WorldWideScience

Sample records for auditory perception research

  1. Loudspeaker-based room auralization in auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    , and aided-impaired auditory system in realistic environments and (ii) a framework to evaluate the effect of different room modeling and auralisation methods on auditory perception. The applicability of such environment is demonstrated using different objective room acoustic measures. Different experimental...... results are presented, including measures of distance perception and the effect of early reflections on speech intelligibility....

  2. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    . This system provides a flexible research platform for conducting auditory experiments with normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and aided hearing-impaired listeners in a fully controlled and realistic environment. This includes measures of basic auditory function (e.g., signal detection, distance perception...

  3. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  4. Auditory distance perception in humans : A summary of past and present research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahorik, P.; Brungart, D.S.; Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Although auditory distance perception is a critical component of spatial hearing, it has received substantially less scienti.c attention than the directional aspects of auditory localization. Here we summarize current knowledge on auditory distance perception, with special emphasis on recent researc

  5. Speech perception as complex auditory categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L.

    2002-05-01

    Despite a long and rich history of categorization research in cognitive psychology, very little work has addressed the issue of complex auditory category formation. This is especially unfortunate because the general underlying cognitive and perceptual mechanisms that guide auditory category formation are of great importance to understanding speech perception. I will discuss a new methodological approach to examining complex auditory category formation that specifically addresses issues relevant to speech perception. This approach utilizes novel nonspeech sound stimuli to gain full experimental control over listeners' history of experience. As such, the course of learning is readily measurable. Results from this methodology indicate that the structure and formation of auditory categories are a function of the statistical input distributions of sound that listeners hear, aspects of the operating characteristics of the auditory system, and characteristics of the perceptual categorization system. These results have important implications for phonetic acquisition and speech perception.

  6. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  7. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  8. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  9. Auditory perception of a human walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, David; Campbell, Megan E J

    2014-01-01

    When one hears footsteps in the hall, one is able to instantly recognise it as a person: this is an everyday example of auditory biological motion perception. Despite the familiarity of this experience, research into this phenomenon is in its infancy compared with visual biological motion perception. Here, two experiments explored sensitivity to, and recognition of, auditory stimuli of biological and nonbiological origin. We hypothesised that the cadence of a walker gives rise to a temporal pattern of impact sounds that facilitates the recognition of human motion from auditory stimuli alone. First a series of detection tasks compared sensitivity with three carefully matched impact sounds: footsteps, a ball bouncing, and drumbeats. Unexpectedly, participants were no more sensitive to footsteps than to impact sounds of nonbiological origin. In the second experiment participants made discriminations between pairs of the same stimuli, in a series of recognition tasks in which the temporal pattern of impact sounds was manipulated to be either that of a walker or the pattern more typical of the source event (a ball bouncing or a drumbeat). Under these conditions, there was evidence that both temporal and nontemporal cues were important in recognising theses stimuli. It is proposed that the interval between footsteps, which reflects a walker's cadence, is a cue for the recognition of the sounds of a human walking.

  10. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  11. Auditory perception modulated by word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyu; Klepp, Anne; Schnitzler, Alfons; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Theories of embodied cognition positing that sensorimotor areas are indispensable during language comprehension are supported by neuroimaging and behavioural studies. Among others, the auditory system has been suggested to be important for understanding sound-related words (visually presented) and the motor system for action-related words. In this behavioural study, using a sound detection task embedded in a lexical decision task, we show that in participants with high lexical decision performance sound verbs improve auditory perception. The amount of modulation was correlated with lexical decision performance. Our study provides convergent behavioural evidence of auditory cortex involvement in word processing, supporting the view of embodied language comprehension concerning the auditory domain. PMID:27324193

  12. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Han, Shui'Er; Purves, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch) are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech) predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  13. Are auditory percepts determined by experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    Full Text Available Audition--what listeners hear--is generally studied in terms of the physical properties of sound stimuli and physiological properties of the auditory system. Based on recent work in vision, we here consider an alternative perspective that sensory percepts are based on past experience. In this framework, basic auditory qualities (e.g., loudness and pitch are based on the frequency of occurrence of stimulus patterns in natural acoustic stimuli. To explore this concept of audition, we examined five well-documented psychophysical functions. The frequency of occurrence of acoustic patterns in a database of natural sound stimuli (speech predicts some qualitative aspects of these functions, but with substantial quantitative discrepancies. This approach may offer a rationale for auditory phenomena that are difficult to explain in terms of the physical attributes of the stimuli as such.

  14. Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1980-02-01

    To investigate the interaction in speech perception of auditory information and lexical knowledge (in particular, knowledge of which phonetic sequences are words), acoustic continua varying in voice onset time were constructed so that for each acoustic continuum, one of the two possible phonetic categorizations made a word and the other did not. For example, one continuum ranged between the word dash and the nonword tash; another used the nonword dask and the word task. In two experiments, subjects showed a significant lexical effect--that is, a tendency to make phonetic categorizations that make words. This lexical effect was greater at the phoneme boundary (where auditory information is ambiguous) than at the ends of the condinua. Hence the lexical effect must arise at a stage of processing sensitive to both lexical knowledge and auditory information.

  15. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  16. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S.; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A. J.; de Lange, Floris P.

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of ‘ada’. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as ‘ada’. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as ‘ada’, activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  17. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  18. Visual and auditory perception in preschool children at risk for dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Estévez, Adelina; Muñetón, Mercedes; Domínguez, Carolina

    2014-11-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in perceptive problems of dyslexics. A polemic research issue in this area has been the nature of the perception deficit. Another issue is the causal role of this deficit in dyslexia. Most studies have been carried out in adult and child literates; consequently, the observed deficits may be the result rather than the cause of dyslexia. This study addresses these issues by examining visual and auditory perception in children at risk for dyslexia. We compared children from preschool with and without risk for dyslexia in auditory and visual temporal order judgment tasks and same-different discrimination tasks. Identical visual and auditory, linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli were presented in both tasks. The results revealed that the visual as well as the auditory perception of children at risk for dyslexia is impaired. The comparison between groups in auditory and visual perception shows that the achievement of children at risk was lower than children without risk for dyslexia in the temporal tasks. There were no differences between groups in auditory discrimination tasks. The difficulties of children at risk in visual and auditory perceptive processing affected both linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. Our conclusions are that children at risk for dyslexia show auditory and visual perceptive deficits for linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. The auditory impairment may be explained by temporal processing problems and these problems are more serious for processing language than for processing other auditory stimuli. These visual and auditory perceptive deficits are not the consequence of failing to learn to read, thus, these findings support the theory of temporal processing deficit.

  19. [EFFECT OF HYPOXIA ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN AUDITORY PERCEPTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, E A; Stolvaroya, E I; Pak, S P; Bogomolova, G M; Korolev, Yu N; Golubev, V N; Lesova, E M

    2015-12-01

    The effect of normobaric hypoxic hypoxia (single and interval training) on the characteristics of human hearing was investigated. The hearing thresholds (tonal audiograms), reaction time of subjects in psychophysical experiments (pause detection, perception of rhythm and target words), and short-term auditory memory were measured before and after hypoxia. The obtained data revealed improvement of the auditory sensitivity and characteristics of working memory, and increasing of response speed. It was demonstrated that interval hypoxic training had positive effect on the processes of auditory perception. PMID:26987233

  20. Early Experience of Sex Hormones as a Predictor of Reading, Phonology, and Auditory Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, John R.; Beauvois, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has indicated possible reciprocal connections between phonology and reading, and also connections between aspects of auditory perception and reading. The present study investigates these associations further by examining the potential influence of prenatal androgens using measures of digit ratio (the ratio of the lengths of the…

  1. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)

  2. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate sour...

  3. Odors Bias Time Perception in Visual and Auditory Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhenzhu; Gao, Tianyu; Chen, Lihan; Wu, Jiashuang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal) were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor). The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a framework of

  4. Odors bias time perception in visual and auditory modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eYue

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that emotional states alter our perception of time. However, attention, which is modulated by a number of factors, such as emotional events, also influences time perception. To exclude potential attentional effects associated with emotional events, various types of odors (inducing different levels of emotional arousal were used to explore whether olfactory events modulated time perception differently in visual and auditory modalities. Participants were shown either a visual dot or heard a continuous tone for 1000 ms or 4000 ms while they were exposed to odors of jasmine, lavender, or garlic. Participants then reproduced the temporal durations of the preceding visual or auditory stimuli by pressing the spacebar twice. Their reproduced durations were compared to those in the control condition (without odor. The results showed that participants produced significantly longer time intervals in the lavender condition than in the jasmine or garlic conditions. The overall influence of odor on time perception was equivalent for both visual and auditory modalities. The analysis of the interaction effect showed that participants produced longer durations than the actual duration in the short interval condition, but they produced shorter durations in the long interval condition. The effect sizes were larger for the auditory modality than those for the visual modality. Moreover, by comparing performance across the initial and the final blocks of the experiment, we found odor adaptation effects were mainly manifested as longer reproductions for the short time interval later in the adaptation phase, and there was a larger effect size in the auditory modality. In summary, the present results indicate that odors imposed differential impacts on reproduced time durations, and they were constrained by different sensory modalities, valence of the emotional events, and target durations. Biases in time perception could be accounted for by a

  5. Music perception and cognition following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, M J; Bharucha, J J; Musiek, F E

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental and anatomical data from a case study of impaired auditory perception following bilateral hemispheric strokes. To consider the cortical representation of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music, pure tone sensation thresholds, spectral intonation judgments, and the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context were examined, and lesion localization was analyzed quantitatively using straight-line two-dimensional maps of the cortical surface reconstructed from magnetic resonance images. Despite normal pure tone sensation thresholds at 250-8000 Hz, the perception of tonal spectra was severely impaired, such that harmonic structures (major triads) were almost uniformly judged to sound dissonant; yet, the associative priming of spectral intonation judgments by harmonic context was preserved, indicating that cognitive representations of tonal hierarchies in music remained intact and accessible. Brainprints demonstrated complete bilateral lesions of the transverse gyri of Heschl and partial lesions of the right and left superior temporal gyri involving 98 and 20% of their surface areas, respectively. In the right hemisphere, there was partial sparing of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, and inferior parietal cortex. In the left hemisphere, all of the superior temporal region anterior to the transverse gyrus and parts of the planum temporale, temporoparietal junction, inferior parietal cortex, and insula were spared. These observations suggest that (1) sensory, perceptual, and cognitive functions mediating tonal information processing in music are neurologically dissociable; (2) complete bilateral lesions of primary auditory cortex combined with partial bilateral lesions of auditory association cortex chronically impair tonal consonance perception; (3) cognitive functions that hierarchically structure pitch information and generate harmonic expectancies

  6. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis. PMID:25147497

  7. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear molds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days) performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localization, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear molds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualized spectral cues. The work with ear molds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving audio-motor feedback (5-10 days) significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide spatial cues but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  8. The plastic ear and perceptual relearning in auditory spatial perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCarlile

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The auditory system of adult listeners has been shown to accommodate to altered spectral cues to sound location which presumably provides the basis for recalibration to changes in the shape of the ear over a life time. Here we review the role of auditory and non-auditory inputs to the perception of sound location and consider a range of recent experiments looking at the role of non-auditory inputs in the process of accommodation to these altered spectral cues. A number of studies have used small ear moulds to modify the spectral cues that result in significant degradation in localization performance. Following chronic exposure (10-60 days performance recovers to some extent and recent work has demonstrated that this occurs for both audio-visual and audio-only regions of space. This begs the questions as to the teacher signal for this remarkable functional plasticity in the adult nervous system. Following a brief review of influence of the motor state in auditory localisation, we consider the potential role of auditory-motor learning in the perceptual recalibration of the spectral cues. Several recent studies have considered how multi-modal and sensory-motor feedback might influence accommodation to altered spectral cues produced by ear moulds or through virtual auditory space stimulation using non-individualised spectral cues. The work with ear moulds demonstrates that a relatively short period of training involving sensory-motor feedback (5 – 10 days significantly improved both the rate and extent of accommodation to altered spectral cues. This has significant implications not only for the mechanisms by which this complex sensory information is encoded to provide a spatial code but also for adaptive training to altered auditory inputs. The review concludes by considering the implications for rehabilitative training with hearing aids and cochlear prosthesis.

  9. The evolutionary neuroscience of musical beat perception: the Action Simulation for Auditory Prediction (ASAP hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh D. Patel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Every human culture has some form of music with a beat: a perceived periodic pulse that structures the perception of musical rhythm and which serves as a framework for synchronized movement to music. What are the neural mechanisms of musical beat perception, and how did they evolve? One view, which dates back to Darwin and implicitly informs some current models of beat perception, is that the relevant neural mechanisms are relatively general and are widespread among animal species. On the basis of recent neural and cross-species data on musical beat processing, this paper argues for a different view. Here we argue that beat perception is a complex brain function involving temporally-precise communication between auditory regions and motor planning regions of the cortex (even in the absence of overt movement. More specifically, we propose that simulation of periodic movement in motor planning regions provides a neural signal that helps the auditory system predict the timing of upcoming beats. This action simulation for auditory prediction (ASAP hypothesis leads to testable predictions. We further suggest that ASAP relies on dorsal auditory pathway connections between auditory regions and motor planning regions via the parietal cortex, and suggest that these connections may be stronger in humans than in nonhuman primates due to the evolution of vocal learning in our lineage. This suggestion motivates cross-species research to determine which species are capable of human-like beat perception, i.e., beat perception that involves accurate temporal prediction of beat times across a fairly broad range of tempi.

  10. Prolonged maturation of auditory perception and learning in gerbils

    OpenAIRE

    Sarro, Emma C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to as...

  11. Task-dependent calibration of auditory spatial perception through environmental visual observation

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Brayda

    2015-01-01

    Visual information is paramount to space perception. Vision influences auditory space estimation. Many studies show that simultaneous visual and auditory cues improve precision of the final multisensory estimate. However, the amount or the temporal extent of visual information, that is sufficient to influence auditory perception, is still unknown. It is therefore interesting to know if vision can improve auditory precision through a short-term environmental observation preceding the audio tas...

  12. (Amusicality in Williams syndrome: Examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eLense

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.

  13. Auditory-Visual Perception of Acoustically Degraded Prosodic Contrastive Focus in French

    OpenAIRE

    Dohen, Marion; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that visual only perception of prosodic contrastive focus in French is possible. The aim of this study was to determine whether the visual modality could be combined to the auditory one and lead to a perceptual enhancement of prosodic focus. In order to examine this question, we carried out auditory only, audiovisual and visual only perception tests. In order to avoid a ceiling effect, auditory only perception of prosodic focus being very high, we used whispered sp...

  14. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huang Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance.

  15. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang; Salazar-López, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance. PMID:27313900

  16. A computational model of human auditory signal processing and perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    A model of computational auditory signal-processing and perception that accounts for various aspects of simultaneous and nonsimultaneous masking in human listeners is presented. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model described by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892 (1997......)] but includes major changes at the peripheral and more central stages of processing. The model contains outer- and middle-ear transformations, a nonlinear basilar-membrane processing stage, a hair-cell transduction stage, a squaring expansion, an adaptation stage, a 150-Hz lowpass modulation filter, a bandpass...... modulation filterbank, a constant-variance internal noise, and an optimal detector stage. The model was evaluated in experimental conditions that reflect, to a different degree, effects of compression as well as spectral and temporal resolution in auditory processing. The experiments include intensity...

  17. Classification of Underwater Target Echoes Based on Auditory Perception Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiukun Li; Xiangxia Meng; Hang Liu; Mingye Liu

    2014-01-01

    In underwater target detection, the bottom reverberation has some of the same properties as the target echo, which has a great impact on the performance. It is essential to study the difference between target echo and reverberation. In this paper, based on the unique advantage of human listening ability on objects distinction, the Gammatone filter is taken as the auditory model. In addition, time-frequency perception features and auditory spectral features are extracted for active sonar target echo and bottom reverberation separation. The features of the experimental data have good concentration characteristics in the same class and have a large amount of differences between different classes, which shows that this method can effectively distinguish between the target echo and reverberation.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity and auditory perception of heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, R A; Carter, A S; Amir, N; Marks, L E

    2006-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is the fear of sensations associated with autonomic arousal. AS has been associated with the development and maintenance of panic disorder. Given that panic patients often rate cardiac symptoms as the most fear-provoking feature of a panic attack, AS individuals may be especially responsive to cardiac stimuli. Consequently, we developed a signal-in-white-noise detection paradigm to examine the strategies that high and low AS individuals use to detect and discriminate normal and abnormal heartbeat sounds. Compared to low AS individuals, high AS individuals demonstrated a greater propensity to report the presence of normal, but not abnormal, heartbeat sounds. High and low AS individuals did not differ in their ability to perceive normal heartbeat sounds against a background of white noise; however, high AS individuals consistently demonstrated lower ability to discriminate abnormal heartbeats from background noise and between abnormal and normal heartbeats. AS was characterized by an elevated false alarm rate across all tasks. These results suggest that heartbeat sounds may be fear-relevant cues for AS individuals, and may affect their attention and perception in tasks involving threat signals. PMID:16513082

  19. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLaw

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e. rapid automatic naming, verbal short term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM and an amplitude rise time (RT; an intensity discrimination task (ID was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words in noise tasks. Group analysis revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e. RT and ID and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech in noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the levels of processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

  20. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jeremy M; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

  1. Toward a neurobiology of auditory object perception: What can we learn from the songbird forebrain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai LU, David S. VICARIO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the acoustic world, no sounds occur entirely in isolation; they always reach the ears in combination with other sounds. How any given sound is discriminated and perceived as an independent auditory object is a challenging question in neuroscience. Although our knowledge of neural processing in the auditory pathway has expanded over the years, no good theory exists to explain how perception of auditory objects is achieved. A growing body of evidence suggests that the selectivity of neurons in the auditory forebrain is under dynamic modulation, and this plasticity may contribute to auditory object perception. We propose that stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory forebrain of the songbird (and perhaps in other systems may play an important role in modulating sensitivity in a way that aids discrimination, and thus can potentially contribute to auditory object perception [Current Zoology 57 (6: 671–683, 2011].

  2. Toward a neurobiology of auditory object perception: What can we learn from the songbird forebrain?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai LU; David S. VICARIO

    2011-01-01

    In the acoustic world,no sounds occur entirely in isolation; they always reach the ears in combination with other sounds.How any given sound is discriminated and perceived as an independent auditory object is a challenging question in neuroscience.Although our knowledge of neural processing in the auditory pathway has expanded over the years,no good theory exists to explain how perception of auditory objects is achieved.A growing body of evidence suggests that the selectivity of neurons in the auditory forebrain is under dynamic modulation,and this plasticity may contribute to auditory object perception.We propose that stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory forebrain of the songbird (and perhaps in other systems) may play an important role in modulating sensitivity in a way that aids discrimination,and thus can potentially contribute to auditory object perception [Current Zoology 57 (6):671-683,2011].

  3. Auditory Speech Perception Tests in Relation to the Coding Strategy in Cochlear Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Bazon, Aline Cristine; Mantello, Erika Barioni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Isaac, Myriam de Lima; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Reis, Ana Cláudia Mirândola Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The objective of the evaluation of auditory perception of cochlear implant users is to determine how the acoustic signal is processed, leading to the recognition and understanding of sound. Objective  To investigate the differences in the process of auditory speech perception in individuals with postlingual hearing loss wearing a cochlear implant, using two different speech coding strategies, and to analyze speech perception and handicap perception in relation to the strategy us...

  4. A theory of three-dimensional auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifuddin, Kazi

    2001-05-01

    A theory of auditory dimensions regarding temporal perception is proposed on the basis of the results found from a series of experiments conducted. In all experiments, relationships were investigated between the subjective judgments and the factors extracted from the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the auditory stimuli. The factors were changed by using different properties of pure-tone, complex-tone, white-noise and bandpass-noise stimuli. Experiments by paired-comparison method were conducted in the sound proof chamber except for one in a concert hall. Human subjects were asked to compare the durations of the two successive stimuli in the pair. Subjective durations were obtained in the psychometric function. Auditory stimuli were selected to use on the basis of the measured factors of ACF as parameters. Obtained results showed significant correlation between the factors of ACF and the subjective durations described well by the theory. The theory indicates loudness and pitch as two fundamental dimensions and whether the third one is the duration of the stimuli.

  5. Auditory spatial perception dynamically realigns with changing eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2007-09-19

    Audition and vision both form spatial maps of the environment in the brain, and their congruency requires alignment and calibration. Because audition is referenced to the head and vision is referenced to movable eyes, the brain must accurately account for eye position to maintain alignment between the two modalities as well as perceptual space constancy. Changes in eye position are known to variably, but inconsistently, shift sound localization, suggesting subtle shortcomings in the accuracy or use of eye position signals. We systematically and directly quantified sound localization across a broad spatial range and over time after changes in eye position. A sustained fixation task addressed the spatial (steady-state) attributes of eye position-dependent effects on sound localization. Subjects continuously fixated visual reference spots straight ahead (center), to the left (20 degrees), or to the right (20 degrees) of the midline in separate sessions while localizing auditory targets using a laser pointer guided by peripheral vision. An alternating fixation task focused on the temporal (dynamic) aspects of auditory spatial shifts after changes in eye position. Localization proceeded as in sustained fixation, except that eye position alternated between the three fixation references over multiple epochs, each lasting minutes. Auditory space shifted by approximately 40% toward the new eye position and dynamically over several minutes. We propose that this spatial shift reflects an adaptation mechanism for aligning the "straight-ahead" of perceived sensory-motor maps, particularly during early childhood when normal ocular alignment is achieved, but also resolving challenges to normal spatial perception throughout life. PMID:17881531

  6. Auditory feedback affects perception of effort when exercising with a Pulley machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordegoni, Monica; Ferrise, Francesco; Grani, Francesco;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment that investigates the role of auditory feedback in affecting the perception of effort when using a physical pulley machine. Specifically, we investigated whether variations in the amplitude and frequency content of the pulley sound affect perception of effort....... Results show that variations in frequency content affect the perception of effort....

  7. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were...... that the use of spectral cues remained plausible. Simulations of auditory-nerve representations of the complex tones further suggested that a spectrotemporal mechanism combining precise timing information across auditory channels might best account for the behavioral data. Overall, this work provides insights...

  8. Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have…

  9. Prolonged maturation of auditory perception and learning in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, Emma C; Sanes, Dan H

    2010-08-01

    In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to assess learning. Here, we used an identical procedure on juvenile and adult gerbils to examine the perception of amplitude modulation (AM), a stimulus feature that is an important component of most natural sounds. On average, Adult animals could detect smaller fluctuations in amplitude (i.e., smaller modulation depths) than Juveniles, indicating immature perceptual skills in Juveniles. However, the population variance was much greater for Juveniles, a few animals displaying adult-like AM detection. To determine whether immature perceptual skills facilitated learning, we compared naïve performance on the AM detection task with the amount of improvement following additional training. The amount of improvement in Adults correlated with naïve performance: those with the poorest naïve performance improved the most. In contrast, the naïve performance of Juveniles did not predict the amount of learning. Those Juveniles with immature AM detection thresholds did not display greater learning than Adults. Furthermore, for several of the Juveniles with adult-like thresholds, AM detection deteriorated with repeated testing. Thus, immature perceptual skills in young animals were not associated with greater learning. PMID:20506133

  10. Comparison of Auditory Perception in Cochlear Implanted Children with and without Additional Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of children with cochlear implants who have other difficulties such as attention deficiency and cerebral palsy has increased dramatically. Despite the need for information on the results of cochlear implantation in this group, the available literature is extremely limited. We, therefore, sought to compare the levels of auditory perception in children with cochlear implants with and without additional disabilities. Methods: A spondee test comprising 20 two-syllable words was performed. The data analysis was done using SPSS, version 19. Results: Thirty-one children who had received cochlear implants 2 years previously and were at an average age of 7.5 years were compared via the spondee test. From the 31 children,15 had one or more additional disabilities. The data analysis indicated that the mean score of auditory perception in this group was approximately 30 scores below that of the children with cochlear implants who had no additional disabilities. Conclusion: Although there was an improvement in the auditory perception of all the children with cochlear implants, there was a noticeable difference in the level of auditory perception between those with and without additional disabilities. Deafness and additional disabilities depended the children on lip reading alongside the auditory ways of communication. In addition, the level of auditory perception in the children with cochlear implants who had more than one additional disability was significantly less than that of the other children with cochlear implants who had one additional disability.

  11. The Perception of Cooperativeness Without Any Visual or Auditory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Burger, Franziska; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior. Participants experienced this only through the haptic force-feedback of the rope and made evaluations about the confederate after each interaction. We found that perception of cooperativeness was significantly affected only by the manipulation of this turn-taking behavior. Gender- and size-related judgments also significantly differed. Our results suggest that people can perceive social information such as the cooperativeness of other people even in situations where possibilities for communication are minimal.

  12. The Perception of Cooperativeness Without Any Visual or Auditory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Burger, Franziska; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior. Participants experienced this only through the haptic force-feedback of the rope and made evaluations about the confederate after each interaction. We found that perception of cooperativeness was significantly affected only by the manipulation of this turn-taking behavior. Gender- and size-related judgments also significantly differed. Our results suggest that people can perceive social information such as the cooperativeness of other people even in situations where possibilities for communication are minimal. PMID:27551362

  13. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    Full Text Available Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms presented in three conditions: 1 Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone, 2 Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3 Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85% when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90% when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%. Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%, as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%, demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses.

  14. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  15. A Psychophysical Imaging Method Evidencing Auditory Cue Extraction during Speech Perception: A Group Analysis of Auditory Classification Images

    OpenAIRE

    Varnet, Léo; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Serniclaes, Willy; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a large consensus regarding the involvement of specific acoustic cues in speech perception, the precise mechanisms underlying the transformation from continuous acoustical properties into discrete perceptual units remains undetermined. This gap in knowledge is partially due to the lack of a turnkey solution for isolating critical speech cues from natural stimuli. In this paper, we describe a psychoacoustic imaging method known as the Auditory Classification Image technique t...

  16. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Buchholz, Jörg; Wouters, Jan; Andrew J Oxenham

    2011-01-01

    Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were investigated using psychophysical methods. First, hearing loss was found to affect the perception of binaural pitch, a pitch sensation created by the binaural interaction of noise stimuli. Specifica...

  17. Auditory cortical activity during cochlear implant-mediated perception of spoken language, melody, and rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Charles J; Molloy, Anne T; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Braun, Allen R

    2010-03-01

    Despite the significant advances in language perception for cochlear implant (CI) recipients, music perception continues to be a major challenge for implant-mediated listening. Our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie successful implant listening remains limited. To our knowledge, this study represents the first neuroimaging investigation of music perception in CI users, with the hypothesis that CI subjects would demonstrate greater auditory cortical activation than normal hearing controls. H(2) (15)O positron emission tomography (PET) was used here to assess auditory cortical activation patterns in ten postlingually deafened CI patients and ten normal hearing control subjects. Subjects were presented with language, melody, and rhythm tasks during scanning. Our results show significant auditory cortical activation in implant subjects in comparison to control subjects for language, melody, and rhythm. The greatest activity in CI users compared to controls was seen for language tasks, which is thought to reflect both implant and neural specializations for language processing. For musical stimuli, PET scanning revealed significantly greater activation during rhythm perception in CI subjects (compared to control subjects), and the least activation during melody perception, which was the most difficult task for CI users. These results may suggest a possible relationship between auditory performance and degree of auditory cortical activation in implant recipients that deserves further study.

  18. Vocal development and auditory perception in CBA/CaJ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwon, Kelly E.

    Mice are useful laboratory subjects because of their small size, their modest cost, and the fact that researchers have created many different strains to study a variety of disorders. In particular, researchers have found nearly 100 naturally occurring mouse mutations with hearing impairments. For these reasons, mice have become an important model for studies of human deafness. Although much is known about the genetic makeup and physiology of the laboratory mouse, far less is known about mouse auditory behavior. To fully understand the effects of genetic mutations on hearing, it is necessary to determine the hearing abilities of these mice. Two experiments here examined various aspects of mouse auditory perception using CBA/CaJ mice, a commonly used mouse strain. The frequency difference limens experiment tested the mouse's ability to discriminate one tone from another based solely on the frequency of the tone. The mice had similar thresholds as wild mice and gerbils but needed a larger change in frequency than humans and cats. The second psychoacoustic experiment sought to determine which cue, frequency or duration, was more salient when the mice had to identify various tones. In this identification task, the mice overwhelmingly classified the tones based on frequency instead of duration, suggesting that mice are using frequency when differentiating one mouse vocalization from another. The other two experiments were more naturalistic and involved both auditory perception and mouse vocal production. Interest in mouse vocalizations is growing because of the potential for mice to become a model of human speech disorders. These experiments traced mouse vocal development from infant to adult, and they tested the mouse's preference for various vocalizations. This was the first known study to analyze the vocalizations of individual mice across development. Results showed large variation in calling rates among the three cages of adult mice but results were highly

  19. Feel What You Say: An Auditory Effect on Somatosensory Perception

    OpenAIRE

    François Champoux; Shiller, Douglas M.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate an audiotactile effect in which amplitude modulation of auditory feedback during voiced speech induces a throbbing sensation over the lip and laryngeal regions. Control tasks coupled with the examination of speech acoustic parameters allow us to rule out the possibility that the effect may have been due to cognitive factors or motor compensatory effects. We interpret the effect as reflecting the tight interplay between auditory and tactile modalities durin...

