevance are still unknown. To clarify this issue, we applied resting state functional ...

  10. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinius Hauf

    2013-06-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  11. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve: the coding of frequency, the perception of pitch and the development of cochlear implant speech processing strategies for profoundly deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G M

    1996-09-01

    1. The development of speech processing strategies for multiple-channel cochlear implants has depended on encoding sound frequencies and intensities as temporal and spatial patterns of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve fibres so that speech information of most importance of intelligibility could be transmitted. 2. Initial physiological studies showed that rate encoding of electrical stimulation above 200 pulses/s could not reproduce the normal response patterns in auditory neurons for acoustic stimulation in the speech frequency range above 200 Hz and suggested that place coding was appropriate for the higher frequencies. 3. Rate difference limens in the experimental animal were only similar to those for sound up to 200 Hz. 4. Rate difference limens in implant patients were similar to those obtained in the experimental animal. 5. Satisfactory rate discrimination could be made for durations of 50 and 100 ms, but not 25 ms. This made rate suitable for encoding longer duration suprasegmental speech information, but not segmental information, such as consonants. The rate of stimulation could also be perceived as pitch, discriminated at different electrode sites along the cochlea and discriminated for stimuli across electrodes. 6. Place pitch could be scaled according to the site of stimulation in the cochlea so that a frequency scale was preserved and it also had a different quality from rate pitch and was described as tonality. Place pitch could also be discriminated for the shorter durations (25 ms) required for identifying consonants. 7. The inaugural speech processing strategy encoded the second formant frequencies (concentrations of frequency energy in the mid frequency range of most importance for speech intelligibility) as place of stimulation, the voicing frequency as rate of stimulation and the intensity as current level. Our further speech processing strategies have extracted additional frequency information and coded this as place of stimulation

  12. Maturation of auditory neural processes in autism spectrum disorder — A longitudinal MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Russell G.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Ku, Matthew; Bloy, Luke; Murray, Rebecca; Blaskey, Lisa; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical brain activity, perhaps due to delayed maturation. Previous studies examining the maturation of auditory electrophysiological activity have been limited due to their use of cross-sectional designs. The present study took a first step in examining magnetoencephalography (MEG) evidence of abnormal auditory response maturation in ASD via the use of a longitudinal design. Methods Initially recruited for a previous study, 27 children with ASD and nine typically developing (TD) children, aged 6- to 11-years-old, were re-recruited two to five years later. At both timepoints, MEG data were obtained while participants passively listened to sinusoidal pure-tones. Bilateral primary/secondary auditory cortex time domain (100 ms evoked response latency (M100)) and spectrotemporal measures (gamma-band power and inter-trial coherence (ITC)) were examined. MEG measures were also qualitatively examined for five children who exhibited “optimal outcome”, participants who were initially on spectrum, but no longer met diagnostic criteria at follow-up. Results M100 latencies were delayed in ASD versus TD at the initial exam (~ 19 ms) and at follow-up (~ 18 ms). At both exams, M100 latencies were associated with clinical ASD severity. In addition, gamma-band evoked power and ITC were reduced in ASD versus TD. M100 latency and gamma-band maturation rates did not differ between ASD and TD. Of note, the cohort of five children that demonstrated “optimal outcome” additionally exhibited M100 latency and gamma-band activity mean values in-between TD and ASD at both timepoints. Though justifying only qualitative interpretation, these “optimal outcome” related data are presented here to motivate future studies. Conclusions Children with ASD showed perturbed auditory cortex neural activity, as evidenced by M100 latency delays as well as reduced transient gamma-band activity. Despite evidence for maturation

  13. Audition dominates vision in duration perception irrespective of salience, attention, and temporal discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Whereas the visual modality tends to dominate over the auditory modality in bimodal spatial perception, the auditory modality tends to dominate over the visual modality in bimodal temporal perception. Recent results suggest that the visual modality dominates bimodal spatial perception because spatial discriminability is typically greater for the visual than for the auditory modality; accordingly, visual dominance is eliminated or reversed when visual-spatial discriminability is reduced by degrading visual stimuli to be equivalent or inferior to auditory spatial discriminability. Thus, for spatial perception, the modality that provides greater discriminability dominates. Here, we ask whether auditory dominance in duration perception is similarly explained by factors that influence the relative quality of auditory and visual signals. In contrast to the spatial results, the auditory modality dominated over the visual modality in bimodal duration perception even when the auditory signal was clearly weaker, when the auditory signal was ignored (i.e., the visual signal was selectively attended), and when the temporal discriminability was equivalent for the auditory and visual signals. Thus, unlike spatial perception, where the modality carrying more discriminable signals dominates, duration perception seems to be mandatorily linked to auditory processing under most circumstances. PMID:24806403

  14. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

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    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  15. Spectrotemporal processing differences between auditory cortical fast-spiking and regular-spiking neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Schreiner, Christoph E

    2008-01-01

    Excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons constitute the main elements of cortical circuitry and have distinctive morphologic and electrophysiological properties. Here, we differentiate them by analyzing the time course of their action potentials (APs) and characterizing their receptive field properties in auditory cortex. Pyramidal neurons have longer APs and discharge as Regular-Spiking Units (RSUs), while basket and chandelier cells, which are inhibitory interneurons, have s...

  16. Gender related differences in visual and auditory processing of verbal and figural tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaušovec, Norbert; Jaušovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate gender related differences in brain activity for tasks of verbal and figural content presented in the visual and auditory modality. Thirty male and 30 female respondents solved four tasks while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Also recorded was the percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (%StO2) in the respondents' frontal brain areas with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The main findings of the study can be summarized as ...

  17. Auditory Spatial Coding Flexibly Recruits Anterior, but Not Posterior, Visuotopic Parietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W; Rosen, Maya L; Kong, Lingqiang; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-03-01

    Audition and vision both convey spatial information about the environment, but much less is known about mechanisms of auditory spatial cognition than visual spatial cognition. Human cortex contains >20 visuospatial map representations but no reported auditory spatial maps. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) contains several of these visuospatial maps, which support visuospatial attention and short-term memory (STM). Neuroimaging studies also demonstrate that parietal cortex is activated during auditory spatial attention and working memory tasks, but prior work has not demonstrated that auditory activation occurs within visual spatial maps in parietal cortex. Here, we report both cognitive and anatomical distinctions in the auditory recruitment of visuotopically mapped regions within the superior parietal lobule. An auditory spatial STM task recruited anterior visuotopic maps (IPS2-4, SPL1), but an auditory temporal STM task with equivalent stimuli failed to drive these regions significantly. Behavioral and eye-tracking measures rule out task difficulty and eye movement explanations. Neither auditory task recruited posterior regions IPS0 or IPS1, which appear to be exclusively visual. These findings support the hypothesis of multisensory spatial processing in the anterior, but not posterior, superior parietal lobule and demonstrate that recruitment of these maps depends on auditory task demands. PMID:26656996

  18. A Transient Auditory Signal Shifts the Perceived Offset Position of a Moving Visual Object

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    Sung-EnChien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Information received from different sensory modalities profoundly influences human perception. For example, changes in the auditory flutter rate induce changes in the apparent flicker rate of a flashing light (Shipley, 1964. In the present study, we investigated whether auditory information would affect the perceived offset position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, a visual object moved toward the center of the computer screen and disappeared abruptly. A transient auditory signal was presented at different times relative to the moment when the object disappeared. The results showed that if the auditory signal was presented before the abrupt offset of the moving object, the perceived final position was shifted backward, implying that the perceived offset position was affected by the transient auditory information. In Experiment 2, we presented the transient auditory signal to either the left or the right ear. The results showed that the perceived offset shifted backward more strongly when the auditory signal was presented to the same side from which the moving object originated. In Experiment 3, we found that the perceived timing of the visual offset was not affected by the spatial relation between the auditory signal and the visual offset. The present results are interpreted as indicating that an auditory signal may influence the offset position of a moving object through both spatial and temporal processes.

  19. A transient auditory signal shifts the perceived offset position of a moving visual object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Sung-En; Ono, Fuminori; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Information received from different sensory modalities profoundly influences human perception. For example, changes in the auditory flutter rate induce changes in the apparent flicker rate of a flashing light (Shipley, 1964). In the present study, we investigated whether auditory information would affect the perceived offset position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, a visual object moved toward the center of the computer screen and disappeared abruptly. A transient auditory signal was presented at different times relative to the moment when the object disappeared. The results showed that if the auditory signal was presented before the abrupt offset of the moving object, the perceived final position was shifted backward, implying that the perceived visual offset position was affected by the transient auditory information. In Experiment 2, we presented the transient auditory signal to either the left or the right ear. The results showed that the perceived visual offset shifted backward more strongly when the auditory signal was presented to the same side from which the moving object originated. In Experiment 3, we found that the perceived timing of the visual offset was not affected by the spatial relation between the auditory signal and the visual offset. The present results are interpreted as indicating that an auditory signal may influence the offset position of a moving object through both spatial and temporal processes. PMID:23439729

  20. Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…

  1. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1–3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion–extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments.

  2. Neural basis of the time window for subjective motor-auditory integration

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    Koichi Toida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal contiguity between an action and corresponding auditory feedback is crucial to the perception of self-generated sound. However, the neural mechanisms underlying motor–auditory temporal integration are unclear. Here, we conducted four experiments with an oddball paradigm to examine the specific event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by delayed auditory feedback for a self-generated action. The first experiment confirmed that a pitch-deviant auditory stimulus elicits mismatch negativity (MMN and P300, both when it is generated passively and by the participant’s action. In our second and third experiments, we investigated the ERP components elicited by delayed auditory feedback of for a self-generated action. We found that delayed auditory feedback elicited an enhancement of P2 (enhanced-P2 and a N300 component, which were apparently different from the MMN and P300 components observed in the first experiment. We further investigated the sensitivity of the enhanced-P2 and N300 to delay length in our fourth experiment. Strikingly, the amplitude of the N300 increased as a function of the delay length. Additionally, the N300 amplitude was significantly correlated with the conscious detection of the delay (the 50% detection point was around 200 ms, and hence reduction in the feeling of authorship of the sound (the sense of agency. In contrast, the enhanced-P2 was most prominent in short-delay (≤ 200 ms conditions and diminished in long-delay conditions. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms are employed for the processing of temporally-deviant and pitch-deviant auditory feedback. Additionally, the temporal window for subjective motor–auditory integration is likely about 200 ms, as indicated by these auditory ERP components.

  3. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

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    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  4. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production. PMID:26278337

  5. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

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    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  6. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  7. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon.

  8. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

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    Claudia D. Tesche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine the effect of sex on brain dynamics in adolescents and young adults with FASD during the performance of an auditory oddball task. The stimuli were short trains of 1 kHz “standard” tone bursts (80% randomly interleaved with 1.5 kHz “target” tone bursts (10% and “novel” digital sounds (10%. Participants made motor responses to the target tones. Results are reported for 44 individuals (18 males and 26 females ages 12 through 22 years. Nine males and 13 females had a diagnosis of FASD and the remainder were typically-developing age- and sex-matched controls. The main finding was widespread sex-specific differential activation of the frontal, medial and temporal cortex in adolescents with FASD compared to typically developing controls. Significant differences in evoked-response and time–frequency measures of brain dynamics were observed for all stimulus types in the auditory cortex, inferior frontal sulcus and hippocampus. These results underscore the importance of considering the influence of sex when analyzing neurophysiological data in children with FASD.

  9. Modelling neuronal mechanisms of the processing of tones and phonemes in the higher auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Johan P

    2012-01-01

    S'ha investigat molt tant els mecanismes neuronals bàsics de l'audició com l'organització psicològica de la percepció de la parla. Tanmateix, en ambdós temes n'hi ha una relativa escassetat en quant a modelització. Aquí describim dos treballs de modelització. Un d'ells proposa un nou mecanisme de millora de selectivitat de freqüències que explica resultats de experiments neurofisiològics investigant manifestacions de forward masking y sobretot auditory streaming en l'esco...

  10. Childhood auditory processing disorder as a developmental disorder: the case for a multi-professional approach to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) is diagnosed when a patient presents with listening difficulties which can not be explained by a peripheral hearing impairment or higher-order cognitive or language problems. This review explores the association between auditory processing disorder (APD) and other specific developmental disorders such as dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The diagnosis and aetiology of APD are similar to those of other developmental disorders and it is well established that APD often co-occurs with impairments of language, literacy, and attention. The genetic and neurological causes of APD are poorly understood, but developmental and behavioural genetic research with other disorders suggests that clinicians should expect APD to co-occur with other symptoms frequently. The clinical implications of co-occurring symptoms of other developmental disorders are considered and the review concludes that a multi-professional approach to the diagnosis and management of APD, involving speech and language therapy and psychology as well as audiology, is essential to ensure that children have access to the most appropriate range of support and interventions. PMID:20151881

  11. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

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    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]. The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]. Key findings are: (a Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c Physiological saline had no effect on startle in

  12. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang; Salazar-López, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance. PMID:27313900

  13. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception

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    Yi-Huang Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance.

  14. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app. PMID:26110121

  15. Auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging in dogs – normalization and group analysis and the processing of pitch in the canine auditory pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an advanced and frequently used technique for studying brain functions in humans and increasingly so in animals. A key element of analyzing fMRI data is group analysis, for which valid spatial normalization is a prerequisite. In the current study we applied normalization and group analysis to a dataset from an auditory functional MRI experiment in anesthetized beagles. The stimulation paradigm used in the experiment was composed of si...