  20. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    systematically study the signal processing of realistic sounds by normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, a flexible, reproducible and fully controllable auditory environment is needed. A loudspeaker-based room auralization (LoRA) system was developed in this thesis to provide virtual auditory...... investigated the perception of distance in VAEs generated by the LoRA system. These results showed that the distance of far field sources are similarly perceived in these VAEs as in real environments. For close sources (<1 m), a comprehensive study about the near field compensated HOA method was presented and...

  1. Auditory Signal Processing in Communication: Perception and Performance of Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and maintaining the sounds we use in vocal communication require accurate perception of the sounds we hear performed by others and feedback-dependent imitation of those sounds to produce our own vocalizations. Understanding how the central nervous system integrates auditory and vocal-motor information to enable communication is a fundamental goal of systems neuroscience, and insights into the mechanisms of those processes will profoundly enhance clinical therapies for communication disorders. Gaining the high-resolution insight necessary to define the circuits and cellular mechanisms underlying human vocal communication is presently impractical. Songbirds are the best animal model of human speech, and this review highlights recent insights into the neural basis of auditory perception and feedback-dependent imitation in those animals. Neural correlates of song perception are present in auditory areas, and those correlates are preserved in the auditory responses of downstream neurons that are also active when the bird sings. Initial tests indicate that singing-related activity in those downstream neurons is associated with vocal-motor performance as opposed to the bird simply hearing itself sing. Therefore, action potentials related to auditory perception and action potentials related to vocal performance are co-localized in individual neurons. Conceptual models of song learning involve comparison of vocal commands and the associated auditory feedback to compute an error signal that is used to guide refinement of subsequent song performances, yet the sites of that comparison remain unknown. Convergence of sensory and motor activity onto individual neurons points to a possible mechanism through which auditory and vocal-motor signals may be linked to enable learning and maintenance of the sounds used in vocal communication. PMID:23827717

  2. The effect of music on auditory perception in cochlear-implant users and normal-hearing listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina Diechina

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses for severely deaf people that do not benefit from conventional hearing aids. Speech perception is reasonably good with CIs; other signals such as music perception are challenging. First, the perception of music and music related perception in CI users

  3. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise. PMID:23664946

  4. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise.

  5. Temporal asymmetries in auditory coding and perception reflect multi-layered nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux, Thomas; Kempf, Alexandre; Daret, Aurélie; Ponsot, Emmanuel; Bathellier, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans. Analysis of cortical activity patterns revealed that auditory cortex implements a map of spatially clustered neuronal ensembles, detecting specific combinations of spectral and intensity modulation features. Comparing different models, we show that cortical responses result from multi-layered nonlinearities, which, contrary to standard receptive field models of auditory cortex function, build divergent representations of sounds with similar spectral content, but different temporal structure. PMID:27580932

  6. Categorical vowel perception enhances the effectiveness and generalization of auditory feedback in human-machine-interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Larson

    Full Text Available Human-machine interface (HMI designs offer the possibility of improving quality of life for patient populations as well as augmenting normal user function. Despite pragmatic benefits, utilizing auditory feedback for HMI control remains underutilized, in part due to observed limitations in effectiveness. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which categorical speech perception could be used to improve an auditory HMI. Using surface electromyography, 24 healthy speakers of American English participated in 4 sessions to learn to control an HMI using auditory feedback (provided via vowel synthesis. Participants trained on 3 targets in sessions 1-3 and were tested on 3 novel targets in session 4. An "established categories with text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on auditory targets corresponding to standard American English vowels using auditory and text target cues. An "established categories without text cues" group of eight participants were trained and tested on the same targets using only auditory cuing of target vowel identity. A "new categories" group of eight participants were trained and tested on targets that corresponded to vowel-like sounds not part of American English. Analyses of user performance revealed significant effects of session and group (established categories groups and the new categories group, and a trend for an interaction between session and group. Results suggest that auditory feedback can be effectively used for HMI operation when paired with established categorical (native vowel targets with an unambiguous cue.

  7. 视、听感知下模拟驾驶行为的脑电实验比较研究%Research on EEG for virtual driving between visual and auditory perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静坤; 徐桂芝; 孙辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of electroencephalography(EEG) recognition rate resulted by stimulus of visual, auditory and combined perception. Methods In virtual traffic environment, the stimuli were designed in traffic information based on visual, auditory and audio-visual fusion. When one of the three stimuli appeared, the subjects completed starting and braking vehicle by imaginary using of right and left hands at the same time. The EEG signals were recorded and the imaginary motion-related features from C3, C4 were extracted and classified. Results The best recognition rates in visual, auditory and fusion perception were 100%, 100%and 83%, respectively, while the averages of the rates were 68.8% 、82.2%、76.9%, respectively. Conclusion The recognition rates are affected by the audio, visual and fusion stimulus and apparent individual differences exist.%目的 研究基于视觉、听觉以及视听融合感知的刺激源对脑电(EEG)识别率的影响。方法试验分别从视觉、听觉和视听融合3种情况提供与交通环境相关的刺激源,在不同刺激源的提示下,受试者利用左右手想象运动对车辆进行启动和制动控制,并对采集的脑电数据进行特征提取和分类处理,得到与想象运动相关的C3、C4导联上的特征信号和分类结果。结果视觉、听觉、视听融合环境下5名受试者最高识别率分别为100%、100%、83.3%,平均识别率分别为68.8%、82.2%、76.9%。结论基于视听感官的刺激源对脑电的识别率有一定影响,并且存在较大的个体差异。

  8. Perception of auditory, visual, and egocentric spatial alignment adapts differently to changes in eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2010-02-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (high-pass and low-pass noise) related to specific auditory spatial channels, 3) matched by a shift in the perceived straight-ahead (PSA), and 4) accompanied by a spatial shift for visual and/or bimodal (visual and auditory) targets. Subjects were tested in a dark echo-attenuated chamber with their heads fixed facing a cylindrical screen, behind which a mobile speaker/LED presented targets across the frontal field. Subjects fixated alternating reference spots (0, +/-20 degrees ) horizontally or vertically while either localizing targets or indicating PSA using a laser pointer. Results showed that the spatial shift induced by ocular eccentricity is 1) preserved for auditory targets without a visual fixation reference, 2) generalized for all frequency bands, and thus all auditory spatial channels, 3) paralleled by a shift in PSA, and 4) restricted to auditory space. Findings are consistent with a set-point control strategy by which eye position governs multimodal spatial alignment. The phenomenon is robust for auditory space and egocentric perception, and highlights the importance of controlling for eye position in the examination of spatial perception and behavior. PMID:19846626

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY CHILDREN IN THE FIRST SIX GRADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETZOLD, ROBERT G.

    THE AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY A SAMPLE OF 600 CHILDREN IN THE FIRST 6 GRADES WAS STUDIED. THREE TESTS WERE CONSTRUCTED FOR THIS STUDY. THEIR CONTENT WAS BASED UPON AN EXTENSIVE ANALYSIS OF TONAL AND RHYTHMIC CONFIGURATIONS FOUND IN THE SONGS CHILDREN SING. THE 45-ITEM AND ONE OF THE 20-ITEM TESTS WERE DESIGNED TO COLLECT DATA…

  10. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were tested on a battery of auditory processing and reading related tasks. Very poor auditory thresholds and poor memory skills were abundant only among children with no musical education. In this population, indices of auditory processing (frequency and interval discrimination thresholds were significantly correlated with and accounted for up to 13% of the variance in reading related skills. Among children with more than one year of musical training, auditory processing indices were better, yet reading related skills were not correlated with them. A potential interpretation for the reduction in the correlations might be that auditory and reading-related skills improve at different rates as a function of musical training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Participants' previous musical training, which is typically ignored in studies assessing the relations between auditory and reading related skills, should be considered. Very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training, suggesting musical training could have an impact on both. The lack of correlation in the musically trained population suggests that a short period of musical training does not enhance reading related skills of individuals with within-normal auditory processing skills. Further studies are required to determine whether the associations between musical training, auditory processing and memory are indeed causal or whether children with poor auditory and

  11. Lifespan Differences in Cortical Dynamics of Auditory Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Viktor; Gruber, Walter; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-01-01

    Using electroencephalographic recordings (EEG), we assessed differences in oscillatory cortical activity during auditory-oddball performance between children aged 9-13 years, younger adults, and older adults. From childhood to old age, phase synchronization increased within and between electrodes, whereas whole power and evoked power decreased. We…

  12. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Odegaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1 if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors, and (2 whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli. Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only

  13. Leftward lateralization of auditory cortex underlies holistic sound perception in Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Wengenroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with the rare genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS are known for their characteristic auditory phenotype including strong affinity to music and sounds. In this work we attempted to pinpoint a neural substrate for the characteristic musicality in WS individuals by studying the structure-function relationship of their auditory cortex. Since WS subjects had only minor musical training due to psychomotor constraints we hypothesized that any changes compared to the control group would reflect the contribution of genetic factors to auditory processing and musicality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using psychoacoustics, magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging, we show that WS individuals exhibit extreme and almost exclusive holistic sound perception, which stands in marked contrast to the even distribution of this trait in the general population. Functionally, this was reflected by increased amplitudes of left auditory evoked fields. On the structural level, volume of the left auditory cortex was 2.2-fold increased in WS subjects as compared to control subjects. Equivalent volumes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported for professional musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been an ongoing debate in the neuroscience community as to whether increased gray matter of the auditory cortex in musicians is attributable to the amount of training or innate disposition. In this study musical education of WS subjects was negligible and control subjects were carefully matched for this parameter. Therefore our results not only unravel the neural substrate for this particular auditory phenotype, but in addition propose WS as a unique genetic model for training-independent auditory system properties.

  14. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody.

  15. Auditory Perception, Suprasegmental Speech Processing, and Vocabulary Development in Chinese Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan S; Chen, I-Chen; Chiang, Chun-Han; Lai, Ying-Hui; Tsao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between basic auditory perception, speech prosodic processing, and vocabulary development in Chinese kindergartners, specifically, whether early basic auditory perception may be related to linguistic prosodic processing in Chinese Mandarin vocabulary acquisition. A series of language, auditory, and linguistic prosodic tests were given to 100 preschool children who had not yet learned how to read Chinese characters. The results suggested that lexical tone sensitivity and intonation production were significantly correlated with children's general vocabulary abilities. In particular, tone awareness was associated with comprehensive language development, whereas intonation production was associated with both comprehensive and expressive language development. Regression analyses revealed that tone sensitivity accounted for 36% of the unique variance in vocabulary development, whereas intonation production accounted for 6% of the variance in vocabulary development. Moreover, auditory frequency discrimination was significantly correlated with lexical tone sensitivity, syllable duration discrimination, and intonation production in Mandarin Chinese. Also it provided significant contributions to tone sensitivity and intonation production. Auditory frequency discrimination may indirectly affect early vocabulary development through Chinese speech prosody. PMID:27519239

  16. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  17. Using Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials as a predictor of speech perception ability in Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder and conditions with ANSD-like clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder (ANSD) is diagnosed by the presence of outer hair cell function, and absence or severe abnormality of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Within the spectrum of ANSD, level of severity varies greatly in two domains: hearing thresholds can range from normal levels to a profound hearing loss, and degree of speech perception impairment also varies. The latter gives a meaningful indication of severity in ANSD. As the ABR does not relate to functional perfo...

  18. Modeling auditory perception of individual hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    showed that, in most cases, the reduced or absent cochlear compression, associated with outer hair-cell loss, quantitatively accounts for broadened auditory filters, while a combination of reduced compression and reduced inner hair-cell function accounts for decreased sensitivity and slower recovery from...... selectivity. Three groups of listeners were considered: (a) normal hearing listeners; (b) listeners with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss; and (c) listeners with a severe sensorineural hearing loss. A fixed set of model parameters were derived for each hearing-impaired listener. The simulations...

  19. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  20. The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length......-estimation experiment. A comparison of the length-estimation accuracy for the three presentation methods indicates that the choice of presentation method is important for maintaining realism and for maintaining the acoustic cues utilized by listeners in perceiving length....

  1. Age differences in visual-auditory self-motion perception during a simulated driving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRamkhalawansingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that visual-auditory cue integration may change as a function of age such that integration is heightened among older adults. Our goal was to determine whether these changes in multisensory integration are also observed in the context of self-motion perception under realistic task constraints. Thus, we developed a simulated driving paradigm in which we provided older and younger adults with visual motion cues (i.e. optic flow and systematically manipulated the presence or absence of congruent auditory cues to self-motion (i.e. engine, tire, and wind sounds. Results demonstrated that the presence or absence of congruent auditory input had different effects on older and younger adults. Both age groups demonstrated a reduction in speed variability when auditory cues were present compared to when they were absent, but older adults demonstrated a proportionally greater reduction in speed variability under combined sensory conditions. These results are consistent with evidence indicating that multisensory integration is heightened in older adults. Importantly, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that age differences in multisensory integration may generalize from simple stimulus detection tasks to the integration of the more complex and dynamic visual and auditory cues that are experienced during self-motion.

  2. Musical Experience, Auditory Perception and Reading-Related Skills in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Banai; Merav Ahissar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were teste...

  3. Perception of Auditory, Visual, and Egocentric Spatial Alignment Adapts Differently to Changes in Eye Position

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qi N; Razavi, Babak; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Vision and audition represent the outside world in spatial synergy that is crucial for guiding natural activities. Input conveying eye-in-head position is needed to maintain spatial congruence because the eyes move in the head while the ears remain head-fixed. Recently, we reported that the human perception of auditory space shifts with changes in eye position. In this study, we examined whether this phenomenon is 1) dependent on a visual fixation reference, 2) selective for frequency bands (...

  4. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dina L; Fisher, Laurel M; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A; Robert Frisina, D; Frisina, Robert D; Friedman, Rick A

    2012-12-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European-American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults.

  5. Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Hallucinations—Understanding Perception without Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhwinder S. Shergill

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH are a common phenomenon, occurring in the “healthy” population as well as in several mental illnesses, most notably schizophrenia. Current thinking supports a spectrum conceptualisation of AVH: several neurocognitive hypotheses of AVH have been proposed, including the “feed-forward” model of failure to provide appropriate information to somatosensory cortices so that stimuli appear unbidden, and an “aberrant memory model” implicating deficient memory processes. Neuroimaging and connectivity studies are in broad agreement with these with a general dysconnectivity between frontotemporal regions involved in language, memory and salience properties. Disappointingly many AVH remain resistant to standard treatments and persist for many years. There is a need to develop novel therapies to augment existing pharmacological and psychological therapies: transcranial magnetic stimulation has emerged as a potential treatment, though more recent clinical data has been less encouraging. Our understanding of AVH remains incomplete though much progress has been made in recent years. We herein provide a broad overview and review of this.

  6. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B Firszt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g. cochlear implants, less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and three and nine months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction, degree and type

  7. Auditory distance perception in fixed and varying simulated acoustic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Matthew; Kopčo, Norbert; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2001-05-01

    Listeners must calibrate to the acoustic environment in order to judge source distance using reverberation. Results of a previous study [Schoolmaster, Kopčo, and Shinn-Cunningham, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 2285 (2003)] showed that distance perception is more accurate when the simulated acoustic environment is consistent rather than randomly chosen from trial to trial; however, the environments were very different (anechoic versus a large classroom). The study was replicated here using two rooms that were much more similar. Each subject completed two series of trials. In the fixed-room series, the room (large or small) was fixed within a trial block. In the mixed-room series, the room was randomly chosen from trial to trial. Half of the subjects performed the mixed and half performed the fixed series first. Differences between subject groups were smaller in the current study than when anechoic and reverberant trials were intermingled; performance in the two subject groups was similar for (1) fixed trials and (2) trials simulating the large room. However, there was an interaction between subject group and room. Results suggest that listeners calibrate distance judgments based on past experience, but that such calibration partially generalizes to similar environments [Work supported by AFOSR and the NRC.

  8. Auditory-Visual Perception of Prosodic Information: Inter-linguistic Analysis - Contrastive Focus in French and Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Dohen, Marion; Hill, Harold; Wu, Chun-Huei

    2008-01-01

    Audition and vision are combined for the perception of speech segments and recent studies have shown that this is also the case for some types of supra-segmental information such as prosodic focus. The integration of vision and audition for the perception of speech segments however seems to be less important in Japanese. This study aims at comparing auditory-visual perception of prosodic contrastive focus in French and in Japanese. Two parallel focus identification tests were conducted for th...

  9. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  10. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  11. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Speech Perception by Individuals with Cochlear Implants versus Individuals with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Rothem, Hilla; Luntz, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The researchers evaluated the contribution of cochlear implants (CIs) to speech perception by a sample of prelingually deaf individuals implanted after age 8 years. This group was compared with a group with profound hearing impairment (HA-P), and with a group with severe hearing impairment (HA-S), both of which used hearing aids. Words and…

  12. Using auditory-visual speech to probe the basis of noise-impaired consonant-vowel perception in dyslexia and auditory neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Joshua; Mann, Virginia

    2005-08-01

    Both dyslexics and auditory neuropathy (AN) subjects show inferior consonant-vowel (CV) perception in noise, relative to controls. To better understand these impairments, natural acoustic speech stimuli that were masked in speech-shaped noise at various intensities were presented to dyslexic, AN, and control subjects either in isolation or accompanied by visual articulatory cues. AN subjects were expected to benefit from the pairing of visual articulatory cues and auditory CV stimuli, provided that their speech perception impairment reflects a relatively peripheral auditory disorder. Assuming that dyslexia reflects a general impairment of speech processing rather than a disorder of audition, dyslexics were not expected to similarly benefit from an introduction of visual articulatory cues. The results revealed an increased effect of noise masking on the perception of isolated acoustic stimuli by both dyslexic and AN subjects. More importantly, dyslexics showed less effective use of visual articulatory cues in identifying masked speech stimuli and lower visual baseline performance relative to AN subjects and controls. Last, a significant positive correlation was found between reading ability and the ameliorating effect of visual articulatory cues on speech perception in noise. These results suggest that some reading impairments may stem from a central deficit of speech processing.

  13. A bio-inspired auditory perception model for amplitude-frequency clustering (keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Paolo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia; Ganci, Gaetana; Patane, Luca

    2005-06-01

    In this paper a model for auditory perception is introduced. This model is based on a network of integrate-and-fire and resonate-and-fire neurons and is aimed to control the phonotaxis behavior of a roving robot. The starting point is the model of phonotaxis in Gryllus Bimaculatus: the model consists of four integrate-and-fire neurons and is able of discriminating the calling song of male cricket and orienting the robot towards the sound source. This paper aims to extend the model to include an amplitude-frequency clustering. The proposed spiking network shows different behaviors associated with different characteristics of the input signals (amplitude and frequency). The behavior implemented on the robot is similar to the cricket behavior, where some frequencies are associated with the calling song of male crickets, while other ones indicate the presence of predators. Therefore, the whole model for auditory perception is devoted to control different responses (attractive or repulsive) depending on the input characteristics. The performance of the control system has been evaluated with several experiments carried out on a roving robot.

  14. Physiological activation of the human cerebral cortex during auditory perception and speech revealed by regional increases in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    Specific types of brain activity as sensory perception auditory, somato-sensory or visual -or the performance of movements are accompanied by increases of blood flow and oxygen consumption in the cortical areas involved with performing the respective tasks. The activation patterns observed by mea...

  15. Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, L1 Chinese, and L2 English Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A 4-stage developmental model, in which auditory sensitivity is fully mediated by speech perception at both the segmental and suprasegmental levels, which are further related to word reading through their associations with phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory and morphological awareness, was tested with…

  16. Open your eyes and listen carefully. Auditory and audiovisual speech perception and the McGurk effect in aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klitsch, Julia Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigates speech perception in three different groups of native adult speakers of Dutch; an aphasic and two age-varying control groups. By means of two different experiments it is examined if the availability of visual articulatory information is beneficial to the auditory speec

  17. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  18. Auditory enhancement of visual perception at threshold depends on visual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caclin, Anne; Bouchet, Patrick; Djoulah, Farida; Pirat, Elodie; Pernier, Jacques; Giard, Marie-Hélène

    2011-06-17

    Whether or not multisensory interactions can improve detection thresholds, and thus widen the range of perceptible events is a long-standing debate. Here we revisit this question, by testing the influence of auditory stimuli on visual detection threshold, in subjects exhibiting a wide range of visual-only performance. Above the perceptual threshold, crossmodal interactions have indeed been reported to depend on the subject's performance when the modalities are presented in isolation. We thus tested normal-seeing subjects and short-sighted subjects wearing their usual glasses. We used a paradigm limiting potential shortcomings of previous studies: we chose a criterion-free threshold measurement procedure and precluded exogenous cueing effects by systematically presenting a visual cue whenever a visual target (a faint Gabor patch) might occur. Using this carefully controlled procedure, we found that concurrent sounds only improved visual detection thresholds in the sub-group of subjects exhibiting the poorest performance in the visual-only conditions. In these subjects, for oblique orientations of the visual stimuli (but not for vertical or horizontal targets), the auditory improvement was still present when visual detection was already helped with flanking visual stimuli generating a collinear facilitation effect. These findings highlight that crossmodal interactions are most efficient to improve perceptual performance when an isolated modality is deficient.

  19. Modeling auditory processing and speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Morten Løve

    . It was shown that most observations in the measured consonant discrimination error patterns were predicted by the model, although error rates were systematically underestimated by the model in few particular acoustic-phonetic features. These results reflect a relation between basic auditory processing deficits....... It was shown that an accurate simulation of cochlear input-output functions, in addition to the audiogram, played a major role in accounting both for sensitivity and supra-threshold processing. Finally, the model was used as a front-end in a framework developed to predict consonant discrimination...... and reduced speech perception performance in the listeners with cochlear hearing loss. Overall, this work suggests a possible explanation of the variability in consequences of cochlear hearing loss. The proposed model might be an interesting tool for, e.g., evaluation of hearing-aid signal processing....

  20. ASCLS members perceptions regarding research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Lillian; Shanahan, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    One of the benchmarks of a profession is performing, publishing, and presenting research. However, in the Clinical Laboratory Science (CLS) profession, few manuscripts are submitted to the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) journal, Clinical Laboratory Science, on a regular basis. The problem is that perceptions regarding research, and the role of laboratory professional as researchers, held by ASCLS members may be contributing to the low number of manuscript submissions. To assess these perceptions, an anonymous Likert-scale survey was developed and delivered online using Survey Monkey. Members of ASCLS, with email addresses, were chosen to participate in this survey because they may be most likely to contribute manuscripts for a journal by their own society. About 10% of the 7,000 members who were invited by email chose to participate in this study. Most participants agreed that 1) there is important information to be gathered from research on clinical laboratory specimen results (99.6%), 2) research contributes valuable information to the body of CLS knowledge (99.2%), and 3) conducting research is one of the benchmarks of a profession (92.4%). The majority of participants felt that there are inadequate resources (68.8%) and not enough time (83%) available to conduct research in the clinical laboratory setting. Most participants recognize that many laboratory activities constitute research (86.2%), but only a few are willing to publish research findings on their own (29.2%). Those who are the most likely to publish research findings include men, university faculty, and members who are over 60 years old. University faculty are the most likely to assist others in the writing process. These results show an opportunity exists for ASCLS to foster collaborations between bench technologists and educators willing to assist with the publication process.

  1. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  2. The Effect of Short-Term Auditory Training on Speech in Noise Perception and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathan; Purdy, Suzanne C; Sharma, Mridula; Giles, Ellen; Narne, Vijay

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether a short intensive psychophysical auditory training program is associated with speech perception benefits and changes in cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Ten adult implant recipients trained approximately 7 hours on psychophysical tasks (Gap-in-Noise Detection, Frequency Discrimination, Spectral Rippled Noise [SRN], Iterated Rippled Noise, Temporal Modulation). Speech performance was assessed before and after training using Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) words in quiet and in eight-speaker babble. CAEPs evoked by a natural speech stimulus /baba/ with varying syllable stress were assessed pre- and post-training, in quiet and in noise. SRN psychophysical thresholds showed a significant improvement (78% on average) over the training period, but performance on other psychophysical tasks did not change. LNT scores in noise improved significantly post-training by 11% on average compared with three pretraining baseline measures. N1P2 amplitude changed post-training for /baba/ in quiet (p = 0.005, visit 3 pretraining versus visit 4 post-training). CAEP changes did not correlate with behavioral measures. CI recipients' clinical records indicated a plateau in speech perception performance prior to participation in the study. A short period of intensive psychophysical training produced small but significant gains in speech perception in noise and spectral discrimination ability. There remain questions about the most appropriate type of training and the duration or dosage of training that provides the most robust outcomes for adults with CIs. PMID:27587925

  3. Auditory-visual interaction: from fundamental research in cognitive psychology to (possible) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlrausch, Armin; van de Par, Steven

    1999-05-01

    In our natural environment, we simultaneously receive information through various sensory modalities. The properties of these stimuli are coupled by physical laws, so that, e.g., auditory and visual stimuli caused by the same even have a fixed temporal relation when reaching the observer. In speech, for example, visible lip movements and audible utterances occur in close synchrony which contributes to the improvement of speech intelligibility under adverse acoustic conditions. Research into multi- sensory perception is currently being performed in a great variety of experimental contexts. This paper attempts to give an overview of the typical research areas dealing with audio-visual interaction and integration, bridging the range from cognitive psychology to applied research for multimedia applications. Issues of interest are the sensitivity to asynchrony between audio and video signals, the interaction between audio-visual stimuli with discrepant spatial and temporal rate information, crossmodal effects in attention, audio-visual interactions in speech perception and the combined perceived quality of audio-visual stimuli.

  4. The effect of auditory perception training on reading performance of the 8-9-year old female students with dyslexia: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Vatandoost

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Dyslexia is the most common learning disability. One of the main factors have role in this disability is auditory perception imperfection that cause a lot of problems in education. We aimed to study the effect of auditory perception training on reading performance of female students with dyslexia at the third grade of elementary school.Methods: Thirty-eight female students at the third grade of elementary schools of Khomeinishahr City, Iran, were selected by multistage cluster random sampling of them, 20 students which were diagnosed dyslexic by Reading test and Wechsler test, devided randomly to two equal groups of experimental and control. For experimental group, during ten 45-minute sessions, auditory perception training were conducted, but no intervention was done for control group. An participants were re-assessed by Reading test after the intervention (pre- and post- test method. Data were analyed by covariance test.Results: The effect of auditory perception training on reading performance (81% was significant (p<0.0001 for all subtests execpt the separate compound word test.Conclusion: Findings of our study confirm the hypothesis that auditory perception training effects on students' functional reading. So, auditory perception training seems to be necessary for the students with dyslexia.

  5. Towards a Perceptually–grounded Theory of Microtonality: issues in sonority, scale construction and auditory perception and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This thesis engages with the topic of microtonal music through a discussion of relevant music theories and compositional practice alongside the investigation of theoretical perspectives drawn from psychology. Its aim is to advance a theory of microtonal music which is informed by current models of auditory perception and music cognition. In doing so, it treats a range of microtonal approaches and philosophies ranging from duplex subdivision of tempered scales to the generation ...

  6. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perception of Emotions by Individuals with Cochlear Implants, Hearing Aids, and Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Aviner, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of cochlear implant (CI) with regard to emotion perception of participants differing in their age of implantation, in comparison to hearing aid users and adolescents with normal hearing (NH). Emotion perception was examined by having the participants identify happiness, anger, surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust.…

  7. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Berding

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation. The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berding, Georg; Wilke, Florian; Rode, Thilo; Haense, Cathleen; Joseph, Gert; Meyer, Geerd J; Mamach, Martin; Lenarz, Minoo; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation). The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus. PMID:26046763

  9. Change in Speech Perception and Auditory Evoked Potentials over Time after Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Postlingually Deaf Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Suzanne C; Kelly, Andrea S

    2016-02-01

    Speech perception varies widely across cochlear implant (CI) users and typically improves over time after implantation. There is also some evidence for improved auditory evoked potentials (shorter latencies, larger amplitudes) after implantation but few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between behavioral and evoked potential measures after implantation in postlingually deaf adults. The relationship between speech perception and auditory evoked potentials was investigated in newly implanted cochlear implant users from the day of implant activation to 9 months postimplantation, on five occasions, in 10 adults age 27 to 57 years who had been bilaterally profoundly deaf for 1 to 30 years prior to receiving a unilateral CI24 cochlear implant. Changes over time in middle latency response (MLR), mismatch negativity, and obligatory cortical auditory evoked potentials and word and sentence speech perception scores were examined. Speech perception improved significantly over the 9-month period. MLRs varied and showed no consistent change over time. Three participants aged in their 50s had absent MLRs. The pattern of change in N1 amplitudes over the five visits varied across participants. P2 area increased significantly for 1,000- and 4,000-Hz tones but not for 250 Hz. The greatest change in P2 area occurred after 6 months of implant experience. Although there was a trend for mismatch negativity peak latency to reduce and width to increase after 3 months of implant experience, there was considerable variability and these changes were not significant. Only 60% of participants had a detectable mismatch initially; this increased to 100% at 9 months. The continued change in P2 area over the period evaluated, with a trend for greater change for right hemisphere recordings, is consistent with the pattern of incremental change in speech perception scores over time. MLR, N1, and mismatch negativity changes were inconsistent and hence P2 may be a more robust measure

  10. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  11. Brunswikian resources for event-perception research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlik, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Recent psychological research aimed at determining whether dynamic event perception is direct or mediated by cue-based inference convincingly demonstrates evidence of both modes of perception or apprehension. This work also shows that noise is involved in attaining any perceptual variable, whether it perfectly (invariantly) specifies or imperfectly (fallibly) indicates the value of a target or criterion variable. As such, event-perception researchers encounter both internal (sensory or inferential) and external ecological sources of noise or uncertainty, owing to the organism's possible use of imperfect or 'nonspecifying' variables (or cues) and cue-based inference. Because both sources play central roles in Egon Brunswik's theory of probabilistic functionalism and methodology of representative design, event-perception research will benefit by explicitly leveraging original Brunswikian and, more recent, neo-Brunswikian scientific resources. Doing so will result in a more coherent and powerful approach to perceptual and cognitive psychology than is currently displayed in the scientific literature.

  12. A simulation framework for auditory discrimination experiments: Revealing the importance of across-frequency processing in speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Ewert, Stephan D; Kollmeier, Birger

    2016-05-01

    A framework for simulating auditory discrimination experiments, based on an approach from Schädler, Warzybok, Hochmuth, and Kollmeier [(2015). Int. J. Audiol. 54, 100-107] which was originally designed to predict speech recognition thresholds, is extended to also predict psychoacoustic thresholds. The proposed framework is used to assess the suitability of different auditory-inspired feature sets for a range of auditory discrimination experiments that included psychoacoustic as well as speech recognition experiments in noise. The considered experiments were 2 kHz tone-in-broadband-noise simultaneous masking depending on the tone length, spectral masking with simultaneously presented tone signals and narrow-band noise maskers, and German Matrix sentence test reception threshold in stationary and modulated noise. The employed feature sets included spectro-temporal Gabor filter bank features, Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, logarithmically scaled Mel-spectrograms, and the internal representation of the Perception Model from Dau, Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102(5), 2892-2905]. The proposed framework was successfully employed to simulate all experiments with a common parameter set and obtain objective thresholds with less assumptions compared to traditional modeling approaches. Depending on the feature set, the simulated reference-free thresholds were found to agree with-and hence to predict-empirical data from the literature. Across-frequency processing was found to be crucial to accurately model the lower speech reception threshold in modulated noise conditions than in stationary noise conditions. PMID:27250164

  13. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  14. Auditory midbrain implant: research and development towards a second clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hubert H; Lenarz, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The cochlear implant is considered one of the most successful neural prostheses to date, which was made possible by visionaries who continued to develop the cochlear implant through multiple technological and clinical challenges. However, patients without a functional auditory nerve or implantable cochlea cannot benefit from a cochlear implant. The focus of the paper is to review the development and translation of a new type of central auditory prosthesis for this group of patients that is known as the auditory midbrain implant (AMI) and is designed for electrical stimulation within the inferior colliculus. The rationale and results for the first AMI clinical study using a multi-site single-shank array will be presented initially. Although the AMI has achieved encouraging results in terms of safety and improvements in lip-reading capabilities and environmental awareness, it has not yet provided sufficient speech perception. Animal and human data will then be presented to show that a two-shank AMI array can potentially improve hearing performance by targeting specific neurons of the inferior colliculus. A new two-shank array, stimulation strategy, and surgical approach are planned for the AMI that are expected to improve hearing performance in the patients who will be implanted in an upcoming clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health. Positive outcomes from this clinical trial will motivate new efforts and developments toward improving central auditory prostheses for those who cannot sufficiently benefit from cochlear implants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .

  15. Visual and Auditory Components in the Perception of Asynchronous Audiovisual Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Alcalá-Quintana, Rocío

    2015-12-01

    Research on asynchronous audiovisual speech perception manipulates experimental conditions to observe their effects on synchrony judgments. Probabilistic models establish a link between the sensory and decisional processes underlying such judgments and the observed data, via interpretable parameters that allow testing hypotheses and making inferences about how experimental manipulations affect such processes. Two models of this type have recently been proposed, one based on independent channels and the other using a Bayesian approach. Both models are fitted here to a common data set, with a subsequent analysis of the interpretation they provide about how experimental manipulations affected the processes underlying perceived synchrony. The data consist of synchrony judgments as a function of audiovisual offset in a speech stimulus, under four within-subjects manipulations of the quality of the visual component. The Bayesian model could not accommodate asymmetric data, was rejected by goodness-of-fit statistics for 8/16 observers, and was found to be nonidentifiable, which renders uninterpretable parameter estimates. The independent-channels model captured asymmetric data, was rejected for only 1/16 observers, and identified how sensory and decisional processes mediating asynchronous audiovisual speech perception are affected by manipulations that only alter the quality of the visual component of the speech signal.

  16. Stability of auditory event-related potentials in coma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Barbara; Schlee, Winfried; Arndt, Marion; Lulé, Dorothée; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Lopez-Rolon, Alex; Lopez-Rolon, Alexander; Bender, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS) after brain injury show significant fluctuations in their behavioural abilities over time. As the importance of event-related potentials (ERPs) in the detection of traces of consciousness increases, we investigated the retest reliability of ERPs with repeated tests at four different time points. Twelve healthy controls and 12 inpatients (8 UWS, 4 MCS; 6 traumatic, 6 non-traumatic) were tested twice a day (morning, afternoon) for 2 days with an auditory oddball task. ERPs were recorded with a 256-channel-EEG system, and correlated with behavioural test scores in the Coma Recovery Scale-revised (CRS-R). The number of identifiable P300 responses varied between zero and four in both groups. Reliabilities varied between Krippendorff's α = 0.43 for within-day comparison, and α = 0.25 for between-day comparison in the patient group. Retest reliability was strong for the CRS-R scores for all comparisons (α = 0.83-0.95). The stability of auditory information processing in patients with disorders of consciousness is the basis for other, even more demanding tasks and cognitive potentials. The relatively low ERP-retest reliability suggests that it is necessary to perform repeated tests, especially when probing for consciousness with ERPs. A single negative ERP test result may be mistaken for proof that a UWS patient truly is unresponsive.

  17. Distortion products in auditory fMRI research: Measurements and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam; McDermott, Josh H

    2016-04-01

    Nonlinearities in the cochlea can introduce audio frequencies that are not present in the sound signal entering the ear. Known as distortion products (DPs), these added frequencies complicate the interpretation of auditory experiments. Sound production systems also introduce distortion via nonlinearities, a particular concern for fMRI research because the Sensimetrics earphones widely used for sound presentation are less linear than most high-end audio devices (due to design constraints). Here we describe the acoustic and neural effects of cochlear and earphone distortion in the context of fMRI studies of pitch perception, and discuss how their effects can be minimized with appropriate stimuli and masking noise. The amplitude of cochlear and Sensimetrics earphone DPs were measured for a large collection of harmonic stimuli to assess effects of level, frequency, and waveform amplitude. Cochlear DP amplitudes were highly sensitive to the absolute frequency of the DP, and were most prominent at frequencies below 300 Hz. Cochlear DPs could thus be effectively masked by low-frequency noise, as expected. Earphone DP amplitudes, in contrast, were highly sensitive to both stimulus and DP frequency (due to prominent resonances in the earphone's transfer function), and their levels grew more rapidly with increasing stimulus level than did cochlear DP amplitudes. As a result, earphone DP amplitudes often exceeded those of cochlear DPs. Using fMRI, we found that earphone DPs had a substantial effect on the response of pitch-sensitive cortical regions. In contrast, cochlear DPs had a small effect on cortical fMRI responses that did not reach statistical significance, consistent with their lower amplitudes. Based on these findings, we designed a set of pitch stimuli optimized for identifying pitch-responsive brain regions using fMRI. These stimuli robustly drive pitch-responsive brain regions while producing minimal cochlear and earphone distortion, and will hopefully aid f

  18. Auditory and visual distance perception: The proximity-image effect revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorik, Pavel

    2003-04-01

    The proximity-image effect [M. B. Gardner, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 43, 163 (1968)] describes a phenomenon in which the apparent distance of an auditory target is determined by the distance of the nearest plausible visual target rather than by acoustic distance cues. Here this effect is examined using a single visual target (an un-energized loudspeaker) and invisible virtual sound sources. These sources were synthesized from binaural impulse-response measurements at distances ranging from 1 to 5 m (0.25-m steps) in the semi-reverberant room (7.7 m×4.2 m×2.7 m) in which the experiment was conducted. Listeners (n=11) were asked whether or not the auditory target appeared to be at the same distance as the visual target. Within a block of trials, the visual target was placed at a fixed distance of 1.5, 3, or 4.5 m, and the auditory target varied randomly from trial-to-trial over the sample of measurement distances. The resulting psychometric functions are consistent with the proximity-image effect, and can be predicted using a simple model of sensory integration and decision in which perceived auditory space is both compressed in distance and has lower resolution than perceived visual space. [Work supported by NIH-NEI.

  19. Valid cues for auditory or somatosensory targets affect their perception: a signal detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of focusing attention towards auditory or somatosensory stimuli on perceptual sensitivity and response bias using a signal detection task. Participants (N = 44) performed an unspeeded detection task in which weak (individually calibrated) somatosensory or auditory stimuli were delivered. The focus of attention was manipulated by the presentation of a visual cue at the start of each trial. The visual cue consisted of the word "warmth" or the word "tone". This word cue was predictive of the corresponding target on two-thirds of the trials. As hypothesised, the results showed that cueing attention to a specific sensory modality resulted in a higher perceptual sensitivity for validly cued targets than for invalidly cued targets, as well as in a more liberal response criterion for reporting stimuli in the valid modality than in the invalid modality. The value of this experimental paradigm for investigating excessive attentional focus or hypervigilance in various non-clinical and clinical populations is discussed.

  20. On the accuracy of adults' auditory perception of normophonic and dysphonic children's personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduyckt, Ingrid; Remacle, Marc; Morsomme, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the accuracy of auditory inferences of personality of Belgian children with vocal fold nodules (VFN). External judges (n = 57) were asked to infer the personality of normophonic (NP) children and children with VFN (n = 10) on the basis of vowels and sentences. The auditory inferred profiles were compared to the actual personality of NP and VFN children. Positive and partly accurate inferences of VFN children's personality were made on the basis of connected speech, while sustained vowels yielded negative and inaccurate inferences of personality traits of children with VFN. Dysphonic voice quality, as defined by the overall severity of vocal abnormality, conveyed inaccurate and low degrees of extraversion. This effect was counterbalanced in connected speech by faster speaking rate that accurately conveyed higher degrees of extraversion, a characteristic trait of VFN children's actual personality. PMID:24861104

  1. How musical expertise shapes speech perception: Evidence from auditory classification images

    OpenAIRE

    Léo Varnet; Tianyun Wang; Chloe Peter; Fanny Meunier; Michel Hoen

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that extensive musical training percolates to higher levels of cognition, such as speech processing. However, the lack of a precise technique to investigate the specific listening strategy involved in speech comprehension has made it difficult to determine how musicians’ higher performance in non-speech tasks contributes to their enhanced speech comprehension. The recently developed Auditory Classification Image approach reveals the precise time-frequency regions us...

  2. Impaired Pitch Perception and Memory in Congenital Amusia: The Deficit Starts in the Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jeremie; Bouet, Romain; Maby, Emmanuel; Sanchez, Gaetan; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Bertrand, Olivier; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music perception and production. The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based morphometry. Congenital amusics and matched control subjects performed two melodic tasks (a…

  3. Auditory Time-Interval Perception as Causal Inference on Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sawai, Ken-ichi; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Perception of a temporal pattern in a sub-second time scale is fundamental to conversation, music perception, and other kinds of sound communication. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. A simple example is hearing three successive sounds with short time intervals. The following misperception of the latter interval is known: underestimation of the latter interval when the former is a little shorter or much longer than the latter, and overestimation of the latter when the former is ...

  4. Auditory time-interval perception as causal inference on sound sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ken-ichi eSawai; Yoshiyuki eSato; Kazuyuki eAihara

    2012-01-01

    Perception of a temporal pattern in a sub-second time scale is fundamental to conversation, music perception, and other kinds of sound communication. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. A simple example is hearing three successive sounds with short time intervals. The following misperception of the latter interval is known: underestimation of the latter interval when the former is a little shorter or much longer than the latter, and overestimation of the latter when the former is ...

  5. Basic to Applied Research: The Benefits of Audio-Visual Speech Perception Research in Teaching Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Dogu

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, second language (L2) instruction has emphasised auditory-based instruction methods. However, this approach is restrictive in the sense that speech perception by humans is not just an auditory phenomenon but a multimodal one, and specifically, a visual one as well. In the past decade, experimental studies have shown that the…

  6. The use of auditory and visual context in speech perception by listeners with normal hearing and listeners with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew eWinn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide range of acoustic and visual variability across different talkers and different speaking contexts. Listeners with normal hearing accommodate that variability in ways that facilitate efficient perception, but it is not known whether listeners with cochlear implants can do the same. In this study, listeners with normal hearing (NH and listeners with cochlear implants (CIs were tested for accommodation to auditory and visual phonetic contexts created by gender-driven speech differences as well as vowel coarticulation and lip rounding in both consonants and vowels. Accommodation was measured as the shifting of perceptual boundaries between /s/ and /ʃ/ sounds in various contexts, as modeled by mixed-effects logistic regression. Owing to the spectral contrasts thought to underlie these context effects, CI listeners were predicted to perform poorly, but showed considerable success. Listeners with cochlear implants not only showed sensitivity to auditory cues to gender, they were also able to use visual cues to gender (i.e. faces as a supplement or proxy for information in the acoustic domain, in a pattern that was not observed for listeners with normal hearing. Spectrally-degraded stimuli heard by listeners with normal hearing generally did not elicit strong context effects, underscoring the limitations of noise vocoders and/or the importance of experience with electric hearing. Visual cues for consonant lip rounding and vowel lip rounding were perceived in a manner consistent with coarticulation and were generally used more heavily by listeners with CIs. Results suggest that listeners with cochlear implants are able to accommodate various sources of acoustic variability either by attending to appropriate acoustic cues or by inferring them via the visual signal.

  7. AUDITORY PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL SOUNDS BY CHILDREN IN THE FIRST SIX GRADES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETZOLD, ROBERT G.

    THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF CERTAIN FUNDAMENTAL MUSICAL SKILLS WERE STUDIED. THIS STUDY FOCUSED ON AURAL PERCEPTION AS AN INTEGRAL FACTOR IN THE CHILD'S MUSICAL DEVELOPMENT. TWO MAJOR ASPECTS OF THIS 5-YEAR STUDY INCLUDED (1) LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF THREE GROUPS OF CHILDREN AND (2) A SERIES OF 1-YEAR PILOT STUDIES DEALING WITH RHYTHM, TIMBRE, AND…

  8. Compensation for Coarticulation: Disentangling Auditory and Gestural Theories of Perception of Coarticulatory Effects in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Navin; Magnuson, James S.; Fowler, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    According to one approach to speech perception, listeners perceive speech by applying general pattern matching mechanisms to the acoustic signal (e.g., Diehl, Lotto, & Holt, 2004). An alternative is that listeners perceive the phonetic gestures that structured the acoustic signal (e.g., Fowler, 1986). The two accounts have offered different…

  9. Using the Internet for Speech Research: An Evaluative Study Examining Affect in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Monja A.; Uther, Maria; Costall, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has rarely been used in auditory perception studies due to concerns about standardisation and calibration across different systems and settings. However, not all auditory research is based on the investigation of fine-grained differences in auditory thresholds. Where meaningful "real-world" listening, for instance the perception of…

  10. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  11. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  12. Perception of parents about the auditory attention skills of his kid with cleft lip and palate: retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To process and decode the acoustic stimulation are necessary cognitive and neurophysiological mechanisms. The hearing stimulation is influenced by cognitive factor from the highest levels, such as the memory, attention and learning. The sensory deprivation caused by hearing loss from the conductive type, frequently in population with cleft lip and palate, can affect many cognitive functions - among them the attention, besides harm the school performance, linguistic and interpersonal. Objective: Verify the perception of the parents of children with cleft lip and palate about the hearing attention of their kids. Method: Retrospective study of infants with any type of cleft lip and palate, without any genetic syndrome associate which parents answered a relevant questionnaire about the auditory attention skills. Results: 44 are from the male kind and 26 from the female kind, 35,71% of the answers were affirmative for the hearing loss and 71,43% to otologic infections. Conclusion: Most of the interviewed parents pointed at least one of the behaviors related to attention contained in the questionnaire, indicating that the presence of cleft lip and palate can be related to difficulties in hearing attention.

  13. Conserved mechanisms of vocalization coding in mammalian and songbird auditory midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Sarah M N; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-11-01

    The ubiquity of social vocalizations among animals provides the opportunity to identify conserved mechanisms of auditory processing that subserve communication. Identifying auditory coding properties that are shared across vocal communicators will provide insight into how human auditory processing leads to speech perception. Here, we compare auditory response properties and neural coding of social vocalizations in auditory midbrain neurons of mammalian and avian vocal communicators. The auditory midbrain is a nexus of auditory processing because it receives and integrates information from multiple parallel pathways and provides the ascending auditory input to the thalamus. The auditory midbrain is also the first region in the ascending auditory system where neurons show complex tuning properties that are correlated with the acoustics of social vocalizations. Single unit studies in mice, bats and zebra finches reveal shared principles of auditory coding including tonotopy, excitatory and inhibitory interactions that shape responses to vocal signals, nonlinear response properties that are important for auditory coding of social vocalizations and modulation tuning. Additionally, single neuron responses in the mouse and songbird midbrain are reliable, selective for specific syllables, and rely on spike timing for neural discrimination of distinct vocalizations. We propose that future research on auditory coding of vocalizations in mouse and songbird midbrain neurons adopt similar experimental and analytical approaches so that conserved principles of vocalization coding may be distinguished from those that are specialized for each species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  14. Informationist role: clinical data management in auditory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Hanson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Informationists at NYU Health Sciences Libraries (NYUHSL successfully applied for a NLM supplement to a translational research grant obtained by PIs in the NYU School of Medicine Department of Otolaryngology titled, “Clinical Management of Cochlear Implant Patients with Contralateral Hearing Aids”. The grant involves development of evidence-based guidelines for post-implant management of patients with bimodal cochlear implants. The PIs are also seeking to acquire new data sets to merge with grant-generated data. In light of the shifting data requirements, and the potential introduction of additional datasets, informationists will evaluate and restructure the data model and data entry tool. Report queries will be refined for the new data model and options for a query tool appropriate for users unfamiliar with query languages will be assessed and implemented. The services offered through this supplement represent the deepest and most detailed data management support offered by NYUHSL to date. The components of the supplement are being analyzed as a pilot of a broader offering of these data management services.

  15. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  16. The methodology of risk perception research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk perception is frequently held to be crucial in the understanding and management of risk in policy contexts. The present paper takes as a starting point the notion that risk perception, of the public, of experts and other special groups, is important and hence the question arises how it should be investigated

  17. Testing the validity of wireless EEG for cognitive research with auditory and visual paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Kratschmer, Alexandra Regina; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    computer interface have advanced to the point where they offer an attractive alternative to traditional EEG methods. However, although research exists suggesting that some of these devices can register the robust P300 component (e.g. Duvinage et al, 2012), little is known about their validity for earlier......One of the challenges in collecting ERP data is the time-consuming process of fitting caps and prepping electrodes with gel. This can be particularly true when working with clinical populations, where efficiency in data collection is important. Recently gel-free wireless headsets designed for brain...... and smaller cognitive components. To test the feasibility of these headsets for cognitive research, we compared performance of the Emotiv Epoc wireless headset (EM) with Brain Products ActiCAP (BP) active electrodes on two well-studied components: the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) and the visual face...

  18. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  19. Agency Researchers' Perception of the Users and Uses of Copy Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; Salmon, Charles T.

    A survey of 30 advertising agency researchers sought to determine (1) whether there are differences between agency researchers' perception of who benefits most from copy research and who should benefit most, and (2) whether there are differences between their perception of how copy research is used and how it should be used. Consistent with…

  20. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  1. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  2. Interhemispheric Auditory Connectivity: Structure and Function Related to Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia eSteinmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH are one of the most common and most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite fundamental research, the underlying neurocognitive and neurobiological mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Previous studies suggested that hearing voices is associated with a number of factors including local deficits in the left auditory cortex and a disturbed connectivity of frontal and temporoparietal language-related areas. In addition, it is hypothesized that the interhemispheric pathways connecting right and left auditory cortices might be involved in the pathogenesis of AVH. Findings based on Diffusion-Tensor-Imaging (DTI measurements revealed a remarkable interindividual variability in size and shape of the interhemispheric auditory pathways. Interestingly, schizophrenia patients suffering from AVH exhibited increased fractional anisotropy (FA in the interhemispheric fibers than non-hallucinating patients. Thus, higher FA-values indicate an increased severity of AVH. Moreover, a dichotic listening (DL task showed that the interindividual variability in the interhemispheric auditory pathways was reflected in the behavioral outcome: Stronger pathways supported a better information transfer and consequently improved speech perception. This detection indicates a specific structure-function relationship, which seems to be interindividually variable. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the structure-function relationship of the interhemispheric pathways in controls, hallucinating and non-hallucinating schizophrenia patients and concludes that changes in the structural and functional connectivity of auditory areas are involved in the pathophysiology of AVH.

  3. Quantitative Research Attitudes and Research Training Perceptions among Master's-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Janeé M.; Rawls, Glinda J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored master's-level counseling students' (N = 804) perceptions of training in the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009) Research and Program Evaluation standard, and their attitudes toward quantitative research. Training perceptions and quantitative research attitudes were low to moderate,…

  4. Binaural technology for e.g. rendering auditory virtual environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    Jens Blauert's research up through the late 60ties and later, pioneered the field of binaural technology and auditory virtual environments. He mastered the measurement of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) before the term was introduced, and his methods were standard for decades. While most......, helped mediate the understanding that if the transfer functions could be mastered, then important dimensions of the auditory percept could also be controlled. He early understood the potential of using the HRTFs and numerical sound transmission analysis programs for rendering auditory virtual...... environments. Jens Blauert participated in many European cooperation projects exploring  this field (and others), among other the SCATIS project addressing the auditory-tactile dimensions in the absence of visual information....

  5. [Anesthesia with flunitrazepam/fentanyl and isoflurane/fentanyl. Unconscious perception and mid-latency auditory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, D; Kaiser, A; Klasing, S; Faber-Züllig, E; Golling, W; Pöppel, E; Peter, K

    1994-05-01

    There is a high incidence of intraoperative awareness during cardiac surgery. Mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAEP) reflect the primary cortical processing of auditory stimuli. In the present study, we investigated MLAEP and explicit and implicit memory for information presented during cardiac anaesthesia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Institutional approval and informed consent was obtained in 30 patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia was induced in group I (n = 10) with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (0.01 mg/kg) and maintained with flunitrazepam/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h). The patients in group II (n = 10) received etomidate (0.25 mg/kg) and fentanyl (0.005 mg/kg) for induction and isoflurane (0.6-1.2 vol%)/fentanyl (1.2 mg/h) for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Group III (n = 10) served as a control and patients were anaesthetized as in I or II. After sternotomy an audiotape that included an implicit memory task was presented to the patients in groups I and II. The story of Robinson Crusoe was told, and it was suggested to the patients that they remember Robinson Crusoe when asked what they associated with the word Friday 3-5 days postoperatively. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded awake and during general anaesthesia before and after the audiotape presentation on vertex (positive) and mastoids on both sides (negative). Auditory clicks were presented binaurally at 70 dBnHL at a rate of 9.3 Hz. Using the electrodiagnostic system Pathfinder I (Nicolet), 1000 successive stimulus responses were averaged over a 100 ms poststimulus interval and analyzed off-line. Latencies of the peak V, Na, Pa were measured. V belongs to the brainstem-generated potentials, which demonstrates that auditory stimuli were correctly transduced. Na, Pa are generated in the primary auditory cortex of the temporal lobe and are the electrophysiological correlate of the primary cortical processing of the auditory stimuli. RESULTS. None of the patients had an explicit memory

  6. Research on Virtual Agent Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xiu-fang; GAO Bao-lu

    2006-01-01

    An intelligent virtual environment is described for training users in the operation of complex engineering systems. After analyzing the original model of virtual environment, a virtual agent perception model was put forward. The information layer was inserted into original virtual environment. The model classifies all kinds of information and offers a way for knowledge description of virtual environment, and contributes to set up feeling model for the Virtual Agent within virtual environment.

  7. The many faces of research on face perception

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Face perception is fundamental to human social interaction. Many different types of important information are visible in faces and the processes and mechanisms involved in extracting this information are complex and can be highly specialized. The importance of faces has long been recognized by a wide range of scientists. Importantly, the range of perspectives and techniques that this breadth has brought to face perception research has, in recent years, led to many important advances in our un...

  8. Perceiving temporal regularity in music: the role of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in probing beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Bouwer, Fleur L; Háden, Gábor P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of how the perception of a regular beat in music can be studied in humans adults, human newborns, and nonhuman primates using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Next to a review of the recent literature on the perception of temporal regularity in music, we will discuss in how far ERPs, and especially the component called mismatch negativity (MMN), can be instrumental in probing beat perception. We conclude with a discussion on the pitfalls and prospects of using ERPs to probe the perception of a regular beat, in which we present possible constraints on stimulus design and discuss future perspectives.

  9. Comparative study of three techniques of palatoplasty in patients with cleft of lip and palate via instrumental and auditory-perceptive evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniagua, Lauren Medeiros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palatoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims at the reconstruction of the soft and/or hard palate. Actually, we dispose of different techniques that look for the bigger stretching of the soft palate joint to the nasofaryngeal wall to contribute in the appropriate operation of the velopharyngeal sphincter. Failure in its closing brings on speech dysfunctions. Objective: To compare the auditory-perceptive' evaluations and instrumental findings in patients with cleft lip and palate operate through three distinctive techniques of palatoplasty. Method: A prospective transversal study of a group of patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. Everybody was subjected to a randomized clinical essay, through distinctive techniques of palatoplasty performed for a single surgeon, about 8 years. In the period of the surgery, the patients were divided in three distinctive groups with 10 participants each one. The present study has evaluates: 10 patients of the Furlow technique, 7 patients of the Veau-Wardill-Kilner+Braithwaite technique and, 9 patients of the Veau-Wardill-Kilner+Braithwaite+Zetaplasty technique; having a total sample of 26 individuals. All the patients were subjected to auditory-perceptive evaluation through speech recording. An instrumental evaluation was also performed through video endoscopy exam. Results: The findings were satisfactory in the three techniques, in other words, the majority of the individuals does not present hyper nasality, compensatory articulatory disturbance and audible nasal air emission. In addition, in the instrumental evaluation, the majority of the individuals of the three techniques of palatoplasty present an appropriate velopharyngeal function. Conclusion: Was not found statistically significant difference between the palatoplasty techniques in both evaluations

  10. Student Perceptions on Live-Case Projects: Undergraduate Marketing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundala, Raghava Rao; Singh, Mandeep; Baldwin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an investigation into undergraduate students' perceptions on use of live projects as a teaching pedagogy in marketing research courses. Students in undergraduate marketing research courses from fall 2009 to spring 2013 completed an online questionnaire consisting of 17 items. The results suggested that student understanding of…

  11. Applying Equity Theory to Students' Perceptions of Research Participation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R.; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    Human subject pools have been a valuable resource to universities conducting research with student participants. However, the costs and benefits to student participants must be carefully weighed by students, researchers, and institutional review board administrators in order to avoid coercion. Participant perceptions are pivotal in deciding…

  12. Mental health, stress and risk perception: insights from psychological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk perceptions are only slightly correlated with the expected values of a probability distribution for negative health impacts. Psychometric studies have documented that context variables such as dread or personal control are important predictors for the perceived seriousness of risk. Studies about cultural patterns of risk perceptions emphasize different response set to risk information, depending on cultural priorities such as social justice versus personal freedom. This chapter reports the major psychological research pertaining to the factors that govern individual risk perception and discusses the psychometric effects due to people's risk perception and the experience of severe stress. The relative importance of the psychometric content variables, the signals pertaining to each health risks and symbolic beliefs are explained. (Author)

  13. Making and monitoring errors based on altered auditory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter ePfordresher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that altered auditory feedback (AAF disrupts music performance and causes disruptions in both action planning and the perception of feedback events. It has been proposed that this disruption occurs because of interference within a shared representation for perception and action (Pfordresher, 2006. Studies reported here address this claim from the standpoint of error monitoring. In Experiment 1 participants performed short melodies on a keyboard while hearing no auditory feedback, normal auditory feedback, or alterations to feedback pitch on some subset of events. Participants overestimated error frequency when AAF was present but not for normal feedback. Experiment 2 introduced a concurrent load task to determine whether error monitoring requires executive resources. Although the concurrent task enhanced the effect of AAF, it did not alter participants’ tendency to overestimate errors when AAF was present. A third correlational study addressed whether effects of AAF are reduced for a subset of the population who may lack the kind of perception/action associations that lead to AAF disruption: poor-pitch singers. Effects of manipulations similar to those presented in Experiments 1 and 2 were reduced for these individuals. We propose that these results are consistent with the notion that AAF interference is based on associations between perception and action within a forward internal model of auditory-motor relationships.