  16. Treinamento auditivo para transtorno do processamento auditivo: uma proposta de intervenção terapêutica Auditory training for auditory processing disorder: a proposal for therapeutic intervention

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    Alessandra Giannella Samelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a eficácia de um programa informal de treinamento auditivo específico para transtornos do Processamento Auditivo, em um grupo de pacientes com esta alteração, por meio da comparação de pré e pós-testes. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo 10 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, da faixa etária entre sete e 20 anos. Todos realizaram avaliação audiológica completa e do processamento auditivo (testes: Fala com Ruído, Sttagered Spondaic Word - SSW, Dicótico de Dígitos, Padrão de Frequência. Após 10 sessões individuais de treinamento auditivo, nas quais foram trabalhadas diretamente as habilidades auditivas alteradas, a avaliação do processamento auditivo foi refeita. RESULTADOS: as porcentagens médias de acertos nas situações pré e pós-treinamento auditivo demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes em todos os testes realizados. CONCLUSÃO: o programa de treinamento auditivo informal empregado mostrou-se eficaz em um grupo de pacientes com transtorno do processamento auditivo, uma vez que determinou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o desempenho pré e pós-testes na avaliação do processamento auditivo, indicando melhora das habilidades auditivas alteradas.PURPOSE: to check the auditory training efficacy in patients with (central auditory processing disorder, by comparing pre and post results. METHODS: ten male and female subjects, from 7 to 20-year old, took part in this study. All participants were submitted to audiological and (central auditory processing evaluations, which included Speech Recognition under in Noise, Staggered Spondaic Word, Dichotic Digits and Frequency Pattern Discrimination tests. Evaluation was carried out after 10 auditory training sessions. RESULTS: statistical differences were verified comparing pre and post results concerning the mean percentage for all tests. CONCLUSION: the informal auditory training program used showed to be efficient for patients with

  17. Introduction to auditory perception in listeners with hearing losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren

    2003-04-01

    Listeners with hearing losses cannot hear low-level sounds. In addition, they often complain that audible sounds do not have a comfortable loudness, lack clarity, and are difficult to hear in the presence of other sounds. In particular, they have difficulty understanding speech in background noise. The mechanisms underlying these complaints are not completely understood, but hearing losses are known to alter many aspects of auditory processing. This presentation highlights alterations in audibility, loudness, pitch, spectral and temporal processes, and binaural hearing that may result from hearing losses. The changes in these auditory processes can vary widely across individuals with seemingly similar amounts of hearing loss. For example, two listeners with nearly identical thresholds can differ in their ability to process spectral and temporal features of sounds. Such individual differences make rehabilitation of hearing losses complex. [Work supported by NIH/NIDCD.

  18. The cat's meow: A high-field fMRI assessment of cortical activity in response to vocalizations and complex auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amee J; Butler, Blake E; Lomber, Stephen G

    2016-02-15

    Sensory systems are typically constructed in a hierarchical fashion such that lower level subcortical and cortical areas process basic stimulus features, while higher level areas reassemble these features into object-level representations. A number of anatomical pathway tracing studies have suggested that the auditory cortical hierarchy of the cat extends from a core region, consisting of the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF), to higher level auditory fields that are located ventrally. Unfortunately, limitations on electrophysiological examination of these higher level fields have resulted in an incomplete understanding of the functional organization of the auditory cortex. Thus, the current study uses functional MRI in conjunction with a variety of simple and complex auditory stimuli to provide the first comprehensive examination of function across the entire cortical hierarchy. Auditory cortex function is shown to be largely lateralized to the left hemisphere, and is concentrated bilaterally in fields surrounding the posterior ectosylvian sulcus. The use of narrowband noise stimuli enables the visualization of tonotopic gradients in the posterior auditory field (PAF) and ventral posterior auditory field (VPAF) that have previously been unverifiable using fMRI and pure tones. Furthermore, auditory fields that are inaccessible to more invasive techniques, such as the insular (IN) and temporal (T) cortices, are shown to be selectively responsive to vocalizations. Collectively, these data provide a much needed functional correlate for anatomical examinations of the hierarchy of cortical structures within the cat auditory cortex. PMID:26658927

  19. Language processing within the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patric; Mecklinger, Axel; Grunwald, Thomas; Fell, Juergen; Elger, Christian E; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-01-01

    Although the hippocampal formation is essential for verbal memory, it is not fully understood how it contributes to language comprehension. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) directly from two substructures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus proper, while epilepsy patients listened to sentences that either were correct or contained semantic or syntactic violations. Semantic violations elicited a large negative ERP response peaking at approximately 400 ms in the rhinal cortex. In contrast, syntactically incorrect sentences elicited a negative deflection of 500-800 ms in the hippocampus proper. The results suggest that functionally distinct aspects of integration in language comprehension are supported by different MTL structures: the rhinal cortex is involved in semantic integration, whereas the hippocampus proper subserves processes of syntactic integration. An analysis of phase synchronization within the gamma band between rhinal and hippocampal recording sites showed that both of the above-mentioned ERP components were preceded by an increase of phase synchronization. In contrast to these short phasic increases of phase synchronization in both violation conditions, correct sentences were associated with a long-lasting synchronization in a late time window, possibly reflecting the integration of semantic and syntactic information as required for normal comprehension. PMID:15714509

  20. Auditory sensory processing deficits in sensory gating and mismatch negativity-like responses in the social isolation rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witten, Louise; Oranje, Bob; Mørk, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component i...... current study supports the face validity of the SI reared rat model for schizophrenia.......Patients with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in information processing. These disturbances can be investigated with different paradigms of auditory event related potentials (ERP), such as sensory gating in a double click paradigm (P50 suppression) and the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in...... an auditory oddball paradigm. The aim of the current study was to test if rats subjected to social isolation, which is believed to induce some changes that mimic features of schizophrenia, displays alterations in sensory gating and MMN-like response. Male Lister-Hooded rats were separated into two...

  1. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.; Hogben, J. H.; Bishop, D. M. V.

    2005-01-01

    It has been proposed that specific language impairment (SLI) is caused by an impairment of auditory processing, but it is unclear whether this problem affects temporal processing, frequency discrimination (FD), or both. Furthermore, there are few longitudinal studies in this area, making it hard to establish whether any deficit represents a…

  2. Neural Processing of Auditory Signals and Modular Neural Control for Sound Tropism of Walking Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Roth

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The specialized hairs and slit sensillae of spiders (Cupiennius salei can sense the airflow and auditory signals in a low-frequency range. They provide the sensor information for reactive behavior, like e.g. capturing a prey. In analogy, in this paper a setup is described where two microphones and a neural preprocessing system together with a modular neural controller are used to generate a sound tropism of a four-legged walking machine. The neural preprocessing network is acting as a low-pass filter and it is followed by a network which discerns between signals coming from the left or the right. The parameters of these networks are optimized by an evolutionary algorithm. In addition, a simple modular neural controller then generates the desired different walking patterns such that the machine walks straight, then turns towards a switched-on sound source, and then stops near to it.

  3. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-04-01

    . This study aimed to analyze the auditory evoked middle latency response in two patients with auditory processing disorder and relate objective and behavioral measures. This case study was conducted in 2 patients (P1 = 12 years, female, P2 = 17 years old, male, both with the absence of sensory abnormalities, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Both were submitted to anamnesis, inspection of the external ear canal, hearing test and evaluation of Auditory Evoked Middle latency Response. There was a significant association between behavioral test and objectives results. In the interview, there were complaints about the difficulty in listening in a noisy environment, sound localization, inattention, and phonological changes in writing and speaking, as confirmed by evaluation of auditory processing and Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response. Changes were observed in the right decoding process hearing in both cases on the behavioral assessment of auditory processing; auditory evoked potential test middle latency shows that the right contralateral via response was deficient, confirming the difficulties of the patients in the assignment of meaning in acoustic information in a competitive sound condition at right, in both cases. In these cases it was shown the association between the results, but there is a need for further studies with larger sample population to confirm the data.

  4. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-01-01

    . This study aimed to analyze the auditory evoked middle latency response in two patients with auditory processing disorder and relate objective and behavioral measures. This case study was conducted in 2 patients (P1 = 12 years, female, P2 = 17 years old, male, both with the absence of sensory abnormalities, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Both were submitted to anamnesis, inspection of the external ear canal, hearing test and evaluation of Auditory Evoked Middle latency Response. There was a significant association between behavioral test and objectives results. In the interview, there were complaints about the difficulty in listening in a noisy environment, sound localization, inattention, and phonological changes in writing and speaking, as confirmed by evaluation of auditory processing and Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response. Changes were observed in the right decoding process hearing in both cases on the behavioral assessment of auditory processing; auditory evoked potential test middle latency shows that the right contralateral via response was deficient, confirming the difficulties of the patients in the assignment of meaning in acoustic information in a competitive sound condition at right, in both cases. In these cases it was shown the association between the results, but there is a need for further studies with larger sample population to confirm the data.

  5. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  6. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  7. Effects of General Processing Capacity and Sustained Selective Attention on Temporal Processing Performance of Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rebecca A.; Montgomery, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated potential influences of general processing capacity and sustained selective attention on the temporal processing of a group of children with specific language impairment and a group of age-matched controls. Results suggest that the SLI children did not evidence a basic temporal processing deficit. (Author/VWL)

  8. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  9. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Voice-Processing Abnormalities in Schizophrenia: A Window into Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. Like "real" voices, AVH carry a rich amount of linguistic and paralinguistic cues that convey not only speech, but also affect and identity, information. Disturbed processing of voice identity, affective, and speech information has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. More recent evidence has suggested a link between voice-processing abnormalities and specific clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, especially AVH. It is still not well understood, however, to what extent these dimensions are impaired and how abnormalities in these processes might contribute to AVH. In this review, we consider behavioral, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological data to investigate the speech, identity, and affective dimensions of voice processing in schizophrenia, and we discuss how abnormalities in these processes might help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying specific phenomenological features of AVH. Schizophrenia patients exhibit behavioral and neural disturbances in the three dimensions of voice processing. Evidence suggesting a role of dysfunctional voice processing in AVH seems to be stronger for the identity and speech dimensions than for the affective domain. PMID:26954598

  10. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  11. Temporal reasoning with medical data--a review with emphasis on medical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Hripcsak, George

    2007-04-01

    Temporal information is crucial in electronic medical records and biomedical information systems. Processing temporal information in medical narrative data is a very challenging area. It lies at the intersection of temporal representation and reasoning (TRR) in artificial intelligence and medical natural language processing (MLP). Some fundamental concepts and important issues in relation to TRR have previously been discussed, mainly in the context of processing structured data in biomedical informatics; however, it is important that these concepts be re-examined in the context of processing narrative data using MLP. Theoretical and methodological TRR studies in biomedical informatics can be classified into three main categories: category 1 applies theories and models from temporal reasoning in AI; category 2 defines frameworks that meet needs from clinical applications; category 3 resolves issues such as temporal granularity and uncertainty. Currently, most MLP systems are not designed with a formal representation of time, and their ability to reason about temporal relations among medical events is limited. Previous work in processing time with clinical narrative data includes processing time in clinical reports, modeling textual temporal expressions in clinical databases, processing time in clinical guidelines, and building time standards for data exchange and integration. In addition to common problems in MLP, there are challenges specific to TRR in medical text, which occur at each level of linguistic structure and analysis. Despite advances in temporal reasoning in biomedical informatics, processing time in medical text deserves more attention. Besides the need for more research in temporal granularity, fuzzy time, temporal contradiction, intermittent events and uncertainty, broad areas for future research include enhancing functions of current MLP systems on processing temporal information, incorporating medical knowledge into temporal reasoning systems

  12. Spatio-temporal statistical models with applications to atmospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model

  13. Processing temporal agreement in a tenseless language: an ERP study of Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yinchen; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2012-03-29

    Human languages are equipped with an impressive repertoire of time-encoding devices which vary significantly across different cultures. Previous research on temporal processing has focused on morphosyntactic processes in Indo-European languages. This study investigated the neural correlates of temporal processing in Mandarin Chinese, a language that is not morphologically marked for tense. In a sentence acceptability judgment task, we manipulated the agreement between semantically enriched temporal adverbs or a highly grammaticalized aspectual particle (-guo) and temporal noun phrases. Disagreement of both the temporal adverbs and the aspectual particle elicited a centro-parietal P600 effect in event-related potentials (ERPs) whereas only disagreeing temporal adverbs evoked an additional broadly distributed N400 effect. Moreover, a sustained negativity effect was observed on both the words following the critical ones and the last words in sentences with temporal disagreement. These results reveal both commonalities and differences between Chinese and Indo-European languages in temporal agreement processing. In particular, we demonstrate that temporal reference in Chinese relies on both lexical semantics and morphosyntactic processes and that the level of grammaticalization of linguistic devices representing similar temporal information is reflected in differential ERP responses. PMID:22341872

  14. Auditory Cortical Plasticity Drives Training-Induced Cognitive Changes in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Corby L; Brown, Ethan G; Fisher, Melissa; Herman, Alexander B; Dowling, Anne F; Hinkley, Leighton B; Subramaniam, Karuna; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by dysfunction in basic auditory processing, as well as higher-order operations of verbal learning and executive functions. We investigated whether targeted cognitive training of auditory processing improves neural responses to speech stimuli, and how these changes relate to higher-order cognitive functions. Patients with schizophrenia performed an auditory syllable identification task during magnetoencephalography before and after 50 hours of either targeted cognitive training or a computer games control. Healthy comparison subjects were assessed at baseline and after a 10 week no-contact interval. Prior to training, patients (N = 34) showed reduced M100 response in primary auditory cortex relative to healthy participants (N = 13). At reassessment, only the targeted cognitive training patient group (N = 18) exhibited increased M100 responses. Additionally, this group showed increased induced high gamma band activity within left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex immediately after stimulus presentation, and later in bilateral temporal cortices. Training-related changes in neural activity correlated with changes in executive function scores but not verbal learning and memory. These data suggest that computerized cognitive training that targets auditory and verbal learning operations enhances both sensory responses in auditory cortex as well as engagement of prefrontal regions, as indexed during an auditory processing task with low demands on working memory. This neural circuit enhancement is in turn associated with better executive function but not verbal memory. PMID:26152668

  15. The Effects of Aircraft Noise on the Auditory Language Processing Abilities of English First Language Primary School Learners in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Cara; de Andrade, Victor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schools located near to airports are exposed to high levels of noise which can cause cognitive, health, and hearing problems. Therefore, this study sought to explore whether this noise may cause auditory language processing (ALP) problems in primary school learners. Sixty-one children attending schools exposed to high levels of noise were matched…

  16. Test Review: R. W. Keith "SCAN-3 for Adolescents and Adults--Tests for Auditory Processing Disorders". San Antonio, TX: Pearson, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Theodore L.