  14. Dysfunctions of visual and auditory Gestalt perception (amusia) after stroke : Behavioral correlates and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemann, Stephanie Heike

    2016-01-01

    Music is a special and unique part of human nature. Not only actively playing (making music in a group or alone) but also passive listening to music involves a richness of processes to make music the ideal tool to investigate how the human brain works. Acquired amusia denotes the impaired perception of melodies, rhythms, and the associated disability to enjoy music which can occur after a stroke. Many amusia patients also show deficits in visual perception, language, memory, and attention. He...

  15. Collaboration: Perceptions of FCS Professionals in Teaching, Research, and Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Jay; Saiki, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals' perceptions of multidisciplinary collaboration in teaching, research, and service. A focus group and survey were participants identified projects, strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions related to collaboration.Topics and projects that incorporated…

  16. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  17. Perceptions of Nigerian medical specialists on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulraheem Olarongbe Mahmoud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at collating the views of medical specialists on disease priorities, class and outcomes of health research in Nigeria, and draw appropriate policy implications. Structured questionnaires were distributed to consent 90 randomly selected medical specialists practising in six Nigerian tertiary health institutions. Participants' background information, relative disease priority, research types and class, type and class of publication media, frequency of publications, challenges faced in publishing research, impact of their research on health practice or policy, and inventions made were probed. Fifty-one out of the 90 questionnaires distributed were returned giving a response rate of 63.3%. Sixty-four point six percent indicated that the highest priority should be given to non communicable diseases while still recognizing that considerations should be giving to the others. They were largely “always” involved in simple low budget retrospective studies or cross-sectional and medical education studies (67.8% and over a third (37.5% had never been involved in clinical trials. They largely preferred to “always” publish in PubMed indexed journals that are foreign-based (65.0%. They also indicated that their research works very rarely resulted in inventions (4% and change (4% in clinical practice or health policy. Our study respondents indicated that they were largely involved in simple low budget research works that rarely had significant impacts and outcomes. We recommend that adequate resources and research infrastructures particularly funding be made available to medical specialists in Nigeria. Both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Nigeria should emphasize research training in their curricula.

  18. Perception and production of English vowels by Chilean learners of English: effect of auditory and visual modalities on phonetic training

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Reyes, Y. I.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the perception of English vowels by L2 learners of English with Spanish as L1 (Chilean-Spanish), and more specifically the degree to which they are able to take advantage of visual cues to vowel distinctions. Two main studies were conducted for this thesis. In study 1, data was collected from L2 beginners, L2 advanced learners and native speakers of Southern British English (ENS). Participants were tested on their perception of 11 English vowels in audio ...

  19. Functional asymmetry and effective connectivity of the auditory system during speech perception is modulated by the place of articulation of the consonant- A 7T fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate between stop-consonants, the auditory system has to detect subtle place of articulation (PoA and voice onset time (VOT differences between stop-consonants. How this differential processing is represented on the cortical level remains unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance (fMRI study takes advantage of the superior spatial resolution and high sensitivity of ultra high field 7T MRI. Subjects were attentively listening to consonant-vowel syllables with an alveolar or bilabial stop-consonant and either a short or long voice-onset time. The results showed an overall bilateral activation pattern in the posterior temporal lobe during the processing of the consonant-vowel syllables. This was however modulated strongest by place of articulation such that syllables with an alveolar stop-consonant showed stronger left lateralized activation. In addition, analysis of underlying functional and effective connectivity revealed an inhibitory effect of the left planum temporale onto the right auditory cortex during the processing of alveolar consonant-vowel syllables. Further, the connectivity result indicated also a directed information flow from the right to the left auditory cortex, and further to the left planum temporale for all syllables. These results indicate that auditory speech perception relies on an interplay between the left and right auditory cortex, with the left planum temporale as modulator. Furthermore, the degree of functional asymmetry is determined by the acoustic properties of the consonant-vowel syllables.

  20. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  1. Role of the auditory system in speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Frank H; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews evidence regarding the role of auditory perception in shaping speech output. Evidence indicates that speech movements are planned to follow auditory trajectories. This in turn is followed by a description of the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, which provides a detailed account of the role of auditory feedback in speech motor development and control. A brief description of the higher-order brain areas involved in speech sequencing (including the pre-supplementary motor area and inferior frontal sulcus) is then provided, followed by a description of the Hierarchical State Feedback Control (HSFC) model, which posits internal error detection and correction processes that can detect and correct speech production errors prior to articulation. The chapter closes with a treatment of promising future directions of research into auditory-motor interactions in speech, including the use of intracranial recording techniques such as electrocorticography in humans, the investigation of the potential roles of various large-scale brain rhythms in speech perception and production, and the development of brain-computer interfaces that use auditory feedback to allow profoundly paralyzed users to learn to produce speech using a speech synthesizer.

  2. 基于听觉感知任务下的脑电驾驶实验研究%Study of Auditory Perception Tasks Based on EEG Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁静坤; 徐桂芝; 李明钊; 于洪利

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the driving EEG in the traffic information based on the auditory perception by motor imagery. In the simulated whistle - brake environment,subjects control the vehicle by the left and right hand motor imagery,the feature was extracted and classified by CSP and linear regression algorithms and the recognition was 96. 67%. Results; the signals sampled from C3 and C4 all showed that the voltage amplitude caused by the right hand imagery was higher,the difference between the maximum amplitude was 120 μV. Conclusion: compared to traditional perception of the visual task,the auditory one have advantages including (1) higher voltage amplitude can improve the signal extraction,and (2 ) the collection of EEG can optimize access to the traditional two-electrode acquisition mode by using the single one.%探索在听觉感知的交通信息提示下,进行左右手想象运动对车辆进行辅助控制的脑电特征.受试者在模拟的鸣笛和刹车环境中进行左右手想象运动控制车辆的前进和停止,对采集的脑电进行了基于公共空间模式CSP和线性回归算法的特征提取及分类,识别率达96.67%.结果显示:在与左右手想象运动相关的电极C3、C4上,均表现出右手想象任务引起的脑电幅值高于左手任务,最大幅值差可达120 μV.结论:与传统的在视觉感知下进行的左右手想象任务相比,听觉感知任务下的脑电存在着很大优势:(1)两种想象任务引起的脑电幅值差异更大,更有利于信号的提取;(2)脑电的获取可以取代传统的双电极采集方式,选用C3或C4单电极实现.

  3. Electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve: the coding of frequency, the perception of pitch and the development of cochlear implant speech processing strategies for profoundly deaf people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G M

    1996-09-01

    1. The development of speech processing strategies for multiple-channel cochlear implants has depended on encoding sound frequencies and intensities as temporal and spatial patterns of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve fibres so that speech information of most importance of intelligibility could be transmitted. 2. Initial physiological studies showed that rate encoding of electrical stimulation above 200 pulses/s could not reproduce the normal response patterns in auditory neurons for acoustic stimulation in the speech frequency range above 200 Hz and suggested that place coding was appropriate for the higher frequencies. 3. Rate difference limens in the experimental animal were only similar to those for sound up to 200 Hz. 4. Rate difference limens in implant patients were similar to those obtained in the experimental animal. 5. Satisfactory rate discrimination could be made for durations of 50 and 100 ms, but not 25 ms. This made rate suitable for encoding longer duration suprasegmental speech information, but not segmental information, such as consonants. The rate of stimulation could also be perceived as pitch, discriminated at different electrode sites along the cochlea and discriminated for stimuli across electrodes. 6. Place pitch could be scaled according to the site of stimulation in the cochlea so that a frequency scale was preserved and it also had a different quality from rate pitch and was described as tonality. Place pitch could also be discriminated for the shorter durations (25 ms) required for identifying consonants. 7. The inaugural speech processing strategy encoded the second formant frequencies (concentrations of frequency energy in the mid frequency range of most importance for speech intelligibility) as place of stimulation, the voicing frequency as rate of stimulation and the intensity as current level. Our further speech processing strategies have extracted additional frequency information and coded this as place of stimulation

  4. 混响感知的听觉心理%Research on the acoustical psychology of reverberation perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟子厚

    2013-01-01

    综述了中国传媒大学传播声学研究所近年来在混响的主观感知机理上的研究工作和进展,涉及混响感的语意调查与分析,音乐听闻的混响偏爱度实验,混响感的差别阈限,混响感的因素分析,以及混响处理与音乐情感之间的相互影响等研究结果.对混响感知的研究对进一步探究在有界空间中主观听感的生理心理机制是十分有启发的.%It is to review the research on the perception of reverberation in the Communication Acoustics Laboratory Communication University of China. The research has been developed in several directions including: studies on the semantic meaning of reverberance or the subjective impression of reverberation; the preference of reverberance for music listening; the just noticed difference of reverberance; the factor analysis of reverberance; and the relationship between the reverberance and the music emotion. The study and the discussion on the perceived reverberation are helpful for the further research on the physiological and psychological mechanism of the auditory perception in a limited space.

  5. Fingers phrase music differently: trial-to-trial variability in piano scale playing and auditory perception reveal motor chunking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations, reveal that the two octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb-passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioural evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries.

  6. Fingers Phrase Music Differently: Trial-to-Trial Variability in Piano Scale Playing and Auditory Perception Reveal Motor Chunking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris Tijmen; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    We investigated how musical phrasing and motor sequencing interact to yield timing patterns in the conservatory students' playing piano scales. We propose a novel analysis method that compared the measured note onsets to an objectively regular scale fitted to the data. Subsequently, we segment the timing variability into (i) systematic deviations from objective evenness that are perhaps residuals of expressive timing or of perceptual biases and (ii) non-systematic deviations that can be interpreted as motor execution errors, perhaps due to noise in the nervous system. The former, systematic deviations reveal that the two-octave scales are played as a single musical phrase. The latter, trial-to-trial variabilities reveal that pianists' timing was less consistent at the boundaries between the octaves, providing evidence that the octave is represented as a single motor sequence. These effects cannot be explained by low-level properties of the motor task such as the thumb passage and also did not show up in simulated scales with temporal jitter. Intriguingly, this instability in motor production around the octave boundary is mirrored by an impairment in the detection of timing deviations at those positions, suggesting that chunks overlap between perception and action. We conclude that the octave boundary instability in the scale playing motor program provides behavioral evidence that our brain chunks musical sequences into octave units that do not coincide with musical phrases. Our results indicate that trial-to-trial variability is a novel and meaningful indicator of this chunking. The procedure can readily be extended to a variety of tasks to help understand how movements are divided into units and what processing occurs at their boundaries. PMID:23181040

  7. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  8. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  9. Research at Makerere University: Faculty perceptions towards the factors that influence research productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Musiige, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The study seeks to explore the different factors that influence the research productivity of the academic staff at Makerere University. It will focus on the individual perceptions and opinions of academic staff at MUK regarding the different individual and environmental factors that motivate them to engage in research practices. Having in mind that the university has specific aspirations and goals regarding the research productivity of its staff, it will be vital for us to see the connection ...

  10. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  11. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  12. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.

  13. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Holt, Gineke A.; Arendsen, Jeroen; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink-van Doorn, Andrea J.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Hendriks, Emile A.

    2009-02-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of such shortcomings: data-driven methods (which include almost all current methods) have difficulty recognizing signs that deviate too much from the examples that were used to train the method. Insight into human sign processing is needed to solve these problems. Perceptual research on sign language can provide such insights. This paper discusses knowledge derived from a set of sign perception experiments, and the application of such knowledge in ASLR. Among the findings are the facts that not all phases and elements of a sign are equally informative, that defining the 'correct' form for a sign is not trivial, and that statistical ASLR methods do not necessarily arrive at sign representations that resemble those of human beings. Apparently, current ASLR methods are quite different from human observers: their method of learning gives them different sign definitions, they regard each moment and element of a sign as equally important and they employ a single definition of 'correct' for all circumstances. If the object is for an ASLR method to handle natural sign language, then the insights from sign perception research must be integrated into ASLR.

  14. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  15. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  16. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Perception of the Principles of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil; Kaymakci, Güliz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study employing the survey method is to determine the pre-service science teachers' perceptions of the principles of scientific research and to investigate the effects of gender, grade level and the state of following scientific publications on their perceptions. The sampling of the current research is comprised of 125…

  17. Neural and behavioral investigations into timbre perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Michael Town

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Timbre is the attribute that distinguishes sounds of equal pitch, loudness and duration. It contributes to our perception and discrimination of different vowels and consonants in speech, instruments in music and environmental sounds. Here we begin by reviewing human timbre perception and the spectral and temporal acoustic features that give rise to timbre in speech, musical and environmental sounds. We also consider the perception of timbre by animals, both in the case of human vowels and non-human vocalizations. We then explore the neural representation of timbre, first within the peripheral auditory system and later at the level of the auditory cortex. We examine the neural networks that are implicated in timbre perception and the computations that may be performed in auditory cortex to enable listeners to extract information about timbre. We consider whether single neurons in auditory cortex are capable of representing spectral timbre independently of changes in other perceptual attributes and the mechanisms that may shape neural sensitivity to timbre. Finally, we conclude by outlining some of the questions that remain about the role of neural mechanisms in behavior and consider some potentially fruitful avenues for future research.

  18. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behaviour and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic]box, by studying symptoms, behaviours or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning - namely cognitive [inhibitory] control - and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC units of analysis, which span the range from observable behaviour to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favours separate developmental trajectories for clinical and nonclinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.

  19. Experimental research on the perception space of Chinese syllable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xunyi; YANG Yufang; LU Shinan; WANG Bei

    2006-01-01

    The perceptive multi-dimension structure of Chinese syllables is studied by psychological-physical experiment. The results indicate that F0 and duration are interrelated to two main dimensions of the perceptive structure of Chinese syllable. And the prosodic characteristics such as the position of syllable in prosodic hierarchical structure, as well as the stress will be induced the various distribution of syllable in perception space.

  20. Speaker-independent factors affecting the perception of foreign accent in a second languagea)

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Susannah V.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on foreign accent perception has largely focused on speaker-dependent factors such as age of learning and length of residence. Factors that are independent of a speaker’s language learning history have also been shown to affect perception of second language speech. The present study examined the effects of two such factors—listening context and lexical frequency—on the perception of foreign-accented speech. Listeners rated foreign accent in two listening contexts: auditory-o...

  1. Subcortical neural coding mechanisms for auditory temporal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, R D

    2001-08-01

    Biologically relevant sounds such as speech, animal vocalizations and music have distinguishing temporal features that are utilized for effective auditory perception. Common temporal features include sound envelope fluctuations, often modeled in the laboratory by amplitude modulation (AM), and starts and stops in ongoing sounds, which are frequently approximated by hearing researchers as gaps between two sounds or are investigated in forward masking experiments. The auditory system has evolved many neural processing mechanisms for encoding important temporal features of sound. Due to rapid progress made in the field of auditory neuroscience in the past three decades, it is not possible to review all progress in this field in a single article. The goal of the present report is to focus on single-unit mechanisms in the mammalian brainstem auditory system for encoding AM and gaps as illustrative examples of how the system encodes key temporal features of sound. This report, following a systems analysis approach, starts with findings in the auditory nerve and proceeds centrally through the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex and inferior colliculus. Some general principles can be seen when reviewing this entire field. For example, as one ascends the central auditory system, a neural encoding shift occurs. An emphasis on synchronous responses for temporal coding exists in the auditory periphery, and more reliance on rate coding occurs as one moves centrally. In addition, for AM, modulation transfer functions become more bandpass as the sound level of the signal is raised, but become more lowpass in shape as background noise is added. In many cases, AM coding can actually increase in the presence of background noise. For gap processing or forward masking, coding for gaps changes from a decrease in spike firing rate for neurons of the peripheral auditory system that have sustained response patterns, to an increase in firing rate for more central neurons with

  2. Research on residents' perceptions on tourism impacts and attitudes: a case study of Pingyao Ancient City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Xiaoli, Pan; Bihu, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts and attitudes towards tourism development have a great influence on tourism sustainable development. But the measuring factors of research on residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts are not unified. This paper takes Pingyao ancient city as a case and employs interviewing method, and it analyzes residents’ perceptions on tourism economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts and environmental impacts. Furthermore, the paper examines the signifi...

  3. Using auditory steady state responses to outline the functional connectivity in the tinnitus brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Schlee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception that is most likely generated in the central nervous system. Most of the tinnitus research has concentrated on the auditory system. However, it was suggested recently that also non-auditory structures are involved in a global network that encodes subjective tinnitus. We tested this assumption using auditory steady state responses to entrain the tinnitus network and investigated long-range functional connectivity across various non-auditory brain regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using whole-head magnetoencephalography we investigated cortical connectivity by means of phase synchronization in tinnitus subjects and healthy controls. We found evidence for a deviating pattern of long-range functional connectivity in tinnitus that was strongly correlated with individual ratings of the tinnitus percept. Phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right frontal lobe and phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right parietal lobe showed significant condition x group interactions and were correlated with the individual tinnitus distress ratings only in the tinnitus condition and not in the control conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates existence of a global tinnitus network of long-range cortical connections outside the central auditory system. This result extends the current knowledge of how tinnitus is generated in the brain. We propose that this global extend of the tinnitus network is crucial for the continuos perception of the tinnitus tone and a therapeutical intervention that is able to change this network should result in relief of tinnitus.

  4. The EU as a Normative Power and the Research on External Perceptions: the Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    perception offer some findings that are central for the NPE debate. This article’s argument is that the external perceptions literature points to a limited (if still identifiable) perception of the EU as a normative power depending on the geographical area. By comparison, the image of a powerful economic......In research on European foreign policy two important axes of debate have been running relatively independently of each other for more than a decade: the study of the European Union as a normative power (NPE) and the study of external perceptions of the EU. However, the studies of external...

  5. Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Metaphors on Scientific Research and Foundations of Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers' perceptions about scientific research with metaphor analysis and determine the foundations of these perceptions. This phenomenological study was conducted with 182 participants. The data were collected with two open-ended survey forms formed for investigating…

  6. Perception of Business Related Graduate Degrees by Market Research Managers within the Health Care Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jan Hirsch; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A survey of market research managers' perceptions of the outcomes of a pharmacy administration master's program as compared to those of two popular master's-level business administration programs found a lack of awareness and understanding of the pharmacy administration degree program and a resulting perception of lower skill levels among its…

  7. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... that are necessary for the auditory system to retrieve the pitch of complex sounds. The existence of different pitch-coding mechanisms for low-numbered (spectrally resolved) and high-numbered (unresolved) harmonics was investigated by comparing pitch-discrimination performance across different cohorts of listeners...

  8. Auditory excitation patterns : the significance of the pulsation threshold method for the measurement of auditory nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Verschuure (Hans)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractThe auditory system is the toto[ of organs that translates an acoustical signal into the perception of a sound. An acoustic signal is a vibration. It is decribed by physical parameters. The perception of sound is the awareness of a signal being present and the attribution of certain qual

  9. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia.

  10. Audiovisual Speech Perception in Infancy: The Influence of Vowel Identity and Infants' Productive Abilities on Sensitivity to (Mis)Matches between Auditory and Visual Speech Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Mani, Nivedita; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that infants' audiovisual speech perception is influenced by articulatory experience (Mugitani et al., 2008; Yeung & Werker, 2013). The current study extends these findings by testing if infants' emerging ability to produce native sounds in babbling impacts their audiovisual speech perception. We tested 44 6-month-olds…

  11. Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Academics' Perceptions about Research in a Transitional Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…

  12. Perspectives on the design of musical auditory interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leplatre, G.; Brewster, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of music as a communication medium in auditory human-computer interfaces. So far, psychoacoustics has had a great influence on the development of auditory interfaces, directly and through music cognition. We suggest that a better understanding of the processes involved in the perception of actual musical excerpts should allow musical auditory interface designers to exploit the communicative potential of music. In this respect, we argue that the real advantage of...

  13. Multiplexed Isobaric Tagging Protocols for Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Approaches to Auditory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Douglas E; Basappa, Johnvesly

    2016-01-01

    Modern biologists have at their disposal a large array of techniques used to assess the existence and relative or absolute quantity of any molecule of interest in a sample. However, implementing most of these procedures can be a daunting task for the first time, even in a lab with experienced researchers. Just choosing a protocol to follow can take weeks while all of the nuances are examined and it is determined whether a protocol will (a) give the desired results, (b) result in interpretable and unbiased data, and (c) be amenable to the sample of interest. We detail here a robust procedure for labeling proteins in a complex lysate for the ultimate differential quantification of protein abundance following experimental manipulations. Following a successful outcome of the labeling procedure, the sample is submitted for mass spectrometric analysis, resulting in peptide quantification and protein identification. While we will concentrate on cells in culture, we will point out procedures that can be used for labeling lysates generated from tissues, along with any minor modifications required for such samples. We will also outline, but not fully document, other strategies used in our lab to label proteins prior to mass spectrometric analysis, and describe under which conditions each procedure may be desirable. What is not covered in this chapter is anything but the most brief introduction to mass spectrometry (instrumentation, theory, etc.), nor do we attempt to cover much in the way of software used for post hoc analysis. These two topics are dependent upon one's resources, and where applicable, one's collaborators. We strongly encourage the reader to seek out expert advice on topics not covered here. PMID:27259924

  14. Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Researchers' Academic Outcomes and Perceptions of Their Research Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Branchaw, Janet; Pfund, Christine; Leverett, Patrice; Newton, Joseph

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated the specific factors in mentoring relationships between undergraduate researchers (mentees) and their mentors in the biological and life sciences that account for mentees' positive academic and career outcomes. Using archival evaluation data from more than 400 mentees gathered over a multi-year period (2005-2011) from several undergraduate biology research programs at a large, Midwestern research university, we validated existing evaluation measures of the mentored research experience and the mentor-mentee relationship. We used a subset of data from mentees (77% underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities) to test a hypothesized social cognitive career theory model of associations between mentees' academic outcomes and perceptions of their research mentoring relationships. Results from path analysis indicate that perceived mentor effectiveness indirectly predicted post-baccalaureate outcomes via research self-efficacy beliefs. Findings are discussed with implications for developing new and refining existing tools to measure this impact, programmatic interventions to increase the success of culturally diverse research mentees and future directions for research.

  15. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  16. Auditory Dysfunction and Its Communicative Impact in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Brad W.

    1982-01-01

    The origins and nature of auditory dysfunction in school age children and the role of the audiologist in the evaluation of the learning disabled child are reviewed. Specific structures and mechanisms responsible for the reception and perception of auditory signals are specified. (Author/SEW)

  17. Boundary-Work in the Health Research Field: Biomedical and Clinician Scientists' Perceptions of Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mathieu; Laberge, Suzanne; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Funding agencies in Canada are attempting to break down the organizational boundaries between disciplines to promote interdisciplinary research and foster the integration of the social sciences into the health research field. This paper explores the extent to which biomedical and clinician scientists' perceptions of social science research operate…

  18. Comparative Research of Residents’ Effect Perception and Participation Capacity and Willingness on Pro-poor Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Hong; SHU

    2014-01-01

    In this article,comparative research on residents’ effect perception,participation capacity and willingness on Pro-poor Tourism( PPT) is given based on the questionnaire carried out in Wulong County and Fengjie County in Three Gorges Area,Chongqing,China. Some technologies,such as SPSS 13. 0,ANOVA and T-test are applied to analyze the data and results show Wulong residents’ perception behavior is better than that of Fengjie residents. Moreover,the residents with different demographic characteristics have different participation behavior.Finally,multiple regression analysis is applied to identify the key factors influencing residents’ perception behavior,that is participation willingness and positive economic effect perception,positive social and cultural effect perception and participation capacity.

  19. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making.

  20. Bridging prediction and attention in current research on perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; SanMiguel, Iria

    2015-11-11

    Prediction and attention are fundamental brain functions in the service of perception and action. Theories on prediction relate to neural (mental) models inferring about (present or future) sensory or action-related information, whereas theories of attention are about the control of information flow underlying perception and action. Both concepts are related and not always clearly distinguishable. The special issue includes current research on prediction and attention in various subfields of perception and action. It especially considers interactions between predictive and attentive processes, which constitute a newly emerging and highly interesting field of research. As outlined in this editorial, the contributions in this special issue allow specifying as well as bridging concepts on prediction and attention. The joint consideration of prediction and attention also reveals common functional principles of perception and action.

  1. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of ...

  2. A research for visitors’ perceptions towards Pamukkale destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Bertan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Determining visitor profiles and destination perceptions is useful to enhance competitiveness of Pamukkale as a destination, to contribute sustainable development and to identify strategies for the future. The main purpose of this study is searching the profiles and destination perceptions of visitors towards Pamukkale –as the destination of the thermal tourism city Denizli. For these purposes, German, English, Russian, Turkish and French questionnaires were applied in Pamukkale destination to the visitors who came to the city of Denizli. Out of 902 participants 889 completed the survey and analyzes were carried out of these who finished all of the survey. %42of visitors are domestic and %57 is foreign visitors. T-test and one-way variance analysis were applied to investigate the effect of country, gender, education and income status of visitors towards the attitudes of visitors to Pamukkale destination. Significant differences emerged when the effect of country, gender, education and income status of visitors towards the perceptions of Pamukkale destination is inspected. Scheffe Test was applied due to the significant results of variance analysis.

  3. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  4. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  5. Research Anxiety and Students' Perceptions of Research: An Experiment. Part II. Content Analysis of Their Writings on Two Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracker, Jacqueline; Wang, Peiling

    2002-01-01

    Reports qualitative results of a study of undergraduates that investigated the effect of a 30-minute presentation of Carol Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model on undergraduate students' perceptions of research and research paper anxiety. Describes content analysis based on Critical Incident Technique that examined student writings on…

  6. Research Anxiety and Students' Perceptions of Research: An Experiment. Part I. Effect of Teaching Kuhlthau's ISP Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracker, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effect of a 30-minute presentation of Carol Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model on undergraduate students' perceptions of research and research paper anxiety, focusing on results of the quantitative analysis. Highlights include pretests and posttest results; and data analysis and hypothesis testing. (Author/LRW)

  7. The role of vowel perceptual cues in compensatory responses to perturbations of speech auditory feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Dougherty, Kathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    The perturbation of acoustic features in a speaker's auditory feedback elicits rapid compensatory responses that demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback for control of speech output. The current study investigated whether responses to a perturbation of speech auditory feedback vary depending on the importance of the perturbed feature to perception of the vowel being produced. Auditory feedback of speakers' first formant frequency (F1) was shifted upward by 130 mels in randomly selecte...

  8. Perceptions of trauma research with a sample of at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ann T; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-10-01

    Growing body of research demonstrates that participants generally report favorable perceptions of participating in trauma research. However, questions remain on the long-term impact of asking at-risk youth about trauma in settings where such questions are unexpected. Perceptions of participation were examined in the current longitudinal study comprising a sample of adolescent girls recruited from the child welfare system to participate in a healthy relationship project. Over a year, teens (n = 180) completed four research sessions during which they were interviewed about interpersonal trauma exposure and trauma-related symptoms. Results indicated that adolescents reported stable, favorable benefit-to-cost ratios over time. Perceptions of research participation and symptom severity did not impact retention. PMID:24169423

  9. Research and Assessment of Learning Environments through Photoelicitation: Graduate Student Perceptions of Electronics Manufacturing in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Catherine G. P.; Cox, Monica F.

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the positive and negative perceptions of graduate students from the United States studying issues of sustainable electronics and electronics manufacturing in India as part of a National Science Foundation Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the…

  10. Responsible Conduct of Research in Communication Sciences and Disorders: Faculty and Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minifie, Fred D.; Robey, Randall R.; Horner, Jennifer; Ingham, Janis C.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Alldredge, Elham-Eid; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Two Web-based surveys (Surveys I and II) were used to assess perceptions of faculty and students in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) regarding the responsible conduct of research (RCR). Method: Survey questions addressed 9 RCR domains thought important to the responsible conduct of research: (a) human subjects protections; (b)…

  11. Perceptions of Australia as a Postgraduate Research Destination. Go8 Backgrounder 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Group of Eight (Go8) commissioned market research to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of Australia as a destination for study at the Higher Research Degree level. This backgrounder highlights some of the positive aspects of the Australian experience. The top five aggregated strengths of Australia as a research…

  12. Implementing Research in Professional Higher Education: Factors That Influence Lecturers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje

    2015-01-01

    Higher professional education in Europe has changed from teaching-only institutes to hybrids of teaching and research. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the judgements of lecturers about new organisational goals and perceptions of their new research-related competencies. Lecturers' judgements of new organisational…

  13. Faculty mentors' and students' perceptions of students' research self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Elise L; Kolassa, John; Bakken, Lori L

    2010-02-01

    Mentoring in nursing is an important process for socializing nurse researchers, developing a body of professional knowledge, and influencing career choices of students. Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) is concerned with one's perceived ability to perform tasks within a specific domain. The purpose of this study was to compare undergraduate and graduate student's perceptions of their abilities to pursue research (research self-efficacy) with their mentors' perceptions. A cross-sectional design was used to study mentors in any academic discipline who received external funding and worked with an undergraduate or graduate student on the research study. Recruitment and data collection were completed using the Internet and included 21 faculty mentors and student dyads. The Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory was used to measure research self-efficacy. Differences between the faculty mentor's perception of the student's confidence in research and students' perception were significant at p=pursued. Assisting mentors to guide students' skill perfection may increase students' choice of research careers, promote the effectiveness of mentorship, aid in the development of a body of professional knowledge and benefit careers of both mentors and students. PMID:19682774

  14. The impact of perception and presence on emotional reactions: a review of research in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Julia; Alpers, Georg W; Peperkorn, Henrik M; Shiban, Youssef; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has made its way into mainstream psychological research in the last two decades. This technology, with its unique ability to simulate complex, real situations and contexts, offers researchers unprecedented opportunities to investigate human behavior in well controlled designs in the laboratory. One important application of VR is the investigation of pathological processes in mental disorders, especially anxiety disorders. Research on the processes underlying threat perception, fear, and exposure therapy has shed light on more general aspects of the relation between perception and emotion. Being by its nature virtual, i.e., simulation of reality, VR strongly relies on the adequate selection of specific perceptual cues to activate emotions. Emotional experiences in turn are related to presence, another important concept in VR, which describes the user's sense of being in a VR environment. This paper summarizes current research into perception of fear cues, emotion, and presence, aiming at the identification of the most relevant aspects of emotional experience in VR and their mutual relations. A special focus lies on a series of recent experiments designed to test the relative contribution of perception and conceptual information on fear in VR. This strand of research capitalizes on the dissociation between perception (bottom-up input) and conceptual information (top-down input) that is possible in VR. Further, we review the factors that have so far been recognized to influence presence, with emotions (e.g., fear) being the most relevant in the context of clinical psychology. Recent research has highlighted the mutual influence of presence and fear in VR, but has also traced the limits of our current understanding of this relationship. In this paper, the crucial role of perception on eliciting emotional reactions is highlighted, and the role of arousal as a basic dimension of emotional experience is discussed. An interoceptive attribution model of

  15. Becoming a physicist: The roles of research, mindsets, and milestones in upper-division student perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] As part of a longitudinal study into identity development in upper-level physics students, we used a phenomenographic research method to examine students' perceptions of what it means to be a physicist. Analysis revealed six different categories of perception of what it means to be a physicist. We found the following themes: research and its association with being a physicist, differences in mindset, and exclusivity of accomplishments. The paper highlights how these perceptions relate to two communities of practice that the students are members of, and also highlights the importance of undergraduate research for students to transition from the physics undergraduate community of practice to the community of practicing physicists.

  16. Training in rapid auditory processing ameliorates auditory comprehension in aphasic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelag, Elzbieta; Lewandowska, Monika; Wolak, Tomasz; Seniow, Joanna; Poniatowska, Renata; Pöppel, Ernst; Szymaszek, Aneta

    2014-03-15

    Experimental studies have often reported close associations between rapid auditory processing and language competency. The present study was aimed at improving auditory comprehension in aphasic patients following specific training in the perception of temporal order (TO) of events. We tested 18 aphasic patients showing both comprehension and TO perception deficits. Auditory comprehension was assessed by the Token Test, phonemic awareness and Voice-Onset-Time Test. The TO perception was assessed using auditory Temporal-Order-Threshold, defined as the shortest interval between two consecutive stimuli, necessary to report correctly their before-after relation. Aphasic patients participated in eight 45-minute sessions of either specific temporal training (TT, n=11) aimed to improve sequencing abilities, or control non-temporal training (NT, n=7) focussed on volume discrimination. The TT yielded improved TO perception; moreover, a transfer of improvement was observed from the time domain to the language domain, which was untrained during the training. The NT did not improve either the TO perception or comprehension in any language test. These results are in agreement with previous literature studies which proved ameliorated language competency following the TT in language-learning-impaired or dyslexic children. Our results indicated for the first time such benefits also in aphasic patients. PMID:24388435

  17. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks. PMID:26886505

  18. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  19. Participants’ perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Viramontes-Madrid, José Luis; Salcido-Montenegro, Alejandro; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Treviño-Alvarez, Andrés Marcelo; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials. Methods To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases) and 604 nonparticipants (controls) of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico. Results Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4%) than controls (50.7%) perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%). We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk (57% vs 33.3%). More cases (99.2%) than controls (77.5%) would recommend participating in a clinical trial, and 90% of cases would enroll in a clinical trial again. Conclusion Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception that participants have about pharmaceutical clinical research when compared to nonparticipants. This information needs to be conveyed to clinicians, public health authorities, and general population to overcome misconceptions. PMID:27199549

  20. Ethical challenges in online research:public/private perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Lisa; Wiles, Rose; Pope, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    With its wealth of readily and often publicly available information about web users lives, the Web has created new opportunities for conducting online research. Although digital data is easily accessible, ethical guidelines are inconsistent about how researchers should use them. Some academics claim that traditional ethical principles are sufficient and applicable to online research. However, the Web poses new challenges that compel researchers to reconsider concerns of consent, privacy and a...

  1. Aboriginal health research in the remote Kimberley: an exploration of perceptions, attitudes and concerns of stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Loughlin, Frieda; Hadgraft, Nyssa T.; Atkinson, David; Marley, Julia V

    2014-01-01

    Background For decades Indigenous peoples have argued for health research reform claiming methods used and results obtained often reflect the exploitative history of colonisation. In 2006 the Kimberley Aboriginal Health Planning Forum (KAHPF) Research Subcommittee (hereafter, the Subcommittee) was formed to improve research processes in the remote Kimberley region of north Western Australia. This paper explores the major perceptions, attitudes and concerns of stakeholders in the Subcommittee....

  2. Report on the In-vehicle Auditory Interactions Workshop: Taxonomy, Challenges, and Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Myounghoon; Hermann, Thomas; Bazilinskyy, Pavlo; Landry, Steven; Hammerschmidt, Jan; Wolf, Katie Anna E.; Aghdae, Khashayar; Alvarez, Ignacio; Baldan, Stefano; Camier, Cédric; Chun, Min-Ji; Diatkine, Coralie; Ferguson, Sam; Gable, Thomas M.; Kuppanda Ganapathy, Thimmaiah

    2015-01-01

    As driving is mainly a visual task, auditory displays play a critical role for in-vehicle interactions.To improve in-vehicle auditory interactions to the advanced level, auditory display researchers and automotive user interface researchers came together to discuss this timely topic at an in-vehicle auditory interactions workshop at the International Conference on Auditory Display (ICAD).The present paper reports discussion outcomes from the workshop for more discussions at the AutoUI confere...

  3. Attitudes to and perceptions of research for health science lecturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The majority of AHP/nurse lecturers are drawn from clinical practice where the opportunity to undertake research activity is limited. Employment in higher education requires the undertaking of research/scholarly activity as part of their role, but research output from this group is below that from other healthcare academics. This study explores attitudes of AHP's/nurses in one higher educational establishment towards research activity. Method: Ethical approval was obtained from the academic ethics committee. Six focus groups were facilitated using semi structured and open grounded theory approaches. Participants included AHP's/nurses who are now lecturers or teachers in HE. Informed written consent was gained and each session audio recorded and transcribed. NVivo v8 was used to code data and thematic analysis carried out using the OSOP method. Findings: All groups identified previously reported barriers to research, such as lack of time, resources and skills. There was evidence of a perceived hierarchy of research within the university culture, and for some a feeling of inadequacy and inability to reach the higher levels. Those involved in research reported a feeling of isolation which reduced their output. One emergent theme highlighted that some participants did not want to undertake research and had difficulty identifying with it as part of their university role. A minority embraced research as an integral part of their work. Discussion/conclusion: When prompted participants could identify practical solutions to some of the barriers identified such as adapting working practices to release research time. The need for appropriate mentorship for inexperienced researchers is clearly demonstrated in the data however the hierarchy of research presents a barrier to accessing this. The participants are relying upon inexperienced peers for support, leading to a restricted research knowledge pool. The relative immaturity of the professions included may also

  4. Postgraduate Students’ Perception of Creativity in the Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Juriševič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was, with the aid of a short questionnaire, to determine how postgraduate students (N = 32perceive the opportunities for creative research in general, and how they perceive creativity in the preparation of their own research work in particular. Descriptive analysis shows that students (1 perceive a positive study-research climate that encourages creative processes (independence, motivation, intellectual challenges, (2 judge that researchers have numerous opportunities for creative work in the various phases of research and (3 evaluate themselves as highly creative individuals in everyday life. Students perceive themselves as being at their most creative in the definition of the research problem, which they mainly identify with the use of personal strategies (work experience and take various lengths of time to form, typically up to one year. The most difficult problem in this regard is represented by giving meaning to the problem (breadth, depth, specificity, application. Amongst the perceived encouragement with which mentors motivate students for creative research the most frequent is less directive general guidance in study and research.On the basis of the presented findings, guidelines are suggested for the more effective encouragement of creative research in postgraduate students.

  5. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  6. Subsymmetries predict auditory and visual pattern complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Godfried T; Beltran, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical measure of pattern complexity based on subsymmetries possessed by the pattern, previously shown to correlate highly with empirically derived measures of cognitive complexity in the visual domain, is found to also correlate significantly with empirically derived complexity measures of perception and production of auditory temporal and musical rhythmic patterns. Not only does the subsymmetry measure correlate highly with the difficulty of reproducing the rhythms by tapping after listening to them, but also the empirical measures exhibit similar behavior, for both the visual and auditory patterns, as a function of the relative number of subsymmetries present in the patterns. PMID:24494441

  7. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  8. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  9. Participants' perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Saldivar G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerardo González-Saldivar,1 René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez,2 José Luis Viramontes-Madrid,3 Alejandro Salcido-Montenegro,2 Kevin Erick Gabriel Carlos-Reyna,2 Andrés Marcelo Treviño-Alvarez,2 Neri Alejandro Álvarez-Villalobos,4 José Gerardo González-González2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Endocrinology Division, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, 3Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, 4Medical Statistics Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José E. González”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico Background: There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials.Methods: To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases and 604 nonparticipants (controls of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico.Results: Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4% than controls (50.7% perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%. We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk

  10. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  11. "Mentoring Is Sharing the Excitement of Discovery": Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate Research Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Miller, Paul C.; Peeples, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing number of studies have examined students' participation in undergraduate research (UR), little is known about faculty perceptions of mentoring in this context. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate four aspects of mentoring UR, including how faculty define high-quality UR mentoring and operationalize it in…

  12. Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A Media Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Tony; Sage, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) and its implications for individuals, institutions and wider academia through an analysis of media coverage of the REF over a 2-year period. In recent years, the importance attached to the REF has become an increasing focus of concern for academics and other…

  13. Student and Staff Perceptions of the Research-Teaching Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The research-teaching nexus is central to higher education as well as students' intellectual development. Staff identity can be developed by departments focussing on the nexus. In the context of an increasing interest in developing firmer relationships between research and teaching, there has been an acknowledgement that understanding students'…

  14. An Examination of the Role of Perceptions in Neighborhood Research

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating research demonstrates that both archival indicators and residents’ self-reports of neighborhood conditions are useful predictors of a variety of physical health, mental health, substance use, criminal, and educational outcomes. Although studies have shown these two types of measures are often related, no research has systematically examined their relationship. With a sample of Mexican Americans, this study examined this relationship and demographic factors that might account for ...

  15. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  16. Perceptions of parents on the participation of their infants in clinical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, A; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Bisgaard, H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the motivations and perceptions of parents on the participation of their infants and young children in a comprehensive and invasive clinical research study. METHODS: Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 mothers with asthma whose infants and young...... the parents of children with lung or skin symptoms and those of healthy children. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to design and accomplish invasive clinical research on infants and young children in a manner that parents find ethically sound....

  17. Emotional Faces Modulate Implicit Perception of Shorter SOA in Auditory Modality%情绪面孔对听觉通道短时距内隐知觉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣宾; 汪凯; 张达人

    2011-01-01

    Time perception is a fundamental ability of human beings. Daily experience indicates that time perception is easy to be affected by emotion. However, the emotional influence was often accompanied by active attention and explicit motor response in previous studies. Here the question whether implicit time perception could be influenced by emotional faces is addressed. Observers actively completed a visual discrimination task of emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral faces) while they passively listened to a sequence of tones with 80% standard stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) (800 ms) and 20% deviant SOAs (400, 600, 1 000 and 1 200 ms).Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for frequent standard SOAs and rare deviant SOAs. The two short deviant SOAs (400 and 600 ms) elicited two changed-related ERP components: the mismatch negativity (MMN) and the P3a. The MMN amplitude, which indexes the early detection of irregular time changes, was modulated by facial emotion. Fearful faces elicited reduced MMN as compared with happy faces and neutral faces did for the shorter deviant conditions, and happy faces elicited enhanced P3as as compared with fearful and neutral faces did.The current ERP study suggested that shorter time perception of auditory modality was affected by visual emotional faces, and fearful faces decreased the accuracy of implicit time perception.%时间知觉是人类的一项基本能力.日常生活经验表明时间知觉容易受到情绪的影响.但是在前人的研究中,这些影响往往伴随着主动注意和外显的运动反应.这里关注的是不伴随主动注意和外显运动反应的内隐时间知觉是否受到情绪面孔的影响.被试在主动完成一个由情绪面孔组成的视觉辨别任务的同时,被动地听一系列声音刺激.声音刺激的刺激启动异步时间(stimulus onset asynchrony,SOA.)中,80%是标准SOA(800ms),20%是偏差SOA(400,600ms).对频繁出现的标准SOA和偶尔出现的偏

  18. Entraînement auditif et musical chez l'enfant sourd profond : effets sur la perception auditive et effets de transferts

    OpenAIRE

    Rochette, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the auditory training and auditory skill development of congenitally profoundly deaf children. It aims to evaluate, not only the effects of auditory training/auditory skill development on general auditory performances, but also the transfer effects on speech perception and development. An extended period of auditory deprivation leads to major difficulties in reception and speech production, cognitive difficulties, and also disrupts the maturation of central auditory pat...

  19. A "LHC Premium" for Early Career Researchers? Perceptions from within

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Tiziano; Florio, Massimo; Giffoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    More than 36,000 students and post-docs will be involved in experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) until 2025. Do they expect that their learning experience will have an impact on their professional future? By drawing from earlier salary expectations literature, this paper proposes a framework aiming at explaining the professional expectations of early career researchers (ECR) at the LHC. Results from different ordered logistic models suggest that experiential learning at LHC positively correlates with both current and former students' salary expectations. At least two not mutually exclusive explanations underlie such a relationship. First, the training at LHC gives early career researchers valuable expertise, which in turn affects salary expectations; secondly, respondents recognise that the LHC research experience per se may act as a signal in the labour market. Respondents put a price tag on their experience at LHC, a "salary premium" ranging from 5% to 12% in terms of future salaries compared with...

  20. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  1. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  2. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  3. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate Research Experiences in Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate research experiences are promoted and funded for their potential in increasing students' likelihood of pursuing graduate degrees, increasing their confidence, and expanding their awareness of their discipline and career opportunities. These outcomes, however, depend on the social, organizational, and intellectual conditions under…

  4. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    of acceptance from colleagues and section head nurses and a shortage of time. This study forms a baseline as a part of a larger study and contributes knowledge useful to other orthopaedic departments with an interest in optimizing nursing research to improve orthopaedic nursing care quality....

  5. Research on Auditory Model and Speech Signal Processing Method%听觉模型与语音信号处理方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧婕; 张刚; 武淑红

    2012-01-01

    在通信领域中,语音编码是语音信号处理的重要分支.为了适合信道传输,语音必须变换形式,基于承载信息并且保留信号,尽可能地处理.在当今的通信、计算机网络等应用领域中,具备低延迟、低码率两大特性的语音编码算法,发挥着决定性作用.在语音编码中,线性预测分析技术主要应用在感觉加权滤波器、综合滤波器及对数增益滤波器,该技术发挥着关键作用.文中的工作是呈现出一种混合LPC( Auditory- Acoustic - Hybrid- LPC)系数,它结合声学特性与听觉特性,以便提高编码后合成语音的听觉质量,这对编码算法的钻研有积极意义.%In the field of communication, speech coding is an important branch of speech signal processing. It reserves the signal carrying the information,based on the maximum degree of its processing,it transforms into a suitable form of transmission channels. In the today 's society, speech coding algorithms with low bit rate and low delay, plays a key role in the communication, computer networks and many other applications. In the speech coding, feeling weighted filters, synthesis filters, logarithmic gain filters are related to the linear prediction analysis techniques, which plays a central role in the voice processing. The main work of this paper is to propose a combination of acoustic features and auditory features of the mixed LPC coefficients (Auditory-Acoustic-Hybrid-LPC) , making the audio quality of the encoded synthetic voice improved, which has a positive meaning to the research of coding algorithm.

  6. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Motivators for Research Participation Among Individuals Who Are Incarcerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bridget L; Faulkner, Sherilyn A; Brems, Christiane; Corey, Staci L; Eldridge, Gloria D; Johnson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Understanding motivations of research participants is crucial for developing ethical research protocols, especially for research with vulnerable populations. Through interviews with 92 institutional review board members, prison administrators, research ethicists, and researchers, we explored key stakeholders' perceptions of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research. Primary motivators identified were a desire to contribute to society, gaining knowledge and health care, acquiring incentives, and obtaining social support. The potential for undue influence or coercion were also identified as motivators. These results highlight the need for careful analysis of what motivates incarcerated individuals to participate in research as part of developing or reviewing ethically permissible and responsible research protocols. Future research should expand this line of inquiry to directly include perspectives of incarcerated individuals. PMID:26283681

  7. On the Role of Crossmodal Prediction in Audiovisual Emotion Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eJessen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans rely on multiple sensory modalities to determine the emotional state of others. In fact, such multisensory perception may be one of the mechanisms explaining the ease and efficiency by which others’ emotions are recognized. But how and when exactly do the different modalities interact? One aspect in multisensory perception that has received increasing interest in recent years is the concept of crossmodal prediction. In emotion perception, as in most other settings, visual information precedes the auditory one. Thereby, leading in visual information can facilitate subsequent auditory processing. While this mechanism has often been described in audiovisual speech perception, it has not been addressed so far in audiovisual emotion perception. Based on the current state of the art in (a crossmodal prediction and (b multisensory emotion perception research, we propose that it is essential to consider the former in order to fully understand the latter. Focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG and magnetoencephalographic (MEG studies, we provide a brief overview of the current research in both fields. In discussing these findings, we suggest that emotional visual information may allow for a more reliable prediction of auditory information compared to non-emotional visual information. In support of this hypothesis, we present a re-analysis of a previous data set that shows an inverse correlation between the N1 response in the EEG and the duration of visual emotional but not non-emotional information. If the assumption that emotional content allows for more reliable predictions can be corroborated in future studies, crossmodal prediction is a crucial factor in our understanding of multisensory emotion perception.

  8. Speech perception as an active cognitive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon eHeald

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processingd with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or

  9. Assessment of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning style among undergraduate nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwan Hussein Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Learning styles refer to the ability of learner to perceive and process information in learning situations. The ability to understand students’ learning styles can increase the educational outcomes. VAK (Visual, auditory, kinesthetic learning style is one of the learning style in which students use three of sensory perception to receive information. Teachers can incorporate these learning styles in their classroom activities so that students are competent to be successful in their courses. The purpose of this study is to assess Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic learning style among undergraduate nursing students. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out; the study was conducted during the period of 3rd. November, 2013-15, March, 2014, in two Nursing Colleges at Universities of Mosul and Kirkuk. A stratified random sampling was used for data collection. The target population was an undergraduate nursing students (210 students (60 male and 150 female. Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS, Chi-square, Frequencies and Percentage was used for data analysis. The results: the findings reveal that Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic learning style of the study sample was (40.0%, (29.5%, and 30.5% respectively. Females preferred auditory learning style (30.3% more than males (27.3%, while males preferred kinesthetic learning style (32.3% more than females (29.8%. Recommendation: The researcher recommended that nurse educators should aware of learning styles of the students and provide teaching style to be matched with their learning style.

  10. Improving the reading skills of Jordanian students with auditory discrimination problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abdullah Mukdadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some of the developmental problems facing students with difficulties in learning are those related to auditory perception which, in turn, can negatively affect the individual’s learning process. Aim: Evaluating a training program prepared to develop the auditory discrimination skills of students who suffer from auditory discrimination problems. Design: A quasi-experimental research design was used in this study. The study sample was divided into two equal groups: experimental and control. Participants and setting: The population of the study consists of students with learning difficulties from the second, third and fourth grades, whose ages range between 7-9 years old. Also involved were those enrolled in the resource rooms affiliated to the Jordanian Ministry of Education in Irbid province, amounting to (120 boy and girl students for the school year 2013- 2014. Results: The study showed that there was a significant difference in favor of the experimental group which indicated that the training program was effective. It helped the students with auditory discrimination problems to improve their reading skills. The results also showed a significant difference in favor of the students of older age in the experimental group. At the same time there were no significant differences in reading performance changes concerning gender.

  11. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  12. Body Perception and Consciousness : Contributions of Interoception Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hölzl, Rupert; Möltner, Andreas; Neidig, Claus W.

    1998-01-01

    In looking back at the last three decades of interoception research in the Department of Comparative Physiology at Eötvös Loránd University Budapest from the standpoint of an external cooperating group it seems appropriate to consider its impact on recent and future developments in the field and related reas of psychobiology. We will do this by concentrating on a series of experiments inspired by our cooperation with G. Ádám's group since 1985. Their results have important bearings on a curre...

  13. Auditory Verbal Cues Alter the Perceived Flavor of Beverages and Ease of Swallowing: A Psychometric and Electrophysiological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aya Nakamura; Satoshi Imaizumi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass) juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well...

  14. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  15. Perception and mobility research at Defence R&D Canada for UGVs in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentini, Michael; Collier, Jack; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle

    2007-04-01

    The Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield envisions autonomous systems contributing to decisive operations in the urban battle space. In this vision, teams of unmanned ground, air, and marine vehicles, and unattended ground sensors will gather and coordinate information, formulate plans, and complete tasks. The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in military relevant roles and environments. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing and perception, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. However, a disconnect exists between the current state-of-the-art in perception systems and the information required for novel platforms to interact with their environment to improve mobility in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the research tools, topics, and plans to address this gap in perception and control research. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  16. Minimal effects of visual memory training on auditory performance of adult cochlear implant users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Oba, MS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory training has been shown to significantly improve cochlear implant (CI users’ speech and music perception. However, it is unclear whether posttraining gains in performance were due to improved auditory perception or to generally improved attention, memory, and/or cognitive processing. In this study, speech and music perception, as well as auditory and visual memory, were assessed in 10 CI users before, during, and after training with a nonauditory task. A visual digit span (VDS task was used for training, in which subjects recalled sequences of digits presented visually. After the VDS training, VDS performance significantly improved. However, there were no significant improvements for most auditory outcome measures (auditory digit span, phoneme recognition, sentence recognition in noise, digit recognition in noise, except for small (but significant improvements in vocal emotion recognition and melodic contour identification. Posttraining gains were much smaller with the nonauditory VDS training than observed in previous auditory training studies with CI users. The results suggest that posttraining gains observed in previous studies were not solely attributable to improved attention or memory and were more likely due to improved auditory perception. The results also suggest that CI users may require targeted auditory training to improve speech and music perception.

  17. Auditory sustained field responses to periodic noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keceli Sumru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auditory sustained responses have been recently suggested to reflect neural processing of speech sounds in the auditory cortex. As periodic fluctuations below the pitch range are important for speech perception, it is necessary to investigate how low frequency periodic sounds are processed in the human auditory cortex. Auditory sustained responses have been shown to be sensitive to temporal regularity but the relationship between the amplitudes of auditory evoked sustained responses and the repetitive rates of auditory inputs remains elusive. As the temporal and spectral features of sounds enhance different components of sustained responses, previous studies with click trains and vowel stimuli presented diverging results. In order to investigate the effect of repetition rate on cortical responses, we analyzed the auditory sustained fields evoked by periodic and aperiodic noises using magnetoencephalography. Results Sustained fields were elicited by white noise and repeating frozen noise stimuli with repetition rates of 5-, 10-, 50-, 200- and 500 Hz. The sustained field amplitudes were significantly larger for all the periodic stimuli than for white noise. Although the sustained field amplitudes showed a rising and falling pattern within the repetition rate range, the response amplitudes to 5 Hz repetition rate were significantly larger than to 500 Hz. Conclusions The enhanced sustained field responses to periodic noises show that cortical sensitivity to periodic sounds is maintained for a wide range of repetition rates. Persistence of periodicity sensitivity below the pitch range suggests that in addition to processing the fundamental frequency of voice, sustained field generators can also resolve low frequency temporal modulations in speech envelope.

  18. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eROCHETTE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5 to 4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically-trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

  19. Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

  20. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4 years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

  1. Dentists' dietary perception and practice patterns in a dental practice-based research network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Dental caries are largely preventable, and epidemiological evidence for a relationship between diet and oral health is abundant. To date, however, dentists' perceptions about the role of diet and dentists' practice patterns regarding diet counseling have not been clarified.THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1 examine discordance between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual provision of diet counseling to patients, and (2 identify dentists' characteristics associated with their provision of diet counseling.The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey in Japan.The study queried dentists working in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan (JDPBRN, which aims to allow dentists to investigate research questions and share experiences and expertise (n = 282.Dentists were asked about their perceptions on the importance of diet and their practice patterns regarding diet counseling, as well as patient, practice, and dentist background data.The majority of participants (n = 116, 63% recognized that diet is "more important" to oral health. However, among participants who think diet is "more important" (n = 116, only 48% (n = 56 provide diet counseling to more than 20% of their patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that several variables were associated with providing diet counseling; dentist gender, practice busyness, percentage of patients interested in caries prevention, caries risk assessment, and percentage of patients who receive blood pressure screening.Some discordance exists between dentists' perception of the importance of diet in caries treatment planning and their actual practice pattern regarding diet counseling to patients. Reducing this discordance may require additional dentist education, including nutritional and systemic disease concepts; patient

  2. Challenges in Measuring a New Construct: Perception of Voluntariness for Research and Treatment Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.; Reynolds, William W.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Luce, Mary Frances; Beauchamp, Tom L.; Nelson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    RELIABLE AND VALID MEASURES OF RELEVANT constructs are critical in the developing field of the empirical study of research ethics. The early phases of scale development for such constructs can be complex. We describe the methodological challenges of construct definition and operationalization and how we addressed them in our study to develop a measure of perception of voluntariness. We also briefly present our conceptual approach to the construct of voluntariness, which we defined as the perc...

  3. Comparative Research on Substance Abuse and Self-Perception Among Adolescents with Physical Handicap

    OpenAIRE

    Janeković, Koraljka

    2003-01-01

    The research on substance (alcohol, tobacco and drug) abuse and on self-perception was done by comparing a test group of physically disabled adolescents and a test group of non-disabled adolescents. The respondents of the experimental group were students of the only special high school for physically handicapped persons in Croatia, Zagreb. The respondents of the control group were the students of two regular high schools in the capital of Croatia. The instrument used in this re...

  4. Newly graduated nurses' perception of competence, critical thinking and research utilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Wangensteen, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Sigrid Wangensteen has the recent years been engaged in doctoral studies at Karlstad University in combination with teaching at the bachelor program in nursing at Gjøvik Universtity College. This doctoral thesis is focused on newly graduated nurses, their perception of competence, critical thinking dispositions, research use and their experiences of being a nurse during their first year as a nurse. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The very first period of time was experienced a...

  5. Perception, Practices Towards Research and Predictors of Research Career Among UG Medical Students from Coastal South India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha Kumar H; Jayaram S; Kumar Ganesh; Vinita J; Rohit S; Satish M; Shusruth K; Nitin; Akhilesh

    2009-01-01

    Background : The number of physician scientists worldwide is decreasing. A review of literature suggests paucity of information examining perceptions and practices towards research among medical undergraduate students in India. Hence, this study was undertaken. Objectives : To understand (a) the awareness, skills, perceptions and practices among undergraduate (UG) medical students towards research, (b) the factors responsible for willingness to take up research as a career among the undergra...