    2010-01-01

    The SCAN-3 is a battery of tasks used for the screening and diagnosis of auditory processing disorder. It is available in two versions, one for children (the SCAN-3: C) and one for adolescents and adults (the SCAN-3: A); the latter version of the SCAN-3 is reviewed in this article, although it is very similar to the child version. The primary…

  17. Understanding and Identifying the Child at Risk for Auditory Processing Disorders: A Case Method Approach in Examining the Interdisciplinary Role of the School Nurse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Kathleen; Foley, Marie; Gertner, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Despite receiving increased professional and public awareness since the initial American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA) statement defining Auditory Processing Disorders (APDs) in 1993 and the subsequent ASHA statement (2005), many misconceptions remain regarding APDs in school-age children among health and academic professionals. While…

  18. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  19. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C; Thompson, Elaine C; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R; Kraus, Nina

    2015-10-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But this auditory learning rarely occurs in ideal listening conditions-children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3-5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features-even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response

  20. Survey of Bayesian Models for Modelling of Stochastic Temporal Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey gives an overview of popular generative models used in the modeling of stochastic temporal systems. In particular, this survey is organized into two parts. The first part discusses the discrete-time representations of dynamic Bayesian networks and dynamic relational probabilistic models, while the second part discusses the continuous-time representation of continuous-time Bayesian networks.

  1. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giret, Nicolas; Menardy, Fabien; Del Negro, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM), while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer, and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird's own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of information about the

  2. Sex differences in the representation of call stimuli in a songbird secondary auditory area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eGiret

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how communication sounds are encoded in the central auditory system is critical to deciphering the neural bases of acoustic communication. Songbirds use learned or unlearned vocalizations in a variety of social interactions. They have telencephalic auditory areas specialized for processing natural sounds and considered as playing a critical role in the discrimination of behaviorally relevant vocal sounds. The zebra finch, a highly social songbird species, forms lifelong pair bonds. Only male zebra finches sing. However, both sexes produce the distance call when placed in visual isolation. This call is sexually dimorphic, is learned only in males and provides support for individual recognition in both sexes. Here, we assessed whether auditory processing of distance calls differs between paired males and females by recording spiking activity in a secondary auditory area, the caudolateral mesopallium (CLM, while presenting the distance calls of a variety of individuals, including the bird itself, the mate, familiar and unfamiliar males and females. In males, the CLM is potentially involved in auditory feedback processing important for vocal learning. Based on both the analyses of spike rates and temporal aspects of discharges, our results clearly indicate that call-evoked responses of CLM neurons are sexually dimorphic, being stronger, lasting longer and conveying more information about calls in males than in females. In addition, how auditory responses vary among call types differ between sexes. In females, response strength differs between familiar male and female calls. In males, temporal features of responses reveal a sensitivity to the bird’s own call. These findings provide evidence that sexual dimorphism occurs in higher-order processing areas within the auditory system. They suggest a sexual dimorphism in the function of the CLM, contributing to transmit information about the self-generated calls in males and to storage of

  3. Experimental analysis of the auditory detection process on avian point counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T.R.; Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Wettroth, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system for simulating the conditions of avian surveys in which birds are identified by sound. The system uses a laptop computer to control a set of amplified MP3 players placed at known locations around a survey point. The system can realistically simulate a known population of songbirds under a range of factors that affect detection probabilities. The goals of our research are to describe the sources and range of variability affecting point-count estimates and to find applications of sampling theory and methodologies that produce practical improvements in the quality of bird-census data. Initial experiments in an open field showed that, on average, observers tend to undercount birds on unlimited-radius counts, though the proportion of birds counted by individual observers ranged from 81% to 132% of the actual total. In contrast to the unlimited-radius counts, when data were truncated at a 50-m radius around the point, observers overestimated the total population by 17% to 122%. Results also illustrate how detection distances decline and identification errors increase with increasing levels of ambient noise. Overall, the proportion of birds heard by observers decreased by 28 ?? 4.7% under breezy conditions, 41 ?? 5.2% with the presence of additional background birds, and 42 ?? 3.4% with the addition of 10 dB of white noise. These findings illustrate some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting avian abundance estimates based on auditory detections, and why estimates that do not account for variations in detection probability will not withstand critical scrutiny. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  4. Temporal Analysis of Motif Mixtures using Dirichlet Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Emonet, Rémi; Varadarajan, J.; Odobez, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we present a new model for unsupervised discovery of recurrent temporal patterns (or motifs) in time series (or documents). The model is designed to handle the difficult case of multivariate time series obtained from a mixture of activities, that is, our observations are caused by the superposition of multiple phenomena occurring concurrently and with no synchronization. The model uses nonparametric Bayesian methods to describe both the motifs and thei...

  5. The Role of Temporally Coarse Form Processing during Binocular Rivalry

    OpenAIRE

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; David Alais; Erkelens, Casper J.; Raymond van Ee

    2008-01-01

    Presenting the eyes with spatially mismatched images causes a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry-a fluctuation of awareness whereby each eye's image alternately determines perception. Binocular rivalry is used to study interocular conflict resolution and the formation of conscious awareness from retinal images. Although the spatial determinants of rivalry have been well-characterized, the temporal determinants are still largely unstudied. We confirm a previous observation that conflicting ...

  6. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  7. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  8. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it i...

  9. Cholinergic modulation of auditory steady-state response in the auditory cortex of the freely moving rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ma, L; Li, W; Yang, P; Qin, L

    2016-06-01

    As disturbance in auditory steady-state response (ASSR) has been consistently found in many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, there is considerable interest in the development of translational rat models to elucidate the underlying neural and neurochemical mechanisms involved in ASSR. This is the first study to investigate the effects of the non-selective muscarinic antagonist scopolamine and the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (also in combination with scopolamine) on ASSR. We recorded the local field potentials through the chronic microelectrodes implanted in the auditory cortex of freely moving rat. ASSRs were recorded in response to auditory stimuli delivered over a range of frequencies (10-80Hz) and averaged over 60 trials. We found that a single dose of scopolamine produced a temporal attenuation in response to auditory stimuli; the most attenuation occurred at 40Hz. Time-frequency analysis revealed deficits in both power and phase-locking to 40Hz. Donepezil augmented 40-Hz steady-state power and phase-locking. Scopolamine combined with donepezil had an enhanced effect on the phase-locking, but not power of ASSR. These changes induced by cholinergic drugs suggest an involvement of muscarinic neurotransmission in auditory processing and provide a rodent model investigating the neurochemical mechanism of neurophysiological deficits seen in patients. PMID:26964684

  10. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection-which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms-can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection) or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection). In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON). This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior. PMID:23874278

  11. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  12. [In Process Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann; Mathiak

    1999-11-01

    Pure word deafness (auditory verbal agnosia) is characterized by an impairment of auditory comprehension, repetition of verbal material and writing to dictation whereas spontaneous speech production and reading largely remain unaffected. Sometimes, this syndrome is preceded by complete deafness (cortical deafness) of varying duration. Perception of vowels and suprasegmental features of verbal utterances (e.g., intonation contours) seems to be less disrupted than the processing of consonants and, therefore, might mediate residual auditory functions. Often, lip reading and/or slowing of speaking rate allow within some limits to compensate for speech comprehension deficits. Apart from a few exceptions, the available reports of pure word deafness documented a bilateral temporal lesion. In these instances, as a rule, identification of nonverbal (environmental) sounds, perception of music, temporal resolution of sequential auditory cues and/or spatial localization of acoustic events were compromised as well. The observed variable constellation of auditory signs and symptoms in central hearing disorders following bilateral temporal disorders, most probably, reflects the multitude of functional maps at the level of the auditory cortices subserving, as documented in a variety of non-human species, the encoding of specific stimulus parameters each. Thus, verbal/nonverbal auditory agnosia may be considered a paradigm of distorted "auditory scene analysis" (Bregman 1990) affecting both primitive and schema-based perceptual processes. It cannot be excluded, however, that disconnection of the Wernicke-area from auditory input (Geschwind 1965) and/or an impairment of suggested "phonetic module" (Liberman 1996) contribute to the observed deficits as well. Conceivably, these latter mechanisms underly the rare cases of pure word deafness following a lesion restricted to the dominant hemisphere. Only few instances of a rather isolated disruption of the discrimination

  13. Maximizing the Spectral and Temporal Benefits of Two Clinically Used Sound Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Jong Ho; Nie, Kaibao; Drennan, Ward R.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work showed that the Fidelity120 processing strategy provides better spectral sensitivity, while the HiResolution processing strategy can deliver more detailed temporal information for Advanced Bionics cochlear implant users. The goal of this study was to develop a new sound processing strategy by maximizing the spectral benefit of Fidelity120 and the temporal benefit of HiResolution to improve both aspects of hearing. Using acoustic simulations of Fidelity120 and HiResolution strate...

  14. Elliptic Bessel processes and elliptic Dyson models realized as temporally inhomogeneous processes

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The Bessel process with parameter $D>1$ and the Dyson model of interacting Brownian motions with coupling constant $\\beta >0$ are extended to the processes, in which the drift term and the interaction terms are given by the logarithmic derivatives of Jacobi's theta functions. They are called the elliptic Bessel process, eBES$^{(D)}$, and the elliptic Dyson model, eDYS$^{(\\beta)}$, respectively. Both are realized on the circumference of a circle $[0, 2 \\pi r)$ with radius $r >0$ as temporally inhomogeneous processes defined in a finite time interval $[0, t_*), t_* < \\infty$. Transformations of them to Schr\\"odinger-type equations with time-dependent potentials lead us to proving that eBES$^{(D)}$ and eDYS$^{(\\beta)}$ can be constructed as the time-dependent Girsanov transformations of Brownian motions. In the special cases where $D=3$ and $\\beta=2$, observables of the processes are defined and the processes are represented for them using the Brownian paths winding round a circle and pinned at time $t_*$. We...

  15. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  16. Neurophysiological indices of atypical auditory processing and multisensory integration are associated with symptom severity in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Brandwein, A.B.; Foxe, J. J.; Butler, J. S.; Frey, H.P.; Bates, J.C.; Shulman, L.; Molholm, S.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical processing and integration of sensory inputs are hypothesized to play a role in unusual sensory reactions and social-cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reports on the relationship between objective metrics of sensory processing and clinical symptoms, however, are surprisingly sparse. Here we examined the relationship between neurophysiological assays of sensory processing and 1) autism severity and 2) sensory sensitivities, in individuals with ASD aged 6–17. Multip...

  17. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations with the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in…

  18. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  19. A locus for an auditory processing deficit and language impairment in an extended pedigree maps to 12p13.31-q14.3

    OpenAIRE

    Addis, L.; Friederici, A. D.; Kotz, S A; Sabisch, B; Barry, J.; Richter, N.; Ludwig, A A; Rübsamen, R; Albert, F W; Pääbo, S; Newbury, D. F.; Monaco, A P

    2010-01-01

    Despite the apparent robustness of language learning in humans, a large number of children still fail to develop appropriate language skills despite adequate means and opportunity. Most cases of language impairment have a complex etiology, with genetic and environmental influences. In contrast, we describe a three-generation German family who present with an apparently simple segregation of language impairment. Investigations of the family indicate auditory processing difficulties as a core d...

  20. Auditory-prefrontal axonal connectivity in the macaque cortex: quantitative assessment of processing streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezgin, G.; Rybacki, K.; Opstal, A.J. van; Bakker, R.; Shen, K.; Vakorin, V.A.; McIntosh, A.R.; Kötter, R.