  6. Factors influencing clinical students' perceptions of an embedded research project and associated publication output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Renate; May, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe student perceptions of the value of a short, compulsory research project embedded in a clinical degree program, the research output in terms of publications, and the factors influencing this. It was hypothesized that student attitudes toward the project, student perceptions of how much the project contributed to their generic skills, and the number of publications submitted or prepared for submission would be associated with perceived quality of supervision, perceived difficulty of the project, career plans, and attitude before commencement of the project. We explored this using a questionnaire comprising 30 questions that included demographics, Likert scales, and categorical responses. Student attitudes toward research were found to be associated with student attitude before the start of the project, perceived difficulty of the project, perceived quality of supervision, and perceived relevance to the profession. Students thought that the research project contributed most to the skills of "information gathering" and "critical evaluation" and the least to "teamwork," "problem solving," and "oral communication." Research output was significantly linked to perceived quality of supervision and the help students received with data analysis and data collection, though not with the project report itself. In conclusion, although the success of the research project was influenced by many factors, the perceived quality of supervision influenced all three outcome measures. Therefore it is clear that optimization of this aspect offers the most scope for enhancing the student learning experience. PMID:23709108

  7. Audition dominates vision in duration perception irrespective of salience, attention, and temporal discriminability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Whereas the visual modality tends to dominate over the auditory modality in bimodal spatial perception, the auditory modality tends to dominate over the visual modality in bimodal temporal perception. Recent results suggest that the visual modality dominates bimodal spatial perception because spatial discriminability is typically greater for the visual than for the auditory modality; accordingly, visual dominance is eliminated or reversed when visual-spatial discriminability is reduced by degrading visual stimuli to be equivalent or inferior to auditory spatial discriminability. Thus, for spatial perception, the modality that provides greater discriminability dominates. Here, we ask whether auditory dominance in duration perception is similarly explained by factors that influence the relative quality of auditory and visual signals. In contrast to the spatial results, the auditory modality dominated over the visual modality in bimodal duration perception even when the auditory signal was clearly weaker, when the auditory signal was ignored (i.e., the visual signal was selectively attended), and when the temporal discriminability was equivalent for the auditory and visual signals. Thus, unlike spatial perception, where the modality carrying more discriminable signals dominates, duration perception seems to be mandatorily linked to auditory processing under most circumstances. PMID:24806403

  8. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  9. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  10. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  11. Canadian University Professors’Perceptions of the Challenges and Sup-port to Engage in Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hui

    2013-01-01

    Research has been an important responsibility for university professors. Although there has been an increased demand for research, few studies have been conducted directly with university professors to obtain their perceptions of the challenges the in⁃creased focus on research have presented. This study employed a qualitative methodology to inquire into the change of work life bought about by the increased demand for research, and the strategies professors have adopted to balance their teaching, research and service. It also inquired into the barriers to conducting research, and effective support strategies. Some barriers and support identified in this study were in accordance with what previous studies have identified. Perhaps because the professors interviewed were all tenured, they noted that the increased demand for research had not significantly changed their work life. Strategies they used to help them meet the demands for research included, but were not limited to, integrating their teaching and research, and col⁃laborating with others on research projects. Barriers to research included bureaucratic constraints, newness to research, lack of time, and lack of funding.

  12. Intact spectral but abnormal temporal processing of auditory stimuli in autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Orsouw, L. van; Huurne, N.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.; Zwiers, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The perceptual pattern in autism has been related to either a specific localized processing deficit or a pathway-independent, complexity-specific anomaly. We examined auditory perception in autism using an auditory disembedding task that required spectral and temporal integration. 23 children with h

  13. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  14. Professionalization of Teaching in America: Two Case Studies Using Educational Research Experiences to Explore the Perceptions of Preservice Teachers/Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, James E.; Baker, Credence; Lamb, Holly; Pate, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In 2013-2015, two faculty-led educational research studies were conducted, aided by five undergraduate preservice teachers/researchers (PSTR). Faculty-researchers designed a qualitative phenomenological-inquiry based methodology to examine the PSTR perceptions regarding their respective research experiences with faculty. Triangulation of the data…

  15. Flash Flood Risk Perception in an Italian Alpine Region. From Research into Adaptive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.; de Marchi, B.; Borga, M.

    2009-04-01

    Flash floods are characterised by short lead times and high levels of uncertainty. Adaptive strategies to face them need to take into account not only the physical characteristics of the hydro-geological phenomena, but also peoples' risk perceptions, attitudes and behaviours in case of an emergency. It is quite obvious that a precondition for an effective adaptation, e.g. in the case of a warning, is the awareness of being endangered. At the same time the perceptions of those at risk and their likely actions inform hazard warning strategies and recovery programmes following such events. Usually low risk awareness or "wrong perceptions" of the residents are considered among the causes of an inadequate preparedness or response to flash floods as well as a symptom of a scarce self-protection culture. In this paper we will focus on flood risk perception and on how research on this topic may contribute to design adaptive strategies and give inputs to flood policy decisions. We will report on a flood risk perception study of the population residing in four villages in an Italian Alpine Region (Trentino Alto-Adige), carried out between October 2005 and January 2006. A total of 400 standardised questionnaires were submitted to local residents by face to face interviews. The surveys were preceded by focus groups with officers from agencies in charge of flood risk management and semi-structured and in-depth interviews with policy, scientific and technical experts. Survey results indicated that people are not so worried about hydro-geological phenomena, and think that their community is more endangered than themselves. The knowledge of the territory and danger sources, the unpredictability of flash floods and the feeling of safety induced by structural devices are the main elements which make the difference in shaping residents' perceptions. The study also demonstrated a widespread lack of adoption of preparatory measures among residents, together with a general low

  16. Neural correlates of auditory scale illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Shinya; Numao, Ryousuke; Nemoto, Iku

    2016-09-01

    The auditory illusory perception "scale illusion" occurs when ascending and descending musical scale tones are delivered in a dichotic manner, such that the higher or lower tone at each instant is presented alternately to the right and left ears. Resulting tone sequences have a zigzag pitch in one ear and the reversed (zagzig) pitch in the other ear. Most listeners hear illusory smooth pitch sequences of up-down and down-up streams in the two ears separated in higher and lower halves of the scale. Although many behavioral studies have been conducted, how and where in the brain the illusory percept is formed have not been elucidated. In this study, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging using sequential tones that induced scale illusion (ILL) and those that mimicked the percept of scale illusion (PCP), and we compared the activation responses evoked by those stimuli by region-of-interest analysis. We examined the effects of adaptation, i.e., the attenuation of response that occurs when close-frequency sounds are repeated, which might interfere with the changes in activation by the illusion process. Results of the activation difference of the two stimuli, measured at varied tempi of tone presentation, in the superior temporal auditory cortex were not explained by adaptation. Instead, excess activation of the ILL stimulus from the PCP stimulus at moderate tempi (83 and 126 bpm) was significant in the posterior auditory cortex with rightward superiority, while significant prefrontal activation was dominant at the highest tempo (245 bpm). We suggest that the area of the planum temporale posterior to the primary auditory cortex is mainly involved in the illusion formation, and that the illusion-related process is strongly dependent on the rate of tone presentation. PMID:27292114

  17. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  18. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  19. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  20. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

  1. Auditory function in individuals within Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Kearns, Lisa S; Tan, Johanna; Gravina, Anthony; Rosenfeld, Lisa; Henley, Lauren; Carew, Peter; Graydon, Kelley; O'Hare, Fleur; Mackey, David A

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate whether auditory dysfunction is part of the spectrum of neurological abnormalities associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and to determine the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy (AN) in affected listeners. Forty-eight subjects confirmed by genetic testing as having one of four mitochondrial mutations associated with LHON (mt11778, mtDNA14484, mtDNA14482 and mtDNA3460) participated. Thirty-two of these had lost vision, and 16 were asymptomatic at the point of data collection. While the majority of individuals showed normal sound detection, >25% (of both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants) showed electrophysiological evidence of AN with either absent or severely delayed auditory brainstem potentials. Abnormalities were observed for each of the mutations, but subjects with the mtDNA11778 type were the most affected. Auditory perception was also abnormal in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with >20% of cases showing impaired detection of auditory temporal (timing) cues and >30% showing abnormal speech perception both in quiet and in the presence of background noise. The findings of this study indicate that a relatively high proportion of individuals with the LHON genetic profile may suffer functional hearing difficulties due to neural abnormality in the central auditory pathways.

  2. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  3. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  4. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses

  5. The effects of researcher precautions on perceptions of the ethicality of unobtrusive field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R A; Baker, G; Goldberg, S J

    1996-05-01

    The effects of stating researchers' precautions on perceptions about the ethicality of questionable studies were examined. The studies used were by West, Gunn, and Chernicky (1975) and by Middlemist, Knowles, and Matter (1976). The first study was generally evaluated more favorably than the second study. Women viewed the West et al. study more negatively than did men, regardless of precautionary information. Most important, precautionary information enhanced men's, but not women's evaluations of the Middlemist et al. study. Implications of these results for ethical decision making, publication policy, and the image of the profession are noted.

  6. Perceptions of climate change in China:The research and policy connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHua Zhou; J Scott Hauger; Ning Liu; HuiLing Lu

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has evolved from a scientific problem into an economic and political problem of worldwide inter-est. National perspectives play a crucial role in addressing climate change. Mutual understanding of perspectives is nec-essary to result in rational policies and a consensus among stakeholders with divergent interests. Conceptual frameworks for understanding the problem of climate change in China, the largest developing country and the largest greenhouse gas emitter, are of great significance to national and international efforts to address the problems of climate change. Chinese perceptions of climate change as a sustainable development problem have recently been in tension with an emerging Western perspective that frames climate change as a security issue. This paper explores Chinese perceptions of climate change as expressed in recent governmental policy statements, public opinion surveys, and academic scholarship with a focus on publications in Chinese-language journals, often unfamiliar in the West. It looks at the relationship between Chinese research and policy and finds that the Chinese policy frame of climate change as a sustainable development problem draws from the body of domestic research and is reflective of the perspectives and multidisciplinary approach of Chinese researchers in areas of climate change.

  7. Interpersonal amplification of risk? Citizen discussions and their impact on perceptions of risks and benefits of a biological research facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Scheufele, Dietram A; Brossard, Dominique; Gunther, Albert C

    2011-02-01

    Much risk communication research has demonstrated how mass media can influence individual risk perceptions, but lacks a comprehensive conceptual understanding of another key channel of communication: interpersonal discussion. Using the social amplification of risk as a theoretical framework, we consider the potential for discussions to function as amplification stations. We explore this possibility using data from a public opinion survey of residents living in potential locations for a new biological research facility in the United States. Controlling for a variety of key information variables, our results show that two dimensions of discussion-frequency and valence-have impacts on residents' perceptions of the facility's benefits and its risks. We also explore the possibility that an individual's overall attitude moderates the effect of discussion on their perceptions of risks and benefits. Our results demonstrate the potential for discussions to operate as amplifiers or attenuators of perceptions of both risks and benefits. PMID:21039705

  8. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  9. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...... background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour...... of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists...

  10. Electrophysiologic Assessment of Auditory Training Benefits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Jenkins, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Older adults often exhibit speech perception deficits in difficult listening environments. At present, hearing aids or cochlear implants are the main options for therapeutic remediation; however, they only address audibility and do not compensate for central processing changes that may accompany aging and hearing loss or declines in cognitive function. It is unknown whether long-term hearing aid or cochlear implant use can restore changes in central encoding of temporal and spectral components of speech or improve cognitive function. Therefore, consideration should be given to auditory/cognitive training that targets auditory processing and cognitive declines, taking advantage of the plastic nature of the central auditory system. The demonstration of treatment efficacy is an important component of any training strategy. Electrophysiologic measures can be used to assess training-related benefits. This article will review the evidence for neuroplasticity in the auditory system and the use of evoked potentials to document treatment efficacy. PMID:27587912

  11. The auditory and non-auditory brain areas involved in tinnitus. An emergent property of multiple parallel overlapping subnetworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of an external sound source. It is characterized by sensory components such as the perceived loudness, the lateralization, the tinnitus type (pure tone, noise-like) and associated emotional components, such as distress and mood changes. Source localization of quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) data demonstrate the involvement of auditory brain areas as well as several non-auditory brain areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal and subgenual), auditory cortex (primary and secondary), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, insula, supplementary motor area, orbitofrontal cortex (including the inferior frontal gyrus), parahippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus, in different aspects of tinnitus. Explaining these non-auditory brain areas as constituents of separable subnetworks, each reflecting a specific aspect of the tinnitus percept increases the explanatory power of the non-auditory brain areas involvement in tinnitus. Thus, the unified percept of tinnitus can be considered an emergent property of multiple parallel dynamically changing and partially overlapping subnetworks, each with a specific spontaneous oscillatory pattern and functional connectivity signature. PMID:22586375

  12. PARTAKE survey of public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Burt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE - Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. OBJECTIVE: To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. METHODS: A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. RESULTS: Interviewees were 18-84 old (mean: 39.6, SD ± 16.6, 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware: 'research benefits society' (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%, 'the government protects against unethical clinical research' (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%, 'research hospitals provide better care' (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%, 'confidentiality is adequately protected' (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%, 'participation in research is voluntary' (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%; 'participants treated like 'guinea pigs'' (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%, and 'compensation for participation is adequate' (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation, and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. Larger, cross

  13. Research progress of laser-induced nerve impulses in the auditory system%激光诱发听觉系统神经冲动的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦文超; 王健; 吴默村; 梁田; 关添

    2015-01-01

    近年来利用激光诱发神经冲动逐渐成为研究的热点。本文归纳整理了近7年来激光在刺激听神经方面的主要研究进展,包括激光诱发耳蜗内听神经冲动的研究、激光参数和神经组织特性对激光诱发耳蜗听神经冲动的影响,并对激光诱发听神经冲动的安全性、多通道激光刺激、扩大激光刺激参数的范围等方面进行了展望。%Using laser to induce nerve impulses has become a popular research issue in recent years . This paper summarizes main research progresses related to laser-induced auditory nerve response in the past seven years.The contents include the advances of laser-induced auditory nerve impulses in the cochlea , the effects of laser parameters and nerve tissue characteristics on the induced cochlear nerve impulses .Finally, this paper prospects the security of the laser-induced auditory nerve impulses , multi-channel laser stimulation , and the expansion of the scope of laser stimulation parameters .

  14. Subliminal Speech Perception and Auditory Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; de Gardelle, Vincent; Kouider, Sid

    2008-01-01

    Current theories of consciousness assume a qualitative dissociation between conscious and unconscious processing: while subliminal stimuli only elicit a transient activity, supraliminal stimuli have long-lasting influences. Nevertheless, the existence of this qualitative distinction remains controversial, as past studies confounded awareness and…

  15. Auditory object formation affects modulation perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Most sounds in our environment, including speech, music, animal vocalizations and environmental noise, have fluctuations in intensity that are often highly correlated across different frequency regions. Because across-frequency modulation is so common, the ability to process such information is t...

  16. Audition dominates vision in duration perception irrespective of salience, attention, and temporal discriminability

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the visual modality tends to dominate over the auditory modality in bimodal spatial perception, the auditory modality tends to dominate over the visual modality in bimodal temporal perception. Recent results suggest that the visual modality dominates bimodal spatial perception because spatial discriminability is typically greater for the visual than auditory modality; accordingly, visual dominance is eliminated or reversed when visual-spatial discriminability is reduced by degrading v...

  17. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  18. Biomedical scientists' perceptions of ethical and social implications: is there a role for research ethics consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B McCormick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research ethics consultation programs are being established with a goal of addressing the ethical, societal, and policy considerations associated with biomedical research. A number of these programs are modelled after clinical ethics consultation services that began to be institutionalized in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine biomedical science researchers' perceived need for and utility of research ethics consultation, through examination of their perceptions of whether they and their institutions faced ethical, social or policy issues (outside those mandated by regulation and examination of willingness to seek advice in addressing these issues. We conducted telephone interviews and focus groups in 2006 with researchers from Stanford University and a mailed survey in December 2006 to 7 research universities in the U.S. FINDINGS: A total of 16 researchers were interviewed (75% response rate, 29 participated in focus groups, and 856 responded to the survey (50% response rate. Approximately half of researchers surveyed (51% reported that they would find a research ethics consultation service at their institution moderately, very or extremely useful, while over a third (36% reported that such a service would be useful to them personally. Respondents conducting human subjects research were more likely to find such a service very to extremely useful to them personally than respondents not conducting human subjects research (20% vs 10%; chi(2 p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that biomedical researchers do encounter and anticipate encountering ethical and societal questions and concerns and a substantial proportion, especially clinical researchers, would likely use a consultation service if they were aware of it. These findings provide data to inform the development of such consultation programs in general.

  19. Tuned with a Tune: Talker Normalization via General Auditory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Erika J C; Liu, Ran; Lotto, Andrew J; Holt, Lori L

    2012-01-01

    Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker's speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS) of a talker's speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences' LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by non-speech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization. PMID:22737140

  20. Tuned with a tune: Talker normalization via general auditory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J C Laing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Voices have unique acoustic signatures, contributing to the acoustic variability listeners must contend with in perceiving speech, and it has long been proposed that listeners normalize speech perception to information extracted from a talker’s speech. Initial attempts to explain talker normalization relied on extraction of articulatory referents, but recent studies of context-dependent auditory perception suggest that general auditory referents such as the long-term average spectrum (LTAS of a talker’s speech similarly affect speech perception. The present study aimed to differentiate the contributions of articulatory/linguistic versus auditory referents for context-driven talker normalization effects and, more specifically, to identify the specific constraints under which such contexts impact speech perception. Synthesized sentences manipulated to sound like different talkers influenced categorization of a subsequent speech target only when differences in the sentences’ LTAS were in the frequency range of the acoustic cues relevant for the target phonemic contrast. This effect was true both for speech targets preceded by spoken sentence contexts and for targets preceded by nonspeech tone sequences that were LTAS-matched to the spoken sentence contexts. Specific LTAS characteristics, rather than perceived talker, predicted the results suggesting that general auditory mechanisms play an important role in effects considered to be instances of perceptual talker normalization.

  1. 听觉植入的研发和临床应用进展%The Research and Clinical Application of Auditory Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕明; 申卫东; 曾凡钢

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1听觉植入技术的介绍 人工耳蜗是听觉植入装置(auditory implant,auditory prosthesis)的代表,截至2009年4月,全世界已经有超过18.8万人在使用这种装置(U.S.Food and Drug Administration),人工耳蜗成为最成功的神经植入假体(neuroprosthetics)[1,2].

  2. Deafness in cochlear and auditory nerve disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common type of hearing impairment worldwide. It arises as a consequence of damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve, and several structures are often affected simultaneously. There are many causes, including genetic mutations affecting the structures of the inner ear, and environmental insults such as noise, ototoxic substances, and hypoxia. The prevalence increases dramatically with age. Clinical diagnosis is most commonly accomplished by measuring detection thresholds and comparing these to normative values to determine the degree of hearing loss. In addition to causing insensitivity to weak sounds, sensorineural hearing loss has a number of adverse perceptual consequences, including loudness recruitment, poor perception of pitch and auditory space, and difficulty understanding speech, particularly in the presence of background noise. The condition is usually incurable; treatment focuses on restoring the audibility of sounds made inaudible by hearing loss using either hearing aids or cochlear implants.

  3. Auditory reafferences: The influence of real-time feedback on movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKennel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory reafferences are real-time auditory products created by a person’s own movements. Whereas the interdependency of action and perception is generally well studied, the auditory feedback channel and the influence of perceptual processes during movement execution remain largely unconsidered. We argue that movements have a rhythmic character that is closely connected to sound, making it possible to manipulate auditory reafferences online to understand their role in motor control. We examined if step sounds, occurring as a by-product of running, have an influence on the performance of a complex movement task. Twenty participants completed a hurdling task in three auditory feedback conditions: a control condition with normal auditory feedback, a white noise condition in which sound was masked, and a delayed auditory feedback condition. Overall time and kinematic data were collected. Results show that delayed auditory feedback led to a significantly slower overall time and changed kinematic parameters. Our findings complement previous investigations in a natural movement situation with nonartificial auditory cues. Our results support the existing theoretical understanding of action–perception coupling and hold potential for applied work, where naturally occurring movement sounds can be implemented in the motor learning processes.

  4. The Care-System for Homeless Youth in the Netherlands: Perceptions of Youngsters through a Peer Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noom, Marc J.; de Winter, Micha; Korf, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of homeless youth of the care they receive. Since we wanted to involve homeless youth as participants in this project, we adopted the approach of peer-research. This form of collaborative research has a major role for homeless youth in making an inventory of the problems. A parallel is drawn…

  5. AUDITORY HAIR CELL EXPLANT CO-CULTURES PROMOTE THE DIFFERENTIATION OF STEM CELLS INTO BIPOLAR NEURONS

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, B.; Fallon, J. B.; Gillespie, L.N.; Silva, M.G.; Shepherd, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Auditory neurons, the target neurons of the cochlear implant, degenerate following a sensorineural hearing loss. The goal of this research is to direct the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (SCs) into bipolar auditory neurons that can be used to replace degenerating neurons in the deafened mammalian cochlea. Successful replacement of auditory neurons is likely to result in improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant recipients. We examined two post-natal auditory co-culture models w...

  6. Auditory priming of frequency and temporal information: Effects of lateralized presentation

    OpenAIRE

    List, Alexandra; Justus, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric distribution of function between the cerebral hemispheres has been widely investigated in the auditory modality. The current approach borrows heavily from visual local-global research in an attempt to determine whether, as in vision, local-global auditory processing is lateralized. In vision, lateralized local-global processing likely relies on spatial frequency information. Drawing analogies between visual spatial frequency and auditory dimensions, two sets of auditory stimuli wer...

  7. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  8. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  9. Dissociation of Neural Networks for Predisposition and for Training-Related Plasticity in Auditory-Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Coffey, Emily B J; Pantev, Christo; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Skill learning results in changes to brain function, but at the same time individuals strongly differ in their abilities to learn specific skills. Using a 6-week piano-training protocol and pre- and post-fMRI of melody perception and imagery in adults, we dissociate learning-related patterns of neural activity from pre-training activity that predicts learning rates. Fronto-parietal and cerebellar areas related to storage of newly learned auditory-motor associations increased their response following training; in contrast, pre-training activity in areas related to stimulus encoding and motor control, including right auditory cortex, hippocampus, and caudate nuclei, was predictive of subsequent learning rate. We discuss the implications of these results for models of perceptual and of motor learning. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual predisposition in plasticity research and applications. PMID:26139842

  10. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  11. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. PMID:27255816

  12. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging.

  13. Estudo do comportamento vocal no ciclo menstrual: avaliação perceptivo-auditiva, acústica e auto-perceptiva Vocal behavior during menstrual cycle: perceptual-auditory, acoustic and self-perception analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. de Figueiredo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período pré-menstrual é comum a ocorrência de disfonia, e são poucas as mulheres que se dão conta dessa variação da voz dentro do ciclo menstrual (Quinteiro, 1989. OBJETIVO: Verificar se há diferença no padrão vocal de mulheres no período de ovulação em relação ao primeiro dia do ciclo menstrual, utilizando-se da análise perceptivo-auditiva, da espectrografia, dos parâmetros acústicos e quando esta diferença está presente, se é percebida pelas mulheres. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Caso-controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A amostra coletada foi de 30 estudantes de Fonoaudiologia, na faixa etária de 18 a 25 anos, não-fumantes, com ciclo menstrual regular e sem o uso de contraceptivo oral. As vozes foram gravadas no primeiro dia de menstruação e no décimo-terceiro dia pós-menstruação (ovulação, para posterior comparação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se durante o período menstrual que as vozes estão rouco-soprosa de grau leve a moderado, instáveis, sem a presença de quebra de sonoridade, com pitch e loudness adequados e ressonância equilibrada. Há pior qualidade de definição dos harmônicos, maior quantidade de ruído entre eles e menor extensão dos harmônicos superiores. Encontramos uma f0 mais aguda, jitter e shimmer aumentados e PHR diminuída. CONCLUSÃO: No período menstrual há mudanças na qualidade vocal, no comportamento dos harmônicos e nos parâmetros vocais (f0,jitter, shimmer e PHR. Além disso, a maioria das estudantes de Fonoaudiologia não percebeu a variação da voz durante o ciclo menstrual.During the premenstruation period dysphonia often can be observed and only few women are aware of this voice variation (Quinteiro, 1989. AIM: To verify if there are vocal quality variations between the ovulation period and the first day of the menstrual cycle, by using perceptual-auditory and acoustic analysis, including spectrography, and the self perception of the vocal changes when it occurs. STUDY DESIGN: Case

  14. 感知模型的学习能力研究%Research on Learning Ability of Perception Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文超; 薛青; 刘永红; 郑长伟

    2011-01-01

    Perception modeling is an important component of behavioral modeling, build realistic perception model is foundation of realistic behavioral models. In order to simulate human perception behavior more reality, the paper proposes the learning ability of perception model and the framework of perception model, do research to the learning ability of receptor and processor, analyzes the method of realizing the learning ability of perception model. Researching and achieving the learning of perception model is important for improving the reality of perception model, at the same time, is important part of achieving learning ability of behavioral modeling and improving credibility.%感知行为建模是行为建模的重要组成部分,构建逼真可信的感知模型是行为模型逼真的基础.为更加逼真的模拟人的感知行为,提出了感知模型学习能力的概念,给出了感知模型的框架,对感知模型的感受器和处理器的学习能力进行了研究分析,讨论了实现感知模型学习能力的方法.研究并实现感知模型的学习性,使感知模型具备学习能力,对提高感知模型的逼真性具有重要意义,同时是行为建模学习能力实现,提高行为建模可信性的重要部分.

  15. Teacher Research in Dutch Professional Development Schools: Perceptions of the Actual and Preferred Situation in Terms of the Context, Process and Outcomes of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijnsen-de Corte, Marjan; den Brok, Perry; Kamp, Marcel; Bergen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide deeper insight into participants' (e.g. school principals, teachers and student teachers) perceptions of the actual and preferred situation in terms of the context, process and outcomes of practice-based research through teachers-as-researchers at Dutch professional development schools. We interviewed eight school…

  16. Risk perception and control, an integration of the psychometric research paradigm and social psychology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugen, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: this paper argues that perceptual control is an essential component in human risk evaluation. Control is seen as an integrative concept between the psychometric research paradigm and various psychological theories. The psychometric approach to the study of risk has mainly dealt with the intuitive judgements people do when they are asked to evaluate risky activities and technologies. It shows that people judge risk in relation to the possible consequences and probabilities related to an outcome; the former more typical for the public and the latter more often usedby experts. The psychometric research tradition has concentrated on doing human risk evaluations quantifiable and the reactions predictable. This paper also relates to possible practical implications of this strategy, namely that humans react heterogeneously to different kinds of threats due to perceived control. Theoretical ability to explain and elaborate perceptions of risk, as well as individual reactions, were the main criteria for the literature selection, which includes work on e.g. attribution theory, locus of control, and learned helplessness. Thus, the paper addresses available psychological views for a contribution to a developed theoretical framework for human risk evaluation. It seeks to compare and integrate the psychometric research tradition within social psychological theories. The way in which people find their informational basis for their risk judgements, either from others or from their own perceptions is also discussed. Furthermore, the theories are related to the social and psychological reactions of the Chernobyl accident. The paper concludes that psychological theories can contribute to a more comprehensive framework for the understanding of human risk evaluation, leading to a more coherent and integrative knowledge. (author)

  17. Risk perception and control, an integration of the psychometric research paradigm and social psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: this paper argues that perceptual control is an essential component in human risk evaluation. Control is seen as an integrative concept between the psychometric research paradigm and various psychological theories. The psychometric approach to the study of risk has mainly dealt with the intuitive judgements people do when they are asked to evaluate risky activities and technologies. It shows that people judge risk in relation to the possible consequences and probabilities related to an outcome; the former more typical for the public and the latter more often used by experts. The psychometric research tradition has concentrated on doing human risk evaluations quantifiable and the reactions predictable. This paper also relates to possible practical implications of this strategy, namely that humans react heterogeneously to different kinds of threats due to perceived control. Theoretical ability to explain and elaborate perceptions of risk, as well as individual reactions, were the main criteria for the literature selection, which includes work on e.g. attribution theory, locus of control, and learned helplessness. Thus, the paper addresses available psychological views for a contribution to a developed theoretical framework for human risk evaluation. It seeks to compare and integrate the psychometric research tradition within social psychological theories. The way in which people find their informational basis for their risk judgements, either from others or from their own perceptions is also discussed. Furthermore, the theories are related to the social and psychological reactions of the Chernobyl accident. The paper concludes that psychological theories can contribute to a more comprehensive framework for the understanding of human risk evaluation, leading to a more coherent and integrative knowledge. (author)

  18. Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Simon

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings of a tight coupling between visual and auditory association cortices during multisensory perception in monkeys and humans raise the question whether consistent paired presentation of simple visual and auditory stimuli prompts conditioned responses in unimodal auditory regions or multimodal association cortex once visual stimuli are presented in isolation in a post-conditioning run. To address this issue fifteen healthy participants partook in a "silent" sparse temporal event-related fMRI study. In the first (visual control habituation phase they were presented with briefly red flashing visual stimuli. In the second (auditory control habituation phase they heard brief telephone ringing. In the third (conditioning phase we coincidently presented the visual stimulus (CS paired with the auditory stimulus (UCS. In the fourth phase participants either viewed flashes paired with the auditory stimulus (maintenance, CS- or viewed the visual stimulus in isolation (extinction, CS+ according to a 5:10 partial reinforcement schedule. The participants had no other task than attending to the stimuli and indicating the end of each trial by pressing a button. Results During unpaired visual presentations (preceding and following the paired presentation we observed significant brain responses beyond primary visual cortex in the bilateral posterior auditory association cortex (planum temporale, planum parietale and in the right superior temporal sulcus whereas the primary auditory regions were not involved. By contrast, the activity in auditory core regions was markedly larger when participants were presented with auditory stimuli. Conclusion These results demonstrate involvement of multisensory and auditory association areas in perception of unimodal visual stimulation which may reflect the instantaneous forming of multisensory associations and cannot be attributed to sensation of an auditory event. More importantly, we are able

  19. Cutting the research pie: a value-weighting approach to explore perceptions about psychosocial research priorities for adults with haematological cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, CL; Sanson-Fisher, R.; Douglas, HE; Clinton-Mcharg, T; Williamson, A; BARKER, D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burden of illness associated with haematological cancers, little research is available about improving psychosocial outcomes for this group. Given scarce research funds, it is important to ensure that resources are used strategically for improving their psychosocial well-being. This study aimed to identify the perceptions of professionals, patients and carers regarding prioritising psychosocial research efforts. First, an expert panel's views on priorities for research were identi...