    2014-01-01

    Primate sensory systems subserve complex neurocomputational functions. Consequently, these systems are organised anatomically in a distributed fashion, commonly linking areas to form specialised processing streams. Each stream is related to a specific function, as evidenced from studies of the visua

  1. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Associated with the Efficiency of Social Auditory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Tops, Mattie; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Riem, Madelon M E; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to facilitate social aspects of sensory processing, thereby enhancing social communicative behaviors and empathy. Here we report that compared to the AA/AG genotypes, the presumably more efficient GG genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) that has previously been associated with increased sensitivity of social processing is related to less self-reported difficulty in hearing and understanding people when there is background noise. The present...

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene associated with the efficiency of social auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    Tops, Mattie; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus; Riem, Madelon; Boksem, Maarten; BAKERMANS-KRANENBURG, marian

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOxytocin has been shown to facilitate social aspects of sensory processing, thereby enhancing social communicative behaviors and empathy. Here we report that compared to the AA/AG genotypes, the presumably more efficient GG genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) that has previously been associated with increased sensitivity of social processing is related to less self-reported difficulty in hearing and understanding people when there is background noise....

  3. Oxytocin receptor gene associated with the efficiency of social auditory processing

    OpenAIRE

    MattieTops; MarinusHVan IJzendoorn; MaartenA SBoksem

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to facilitate social aspects of sensory processing, thereby enhancing social communicative behaviors and empathy. Here we report that compared to the AA/AG genotypes, the presumably more efficient GG genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) that has previously been associated with increased sensitivity of social processing is related to less self-reported difficulty in hearing and understanding people when there is background noise. The present...

  4. Spatio-temporal resolution of primary processes of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Technical progress in laser-sources and detectors has allowed the temporal and spatial resolution of chemical reactions down to femtoseconds and Å-units. In photon-excitable systems the key to chemical kinetics, trajectories across the vibrational saddle landscape, are experimentally accessible. Simple and thus well-defined chemical compounds are preferred objects for calibrating new methodologies and carving out paradigms of chemical dynamics, as shown in several contributions to this Faraday Discussion. Aerobic life on earth is powered by solar energy, which is captured by microorganisms and plants. Oxygenic photosynthesis relies on a three billion year old molecular machinery which is as well defined as simpler chemical constructs. It has been analysed to a very high precision. The transfer of excitation between pigments in antennae proteins, of electrons between redox-cofactors in reaction centres, and the oxidation of water by a Mn4Ca-cluster are solid state reactions. ATP, the general energy currency of the cell, is synthesized by a most agile, rotary molecular machine. While the efficiency of photosynthesis competes well with photovoltaics at the time scale of nanoseconds, it is lower by an order of magnitude for crops and again lower for bio-fuels. The enormous energy demand of mankind calls for engineered (bio-mimetic or bio-inspired) solar-electric and solar-fuel devices. PMID:25824647

  5. Music perception and cognition following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J; Musiek, F E

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental and anatomical data from a case study of impaired auditory perception following bilateral hemispheric strokes. To consider the cortical representation of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music, pure tone sensation thresholds, spectral intonation judgments, and the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context were examined, and lesion localization was analyzed quantitatively using straight-line two-dimensional maps of the cortical surface reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. Despite normal pure tone sensation thresholds at 250-8000 Hz, the perception of tonal spectra was severely impaired, such that harmonic structures (major triads) were almost uniformly judged to sound dissonant; yet, the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context was preserved, indicating that cognitive representations of tonal hierarchies in music remained intact and accessible. Brainprints demonstrated complete bilateral lesions of the transverse gyri of Heschl and partial lesions of the right and left superior temporal gyri involving 98 and 20% of their surface areas, respectively. In the right hemisphere, there was partial sparing of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, and inferior parietal cortex. In the left hemisphere, all of the superior temporal region anterior to the transverse gyrus and parts of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal cortex, and insula were spared. These observations suggest that (1) sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music are neurologically dissociable; (2) complete bilateral lesions of primary auditory cortex combined with partial bilateral lesions of auditory association cortex chronically impair tonal consonance perception; (3) cognitive functions that hierarchically structure pitch information and generate harmonic expectancies

  6. Keeping time in the brain: Autism spectrum disorder and audiovisual temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Segers, Magali; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D; Camarata, Stephen; Wallace, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    A growing area of interest and relevance in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) focuses on the relationship between multisensory temporal function and the behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive impairments observed in ASD. Atypical sensory processing is becoming increasingly recognized as a core component of autism, with evidence of atypical processing across a number of sensory modalities. These deviations from typical processing underscore the value of interpreting ASD within a multisensory framework. Furthermore, converging evidence illustrates that these differences in audiovisual processing may be specifically related to temporal processing. This review seeks to bridge the connection between temporal processing and audiovisual perception, and to elaborate on emerging data showing differences in audiovisual temporal function in autism. We also discuss the consequence of such changes, the specific impact on the processing of different classes of audiovisual stimuli (e.g. speech vs. nonspeech, etc.), and the presumptive brain processes and networks underlying audiovisual temporal integration. Finally, possible downstream behavioral implications, and possible remediation strategies are outlined. Autism Res 2016, 9: 720-738. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26402725

  7. Laser beam temporal and spatial tailoring for laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd; Dane, C. Brent

    2001-01-01

    Techniques are provided for formatting laser pulse spatial shape and for effectively and efficiently delivering the laser energy to a work surface in the laser shock process. An appropriately formatted pulse helps to eliminate breakdown and generate uniform shocks. The invention uses a high power laser technology capable of meeting the laser requirements for a high throughput process, that is, a laser which can treat many square centimeters of surface area per second. The shock process has a broad range of applications, especially in the aerospace industry, where treating parts to reduce or eliminate corrosion failure is very important. The invention may be used for treating metal components to improve strength and corrosion resistance. The invention has a broad range of applications for parts that are currently shot peened and/or require peening by means other than shot peening. Major applications for the invention are in the automotive and aerospace industries for components such as turbine blades, compressor components, gears, etc.

  8. Variability and information content in auditory cortex spike trains during an interval-discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolafia, Juan M; Martinez-Garcia, M; Deco, G; Sanchez-Vives, M V

    2013-11-01

    Processing of temporal information is key in auditory processing. In this study, we recorded single-unit activity from rat auditory cortex while they performed an interval-discrimination task. The animals had to decide whether two auditory stimuli were separated by either 150 or 300 ms and nose-poke to the left or to the right accordingly. The spike firing of single neurons in the auditory cortex was then compared in engaged vs. idle brain states. We found that spike firing variability measured with the Fano factor was markedly reduced, not only during stimulation, but also in between stimuli in engaged trials. We next explored if this decrease in variability was associated with an increased information encoding. Our information theory analysis revealed increased information content in auditory responses during engagement compared with idle states, in particular in the responses to task-relevant stimuli. Altogether, we demonstrate that task-engagement significantly modulates coding properties of auditory cortical neurons during an interval-discrimination task. PMID:23945780

  9. Animal models of spontaneous activity in the healthy and impaired auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous neural activity in the auditory nerve fibers and in auditory cortex in healthy animals is discussed with respect to the question: Is spontaneous activity noise or information carrier? The studies reviewed suggest strongly that spontaneous activity is a carrier of information. Subsequently, I review the numerous findings in the impaired auditory system, particularly with reference to noise trauma and tinnitus. Here the common assumption is that tinnitus reflects increased noise in the auditory system that among others affects temporal processing and interferes with the gap-startle reflex, which is frequently used as a behavioral assay for tinnitus. It is, however, more likely that the increased spontaneous activity in tinnitus, firing rate as well as neural synchrony, carries information that shapes the activity of downstream structures, including non-auditory ones, and leading to the tinnitus percept. The main drivers of that process are bursting and synchronous firing, which facilitates transfer of activity across synapses, and allows formation of auditory objects, such as tinnitus

  10. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  11. Early stages of melody processing: stimulus-sequence and task-dependent neuronal activity in monkey auditory cortical fields A1 and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pingbo; Mishkin, Mortimer; Sutter, Mitchell; Fritz, Jonathan B

    2008-12-01

    To explore the effects of acoustic and behavioral context on neuronal responses in the core of auditory cortex (fields A1 and R), two monkeys were trained on a go/no-go discrimination task in which they learned to respond selectively to a four-note target (S+) melody and withhold response to a variety of other nontarget (S-) sounds. We analyzed evoked activity from 683 units in A1/R of the trained monkeys during task performance and from 125 units in A1/R of two naive monkeys. We characterized two broad classes of neural activity that were modulated by task performance. Class I consisted of tone-sequence-sensitive enhancement and suppression responses. Enhanced or suppressed responses to specific tonal components of the S+ melody were frequently observed in trained monkeys, but enhanced responses were rarely seen in naive monkeys. Both facilitatory and suppressive responses in the trained monkeys showed a temporal pattern different from that observed in naive monkeys. Class II consisted of nonacoustic activity, characterized by a task-related component that correlated with bar release, the behavioral response leading to reward. We observed a significantly higher percentage of both Class I and Class II neurons in field R than in A1. Class I responses may help encode a long-term representation of the behaviorally salient target melody. Class II activity may reflect a variety of nonacoustic influences, such as attention, reward expectancy, somatosensory inputs, and/or motor set and may help link auditory perception and behavioral response. Both types of neuronal activity are likely to contribute to the performance of the auditory task. PMID:18842950

  12. Exploring the extent and function of higher-order auditory cortex in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, Amy; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2007-07-01

    Just as cortical visual processing continues far beyond the boundaries of early visual areas, so too does cortical auditory processing continue far beyond the limits of early auditory areas. In passively listening rhesus monkeys examined with metabolic mapping techniques, cortical areas reactive to auditory stimulation were found to include the entire length of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as well as several other regions within the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Comparison of these widespread activations with those from an analogous study in vision supports the notion that audition, like vision, is served by several cortical processing streams, each specialized for analyzing a different aspect of sensory input, such as stimulus quality, location, or motion. Exploration with different classes of acoustic stimuli demonstrated that most portions of STG show greater activation on the right than on the left regardless of stimulus class. However, there is a striking shift to left-hemisphere "dominance" during passive listening to species-specific vocalizations, though this reverse asymmetry is observed only in the region of temporal pole. The mechanism for this left temporal pole "dominance" appears to be suppression of the right temporal pole by the left hemisphere, as demonstrated by a comparison of the results in normal monkeys with those in split-brain monkeys. PMID:17321703

  13. Selection of Temporal Lags When Modeling Economic and Financial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Garcia, Mariano; Ojeda, Rina B; Marin, Manuel Ruiz

    2016-10-01

    This paper suggests new nonparametric statistical tools and procedures for modeling linear and nonlinear univariate economic and financial processes. In particular, the tools presented help in selecting relevant lags in the model description of a general linear or nonlinear time series; that is, nonlinear models are not a restriction. The tests seem to be robust to the selection of free parameters. We also show that the test can be used as a diagnostic tool for well-defined models. PMID:27550703

  14. Two adaptation processes in auditory hair cells together can provide an active amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Vilfan, A; Vilfan, Andrej; Duke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear convert mechanical stimuli to electrical signals. Two adaptation mechanisms are known to modify the ionic current flowing through the transduction channels of the hair bundles: a rapid process involves calcium ions binding to the channels; and a slower adaptation is associated with the movement of myosin motors. We present a mathematical model of the hair cell which demonstrates that the combination of these two mechanisms can produce `self-tuned critical oscillations', i.e. maintain the hair bundle at the threshold of an oscillatory instability. The characteristic frequency depends on the geometry of the bundle and on the calcium dynamics, but is independent of channel kinetics. Poised on the verge of vibrating, the hair bundle acts as an active amplifier. However, if the hair cell is sufficiently perturbed, other dynamical regimes can occur. These include slow relaxation oscillations which resemble the hair bundle motion observed in some experimental preparations.

  15. Processamento auditivo em gagos: análise do desempenho das orelhas direita e esquerda Auditory processing in stutterers: performance of right and left ears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Neves de Andrade

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a diferença entre as orelhas nos testes comportamentais do processamento auditivo e os resultados de sujeitos com diferentes graus de gravidade de gagueira em cada teste do processamento auditivo. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta e seis indivíduos, com idades entre quatro e 34 anos, foram encaminhados pelo Ambulatório de Avaliação Fonoaudiológica da UNIFESP para avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação de audição, fala e linguagem. A disfluência foi classificada segundo o protocolo de Riley (1994, o qual prevê os seguintes graus de gravidade da gagueira: muito leve, leve, moderado, severo e muito severo. Os testes para avaliação do processamento auditivo foram selecionados e analisados de acordo com a idade do paciente e a proposta de Pereira & Schochat (1997. RESULTADOS: Observamos prevalência da gagueira de grau leve nas faixas etárias de quatro a sete anos e de 12 a 34 anos de idade, e de grau moderado nos indivíduos de oito a 11 anos de idade. Dos 56 indivíduos avaliados 92,85% apresentaram alteração do processamento auditivo. Houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as orelhas direita e esquerda na etapa de atenção direcionada do teste dicótico não verbal, em todas as faixas etárias estudadas. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os graus de gravidade da gagueira em nenhum dos testes de processamento auditivo. CONCLUSÕES: A orelha direita apresentou melhor desempenho do que a esquerda nos diferentes testes comportamentais. O grau de gravidade da gagueira não interferiu no resultado de cada teste.PURPOSE: To compare the difference between the performances of right and left ears in behavioral tests of auditory processing and to compare the results obtained by subjects with different stuttering severity classifications in each auditory processing test. METHODS: Fifty six subjects (49 male, 7 female, with ages ranging

  16. Human processing of short temporal intervals as revealed by an ERP waveform analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Nakajima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the time course over which the human brain processes information about durations up to ~300 ms, we reanalyzed the data that were previously reported by Mitsudo et al. (2009 using a multivariate analysis method. Event-related potentials were recorded from 19 scalp electrodes on 11 (9 original and 2 additional participants while they judged whether two neighboring empty time intervals—called t1 and t2 and marked by three tone bursts—had equal durations. There was also a control condition in which the participants were presented the same temporal patterns but without a judgment task. In the present reanalysis, we sought to visualize how the temporal patterns were represented in the brain over time. A correlation matrix across channels was calculated for each temporal pattern. Geometric separations between the correlation matrices were calculated, and subjected to multidimensional scaling. We performed such analyses for a moving 100-ms time window after the t1 presentations. In the windows centered at < 100 ms after the t2 presentation, the analyses revealed the local maxima of categorical separation between temporal patterns of perceptually equal durations versus perceptually unequal durations, both in the judgment condition and in the control condition. Such categorization of the temporal patterns was prominent only in narrow temporal regions. The analysis indicated that the participants determined whether the two neighboring time intervals were of equal duration mostly within 100 ms after the presentation of the temporal patterns. A very fast brain activity was related to the perception of elementary temporal patterns without explicit judgments. This is consistent with the findings of Mitsudo et al., and it is in line with the processing time hypothesis proposed by Nakajima et al. (2004. The validity of the correlation matrix analyses turned out to be an effective tool to grasp the overall responses of the brain to temporal

  17. The "Musical Emotional Bursts": a validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Sébastien; Peretz, Isabelle; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear) and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analog of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV)-a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 s) improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]), or a clarinet (10 stimuli × 4 [3 emotions + neutral]). The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, non-linguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli [30 stimuli × 4 (3 emotions + neutral) × 2 instruments] by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task); 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80) was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0%) and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each) MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems. PMID:23964255

  18. The Musical Emotional Bursts: A validated set of musical affect bursts to investigate auditory affective processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePaquette

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB consist of 80 brief musical executions expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness and fear and neutrality. These musical bursts were designed to be the musical analogue of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV – a set of brief non-verbal affective vocalizations portraying different basic emotions. The MEB consist of short (mean duration: 1.6 sec improvisations on a given emotion or of imitations of a given MAV stimulus, played on a violin (n:40 or a clarinet (n:40. The MEB arguably represent a primitive form of music emotional expression, just like the MAV represent a primitive form of vocal, nonlinguistic emotional expression. To create the MEB, stimuli were recorded from 10 violinists and 10 clarinetists, and then evaluated by 60 participants. Participants evaluated 240 stimuli (30 stimuli x 4 [3 emotions + neutral] x 2 instruments by performing either a forced-choice emotion categorization task, a valence rating task or an arousal rating task (20 subjects per task; 40 MAVs were also used in the same session with similar task instructions. Recognition accuracy of emotional categories expressed by the MEB (n:80 was lower than for the MAVs but still very high with an average percent correct recognition score of 80.4%. Highest recognition accuracies were obtained for happy clarinet (92.0% and fearful or sad violin (88.0% each MEB stimuli. The MEB can be used to compare the cerebral processing of emotional expressions in music and vocal communication, or used for testing affective perception in patients with communication problems.

  19. Contribution of bioanthropology to the reconstruction of prehistoric productive processes. The external auditory exostoses in the prehispanic population of Gran Canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Vázquez, Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an approach to the role of bioanthropological studies in the reconstruction of the productive processes of past societies. This objective is obtained starting from the survey and valuation of the prevalence of bone exostoses in the auditory canal among the prehistoric inhabitants of Gran Canaria. The auditory exostose is a bone wound well documented through clinical and experimental studies, closely related to the exposure of the auditory canal to cold water. The estimation of this bone anomaly among the analysed population, leads to the definition of outstanding territorial variations in the economic strategies of these human groups.

    En el presente trabajo se pretende abordar el papel de los estudios bioantropológicos en la reconstrucción de los procesos productivos de las sociedades del pasado. Esta finalidad es perseguida a partir del examen y valoración de la prevalencia de exostosis óseas en el canal auditivo en la población prehistórica de Gran Canaria. Las exostosis auditivas constituyen una lesión ósea, bien documentada en trabajos experimentales y clínicos, estrechamente relacionada con la exposición del canal auditivo al agua fría. La estimación de esta anormalidad ósea en el conjunto poblacional analizado permite la definición de importantes variaciones territoriales en las estrategias económicas emprendidas por estos grupos humanos.

  20. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  1. Controling contagious processes on temporal networks via adaptive rewiring

    CERN Document Server

    Belik, Vitaly; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We consider recurrent contagious processes on a time-varying network. As a control procedure to mitigate the epidemic, we propose an adaptive rewiring mechanism for temporary isolation of infected nodes upon their detection. As a case study, we investigate the network of pig trade in Germany. Based on extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters, we demonstrate that the adaptation mechanism leads to a significant extension of the parameter range, for which most of the index nodes (origins of the epidemic) lead to vanishing epidemics. We find that diseases with detection times around a week and infectious periods up to 3 months can be effectively controlled. Furthermore the performance of adaptation is very heterogeneous with respect to the index node. We identify index nodes that are most responsive to the adaptation strategy and quantify the success of the proposed adaptation scheme in dependence on the infectious period and detection times.

  2. Second-order analysis of inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point process data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriel, Edith; Diggle, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Second-order methods provide a natural starting point for the analysis of spatial point process data. In this note we extend to the spatio-temporal setting a method proposed by Baddeley et al. [Statistica Neerlandica (2000) Vol. 54, pp. 329-350] for inhomogeneous spatial point process data, and appl

  3. Event-Related Brain Potentials Reveal Anomalies in Temporal Processing of Faces in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J.; Panagiotides, Heracles; Carver, Leslie J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism exhibit impairments in face recognition, and neuroimaging studies have shown that individuals with autism exhibit abnormal patterns of brain activity during face processing. The current study examined the temporal characteristics of face processing in autism and their relation to behavior. Method: High-density…

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  5. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Specht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesised, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a “lateralisation” gradient. This increasing leftward lateralisation was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus (STS and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  6. White Matter Microstructure is Associated with Auditory and Tactile Processing in Children with and without Sensory Processing Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yi-Shin; Gratiot, Mathilde; Owen, Julia P.; Brandes-Aitken, Anne; Desai, Shivani S.; Hill, Susanna S.; Arnett, Anne B.; Harris, Julia; Marco, Elysa J.; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing disorders (SPDs) affect up to 16% of school-aged children, and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits impacting affected individuals and their families. While sensory processing differences are now widely recognized in children with autism, children with sensory-based dysfunction who do not meet autism criteria based on social communication deficits remain virtually unstudied. In a previous pilot diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we demonstrated that boys with ...

  7. White matter microstructure is associated with auditory and tactile processing in children with and without sensory processing disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Shin Chang; Mathilde eGratiot; Owen, Julia P.; Anne eBrandes-Aitken; Desai, Shivani S.; Susanna S Hill; Anne B Arnett; Julia eHarris; Marco, Elysa J.; Pratik eMukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing disorders (SPD) affect up to 16% of school-aged children, and contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits impacting affected individuals and their families. While sensory processing differences are now widely recognized in children with autism, children with sensory-based dysfunction who do not meet autism criteria based on social communication deficits remain virtually unstudied. In a previous pilot diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we demonstrated that boys with ...

  8. Auditory hedonic phenotypes in dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Schott, Jonathan M; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Rossor, Martin N; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Patients with dementia may exhibit abnormally altered liking for environmental sounds and music but such altered auditory hedonic responses have not been studied systematically. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 73 patients representing major canonical dementia syndromes (behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD)) using a semi-structured caregiver behavioural questionnaire and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of patients' brain MR images. Behavioural responses signalling abnormal aversion to environmental sounds, aversion to music or heightened pleasure in music ('musicophilia') occurred in around half of the cohort but showed clear syndromic and genetic segregation, occurring in most patients with bvFTD but infrequently in PNFA and more commonly in association with MAPT than C9orf72 mutations. Aversion to sounds was the exclusive auditory phenotype in AD whereas more complex phenotypes including musicophilia were common in bvFTD and SD. Auditory hedonic alterations correlated with grey matter loss in a common, distributed, right-lateralised network including antero-mesial temporal lobe, insula, anterior cingulate and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that abnormalities of auditory hedonic processing are a significant issue in common dementias. Sounds may constitute a novel probe of brain mechanisms for emotional salience coding that are targeted by neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25929717

  9. Altered neural activity in the `when' pathway during temporal processing in fragile X premutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Tassone, Flora; Simon, Tony J.; Rivera, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are the genetic cause of fragile X syndrome (FXS). Large expansions of the CGG repeat (>200 repeats) consequently result in transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene and deficiency/absence of the FMR1 protein (FMRP). Carriers with a premutation allele (55–200 of CGG repeats) are often associated with mildly reduced levels of FMRP and/or elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA. Recent studies have shown that infants with FXS exhibit severely reduced resolution of temporal attention, whereas spatial resolution of attention is not impaired. Following from these findings in the full mutation, the current study used fMRI to examine whether premutation carriers would exhibit atypical temporal processing at behavioral and/or neural levels. Using spatial and temporal working memory (SWM and TWM) tasks, separately tagging spatial and temporal processing, we demonstrated that neurotypical adults showed greater activation in the `when pathway' (i.e., the right temporoparietal junction: TPJ) during TWM retrieval than SWM retrieval. However, premutation carriers failed to show this increased involvement of the right TPJ during retrieval of temporal information. Further, multiple regression analyses on right TPJ activation and FMR1 gene expression (i.e., CGG repeat size and FMR1 mRNA) suggests that elevated FMR1 mRNA level is a powerful predictor accounting for reduced right TPJ activation associated with temporal processing in premutation carriers. In conclusion, the current study provides the first evidence on altered neural correlates of temporal processing in adults with the premutation, explained by their FMR1 gene expression. PMID:24398265

  10. Proximal vocal threat recruits the right voice-sensitive auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceravolo, Leonardo; Frühholz, Sascha; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-05-01

    The accurate estimation of the proximity of threat is important for biological survival and to assess relevant events of everyday life. We addressed the question of whether proximal as compared with distal vocal threat would lead to a perceptual advantage for the perceiver. Accordingly, we sought to highlight the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of proximal vs distal threatening vocal signals by the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although we found that the inferior parietal and superior temporal cortex of human listeners generally decoded the spatial proximity of auditory vocalizations, activity in the right voice-sensitive auditory cortex was specifically enhanced for proximal aggressive relative to distal aggressive voices as compared with neutral voices. Our results shed new light on the processing of imminent danger signaled by proximal vocal threat and show the crucial involvement of the right mid voice-sensitive auditory cortex in such processing. PMID:26746180

  11. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  12. Temporal and speech processing skills in normal hearing individuals exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ajith Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea and result in permanent noise-induced cochlear hearing loss. Consequences of cochlear hearing loss on speech perception and psychophysical abilities have been well documented. Primary goal of this research was to explore temporal processing and speech perception Skills in individuals who are exposed to occupational noise of more than 80 dBA and not yet incurred clinically significant threshold shifts. Contribution of temporal processing skills to speech perception in adverse listening situation was also evaluated. A total of 118 participants took part in this research. Participants comprised three groups of train drivers in the age range of 30-40 (n= 13, 41 50 ( = 13, 41-50 (n = 9, and 51-60 (n = 6 years and their non-noise-exposed counterparts (n = 30 in each age group. Participants of all the groups including the train drivers had hearing sensitivity within 25 dB HL in the octave frequencies between 250 and 8 kHz. Temporal processing was evaluated using gap detection, modulation detection, and duration pattern tests. Speech recognition was tested in presence multi-talker babble at -5dB SNR. Differences between experimental and control groups were analyzed using ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Results showed a trend of reduced temporal processing skills in individuals with noise exposure. These deficits were observed despite normal peripheral hearing sensitivity. Speech recognition scores in the presence of noise were also significantly poor in noise-exposed group. Furthermore, poor temporal processing skills partially accounted for the speech recognition difficulties exhibited by the noise-exposed individuals. These results suggest that noise can cause significant distortions in the processing of suprathreshold temporal cues which may add to difficulties in hearing in adverse listening conditions.

  13. Testing the weak stationarity of a spatio-temporal point process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    A common assumption in analyzing spatial and spatio-temporal point processes is stationarity, while in many real applications because of the environmental effects the stationarity condition is not often met. We propose two types of test statistics to test stationarity for spatio-temporal point...... processes, by adapting, Palahi, Pukkala & Mateu (2009) and by considering the square difference between observed and expected (under stationarity) intensities. We study the efficiency of the new statistics by simulated data, and we apply them to test the stationarity of real data....

  14. Research of Cadastral Data Modelling and Database Updating Based on Spatio-temporal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The core of modern cadastre management is to renew the cadastre database and keep its currentness,topology consistency and integrity.This paper analyzed the changes and their linkage of various cadastral objects in the update process.Combined object-oriented modeling technique with spatio-temporal objects' evolution express,the paper proposed a cadastral data updating model based on the spatio-temporal process according to people's thought.Change rules based on the spatio-temporal topological relations of evolution cadastral spatio-temporal objects are drafted and further more cascade updating and history back trace of cadastral features,land use and buildings are realized.This model implemented in cadastral management system-ReGIS.Achieved cascade changes are triggered by the direct driving force or perceived external events.The system records spatio-temporal objects' evolution process to facilitate the reconstruction of history,change tracking,analysis and forecasting future changes.