  20. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  1. 语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术后一年内的听觉发展和言语识别%Development of early auditory and speech perception skills within one year after cochlear implantion in prelingual deaf children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅莹; 陈源; 郗昕; 洪梦迪; 陈艾婷; 王倩; 黄丽娜

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索语前聋儿童人工耳蜗植入术后早期的听觉发展和言语识别,同时探讨现行中文听障儿童听觉和言语识别测试工具的可行性.方法 共有83例重度-极重度语前聋患儿参与本研究,按耳蜗植入手术时的年龄将患儿分为四组:A组(1~2岁)18例、B组(2~3岁)30例、C组(3~4岁)24例、D组(4~5岁)11例.使用婴幼儿/有意义听觉整合量表(Infant-Toddler/ Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale,MAIS/IT-MAIS)问卷,普通话早期言语感知测试(Mandarin Early Speech Perception Test,MESP)、普通话儿童言语能力测试(Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test,MPSI)等闭合式言语识别测试,由经过培训的听力学专业人员对患儿术后的听觉发展和言语识别能力进行评估.分别在术前和开机后3、6、12个月时对各组患儿进行评估,评估人员记录测试结果并采用SPSS19.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 术后早期的听觉发育和言语识别的发展随康复时间延长而逐步提高.各组受试患儿的MAIS/IT-MAIS得分随着康复时间的延长,均呈现相同的增长趋势,组间差异具有统计学意义(F=5.743,P=0.007).植入年龄3~4岁的C组儿童术前MAIS/IT-MAIS得分即已高于其他各组,在术后各随访节点得分也高于另外三组.术前助听器使用经验多的儿童,其MAIS/IT-MAIS得分也高于未使用助听器或使用经验少的儿童(F=4.947,P=0.000).MESP测试显示,在植入后1年内,患儿的言语察觉能力始终优先于言语识别能力,但言语识别能力随着人工耳蜗使用时间延长而有明显提高;各亚测试项的难度呈现较明显的渐次增大的层级.MPSI在开机12个月时才仅有约40%的受试儿童能完成安静条件下的测试,且随着语竞比的降低,能完成该测试的儿童的比例显著下降.结论 人工耳蜗植入术后1年,患儿即发展出一定的听力及言语识别能力.中文版IT-MAIS/MAIS、MESP、MPSI是评估植

  2. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  3. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening infor

  4. THE PERCEPTION ON ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS – A RESEARCH ON THE URBAN CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanase Laura Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the consumers of organic products. The work is important because in Romania, although consumption data show a small percentage consumption of organic products, in words it is still high. The difference consists between the definition and the perception of the concept of ecological products in respondents’ eye. This work aims to study the consumer perception of such niche products from a narrow perspective and that of products certified or not. Trying to prove that there are differences in behaviour between the two groups. Problem arising in this field is that there are many concepts of period of environmentally-friendly. Marketing and criterion by which to do all the market report shows green products from the point of view as they are legal certificates. Only that in Romania, there are two different segments of shoppers. Those who buy green products certified and those who buy green products certified. These latter, which many call the peasant market supplies, are an interesting group of future investigation for this type of sale. This paper comes as a complete research done in this market and brings attention to a new variable of analysis for motivational research. This research is an exploratory research that proposed method is very common in research of this kind. We held three focus group meetings divided by a selection questionnaire. The first group of 7 persons included only persons who have declared that they have bought certified products and the second group of 9 persons included only people who bought uncertified products. The third group also of 9 persons included people in both categories. So we could identify what some say about others when they are face to face and also when they are not. The results are as expected. We can say says there difference between the two groups in terms of motivation choosing those types of products, the same reasons are for buyers and their family, taste and the appearance of

  5. Research-based assessment affordances and constraints: Perceptions of physics faculty

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Martinuk, Mathew "Sandy"; Bell, Alexander; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2015-01-01

    To help faculty use research-based materials in a more significant way, we learn about their perceived needs and desires and use this information to suggest ways for the Physics Education Research community to address these needs. When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily take them up. We used phenomenographic interviews of ordinary physics faculty and department chairs to identify four families of issues that faculty have around research-based assessments (RBA). First, many faculty are interested in using RBAs but have practical needs around how to do so: how to find them, which ones there are, and how to administer them. They want help addressing these needs. Second, at the same time, many faculty think that RBAs are limited and don't measure many of the things they care about, or aren't applicable in their classes. They want assessments to measure skills, perceptions, and specific concepts. Third, many faculty want to turn to commu...

  6. Culturally Diverse Undergraduate Researchers' Academic Outcomes and Perceptions of Their Research Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Branchaw, Janet; Pfund, Christine; Leverett, Patrice; Newton, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated the specific factors in mentoring relationships between undergraduate researchers (mentees) and their mentors in the biological and life sciences that account for mentees' positive academic and career outcomes. Using archival evaluation data from more than 400 mentees gathered over a multi-year period…

  7. A unique cellular scaling rule in the avian auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Long, Brendan; Krilow, Justin M; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2016-06-01

    Although it is clear that neural structures scale with body size, the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Several recent studies have shown that the relationship between neuron numbers and brain (or brain region) size are not only different across mammalian orders, but also across auditory and visual regions within the same brains. Among birds, similar cellular scaling rules have not been examined in any detail. Here, we examine the scaling of auditory structures in birds and show that the scaling rules that have been established in the mammalian auditory pathway do not necessarily apply to birds. In galliforms, neuronal densities decrease with increasing brain size, suggesting that auditory brainstem structures increase in size faster than neurons are added; smaller brains have relatively more neurons than larger brains. The cellular scaling rules that apply to auditory brainstem structures in galliforms are, therefore, different to that found in primate auditory pathway. It is likely that the factors driving this difference are associated with the anatomical specializations required for sound perception in birds, although there is a decoupling of neuron numbers in brain structures and hair cell numbers in the basilar papilla. This study provides significant insight into the allometric scaling of neural structures in birds and improves our understanding of the rules that govern neural scaling across vertebrates. PMID:26002617

  8. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen;

    2015-01-01

    implementations of this framework are presented for auditory spectrograms, where the filterbank is based on the behavior of the basilar membrane and envelope extraction is modeled on the response of inner hair cells. One implementation is direct while the other is a two-stage approach that is computationally...... simpler. While both can accurately invert an auditory spectrogram, the two-stage approach performs better on time-domain metrics. The same framework is applied to traditional spectrograms based on the magnitude of the short-time Fourier transform. Inspired by human perception of loudness, a modification...

  9. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects. PMID:27177077

  10. Auditory perceptual simulation: Simulating speech rates or accents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-07-01

    When readers engage in Auditory Perceptual Simulation (APS) during silent reading, they mentally simulate characteristics of voices attributed to a particular speaker or a character depicted in the text. Previous research found that auditory perceptual simulation of a faster native English speaker during silent reading led to shorter reading times that auditory perceptual simulation of a slower non-native English speaker. Yet, it was uncertain whether this difference was triggered by the different speech rates of the speakers, or by the difficulty of simulating an unfamiliar accent. The current study investigates this question by comparing faster Indian-English speech and slower American-English speech in the auditory perceptual simulation paradigm. Analyses of reading times of individual words and the full sentence reveal that the auditory perceptual simulation effect again modulated reading rate, and auditory perceptual simulation of the faster Indian-English speech led to faster reading rates compared to auditory perceptual simulation of the slower American-English speech. The comparison between this experiment and the data from Zhou and Christianson (2016) demonstrate further that the "speakers'" speech rates, rather than the difficulty of simulating a non-native accent, is the primary mechanism underlying auditory perceptual simulation effects.

  11. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  12. Research of Executives' Perceptions in Companies and Organizations on the Importance of Mentoring in the Frame of In-House Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, Iosif; Valkanos, Efthymios; Voula, Florou

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to present the outcomes of a research on the executives' perceptions in companies and organizations on the importance of mentoring in the frame of in-house education and training. The paper researches the perceptions of people who work for companies and organizations as far as their participation in mentoring…

  13. Effects of aging on peripheral and central auditory processing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Margarida; Lepore, Franco; Prévost, François; Guillemot, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss is a hallmark sign in the elderly population. Decline in auditory perception provokes deficits in the ability to localize sound sources and reduces speech perception, particularly in noise. In addition to a loss of peripheral hearing sensitivity, changes in more complex central structures have also been demonstrated. Related to these, this study examines the auditory directional maps in the deep layers of the superior colliculus of the rat. Hence, anesthetized Sprague-Dawley adult (10 months) and aged (22 months) rats underwent distortion product of otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) to assess cochlear function. Then, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were assessed, followed by extracellular single-unit recordings to determine age-related effects on central auditory functions. DPOAE amplitude levels were decreased in aged rats although they were still present between 3.0 and 24.0 kHz. ABR level thresholds in aged rats were significantly elevated at an early (cochlear nucleus - wave II) stage in the auditory brainstem. In the superior colliculus, thresholds were increased and the tuning widths of the directional receptive fields were significantly wider. Moreover, no systematic directional spatial arrangement was present among the neurons of the aged rats, implying that the topographical organization of the auditory directional map was abolished. These results suggest that the deterioration of the auditory directional spatial map can, to some extent, be attributable to age-related dysfunction at more central, perceptual stages of auditory processing.

  14. The Life Story Method in research about self-perception of people with special educational needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Glat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present text discusses self-perception of people who are stigmatized due to intellectual (mental, sensorial and /or physical handicapped; global developmental disturbance or high abilities. For this aim, it analyses a group of researches (Master dissertations and PhD thesis in the field of Special Education in Graduate programs in Education and Psychology of Brazilian universities. All these studies had as theoretical-methodological reference the Life History Method, which utilizes as main data collection instrument the open interview, without a pre-determined guide. The data analyzed pointed out the validity of the Life History method for researches in Special Education and other areas of the so-called Applied Social and Human Sciences, since, among other aspects, it allows a descriptive-analytical global view of the situation or group under investigation. This methodology shows not only de needs and expectations of these groups of subjects, but, maybe even more important, the way in which the services and professionals that are in their disposition are being (or not effective. Life History research, therefore, besides the analysis of the daily experience, has, in itself, a propositional impact since the subject when narrating his life experiences, also reflects upon it, and points out his needs and strategies in order to adapt or overcome the restrictions imposed by his stigmatized condition.

  15. A Cross-Country Study on Research Students' Perceptions of the Role of Supervision and Cultural Knowledge in Thesis Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Suzanne Claire; Koo, Yew Lie; Saeidi, Mahnaz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a research study in Australia, Malaysia and Iran on students' perceptions of the roles of supervisor and student in the production of their thesis and the contribution of their cultural knowledge to thesis development. The 360 respondents who answered an online survey were studying for their Master's…

  16. Filtering Access to Internet Content at Higher Education Institutions: Stakeholder Perceptions and Their Impact on Research and Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Hardware and software filters, which sift through keywords placed in Internet search engines and online databases, work to limit the return of information from these sources. By their very purpose, filters exist to decrease the amount of information researchers can access. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the perceptions key…

  17. Google vs. the Library: Student Preferences and Perceptions when Doing Research Using Google and a Federated Search Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Federated searching was once touted as the library world's answer to Google, but ten years since federated searching technology's inception, how does it actually compare? This study focuses on undergraduate student preferences and perceptions when doing research using both Google and a federated search tool. Students were asked about their…

  18. Online Learning Perceptions and Effectiveness of Research Methods Courses in a Hispanic-Serving Higher Education Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Cavazos Vela, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors first reviewed related literature on possible factors that influence learning between an online learning (OL) course format and a face-to-face (F2F) course format. The authors investigated OL and F2F learning perceptions and effectiveness of a graduate-level research methods course at a Hispanic-serving institution…

  19. The Development of Public Perception Research in the Genomics Field: An Empirical Analysis of the Literature in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pin, Renske R.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a meta-analysis that was conducted on the subjects of published academic research on the public perception of genomics. In total, 451 journal articles were analyzed, all published between 1970 and 2006 and sampled from the databases Web of Science and Scopus. Results indicate

  20. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Research-Based Goal Setting in the Writing Process: A Qualitative Analysis of Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandowski, Douglas Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined participants' perceptions of research-based goal setting in the writing process. Specifically, the five participants learned how to generate and then used implementation intentions to set goals and state how they would reach those goals in a simulated classroom setting. In addition, this study examined how…

  2. Engaging Students in Environmental Research Projects: Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Levels of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Ebenezer, Devairakkam Luke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate the changes in high school students' perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (IT) and the levels of students' scientific inquiry abilities as a result of engaging students in long-term scientific research projects focusing on community-based environmental issues. Over a span of…

  3. First-Year Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of Lecturer and Peer Feedback: A New Zealand Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Roger; de Luca, Rosemary; Li, Jinrui

    2015-01-01

    Providing feedback on students' written work is a key professional activity in tertiary education. Although there has been research into the effectiveness of lecturers' feedback, there is a need for more studies comparing students' perceptions with those of their teachers. This article discusses the design and implementation of an innovatory…

  4. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  5. The neglected neglect: auditory neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Lahoti, Sourabh; Caplan, Louis R

    2013-08-01

    Whereas visual and somatosensory forms of neglect are commonly recognized by clinicians, auditory neglect is often not assessed and therefore neglected. The auditory cortical processing system can be functionally classified into 2 distinct pathways. These 2 distinct functional pathways deal with recognition of sound ("what" pathway) and the directional attributes of the sound ("where" pathway). Lesions of higher auditory pathways produce distinct clinical features. Clinical bedside evaluation of auditory neglect is often difficult because of coexisting neurological deficits and the binaural nature of auditory inputs. In addition, auditory neglect and auditory extinction may show varying degrees of overlap, which makes the assessment even harder. Shielding one ear from the other as well as separating the ear from space is therefore critical for accurate assessment of auditory neglect. This can be achieved by use of specialized auditory tests (dichotic tasks and sound localization tests) for accurate interpretation of deficits. Herein, we have reviewed auditory neglect with an emphasis on the functional anatomy, clinical evaluation, and basic principles of specialized auditory tests.

  6. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  7. A research study to determine the perception of security awareness within Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is opening its doors and much of the Cold War secrets are being declassified. There still remains, however, much information which cannot be declassified at this time. The classified material which cannot be released coupled with new technology research and development still makes security a major issue within the DOE complex. Chapter 1 provides background information on the organizations involved in this research and a discussion of the problem. Three populations were selected for this research: EG and G/EM, a DOE contractor used by Los Alamos; a Los Alamos population of division identified as having committed a security infraction within the six months prior to this study; and a Los Alamos population who had not committed a security infraction during the same time frame. Since security within Los Alamos is still a major issue, the DOE periodically performs security audits to ensure DOE policies are being implemented and that security requirements are being met. This study analyzed security awareness perceptions and the possible relationship to infractions. Chapter 2 discusses other research that has been done in areas which relate directly to the seven hypotheses of this study. Chapter 3 deals with the methodology used to conduct the research. Surveys were sent out to randomly selected employees from each population. Chapter 4 discusses the collected data and presents the statistical results of the study. A detailed discussion of the data analyzed in Chapter 4 is presented in Chapter 5 with recommendations to management. This chapter also looks at the limitations of the study and the implications on future studies in this area

  8. Medical students’ perceptions and attitudes about family practice: a qualitative research synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Olid Anna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index (SSCI, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. Two authors independently selected the studies for their inclusion and assessed their quality. The selected studies were thoroughly read. Key themes and categories were identified. A matrix was created for allowing the comparison of each theme across studies. Results Ten studies were finally included. Seven broad themes were identified across them: 1 Scope and context of practice was a broad theme comprising linked sub-themes: perception of a varied specialty, broad practice, holistic perspective and flexibility that allows having a family; 2 Lower interest or intellectually less challenging: treating common disease, repetitive, quasi administrative job; 3 Influence of role models, either positive and negative, and society: negative comments from other professionals, peers and family; 4 Lower prestige; 5 Poor remuneration; 6 Medical school influences, being important both the length and quality of the exposure; 7 Post graduate training, where the shorter duration and the lower intensity were perceived as positive aspects. After identifying these seven key themes, were also looked into patterns in the distribution of these themes among studies. Conclusions Our qualitative review provides a comprehensive picture of medical students’ attitudes towards family practice in the available literature. In general, although some students

  9. Research progress of functional magnetic resonance imaging in cross-modal activation of visual cortex during tactile perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing amount of neuroimaging studies recently demonstrated activation of visual cortex in both blind and sighted participants when performing a variety of tactile tasks such as Braille reading and tactile object recognition, which indicates that visual cortex not only receives visual information, but may participate in tactile perception. To address these cross-modal changes of visual cortex and the neurophysiological mechanisms, many researchers conducted explosive studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and have made some achievements. This review focuses on cross-modal activation of visual cortex and the underlying mechanisms during tactile perception in both blind and sighted individuals. (authors)

  10. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. 1. To determine which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated stimulating the left ear with pure tones, and what type of stimulation occurs (eg. excitatory or inhibitory) in these different areas. 2. To use this information as an initial step to develop a normal functional data base for future studies. 3. To try to determine if there is a biological substrate to the process of recalling previous auditory perceptions and if possible, suggest a locus for auditory memory. Method. Brain perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluation was conducted: 1-2) Using auditory stimulation with pure tones in 4 volunteers with normal hearing. 3) In a patient with bilateral profound hearing loss who had auditory perception of previous musical experiences; while injected with Tc99m HMPAO while she was having the sensation of hearing a well known melody. Results. Both in the patient with auditory hallucinations and the normal controls -stimulated with pure tones- there was a statistically significant increase in perfusion in Brodmann's area 39, more intense on the right side (right to left p < 0.05). With a lesser intensity there was activation in the adjacent area 40 and there was intense activation also in the executive frontal cortex areas 6, 8, 9, and 10 of Brodmann. There was also activation of area 7 of Brodmann; an audio-visual association area; more marked on the right side in the patient and the normal stimulated controls. In the subcortical structures there was also marked activation in the patient with hallucinations in both lentiform nuclei, thalamus and caudate nuclei also more intense in the right hemisphere, 5, 4.7 and 4.2 S.D. above the mean respectively and 5, 3.3, and 3 S.D. above the normal mean in the left hemisphere respectively. Similar findings were observed in normal controls. Conclusions. After auditory stimulation with pure tones in the left ear of normal female volunteers, there is bilateral activation of area 39

  11. The Perception of Employee Wellness in the Hospitality Industry : A survey research among hotel employers in the Black Forest, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeck, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the research on the actual perception of employee wellness and employee wellness programs in the context of the hospitality industry. The author’s formulated objectives in order to realize the research were primarily to determine to what extent the employers within the hospitality industry perceive health and wellness of staff as their responsibility. Secondly, to find out whether health and well- being benefits like “employee wellness programs” have any imp...

  12. Students' perceptions of peer-organized extra-curricular research course during medical school: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazha, Bassel; Salloum, Rony H; Fahed, Akl C; Nabulsi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Early integration of research education into medical curricula is crucial for evidence-based practice. Yet, many medical students are graduating with no research experience due to the lack of such integration in their medical school programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of a peer-organized, extra-curricular research methodology course on the attitudes of medical students towards research and future academic careers. Twenty one medical students who participated in a peer-organized research course were enrolled in three focus group discussions to explore their experiences, perceptions and attitudes towards research after the course. Discussions were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and were transcribed and thematically analyzed for major and minor themes identification. Our findings indicate that students' perceptions of research changed after the course from being difficult initially to becoming possible. Participants felt that their research skills and critical thinking were enhanced and that they would develop research proposals and abstracts successfully. Students praised the peer-assisted teaching approach as being successful in enhancing the learning environment and filling the curricular gap. In conclusion, peer-organized extra-curricular research courses may be a useful option to promote research interest and skills of medical students when gaps in research education in medical curricula exist. PMID:25764441

  13. Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. One manifestation of this is the McGurk illusion in which watching the articulating face alters the auditory phonetic percept. Understanding this phenomenon fully requires a computational model with predictive power. Here, we describe...

  14. Crowdsourcing taste research: genetic and phenotypic predictors of bitter taste perception as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Garneau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the influence of taste perception on food choice has captured the interest of academics, industry, and the general public. The latter as evidenced by the extent of popular media coverage and use of the term supertaster. Supertasters are highly sensitive to the bitter tastant propylthiouracil (PROP and its chemical relative phenylthiocarbamide. The well-researched differences in taste sensitivity to these bitter chemicals are partially controlled by variation in the TAS2R38 gene; however this variation alone does not explain the supertaster phenomenon. It has been suggested that density of papillae, which house taste buds, may explain supertasting. To address the unresolved role of papillae, we used crowdsourcing in the museum-based Genetics of Taste Lab. This community lab is uniquely situated to attract both a large population of human subjects and host a team of citizen scientists to research population-based questions about human genetics, taste, and health. Using this model, we find that PROP bitterness is not in any way predicted by papillae density. This result holds within the whole sample, when divided into major diplotypes, and when correcting for age, sex, and genotype. Furthermore, it holds when dividing participants into oft-used taster status groups. These data argue against the use of papillae density in predicting taste sensitivity and caution against imprecise use of the term supertaster. Furthermore, it supports a growing volume of evidence that sets the stage for hyperguesia, a reconceptualization of heightened oral sensitivity that is not based solely on PROP or papillae density. Finally, our model demonstrates how community-based research can serve as a unique venue for both study participation and citizen science that makes scientific research accessible and relevant to people’s everyday lives.

  15. Research-based assessment affordances and constraints: Perceptions of physics faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Martinuk, Mathew Sandy; Bell, Alexander; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2016-06-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Preparing and Supporting University Physics Educators.] To help faculty use research-based materials in a more significant way, we learn about their perceived needs and desires and use this information to suggest ways for the physics education research community to address these needs. When research-based resources are well aligned with the perceived needs of faculty, faculty members will more readily take them up. We used phenomenographic interviews of ordinary physics faculty and department chairs to identify four families of issues that faculty have around research-based assessments (RBAs). First, many faculty are interested in using RBAs but need help with the practicalities of administering RBAs: how to find them, which ones there are, and how to administer them. Second, at the same time, many faculty think that RBAs are limited and do not measure many of the things they care about, or are not applicable in their classes. They want assessments to measure skills, perceptions, and specific concepts. Third, many faculty want to turn to communities of other faculty and experts to help them interpret their assessment results and suggest other ways to do assessment. They want to better understand their assessment results by comparing to others and interacting with faculty from other schools to learn about how they do assessment. Fourth, many faculty consider their courses in the broader contexts of accountability and their departments. They want help with assessment in these broader contexts. We also discuss how a faculty member's role in their department and type of institution influence their perceived wants and needs around assessment.

  16. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Yohana; Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. PMID:27009161

  17. The Effects of Auditory Contrast Tuning upon Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathan J.; Watkins, Paul V.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Barbour, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified neurons tuned to spectral contrast of wideband sounds in auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys. Because additive noise alters the spectral contrast of speech, contrast-tuned neurons, if present in human auditory cortex, may aid in extracting speech from noise. Given that this cortical function may be underdeveloped in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss, incorporating biologically-inspired algorithms into external signal processing devices could provide speech enhancement benefits to cochlear implantees. In this study we first constructed a computational signal processing algorithm to mimic auditory cortex contrast tuning. We then manipulated the shape of contrast channels and evaluated the intelligibility of reconstructed noisy speech using a metric to predict cochlear implant user perception. Candidate speech enhancement strategies were then tested in cochlear implantees with a hearing-in-noise test. Accentuation of intermediate contrast values or all contrast values improved computed intelligibility. Cochlear implant subjects showed significant improvement in noisy speech intelligibility with a contrast shaping procedure.

  18. An auditory feature detection circuit for sound pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-09-01

    From human language to birdsong and the chirps of insects, acoustic communication is based on amplitude and frequency modulation of sound signals. Whereas frequency processing starts at the level of the hearing organs, temporal features of the sound amplitude such as rhythms or pulse rates require processing by central auditory neurons. Besides several theoretical concepts, brain circuits that detect temporal features of a sound signal are poorly understood. We focused on acoustically communicating field crickets and show how five neurons in the brain of females form an auditory feature detector circuit for the pulse pattern of the male calling song. The processing is based on a coincidence detector mechanism that selectively responds when a direct neural response and an intrinsically delayed response to the sound pulses coincide. This circuit provides the basis for auditory mate recognition in field crickets and reveals a principal mechanism of sensory processing underlying the perception of temporal patterns.

  19. Robust speech features representation based on computational auditory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xugang; JIA Chuan; DANG Jianwu

    2004-01-01

    A speech signal processing and features extracting method based on computational auditory model is proposed. The computational model is based on psychological, physiological knowledge and digital signal processing methods. In each stage of a hearing perception system, there is a corresponding computational model to simulate its function. Based on this model, speech features are extracted. In each stage, the features in different kinds of level are extracted. A further processing for primary auditory spectrum based on lateral inhibition is proposed to extract much more robust speech features. All these features can be regarded as the internal representations of speech stimulation in hearing system. The robust speech recognition experiments are conducted to test the robustness of the features. Results show that the representations based on the proposed computational auditory model are robust representations for speech signals.

  20. Understanding Student Engagement with Research: A Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Research Perceptions, Research Experience, and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Daniel; Lane, Rod; Van Bergen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on findings from a research project that investigated the extent to which pre-service teachers at a major metropolitan Australian university engage with research, and the factors that influence their level of engagement or disengagement. Results from survey responses (n = 235) and focus group interviews suggest that attitudes…

  1. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  2. Perception, practices towards research and predictors of research career among UG medical students from coastal South India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Kumar H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The number of physician scientists worldwide is decreasing. A review of literature suggests paucity of information examining perceptions and practices towards research among medical undergraduate students in India. Hence, this study was undertaken. Objectives : To understand (a the awareness, skills, perceptions and practices among undergraduate (UG medical students towards research, (b the factors responsible for willingness to take up research as a career among the undergraduates. Material and Methods : This is a questionnaire-based qualitative study. This study was conducted in Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. A pre-tested questionnaire examining their awareness, perceptions and practices towards research in medical field was used. Consent was obtained from the Dean of the College and student participation was voluntary. Analysis : The information was analyzed using SPSS version 11. Univariate and Multivariate analyses were done to know the willingness to consider research as a career. Results : A total of 471 students responded giving a response rate of 55.41%. Nearly 70% were aware about research though their level of awareness varied. Various skills of conducting research were known to 47% of the students. Most (76% were part of a research team mainly as a part of the medical curriculum, a few (8.3% were confident of research as a career option. The multivariate reveals that those with good skill and students who involved in research in addition to curriculum were more likely to take up research as career option/would continue to do research in future. Conclusions : Good training and student support programs exclusively for research would motivate students to opt for research careers.

  3. Silicon modeling of pitch perception.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaro, J.; Mead, C

    1989-01-01

    We have designed and tested an integrated circuit that models human pitch perception. The chip receives as input a time-varying voltage corresponding to sound pressure at the ear and produces as output a map of perceived pitch. The chip is a physiological model; subcircuits on the chip correspond to known and proposed structures in the auditory system. Chip output approximates human performance in response to a variety of classical pitch-perception stimuli. The 125,000-transistor chip compute...

  4. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  5. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments are increasingly...... presents some terminologies for mapping urban environments through its sonic configuration. Such probing into the practices of acoustic territorialisation may direct attention to some of the conflicting and disharmonious interests defining public inclusive domains. The paper investigates the concept...

  6. Music-induced cortical plasticity and lateral inhibition in the human auditory cortex as foundations for tonal tinnitus treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Christo; Okamoto, Hidehiko; Teismann, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, we have studied plasticity in the human auditory cortex by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Two main topics nurtured our curiosity: the effects of musical training on plasticity in the auditory system, and the effects of lateral inhibition. One of our plasticity studies found that listening to notched music for 3 h inhibited the neuronal activity in the auditory cortex that corresponded to the center-frequency of the notch, suggesting suppression of neural activity by lateral inhibition. Subsequent research on this topic found that suppression was notably dependent upon the notch width employed, that the lower notch-edge induced stronger attenuation of neural activity than the higher notch-edge, and that auditory focused attention strengthened the inhibitory networks. Crucially, the overall effects of lateral inhibition on human auditory cortical activity were stronger than the habituation effects. Based on these results we developed a novel treatment strategy for tonal tinnitus—tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT). By notching the music energy spectrum around the individual tinnitus frequency, we intended to attract lateral inhibition to auditory neurons involved in tinnitus perception. So far, the training strategy has been evaluated in two studies. The results of the initial long-term controlled study (12 months) supported the validity of the treatment concept: subjective tinnitus loudness and annoyance were significantly reduced after TMNMT but not when notching spared the tinnitus frequencies. Correspondingly, tinnitus-related auditory evoked fields (AEFs) were significantly reduced after training. The subsequent short-term (5 days) training study indicated that training was more effective in the case of tinnitus frequencies ≤ 8 kHz compared to tinnitus frequencies >8 kHz, and that training should be employed over a long-term in order to induce more persistent effects. Further development and evaluation of TMNMT therapy

  7. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  8. Sensory Responses during Sleep in Primate Primary and Secondary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Elias B.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2008-01-01

    Most sensory stimuli do not reach conscious perception during sleep. It has been thought that the thalamus prevents the relay of sensory information to cortex during sleep, but the consequences for cortical responses to sensory signals in this physiological state remain unclear. We recorded from two auditory cortical areas downstream of the thalamus in naturally sleeping marmoset monkeys. Single neurons in primary auditory cortex either increased or decreased their responses during sleep comp...