  15. Temporally regular musical primes facilitate subsequent syntax processing in children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eBedoin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime. Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as ‘baseline condition’ followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976 and the temporal sampling (oscillatory framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011. Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in nonverbal materials to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  16. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  17. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  18. Loss of auditory sensitivity from inner hair cell synaptopathy can be centrally compensated in the young but not old brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhrle, Dorit; Ni, Kun; Varakina, Ksenya; Bing, Dan; Lee, Sze Chim; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies; Rüttiger, Lukas

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic shift in societal demographics will lead to rapid growth in the number of older people with hearing deficits. Poorer performance in suprathreshold speech understanding and temporal processing with age has been previously linked with progressing inner hair cell (IHC) synaptopathy that precedes age-dependent elevation of auditory thresholds. We compared central sound responsiveness after acoustic trauma in young, middle-aged, and older rats. We demonstrate that IHC synaptopathy progresses from middle age onward and hearing threshold becomes elevated from old age onward. Interestingly, middle-aged animals could centrally compensate for the loss of auditory fiber activity through an increase in late auditory brainstem responses (late auditory brainstem response wave) linked to shortening of central response latencies. In contrast, old animals failed to restore central responsiveness, which correlated with reduced temporal resolution in responding to amplitude changes. These findings may suggest that cochlear IHC synaptopathy with age does not necessarily induce temporal auditory coding deficits, as long as the capacity to generate neuronal gain maintains normal sound-induced central amplitudes. PMID:27318145

  19. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  20. Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: understanding cognitive processes to align services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Femina P; Charlton, Shawn R; Wood, Mara; Trower, Emily

    2014-05-01

    Temporal discounting is an indicator of impulsivity that has consistently been found to be associated with risky behaviors such as substance abuse and compulsive gambling. Yet, although criminal acts are clearly risky choice behaviors, no study has examined temporal discounting in the criminal attitudes and behaviors of adult offenders. Yet, such investigations have potential to understand the cognitive processes that underlie various criminal patterns of thinking and may help distinguish between high and low risk offenders. Therefore, the current study endeavored to fill this gap in the literature using 146 male inmates within 5 months of release. Results found that temporal discounting is correlated with reactive criminal thinking but was not correlated with proactive criminal thinking. In addition, inmates with higher rates of incarceration were also more likely to have higher rates of temporal discounting. Results shed light on the different cognitive processes that may underlie different styles of criminal thinking as well as potential differences in the discounting rates depending on history of incarcerations. This finding has implications for service delivery in criminal justice settings as those with reactive criminal thinking may benefit from specialized treatments for temporal discounting. PMID:24635040

  1. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. 1. To determine which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated stimulating the left ear with pure tones, and what type of stimulation occurs (eg. excitatory or inhibitory) in these different areas. 2. To use this information as an initial step to develop a normal functional data base for future studies. 3. To try to determine if there is a biological substrate to the process of recalling previous auditory perceptions and if possible, suggest a locus for auditory memory. Method. Brain perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluation was conducted: 1-2) Using auditory stimulation with pure tones in 4 volunteers with normal hearing. 3) In a patient with bilateral profound hearing loss who had auditory perception of previous musical experiences; while injected with Tc99m HMPAO while she was having the sensation of hearing a well known melody. Results. Both in the patient with auditory hallucinations and the normal controls -stimulated with pure tones- there was a statistically significant increase in perfusion in Brodmann's area 39, more intense on the right side (right to left p < 0.05). With a lesser intensity there was activation in the adjacent area 40 and there was intense activation also in the executive frontal cortex areas 6, 8, 9, and 10 of Brodmann. There was also activation of area 7 of Brodmann; an audio-visual association area; more marked on the right side in the patient and the normal stimulated controls. In the subcortical structures there was also marked activation in the patient with hallucinations in both lentiform nuclei, thalamus and caudate nuclei also more intense in the right hemisphere, 5, 4.7 and 4.2 S.D. above the mean respectively and 5, 3.3, and 3 S.D. above the normal mean in the left hemisphere respectively. Similar findings were observed in normal controls. Conclusions. After auditory stimulation with pure tones in the left ear of normal female volunteers, there is bilateral activation of area 39

  2. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  3. Structured spatio-temporal shot-noise Cox point process models, with a view to modelling forest fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Diaz-Avalos, Carlos

    Spatio-temporal Cox point process models with a multiplicative structure for the driving random intensity, incorporating covariate information into temporal and spatial components, and with a residual term modelled by a shot-noise process, are considered. Such models are flexible and tractable for...... dataset consisting of 2796 days and 5834 spatial locations of fires. The model is compared with a spatio-temporal log-Gaussian Cox point process model, and likelihood-based methods are discussed to some extent....

  4. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  5. Neural network for processing both spatial and temporal data with time based back-propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, James A. (Inventor); Shelton, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Neural networks are computing systems modeled after the paradigm of the biological brain. For years, researchers using various forms of neural networks have attempted to model the brain's information processing and decision-making capabilities. Neural network algorithms have impressively demonstrated the capability of modeling spatial information. On the other hand, the application of parallel distributed models to the processing of temporal data has been severely restricted. The invention introduces a novel technique which adds the dimension of time to the well known back-propagation neural network algorithm. In the space-time neural network disclosed herein, the synaptic weights between two artificial neurons (processing elements) are replaced with an adaptable-adjustable filter. Instead of a single synaptic weight, the invention provides a plurality of weights representing not only association, but also temporal dependencies. In this case, the synaptic weights are the coefficients to the adaptable digital filters. Novelty is believed to lie in the disclosure of a processing element and a network of the processing elements which are capable of processing temporal as well as spacial data.

  6. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii cortico-(collicular-olivocochlear and (iii cortico-(collicular-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the olivocochlear reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed.

  7. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  8. Visual-auditory differences in duration discrimination of intervals in the subsecond and second range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRammsayer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A common finding in time psychophysics is that temporal acuity is much better for auditory than for visual stimuli. The present study aimed to examine modality-specific differences in duration discrimination within the conceptual framework of the Distinct Timing Hypothesis. This theoretical account proposes that durations in the lower milliseconds range are processed automatically while longer durations are processed by a cognitive mechanism. A sample of 46 participants performed two auditory and visual duration discrimination tasks with extremely brief (50-ms standard duration and longer (1000-ms standard duration intervals. Better discrimination performance for auditory compared to visual intervals could be established for extremely brief and longer intervals. However, when performance on duration discrimination of longer intervals in the one-second range was controlled for modality-specific input from the sensory-automatic timing mechanism, the visual-auditory difference disappeared completely as indicated by virtually identical Weber fractions for both sensory modalities. These findings support the idea of a sensory-automatic mechanism underlying the observed visual-auditory differences in duration discrimination of extremely brief intervals in the millisecond range and longer intervals in the one-second range. Our data are consistent with the notion of a gradual transition from a purely modality-specific, sensory-automatic to a more cognitive, amodal timing mechanism. Within this transition zone, both mechanisms appear to operate simultaneously but the influence of the sensory-automatic timing mechanism is expected to continuously decrease with increasing interval duration.

  9. Ontology Mapping of Business Process Modeling Based on Formal Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Chishti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A business process is the combination of a set of activities with logical order and dependence, whose objective is to produce a desired goal. Business process modeling (BPM using knowledge of the available process modeling techniques enables a common understanding and analysis of a business process. Industry and academics use informal and formal techniques respectively to represent business processes (BP, having the main objective to support an organization. Despite both are aiming at BPM, the techniques used are quite different in their semantics. While carrying out literature research, it has been found that there is no general representation of business process modeling is available that is expressive than the commercial modeling tools and techniques. Therefore, it is primarily conceived to provide an ontology mapping of modeling terms of Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN, Unified Modeling Language (UML Activity Diagrams (AD and Event Driven Process Chains (EPC to temporal logic. Being a formal system, first order logic assists in thorough understanding of process modeling and its application. However, our contribution is to devise a versatile conceptual categorization of modeling terms/constructs and also formalizing them, based on well accepted business notions, such as action, event, process, connector and flow. It is demonstrated that the new categorization of modeling terms mapped to formal temporal logic, provides the expressive power to subsume business process modeling techniques i.e. BPMN, UML AD and EPC.

  10. Task-specific modulation of human auditory evoked responses in a delayed-match-to-sample task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eRong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus our investigation on task-specific cognitive modulation of early cortical auditory processing in human cerebral cortex. During the experiments, we acquired whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG data while participants were performing an auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS task and associated control tasks. Using a spatial filtering beamformer technique to simultaneously estimate multiple source activities inside the human brain, we observed a significant DMS-specific suppression of the auditory evoked response to the second stimulus in a sound pair, with the center of the effect being located in the vicinity of the left auditory cortex. For the right auditory cortex, a non-invariant suppression effect was observed in both DMS and control tasks. Furthermore, analysis of coherence revealed a beta band (12 ~ 20 Hz DMS-specific enhanced functional interaction between the sources in left auditory cortex and those in left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been shown to involve in short-term memory processing during the delay period of DMS task. Our findings support the view that early evoked cortical responses to incoming acoustic stimuli can be modulated by task-specific cognitive functions by means of frontal-temporal functional interactions.

  11. Achados na triagem imitanciométrica e de processamento auditivo em escolares Acoustic immitance and auditory processing screening findings in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lucia Etges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar os achados da triagem imitanciométrica e dos testes da avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo em escolares. MÉTODO: participaram da pesquisa alunos de 1ª a 4ª séries, de sete a dez anos de idade, de uma escola de ensino público de Porto Alegre. Foram avaliados 130 escolares na triagem imitanciométrica, que foi constituída por timpanometria e pesquisa do reflexo acústico ipsilateral e avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo, incluindo testes de localização sonora, memória sequencial para sons verbais e memória sequencial para sons não verbais. RESULTADOS: na triagem imitanciométrica 43,08% dos escolares passaram, tendo a curva tipo A como mais frequente. O reflexo acústico em 4000 Hz teve percentual de presença inferior comparado com os demais. Passaram nos testes da avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo 76,15% das crianças. Além disso, foi observado que o teste no qual os escolares obtiveram pior desempenho foi o de memória sequencial para sons verbais. Falharam na triagem imitanciométrica e na avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo 12,3% dos escolares. CONCLUSÃO: a curva timpanométrica tipo A foi a mais frequente na população estudada. Na avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo a maioria dos sujeitos passou, tendo maior frequência de acertos no teste de localização sonora. Não houve associação estatística entre o resultado da triagem imitanciométrica e o resultado da avaliação simplificada de processamento auditivo.PURPOSE: to check acoustic immittance screening findings and results of the simplified evaluation of auditory processing in school children. METHOD: the subjects under this study were students from the 1st to the 4th grade, with ages ranging from seven to ten year-old, from a public school in Porto Alegre. 130 students were evaluated in the immitance screening, which consisted of a tympanometry and an ipsilateral

  12. Avaliação do processamento auditivo em idosos que relatam ouvir bem Auditory processing assessment in older people with no report of hearing disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ligia Sanchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Em idosos, os resultados da avaliação comportamental das vias auditivas centrais são considerados de difícil interpretação devido à possível interferência do comprometimento das vias auditivas periféricas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficiência das funções auditivas centrais de idosos que relatam ouvir bem. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo de casos que incluiu 40 indivíduos na faixa etária de 60 a 75 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação do processamento auditivo que constou de anamnese, exame otorrinolaringológico, audiometria tonal liminar, limiar de reconhecimento de fala, índice de reconhecimento de fala, imitanciometria, pesquisa de reflexos estapedianos, teste de identificação de sentenças sintéticas com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral, teste de padrões de freqüência e teste de dissílabos alternados por meio de tarefa dicótica. RESULTADOS: Gênero, faixa etária e perda auditiva não influenciaram os resultados dos testes de padrões de freqüência e dissílabos alternados por meio de tarefa dicótica; faixa etária e perda auditiva influenciaram os resultados do teste de identificação de sentenças com mensagem competitiva ipsilateral. Porcentagens de acertos abaixo dos padrões da normalidade de adultos foram observadas nos três testes que acessam as funções auditivas centrais. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos idosos que relatam ouvir bem apresentam prevalência relevante de sinais de ineficiência das funções auditivas centrais.In the elderly, the results of central auditory pathways behavioral assessments are considered to be difficult to read because of the possible interference of peripheral auditory pathway involvement. AIM: Assess the efficacy of the central auditory function in elderly patients who do not complain of hearing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case study involving 40 individuals within the age range of 60 to 75 years. The patients underwent auditory processing evaluation based on anamnesis

  13. Rapid context-based identification of target sounds in an auditory scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. While it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff (2014) recently reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented, auditory scene. They reported an early, differential, bilateral activation (beginning ~60 ms) between feature-deviating Target stimuli and physically equivalent feature-deviating Nontargets, reflecting a rapid Target-detection process. This was followed shortly later (~130 ms) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, reflecting the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the Target sound and paralleling attentional-shifting processes widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the early, bilateral, Target-selective effect to better understand its nature and functional role. Participants listened to midline-presented sounds that included Target and Nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a template for the Target that utilizes its feature deviancy within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover, individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this effect was larger for subjects with faster response times. The findings support the hypothesis that our auditory attentional systems can implement and utilize a context-based relational template for a Target sound, making use of additional auditory information in the environment when needing to rapidly detect a relevant sound. PMID:25848684

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Hannah L.; Jennifer L. Agustus; Johanna C. Goll; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J.; Jonathan M Schott; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Jason D Warren

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘back...

  15. Processes driving temporal dynamics in the nested pattern of waterbird communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Paracuellos, Mariano; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Nestedness is a common pattern of bird communities in habitat patches, and it describes the situation where smaller communities form proper subsets of larger communities. Several studies have examined the processes causing nestedness and the implications for conservation, but few have considered the temporal changes in these processes. We used data from 6 years and two seasons (wintering and breeding) to explore the temporal changes in the causes of the nested pattern of a waterbird community in man-made irrigation ponds. Nestedness was significant in both seasons and in all years, and thus temporally stable. Despite the nestedness of waterbird communities, the proportion of idiosyncratic species (species that do not follow the nested pattern) was higher than in other studies. Furthermore, the idiosyncratic species often had endangered status. Selective colonisation and, mainly, selective extinction were the most important factors producing the nested pattern. In addition, the nested structure of the microhabitats at the ponds also caused the pattern. The causes of the pattern changed temporally even in the absence of big disturbance events. In general, breeding communities were more stable than wintering communities, and the seasonal differences in the causes of the nestedness were larger than the inter-annual differences. Consequently, studies of community nestedness from only one snapshot in time should be considered with caution.

  16. From sounds to words: a neurocomputational model of adaptation, inhibition and memory processes in auditory change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Most animals detect sudden changes in trains of repeated stimuli but only some can learn a wide range of sensory patterns and recognise them later, a skill crucial for the evolutionary success of higher mammals. Here we use a neural model mimicking the cortical anatomy of sensory and motor areas and their connections to explain brain activity indexing auditory change and memory access. Our simulations indicate that while neuronal adaptation and local inhibition of cortical activity can explain aspects of change detection as observed when a repeated unfamiliar sound changes in frequency, the brain dynamics elicited by auditory stimulation with well-known patterns (such as meaningful words) cannot be accounted for on the basis of adaptation and inhibition alone. Specifically, we show that the stronger brain responses observed to familiar stimuli in passive oddball tasks are best explained in terms of activation of memory circuits that emerged in the cortex during the learning of these stimuli. Such memory circuits, and the activation enhancement they entail, are absent for unfamiliar stimuli. The model illustrates how basic neurobiological mechanisms, including neuronal adaptation, lateral inhibition, and Hebbian learning, underlie neuronal assembly formation and dynamics, and differentially contribute to the brain's major change detection response, the mismatch negativity. PMID:20728545

  17. Multisensory perceptual learning of temporal order: audiovisual learning transfers to vision but not audition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An outstanding question in sensory neuroscience is whether the perceived timing of events is mediated by a central supra-modal timing mechanism, or multiple modality-specific systems. We use a perceptual learning paradigm to address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups were trained daily for 10 sessions on an auditory, a visual or a combined audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ. Groups were pre-tested on a range TOJ tasks within and between their group modality prior to learning so that transfer of any learning from the trained task could be measured by post-testing other tasks. Robust TOJ learning (reduced temporal order discrimination thresholds occurred for all groups, although auditory learning (dichotic 500/2000 Hz tones was slightly weaker than visual learning (lateralised grating patches. Crossmodal TOJs also displayed robust learning. Post-testing revealed that improvements in temporal resolution acquired during visual learning transferred within modality to other retinotopic locations and orientations, but not to auditory or crossmodal tasks. Auditory learning did not transfer to visual or crossmodal tasks, and neither did it transfer within audition to another frequency pair. In an interesting asymmetry, crossmodal learning transferred to all visual tasks but not to auditory tasks. Finally, in all conditions, learning to make TOJs for stimulus onsets did not transfer at all to discriminating temporal offsets. These data present a complex picture of timing processes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The lack of transfer between unimodal groups indicates no central supramodal timing process for this task; however, the audiovisual-to-visual transfer cannot be explained without some form of sensory interaction. We propose that auditory learning occurred in frequency-tuned processes in the periphery, precluding interactions with more central visual and audiovisual timing processes. Functionally the patterns

  18. Processamento auditivo, leitura e escrita na síndrome de Silver-Russell: relato de caso Auditory processing, reading and writing in the Silver-Russell syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fernandes Garcia

    2012-03-01

    -language pathology aspects of auditory processing, reading and writing of a male patient diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome. With two months of age the patient presented weight-for-height deficit; broad forehead; small, prominent and low-set ears; high palate; discrete micrognathia; blue sclera; cafe-au-lait spots; overlapping of the first and second right toes; gastroesophageal reflux; high-pitched voice and cry; mild neuropsychomotor development delay; and difficulty to gain weight, receiving the diagnosis of the syndrome. In the psychological evaluation, conducted when he was 8 years old, the patient presented normal intellectual level, with cognitive difficulties involving sustained attention, concentration, immediate verbal memory, and emotional and behavioral processes. For an assessment of reading and writing and their underlying processes, carried out at age 9, the following tests were used: Reading Comprehension of Expository Texts, Phonological Abilities Profile, Auditory Discrimination Test, spontaneous writing, Scholastic Performance Test (SPT, Rapid Automatized Naming Test (RANT, and phonological working memory. He showed difficulties in all tests, with scores below expected for his age. In the auditory processing assessment, monotic, diotic and dichotic tests were conducted. Altered results were found for sustained and selective auditory attention abilities, sequencial memory for verbal and non-verbal sounds, and temporal resolution. It can be concluded that the patient presents alterations in the learning of reading and writing that might be secondary to the Silver-Russell syndrome, however, these difficulties can also be due to deficits in auditory processing abilities.

  19. Exploring the role of the posterior middle temporal gyrus in semantic cognition: Integration of anterior temporal lobe with executive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, James; Thompson, Hannah E; Hallam, Glyn; Karapanagiotidis, Theodoros; Murphy, Charlotte; De Caso, Irene; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Bernhardt, Boris C; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Making sense of the world around us depends upon selectively retrieving information relevant to our current goal or context. However, it is unclear whether selective semantic retrieval relies exclusively on general control mechanisms recruited in demanding non-semantic tasks, or instead on systems specialised for the control of meaning. One hypothesis is that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) is important in the controlled retrieval of semantic (not non-semantic) information; however this view remains controversial since a parallel literature links this site to event and relational semantics. In a functional neuroimaging study, we demonstrated that an area of pMTG implicated in semantic control by a recent meta-analysis was activated in a conjunction of (i) semantic association over size judgements and (ii) action over colour feature matching. Under these circumstances the same region showed functional coupling with the inferior frontal gyrus - another crucial site for semantic control. Structural and functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that this site is at the nexus of networks recruited in automatic semantic processing (the default mode network) and executively demanding tasks (the multiple-demand network). Moreover, in both task and task-free contexts, pMTG exhibited functional properties that were more similar to ventral parts of inferior frontal cortex, implicated in controlled semantic retrieval, than more dorsal inferior frontal sulcus, implicated in domain-general control. Finally, the pMTG region was functionally correlated at rest with other regions implicated in control-demanding semantic tasks, including inferior frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus. We suggest that pMTG may play a crucial role within a large-scale network that allows the integration of automatic retrieval in the default mode network with executively-demanding goal-oriented cognition, and that this could support our ability to understand actions and non

  20. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In...... the FG, this effect was found for haptic-to-auditory and auditory-to-haptic matching, whereas the pSTS only displayed a crossmodal matching effect for congruent auditory targets. Auditory and somatosensory association cortices showed increased activity during crossmodal object matching which was...

  1. Multimodal Diffusion-MRI and MEG Assessment of Auditory and Language System Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I Berman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditory processing and language impairments are prominent in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study integrated diffusion MR measures of white-matter microstructure and magnetoencephalography (MEG measures of cortical dynamics to investigate associations between brain structure and function within auditory and language systems in ASD. Based on previous findings, abnormal structure-function relationships in auditory and language systems in ASD were hypothesized. Methods: Evaluable neuroimaging data was obtained from 44 typically developing (TD children (mean age 10.4±2.4years and 95 children with ASD (mean age 10.2±2.6years. Diffusion MR tractography was used to delineate and quantitatively assess the auditory radiation and arcuate fasciculus segments of the auditory and language systems. MEG was used to measure (1 superior temporal gyrus auditory evoked M100 latency in response to pure-tone stimuli as an indicator of auditory system conduction velocity, and (2 auditory vowel-contrast mismatch field (MMF latency as a passive probe of early linguistic processes. Results: Atypical development of white matter and cortical function, along with atypical lateralization, were present in ASD. In both auditory and language systems, white matter integrity and cortical electrophysiology were found to be coupled in typically developing children, with white matter microstructural features contributing significantly to electrophysiological response latencies. However, in ASD, we observed uncoupled structure-function relationships in both auditory and language systems. Regression analyses in ASD indicated that factors other than white-matter microstructure additionally contribute to the latency of neural evoked responses and ultimately behavior. Results also indicated that whereas delayed M100 is a marker for ASD severity, MMF delay is more associated with language impairment. Conclusion: Present findings suggest atypical

  2. Temporal Processing Ability Is Related to Ear-Asymmetry for Detecting Time Cues in Sound: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Juanita; Finch, Brayden; Smith, Ellen; Budd, Timothy W.; Schall, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spectral sound information is processed asymmetrically in the brain with the left-hemisphere showing an advantage for processing the former and the right-hemisphere for the latter. Using monaural sound presentation we demonstrate a context and ability dependent ear-asymmetry in brain measures of temporal change detection. Our measure…

  3. Relations between frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure processing, and speech reception in impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure (TFS) processing, and speech reception were assessed for six normal-hearing (NH) listeners, ten sensorineurally hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with similar high-frequency losses, and two listeners with an obscure dysfunction (OD). TFS processing was...... obtained for full-spectrum and lowpass-filtered sentences with different interferers. Both the HI listeners and the OD listeners showed poorer performance than the NH listeners in terms of frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception. While a correlation was observed between the monaural and...... binaural TFS-processing deficits in the HI listeners, no relation was found between TFS processing and frequency selectivity. The effect of noise on TFS processing was not larger for the HI listeners than for the NH listeners. Finally, TFS-processing performance was correlated with speech reception in a...

  4. Effect of temporal predictability on exogenous attentional modulation of feedforward processing in the striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Michie, Patricia T; Fulham, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Non-informative peripheral visual cues facilitate extrastriate processing of targets [as indexed by enhanced amplitude of contralateral P1 event-related potential (ERP) component] presented at the cued location as opposed to those presented at uncued locations, at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Recently, two lines of research are emerging to suggest that the locus of attentional modulation is flexible and depends on 1) perceptual load and 2) temporal predictability of visual stimuli. We aimed to examine the effect of temporal predictability on attentional modulation of feed-forward activation of the striate cortex (as indexed by the C1 ERP component) by high-perceptual-load (HPL) stimuli. We conducted two ERP experiments where exogenously-cued HPL targets were presented under two temporal predictability conditions. In Experiment 1 [high-temporal-predictability (HTP) condition], 17 healthy subjects (age 18-26years) performed a line-orientation discrimination task on HPL targets presented in the periphery of the left upper or diagonally opposite right lower visual field, validly or invalidly cued by peripheral cues. SOA was fixed at 160ms. In Experiment 2 [low-temporal-predictability (LTP) condition], (n=10, age 19-36years) we retained HPL stimuli but randomly intermixed short-SOA trials with long-SOA (1000ms) trials in the task-blocks. In Experiment 1 and the short-SOA condition of the Experiment 2, validly-cued targets elicited significantly faster reaction times and larger contralateral P1, consistent with previous literature. A significant attentional enhancement of C1 amplitude was also observed in the HTP, but not LTP condition. The findings suggest that exogenous visual attention can facilitate the earliest stage of cortical processing under HTP conditions. PMID:27114044

  5. Global data for ecology and epidemiology: a novel algorithm for temporal Fourier processing MODIS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn P W Scharlemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Remotely-sensed environmental data from earth-orbiting satellites are increasingly used to model the distribution and abundance of both plant and animal species, especially those of economic or conservation importance. Time series of data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites offer the potential to capture environmental thermal and vegetation seasonality, through temporal Fourier analysis, more accurately than was previously possible using the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensor data. MODIS data are composited over 8- or 16-day time intervals that pose unique problems for temporal Fourier analysis. Applying standard techniques to MODIS data can introduce errors of up to 30% in the estimation of the amplitudes and phases of the Fourier harmonics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel spline-based algorithm that overcomes the processing problems of composited MODIS data. The algorithm is tested on artificial data generated using randomly selected values of both amplitudes and phases, and provides an accurate estimate of the input variables under all conditions. The algorithm was then applied to produce layers that capture the seasonality in MODIS data for the period from 2001 to 2005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Global temporal Fourier processed images of 1 km MODIS data for Middle Infrared Reflectance, day- and night-time Land Surface Temperature (LST, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI are presented for ecological and epidemiological applications. The finer spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the greater geolocational and spectral accuracy of the MODIS instruments, compared with previous multi-temporal data sets, mean that these data may be used with greater confidence in species' distribution modelling.

  6. Neural entrainment to rhythmically-presented auditory, visual and audio-visual speech in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan James Power

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory cortical oscillations have been proposed to play an important role in speech perception. It is suggested that the brain may take temporal ‘samples’ of information from the speech stream at different rates, phase-resetting ongoing oscillations so that they are aligned with similar frequency bands in the input (‘phase locking’. Information from these frequency bands is then bound together for speech perception. To date, there are no explorations of neural phase-locking and entrainment to speech input in children. However, it is clear from studies of language acquisition that infants use both visual speech information and auditory speech information in learning. In order to study neural entrainment to speech in typically-developing children, we use a rhythmic entrainment paradigm (underlying 2 Hz or delta rate based on repetition of the syllable ba, presented in either the auditory modality alone, the visual modality alone, or as auditory-visual speech (via a talking head. To ensure attention to the task, children aged 13 years were asked to press a button as fast as possible when the ba stimulus violated the rhythm for each stream type. Rhythmic violation depended on delaying the occurrence of a ba in the isochronous stream. Neural entrainment was demonstrated for all stream types, and individual differences in standardized measures of language processing were related to auditory entrainment at the theta rate. Further, there was significant modulation of the preferred phase of auditory entrainment in the theta band when visual speech cues were present, indicating cross-modal phase resetting. The rhythmic entrainment paradigm developed here offers a method for exploring individual differences in oscillatory phase locking during development. In particular, a method for assessing neural entrainment and cross-modal phase resetting would be useful for exploring developmental learning difficulties thought to involve temporal sampling

  7. Task-dependent calibration of auditory spatial perception through environmental visual observation

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Brayda

    2015-01-01

    Visual information is paramount to space perception. Vision influences auditory space estimation. Many studies show that simultaneous visual and auditory cues improve precision of the final multisensory estimate. However, the amount or the temporal extent of visual information, that is sufficient to influence auditory perception, is still unknown. It is therefore interesting to know if vision can improve auditory precision through a short-term environmental observation preceding the audio tas...

  8. Octopaminergic modulation of temporal frequency coding in an identified optic flow-processing interneuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit D. Longden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flying generates predictably different patterns of optic flow compared with other locomotor states. A sensorimotor system tuned to rapid responses and a high bandwidth of optic flow would help the animal to avoid wasting energy through imprecise motor action. However, neural processing that covers a higher input bandwidth itself comes at higher energetic costs which would be a poor investment when the animal was not flying. How does the blowfly adjust the dynamic range of its optic flow-processing neurons to the locomotor state? Octopamine (OA is a biogenic amine central to the initiation and maintenance of flight in insects. We used an OA agonist chlordimeform (CDM to simulate the widespread OA release during flight and recorded the effects on the temporal frequency coding of the H2 cell. This cell is a visual interneuron known to be involved in flight stabilization reflexes. The application of CDM resulted in i an increase in the cell's spontaneous activity, expanding the inhibitory signalling range ii an initial response gain to moving gratings (20 – 60 ms post-stimulus that depended on the temporal frequency of the grating and iii a reduction in the rate and magnitude of motion adaptation that was also temporal frequency-dependent. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the application of a neuromodulator can induce velocity-dependent alterations in the gain of a wide-field optic flow-processing neuron. The observed changes in the cell’s response properties resulted in a 33% increase of the cell’s information rate when encoding random changes in temporal frequency of the stimulus. The increased signalling range and more rapid, longer lasting responses employed more spikes to encode each bit, and so consumed a greater amount of energy. It appears that for the fly investing more energy in sensory processing during flight is more efficient than wasting energy on under-performing motor control.

  9. Spatial-temporal correlations in the process to self-organized criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C. B.; X. Cai; Zhou, Z. M.

    2000-01-01

    A new type of spatial-temporal correlation in the process approaching to the self-organized criticality is investigated for the two simple models for biological evolution. The change behaviors of the position with minimum barrier are shown to be quantitatively different in the two models. Different results of the correlation are given for the two models. We argue that the correlation can be used, together with the power-law distributions, as criteria for self-organized criticality.

  10. Survey of some recent advances in spatial-temporal point processes

    OpenAIRE

    Greenspan, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Spatial-temporal point processes have been useful for applications in many fields, including the study of earthquakes, wildfires, and other natural disasters, as well as forests and other ecological data, neurological data, invasive species, epidemics, spatial debris, and many others. Recent works draw new conclusions about the general model, applications to earthquakes, higher-order statistics, or residual analysis. Within each chapter the principles from citations are summarized. Various...

  11. The Adolescent Coping Process Interview: Measuring Temporal and Affective Components of Adolescent Responses to Peer Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Hussong, Andrea M.; Keeley, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    The way in which adolescents cope with stressors in their lives has been established as an important correlate of adjustment. While most theoretical models of coping entail unfolding transactions between coping strategies and emotional arousal, the majority of coping measures tap only trait-level coping styles, ignoring both temporal and affective components of the coping process. The current study fills this gap by establishing the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Ad...

  12. Neuronal connectivity and interactions between the auditory and limbic systems. Effects of noise and tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Canlon, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic experience such as sound, noise, or absence of sound induces structural or functional changes in the central auditory system but can also affect limbic regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. The amygdala is particularly sensitive to sound with valence or meaning, such as vocalizations, crying or music. The amygdala plays a central role in auditory fear conditioning, regulation of the acoustic startle response and can modulate auditory cortex plasticity. A stressful acoustic stimulus, such as noise, causes amygdala-mediated release of stress hormones via the HPA-axis, which may have negative effects on health, as well as on the central nervous system. On the contrary, short-term exposure to stress hormones elicits positive effects such as hearing protection. The hippocampus can affect auditory processing by adding a temporal dimension, as well as being able to mediate novelty detection via theta wave phase-locking. Noise exposure affects hippocampal neurogenesis and LTP in a manner that affects structural plasticity, learning and memory. Tinnitus, typically induced by hearing malfunctions, is associated with emotional stress, depression and anatomical changes of the hippocampus. In turn, the limbic system may play a role in the generation as well as the suppression of tinnitus indicating that the limbic system may be essential for tinnitus treatment. A further understanding of auditory-limbic interactions will contribute to future treatment strategies of tinnitus and noise trauma. PMID:22440225

  13. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, Vincenzo [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Esposito, Fabrizio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands)], E-mail: fabrizio.esposito@unina.it; Aragri, Adriana [Department of Neurological Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Furia, Teresa; Riccardi, Pasquale [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Tosetti, Michela; Biagi, Laura [I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Marciano, Elio [Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Naples (Italy); Di Salle, Francesco [Department of Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); I.R.C.S.S. ' Stella Maris' , Pisa (Italy); Department of Neurosciences, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  14. Spatio-temporal pattern of vestibular information processing after brief caloric stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Processing of vestibular information at the cortical and subcortical level is essential for head and body orientation in space and self-motion perception, but little is known about the neural dynamics of the brain regions of the vestibular system involved in this task. Neuroimaging studies using both galvanic and caloric stimulation have shown that several distinct cortical and subcortical structures can be activated during vestibular information processing. The insular cortex has been often targeted and presented as the central hub of the vestibular cortical system. Since very short pulses of cold water ear irrigation can generate a strong and prolonged vestibular response and a nystagmus, we explored the effects of this type of caloric stimulation for assessing the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) dynamics of neural vestibular processing in a whole-brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. We evaluated the spatial layout and the temporal dynamics of the activated cortical and subcortical regions in time-locking with the instant of injection and were able to extract a robust pattern of neural activity involving the contra-lateral insular cortex, the thalamus, the brainstem and the cerebellum. No significant correlation with the temporal envelope of the nystagmus was found. The temporal analysis of the activation profiles highlighted a significantly longer duration of the evoked BOLD activity in the brainstem compared to the insular cortex suggesting a functional de-coupling between cortical and subcortical activity during the vestibular response.

  15. Effects of auditory training in individuals with high-frequency hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Beatriz Fernandes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a formal auditory training program on the behavioral, electrophysiological and subjective aspects of auditory function in individuals with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. METHOD: A prospective study of seven individuals aged 46 to 57 years with symmetric, moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging from 3 to 8 kHz was conducted. Evaluations of auditory processing (sound location, verbal and non-verbal sequential memory tests, the speech-in-noise test, the staggered spondaic word test, synthetic sentence identification with competitive ipsilateral and contralateral competitive messages, random gap detection and the standard duration test, auditory brainstem response and long-latency potentials and the administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were performed in a sound booth before and immediately after formal auditory training. RESULTS: All of the participants demonstrated abnormal pre-training long-latency characteristics (abnormal latency or absence of the P3 component and these abnormal characteristics were maintained in six of the seven individuals at the post-training evaluation. No significant differences were found between ears in the quantitative analysis of auditory brainstem responses or long-latency potentials. However, the subjects demonstrated improvements on all behavioral tests. For the questionnaire, the difference on the background noise subscale achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Auditory training in adults with high-frequency hearing loss led to improvements in figure-background hearing skills for verbal sounds, temporal ordination and resolution, and communication in noisy environments. Electrophysiological changes were also observed because, after the training, some long latency components that were absent pre-training were observed during the re-evaluation.

  16. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  17. Effects of scanner acoustic noise on intrinsic brain activity during auditory stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakunina, Natalia [Kangwon National University, Institute of Medical Science, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University Hospital, Neuroscience Research Institute, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Kyoung [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Hoon [University of Michigan, Department of Biopsychology, Cognition, and Neuroscience, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University Hospital, Neuroscience Research Institute, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University Hospital, Neuroscience Research Institute, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Although the effects of scanner background noise (SBN) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been extensively investigated for the brain regions involved in auditory processing, its impact on other types of intrinsic brain activity has largely been neglected. The present study evaluated the influence of SBN on a number of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) during auditory stimulation by comparing the results obtained using sparse temporal acquisition (STA) with those using continuous acquisition (CA). Fourteen healthy subjects were presented with classical music pieces in a block paradigm during two sessions of STA and CA. A volume-matched CA dataset (CAm) was generated by subsampling the CA dataset to temporally match it with the STA data. Independent component analysis was performed on the concatenated STA-CAm datasets, and voxel data, time courses, power spectra, and functional connectivity were compared. The ICA revealed 19 ICNs; the auditory, default mode, salience, and frontoparietal networks showed greater activity in the STA. The spectral peaks in 17 networks corresponded to the stimulation cycles in the STA, while only five networks displayed this correspondence in the CA. The dorsal default mode and salience networks exhibited stronger correlations with the stimulus waveform in the STA. SBN appeared to influence not only the areas of auditory response but also the majority of other ICNs, including attention and sensory networks. Therefore, SBN should be regarded as a serious nuisance factor during fMRI studies investigating intrinsic brain activity under external stimulation or task loads. (orig.)

  18. Effects of scanner acoustic noise on intrinsic brain activity during auditory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the effects of scanner background noise (SBN) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been extensively investigated for the brain regions involved in auditory processing, its impact on other types of intrinsic brain activity has largely been neglected. The present study evaluated the influence of SBN on a number of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) during auditory stimulation by comparing the results obtained using sparse temporal acquisition (STA) with those using continuous acquisition (CA). Fourteen healthy subjects were presented with classical music pieces in a block paradigm during two sessions of STA and CA. A volume-matched CA dataset (CAm) was generated by subsampling the CA dataset to temporally match it with the STA data. Independent component analysis was performed on the concatenated STA-CAm datasets, and voxel data, time courses, power spectra, and functional connectivity were compared. The ICA revealed 19 ICNs; the auditory, default mode, salience, and frontoparietal networks showed greater activity in the STA. The spectral peaks in 17 networks corresponded to the stimulation cycles in the STA, while only five networks displayed this correspondence in the CA. The dorsal default mode and salience networks exhibited stronger correlations with the stimulus waveform in the STA. SBN appeared to influence not only the areas of auditory response but also the majority of other ICNs, including attention and sensory networks. Therefore, SBN should be regarded as a serious nuisance factor during fMRI studies investigating intrinsic brain activity under external stimulation or task loads. (orig.)

  19. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Berti

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechani...

  20. Material differences of auditory source retrieval:Evidence from event-related potential studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE AiQing; GUO ChunYan; SHEN MoWei

    2008-01-01

    Two event-related potential experiments were conducted to investigate the temporal and the spatial distributions of the old/new effects for the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task using picture and Chinese character as stimuli respectively. Stimuli were presented on the center of the screen with their names read out either by female or by male voice simultaneously during the study phase and then two testa were performed separately. One test task was to differentiate the old items from the new ones, and the other task was to judge the items read out by a certain voice during the study phase as targets and other ones as non-targets. The results showed that the old/new effect of the auditory source retrieval task was more sustained over time than that of the item recognition task in both experiments, and the spatial distribution of the former effect was wider than that of the latter one. Both experiments recorded reliable old/new effect over the prefrontal cortex during the source retrieval task. However, there existed some differences of the old/new effect for the auditory source retrieval task between picture and Chinese character, and LORETA source analysis indicated that the differ-ences might be rooted in the temporal lobe. These findings demonstrate that the relevancy of the old/new effects between the item recognition task and the auditory source retrieval task supports the dual-process model; the spatial and the temporal distributions of the old/new effect elicited by the auditory source retrieval task are regulated by both the feature of the experimental material and the perceptual attribute of the voice.