  9. Discrimination of Communication Vocalizations by Single Neurons and Groups of Neurons in the Auditory Midbrain

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, David M.; Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Many social animals including songbirds use communication vocalizations for individual recognition. The perception of vocalizations depends on the encoding of complex sounds by neurons in the ascending auditory system, each of which is tuned to a particular subset of acoustic features. Here, we examined how well the responses of single auditory neurons could be used to discriminate among bird songs and we compared discriminability to spectrotemporal tuning. We then used biologically realistic...

  10. Original Research: The Benefits of Rapid Response Teams: Exploring Perceptions of Nurse Leaders, Team Members, and End Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolldorf, Deonni P

    2016-03-01

    : The perceived benefits of rapid response teams (RRTs) influence whether RRTs are used and sustained. Perceived benefits are particularly important to sustaining RRTs when limited RRT data are shared with organizational members. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the benefits of RRTs likely influence their support, which is crucial for sustained RRT use. The perceptions of RRT members and end users similarly will affect use. But little is known regarding the perceptions of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users in this regard.This study sought to explore and compare the perceptions of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users regarding the benefits of RRTs.A qualitative, multiple-case study design was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users at four community hospitals, as part of a larger mixed-methods study examining RRT sustainability. Purposive and snowball sampling were used. Recruitment strategies included e-mail and listserv announcements, on-site presentations, direct personal contact, and a study flyer.All participants reported perceiving various ways that RRTs benefit the organization, staff members, and patients. Variations in the benefits perceived were observed between the three participant groups. Nurse leaders' perceptions tended to focus on macro-level benefits. RRT members emphasized the teaching and learning opportunities that RRTs offer. RRT users focused on the psychological support that RRTs can provide.Both similarities and differences were found between nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users regarding their perceptions of RRT benefits. Differences may be indicative of organizations' information-sharing processes; of variation in the priorities of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users; and of the challenges nurses face daily in their work environments. Future research should investigate whether the perceived benefits of RRTs are borne out in actuality, as well as the relationships

  11. The Use of Health Transition Item in Health Inequalities Research: Annual Health Perception Variation Value (AHVV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Eser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The introduction of the “Annual Health Perception Variation Value (AHVV” that is developed by using Health Transition Item. Methods: The sample size of this representative study is 3397 (38.6% male with a mean age of 35.7 ± 22.5 years. The AHVV is developed by means of selfevaluated Health Transition Item of the SF-36 scale. AHVV is calculated for each of the 5 years age groups. The percentages of the positive responses are summed up and then subtracted from the sum of the percentages of the negative responses such as: AHVV= [(Much Better % + Somewhat Better %] – [(Somewhat Worse % + Worse %]. Fort he sake of making comparison with AHVV, “Current Self Rated Health Value (SRHV is also derived from a SRH question, calculated by a similar methodology. Results: Regardless of having any chronic illness, both SRHV and AHVV worsen as a person gets older and gets poorer. AHVV is affected by age (ß=0.36 more that that of SRHV (ß=0.08 whereas SRHV variance can be better explained by income level (ß =0.18 than AHVV (ß =0.05 in the multiple linear regression analyses. A significant linear trend in the mean AHV was observed by SRH categories. Conclusion: AHVV can be regarded as a new population level parametric summary health transition index which can be used in health inequality research

  12. Subcortical correlates of auditory perceptual organization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Shimpei; Otsuka, Sho; Furukawa, Shigeto; Kashino, Makio

    2016-09-01

    To make sense of complex auditory scenes, the auditory system sequentially organizes auditory components into perceptual objects or streams. In the conventional view of this process, the cortex plays a major role in perceptual organization, and subcortical mechanisms merely provide the cortex with acoustical features. Here, we show that the neural activities of the brainstem are linked to perceptual organization, which alternates spontaneously for human listeners without any stimulus change. The stimulus used in the experiment was an unchanging sequence of repeated triplet tones, which can be interpreted as either one or two streams. Listeners were instructed to report the perceptual states whenever they experienced perceptual switching between one and two streams throughout the stimulus presentation. Simultaneously, we recorded event related potentials with scalp electrodes. We measured the frequency-following response (FFR), which is considered to originate from the brainstem. We also assessed thalamo-cortical activity through the middle-latency response (MLR). The results demonstrate that the FFR and MLR varied with the state of auditory stream perception. In addition, we found that the MLR change precedes the FFR change with perceptual switching from a one-stream to a two-stream percept. This suggests that there are top-down influences on brainstem activity from the thalamo-cortical pathway. These findings are consistent with the idea of a distributed, hierarchical neural network for perceptual organization and suggest that the network extends to the brainstem level. PMID:27371867

  13. Auralization of CFD Vorticity Using an Auditory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    One way in which scientists and engineers interpret large quantities of data is through a process called visualization, i.e. generating graphical images that capture essential characteristics and highlight interesting relationships. Another approach, which has received far less attention, is to present complex information with sound. This approach, called ``auralization" or ``sonification", is the auditory analog of visualization. Early work in data auralization frequently involved directly mapping some variable in the data to a sound parameter, such as pitch or volume. Multi-variate data could be auralized by mapping several variables to several sound parameters simultaneously. A clear drawback of this approach is the limited practical range of sound parameters that can be presented to human listeners without exceeding their range of perception or comfort. A software auralization system built upon an existing visualization system is briefly described. This system incorporates an aural presentation synchronously and interactively with an animated scientific visualization, so that alternate auralization techniques can be investigated. One such alternate technique involves auditory illusions: sounds which trick the listener into perceiving something other than what is actually being presented. This software system will be used to present an auditory illusion, known for decades among cognitive psychologists, which produces a sound that seems to ascend or descend endlessly in pitch. The applicability of this illusion for presenting Computational Fluid Dynamics data will be demonstrated. CFD data is frequently visualized with thin stream-lines, but thicker stream-ribbons and stream-tubes can also be used, which rotate to convey fluid vorticity. But a purely graphical presentation can yield drawbacks of its own. Thicker stream-tubes can be self-obscuring, and can obscure other scene elements as well, thus motivating a different approach, such as using sound. Naturally

  14. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution....... Throughout the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  15. Visual tuning and metrical perception of realistic point-light dance movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Humans move to music spontaneously, and this sensorimotor coupling underlies musical rhythm perception. The present research proposed that, based on common action representation, different metrical levels as in auditory rhythms could emerge visually when observing structured dance movements. Participants watched a point-light figure performing basic steps of Swing dance cyclically in different tempi, whereby the trunk bounced vertically at every beat and the limbs moved laterally at every second beat, yielding two possible metrical periodicities. In Experiment 1, participants freely identified a tempo of the movement and tapped along. While some observers only tuned to the bounce and some only to the limbs, the majority tuned to one level or the other depending on the movement tempo, which was also associated with individuals' preferred tempo. In Experiment 2, participants reproduced the tempo of leg movements by four regular taps, and showed a slower perceived leg tempo with than without the trunk bouncing simultaneously in the stimuli. This mirrors previous findings of an auditory 'subdivision effect', suggesting the leg movements were perceived as beat while the bounce as subdivisions. Together these results support visual metrical perception of dance movements, which may employ similar action-based mechanisms to those underpinning auditory rhythm perception. PMID:26947252

  16. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloas, David C; Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B; Sen, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices.

  17. Interactions across Multiple Stimulus Dimensions in Primary Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ran; Xue, Hongbo; Chambers, Anna R.; Kolaczyk, Eric; Polley, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) provide a potentially powerful approach for exploring multidimensional stimulus spaces based on real-time spike feedback, but two important issues arise in their application. First, it is unclear whether it is necessary to characterize cortical responses to multidimensional stimuli or whether it suffices to characterize cortical responses to a single dimension at a time. Second, quantitative methods for analyzing complex multidimensional data from an EA are lacking. Here, we apply a statistical method for nonlinear regression, the generalized additive model (GAM), to address these issues. The GAM quantitatively describes the dependence between neural response and all stimulus dimensions. We find that auditory cortical neurons in mice are sensitive to interactions across dimensions. These interactions are diverse across the population, indicating significant integration across stimulus dimensions in auditory cortex. This result strongly motivates using multidimensional stimuli in auditory cortex. Together, the EA and the GAM provide a novel quantitative paradigm for investigating neural coding of complex multidimensional stimuli in auditory and other sensory cortices. PMID:27622211

  18. Coding of melodic gestalt in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Herdener, Marcus; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The perception of a melody is invariant to the absolute properties of its constituting notes, but depends on the relation between them-the melody's relative pitch profile. In fact, a melody's "Gestalt" is recognized regardless of the instrument or key used to play it. Pitch processing in general is assumed to occur at the level of the auditory cortex. However, it is unknown whether early auditory regions are able to encode pitch sequences integrated over time (i.e., melodies) and whether the resulting representations are invariant to specific keys. Here, we presented participants different melodies composed of the same 4 harmonic pitches during functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Additionally, we played the same melodies transposed in different keys and on different instruments. We found that melodies were invariantly represented by their blood oxygen level-dependent activation patterns in primary and secondary auditory cortices across instruments, and also across keys. Our findings extend common hierarchical models of auditory processing by showing that melodies are encoded independent of absolute pitch and based on their relative pitch profile as early as the primary auditory cortex.

  19. [A review of research on music perception ability for adult cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziye; Liu, Bo; Wang, Shuo

    2012-11-01

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a kind of surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who has severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment. However, studies have shown that the performance in music perception for CI users has not been achieved to an ideal level. It is important to evaluate the ability to perceive music using well designed music perception test materials, in order to improve the quality of life for cochlear implant users. This paper reviewed the studies on assessing music perception ability for adult cochlear implant users from the existing literature. PMID:23379124

  20. A Model of the Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans: Research Overview and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan

    2012-05-01

    In cognitive science and neuroscience, there have been two leading models describing how humans perceive and classify facial expressions of emotion-the continuous and the categorical model. The continuous model defines each facial expression of emotion as a feature vector in a face space. This model explains, for example, how expressions of emotion can be seen at different intensities. In contrast, the categorical model consists of C classifiers, each tuned to a specific emotion category. This model explains, among other findings, why the images in a morphing sequence between a happy and a surprise face are perceived as either happy or surprise but not something in between. While the continuous model has a more difficult time justifying this latter finding, the categorical model is not as good when it comes to explaining how expressions are recognized at different intensities or modes. Most importantly, both models have problems explaining how one can recognize combinations of emotion categories such as happily surprised versus angrily surprised versus surprise. To resolve these issues, in the past several years, we have worked on a revised model that justifies the results reported in the cognitive science and neuroscience literature. This model consists of C distinct continuous spaces. Multiple (compound) emotion categories can be recognized by linearly combining these C face spaces. The dimensions of these spaces are shown to be mostly configural. According to this model, the major task for the classification of facial expressions of emotion is precise, detailed detection of facial landmarks rather than recognition. We provide an overview of the literature justifying the model, show how the resulting model can be employed to build algorithms for the recognition of facial expression of emotion, and propose research directions in machine learning and computer vision researchers to keep pushing the state of the art in these areas. We also discuss how the model can

  1. Audiovisual integration in speech perception: a multi-stage process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    investigate whether the integration of auditory and visual speech observed in these two audiovisual integration effects are specific traits of speech perception. We further ask whether audiovisual integration is undertaken in a single processing stage or multiple processing stages....

  2. Research on Risk Perception and the Influence Factors Analysis of Freshwater Edible Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Ruixin Liu; Linhai Wu; Lijie Shan; Chunxian Han

    2015-01-01

    This paper studied 192 consumers’ risk perception of freshwater fish and its influencing factors with Probit regression method based on the survey of Yangzhou city in Jiangsu province. Results showed that nearly 40% of consumers have a higher risk perception for the quality safety of freshwater fish and think that environmental hormone residues and antibiotic residues are main safety problems of freshwater fish. According to the influencing degree, the factors influencing consumer’s risk perc...

  3. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  4. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  5. Potentials for Horizontal Cooperation in a Centralized Setting: Empirical Research on Hungarian Civil Servants’ Perceptions on Public Administration Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton GELLÉN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes empirical findings regarding the perceptions of the Hungarian central civil service on outsourcing and other forms of cooperation. The findings summarized in this article are part of a vast empirical research effort that took place in 2014 – shortly after the wave of a comprehensive centralization that affected the entire corpus of Hungarian public administration from the local level to the ministerial level. The complete research design consisted of qualitative and quantitative elements, the latter containing an online questionnaire sent out to 40.000 addresses within the Hungarian central civil service. According to the empirical findings of the study, outsourcing as a general concept does not have significant support among Hungarian civil servants while other forms of cooperation with external players are far from being rejected. The current study throws light on what civil servants think about internal and external forms of cooperation such as delegation, involvement in decisions or government-civil society and government- market arrangements. The article displays the research findings on the stakeholder perceptions regarding outsourcing, insourcing and PPPs in the light of corresponding theory and development path analysis applied to the case of Hungary. The article embraces stakeholder and civil service perceptions on outsourcing and offers a context in which it can be better understood.

  6. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  7. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Miller-Sims

    Full Text Available Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  8. Development of auditory-vocal perceptual skills in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult "tutors", and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning.

  9. Acoustic Shadows: An Auditory Exploration of the Sense of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dufour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of auditory detection of the movements of silent objects in noisy environments. The approach to studying and exploring this phenomenon is primarily based on the framework of the ecology of perception defined by James Gibson (Gibson, 1979 in the sense that it focuses on the direct auditory perception of events, or “structured energy that specifies properties of the environment” (Michaels & Carello, 1981 P. 157. The goal of this study is triple: -Theoretical; for various reasons, this kind of acoustic situations has not been extensively studied by traditional acoustics and psychoacoustics, therefore, this project demonstrates and supports the pertinence of the Ecology of Perception for the description and explanation of such complex phenomena. -Practical; like echolocation, perception of acoustic shadows can be improved by practice, this project intends to contribute to the acknowledgment of this way of listening and to help individuals placed in noisy environments without the support of vision acquiring a detailed detection of the movements occurring in these environments. -Artistic; this project explores a new artistic expression based on the creation and exploration of complex multisensory environments. Acoustic Shadows, a multimedia interactive composition is being developed on the premises of the ecological approach to perception. The last dimension of this project is meant to be a contribution to the sonic representation of space in films and in computer generated virtual environments by producing simulations of acoustic shadows.

  10. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  11. The acceptability of nanocarriers for drug delivery in different contexts of use: perceptions of researchers and research trainees in the field of new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenel V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Chenel,1–4 Patrick Boissy,1–3 Marie-Sol Poirier,1–3 Jean-Pierre Cloarec,3,4 Johane Patenaude1–3 1Interdisciplinary Institute for Technological Innovation (3IT, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystèmes (LN2, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada; 4Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL, site École Centrale de Lyon, France Background: Despite marked optimism in the field of nanomedicine about the use of drug-delivery nanocarriers, uncertainties exist concerning nanocarriers’ possible unintended impacts and effects. These uncertainties could affect user acceptance and acceptability. “Acceptance” refers to the intention to put a technology or a device to a specified use. “Acceptability” refers to a value judgment that accounts for acceptance. The objectives of this study were to characterize impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability in relation to drug-delivery nanocarriers in different contexts of use, and to explore relationships among these concepts.Methods: A sample of European and Canadian researchers and graduate research trainees active in the field of new technologies was recruited by targeted email invitation for participation in a web-based questionnaire study. The questionnaire presented scenarios for two contexts of use (lung cancer, seasonal flu of drug-delivery nanocarriers with two compositions (carbon, synthetic DNA. Respondents’ impact perception, acceptance, and acceptability judgment in relation to each kind of nanocarrier in each context of use were measured with Likert scale questions and scored using categorical values.Results: Two hundred and fourteen researchers and graduate research trainees completed the questionnaire. The results showed that nanocarrier composition influenced impact perception

  12. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH REGARDING ROMANIANS' PERCEPTION ABOUT THE REGIONAL BRAND “MARAMUREª”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drule Alexandra-Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the expansion of touristic activities confirmed the importance of marketing activities in touristic regions. In tourism as well, globalization implies an unlimited number of options, and the traditional elements regarding competition and differences related to price or quality are no longer sufficient in efficiently differentiating the touristic region. A key factor in this sense is represented by the notion of place branding or, to be more precise, regional branding. Theoretical studies on this subject are relatively recent, and fewer compared with studies on traditional brands, for example. A practical research regarding a touristic region can thus provide a series of utile information that marketers can use in elaborating marketing strategies and, specifically, in the branding process. The study's main objective aimed at shaping the regional brand “Maramureº” using mainly projective techniques, scarcely used in studies of this kind in Romania, based on a sample of more than 200 respondents. The information obtained focused on the respondents' perceptions regarding the region of Maramureº as a touristic brand, the associations made, the values attributed to the region in terms of touristic potential, of touristic infrastructure, of weak and strong points of the touristic brand Maramureº, but also elements of the regional image and identity (at this point were considered certain associations with visual elements but also with its personality. By highlighting respondents' subjective and diverse opinions, it was aimed to point out some directions that would eventually guide a new approach of the brand for this touristic region. Also, the results of this study could represent a starting point for a program of regional development, funded through various local or European funds. Furthermore, based on the information obtained from respondents, it has been proposed a new logo of the region, as a first step in running a

  13. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central) auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, E; Musiek, F E; Alonso, R; Ogata, J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR) characteristics (latency and amplitude) in children with (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (C)APD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (C)APD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (C)APD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 microV (mean), 0.39 (SD--standard deviation) for the (C)APD group and 1.18 microV (mean), 0.65 (SD) for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 microV (mean), 0.31 (SD) for the (C)APD group and 1.00 microV (mean), 0.46 (SD) for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 microV (mean), 0.82 (SD)] and C3-A2 [1.24 microV (mean), 0.73 (SD)] wave amplitudes of the (C)APD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (C)APD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (C)APD.

  14. Effect of auditory training on the middle latency response in children with (central auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schochat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the middle latency response (MLR characteristics (latency and amplitude in children with (central auditory processing disorder [(CAPD], categorized as such by their performance on the central auditory test battery, and the effects of these characteristics after auditory training. Thirty children with (CAPD, 8 to 14 years of age, were tested using the MLR-evoked potential. This group was then enrolled in an 8-week auditory training program and then retested at the completion of the program. A control group of 22 children without (CAPD, composed of relatives and acquaintances of those involved in the research, underwent the same testing at equal time intervals, but were not enrolled in the auditory training program. Before auditory training, MLR results for the (CAPD group exhibited lower C3-A1 and C3-A2 wave amplitudes in comparison to the control group [C3-A1, 0.84 µV (mean, 0.39 (SD - standard deviation for the (CAPD group and 1.18 µV (mean, 0.65 (SD for the control group; C3-A2, 0.69 µV (mean, 0.31 (SD for the (CAPD group and 1.00 µV (mean, 0.46 (SD for the control group]. After training, the MLR C3-A1 [1.59 µV (mean, 0.82 (SD] and C3-A2 [1.24 µV (mean, 0.73 (SD] wave amplitudes of the (CAPD group significantly increased, so that there was no longer a significant difference in MLR amplitude between (CAPD and control groups. These findings suggest progress in the use of electrophysiological measurements for the diagnosis and treatment of (CAPD.

  15. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  16. A physiologically inspired model of auditory stream segregation based on a temporal coherence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability to perceptually separate acoustic sources and focus one’s attention on a single source at a time is essential for our ability to use acoustic information. In this study, a physiologically inspired model of human auditory processing [M. L. Jepsen and T. Dau, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 422...... activity across frequency. Using this approach, the described model is able to quantitatively account for classical streaming phenomena relying on frequency separation and tone presentation rate, such as the temporal coherence boundary and the fission boundary [L. P. A. S. van Noorden, doctoral...... dissertation, Institute for Perception Research, Eindhoven, NL, (1975)]. The same model also accounts for the perceptual grouping of distant spectral components in the case of synchronous presentation. The most essential components of the front-end and back-end processing in the framework of the presented...

  17. Indirect scaling methods applied to the identification and quantification of auditory attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickelmaier, Florian

    of sound quality research: be it in product-sound design or in the assessment of sound reproduction systems. In this Ph.D. thesis, so-called indirect scaling methods were developed and analyzed for their usefulness in sound quality evaluation. Such methods are characterized by requiring only simple...... qualitative judgments from listeners (as opposed to complex, often numerical judgments in direct scaling procedures), and by providing built-in tests of the validity of the underlying theoretical construct (as opposed to assuming its validity). In indirect scaling procedures, the numerical scale......). The results suggest that these methods have the potential to reveal aspects of auditory perception which cannot easily be obtained using existing direct scaling procedures....

  18. Auditory hallucinations in tinnitus patients: Emotional relationships and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the last few years, our Tinnitus Research Group has identified an increasing number of patients with tinnitus who also complained of repeated perception of complex sounds, such as music and voices. Such hallucinatory phenomena motivated us to study their possible relation to the patients' psyches. Aims: To assess whether hallucinatory phenomena were related to the patients' psychosis and/or depression, and clarify their content and function in the patients' psyches. Method: Ten subjects (8 women; mean age = 65.7 years were selected by otolaryngologists and evaluated by the same psychologists through semi-structured interviews, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychoanalysis interviews. Results: We found no association between auditory hallucinations and psychosis; instead, this phenomenon was associated with depressive aspects. The patients' discourse revealed that hallucinatory phenomena played unconscious roles in their emotional life. In all cases, there was a remarkable and strong tendency to recall/repeat unpleasant facts/situations, which tended to exacerbate the distress caused by the tinnitus and hallucinatory phenomena and worsen depressive aspects. Conclusions: There is an important relationship between tinnitus, hallucinatory phenomena, and depression based on persistent recall of facts/situations leading to psychic distress. The knowledge of such findings represents a further step towards the need to adapt the treatment of this particular subgroup of tinnitus patients through interdisciplinary teamwork. Prospective.

  19. Streaming Physiological Data: General Public Perceptions of Secondary Use and Application to Research in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Carolyn; Heath, Jennifer; Choi, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    High speed physiological data represents one of the most untapped resources in healthcare today and is a form of Big Data. Physiological data is captured and displayed on a wide range of devices in healthcare environments. Frequently this data is transitory and lost once initially displayed. Researchers wish to store and analyze these datasets, however, there is little evidence of any engagement with citizens regarding their perceptions of physiological data capture for secondary use. This paper presents the findings of a self-administered household survey (n=165, response rate = 34%) that investigated Australian and Canadian citizens' perceptions of such physiological data capture and re-use. Results indicate general public support for the secondary use of physiological streaming data. Discussion considers the potential application of such data in neonatal intensive care contexts in relation to our Artemis research. Consideration of the perceptions of secondary use of the streaming data as early as possible will assist in building appropriate use models, with a focus on parents in the neonatal context. PMID:26262091

  20. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  1. The efficacy of the Berard Auditory Integration Training method for learners with attention difficulties / Hannelie Kemp

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Johanna Jacoba

    2010-01-01

    Research on the Berard Auditory Integration Training method has shown improvement in the regulation of attention, activity and impulsivity of children whose auditory system have been re-trained. Anecdotal reports have found improvements in sleeping patterns, balance, allergies, eyesight, eating patterns, depression and other seemingly unrelated physiological states. During the Auditory Integration Training (AIT) procedure dynamic music, with a wide range of frequencies, is processed through a...

  2. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named "auditory streaming". Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally.

  3. Auditory Streaming as an Online Classification Process with Evidence Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniv, Dana; Nelken, Israel

    2015-01-01

    When human subjects hear a sequence of two alternating pure tones, they often perceive it in one of two ways: as one integrated sequence (a single "stream" consisting of the two tones), or as two segregated sequences, one sequence of low tones perceived separately from another sequence of high tones (two "streams"). Perception of this stimulus is thus bistable. Moreover, subjects report on-going switching between the two percepts: unless the frequency separation is large, initial perception tends to be of integration, followed by toggling between integration and segregation phases. The process of stream formation is loosely named “auditory streaming”. Auditory streaming is believed to be a manifestation of human ability to analyze an auditory scene, i.e. to attribute portions of the incoming sound sequence to distinct sound generating entities. Previous studies suggested that the durations of the successive integration and segregation phases are statistically independent. This independence plays an important role in current models of bistability. Contrary to this, we show here, by analyzing a large set of data, that subsequent phase durations are positively correlated. To account together for bistability and positive correlation between subsequent durations, we suggest that streaming is a consequence of an evidence accumulation process. Evidence for segregation is accumulated during the integration phase and vice versa; a switch to the opposite percept occurs stochastically based on this evidence. During a long phase, a large amount of evidence for the opposite percept is accumulated, resulting in a long subsequent phase. In contrast, a short phase is followed by another short phase. We implement these concepts using a probabilistic model that shows both bistability and correlations similar to those observed experimentally. PMID:26671774

  4. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Robert W; Bőhm, Tamás M; Bendixen, Alexandra; Winkler, István; Denham, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes) with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual organisations) and the dynamics

  5. Modelling the emergence and dynamics of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Mill

    Full Text Available Many sound sources can only be recognised from the pattern of sounds they emit, and not from the individual sound events that make up their emission sequences. Auditory scene analysis addresses the difficult task of interpreting the sound world in terms of an unknown number of discrete sound sources (causes with possibly overlapping signals, and therefore of associating each event with the appropriate source. There are potentially many different ways in which incoming events can be assigned to different causes, which means that the auditory system has to choose between them. This problem has been studied for many years using the auditory streaming paradigm, and recently it has become apparent that instead of making one fixed perceptual decision, given sufficient time, auditory perception switches back and forth between the alternatives-a phenomenon known as perceptual bi- or multi-stability. We propose a new model of auditory scene analysis at the core of which is a process that seeks to discover predictable patterns in the ongoing sound sequence. Representations of predictable fragments are created on the fly, and are maintained, strengthened or weakened on the basis of their predictive success, and conflict with other representations. Auditory perceptual organisation emerges spontaneously from the nature of the competition between these representations. We present detailed comparisons between the model simulations and data from an auditory streaming experiment, and show that the model accounts for many important findings, including: the emergence of, and switching between, alternative organisations; the influence of stimulus parameters on perceptual dominance, switching rate and perceptual phase durations; and the build-up of auditory streaming. The principal contribution of the model is to show that a two-stage process of pattern discovery and competition between incompatible patterns can account for both the contents (perceptual

  6. Auditory Discrimination Using Frequency-Modulated Amplification with Long-Term Amplitude Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Bernard David

    This dissertation considers the effects of long -term amplitude compression used in narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) assistive listening devices on the auditory discrimination of severely and profoundly hearing-impaired individuals. Compression has been used in narrow-band FM transmitters for hearing-impaired children in educational programs for over twenty years. It restricts the peak deviation of the FM signal to within allowable limits. Narrow -band FM equipment can vary in peak limitation approaches via compression, i.e., using a form of compression limiting or using long-term compression (automatic volume control). Numerous investigations have studied the benefits of FM system use, but none have tested the benefits or deleterious effects of these compression forms on the auditory discrimination of hearing-impaired individuals. Despite the marked limitations associated with severe or profound sensorineural hearing impairment in children, spoken language development is possible. Research and experience have suggested that the auditory system represents the best sensory input channel for these children. With appropriate amplification and educational intervention they can achieve dramatic improvements in speech perception, speech production, language development, and educational achievement (Boothroyd, 1985; Hudgins, 1953, 1954; Ling & Milne, 1981; Wedenberg, 1954). Most hearing-impaired children in educational programs across the United States receive the amplified teacher's speech signal via narrow-band frequency modulated (FM) transmission, yet a controlled investigation of the input compression used in these systems has never been conducted. This dissertation reviews and discusses narrow -band frequency modulated (FM) radio wave systems and the use of audio compression. The experiment tested 32 students with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss under two narrow -band FM transmitter conditions. The FM transmitter conditions were varied on the basis

  7. Prefrontal cortex based sex differences in tinnitus perception: same tinnitus intensity, same tinnitus distress, different mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vanneste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus refers to auditory phantom sensation. It is estimated that for 2% of the population this auditory phantom percept severely affects the quality of life, due to tinnitus related distress. Although the overall distress levels do not differ between sexes in tinnitus, females are more influenced by distress than males. Typically, pain, sleep, and depression are perceived as significantly more severe by female tinnitus patients. Studies on gender differences in emotional regulation indicate that females with high depressive symptoms show greater attention to emotion, and use less anti-rumination emotional repair strategies than males. METHODOLOGY: The objective of this study was to verify whether the activity and connectivity of the resting brain is different for male and female tinnitus patients using resting-state EEG. CONCLUSIONS: Females had a higher mean score than male tinnitus patients on the BDI-II. Female tinnitus patients differ from male tinnitus patients in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC extending to the frontopolar cortex in beta1 and beta2. The OFC is important for emotional processing of sounds. Increased functional alpha connectivity is found between the OFC, insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC, parahippocampal (PHC areas and the auditory cortex in females. Our data suggest increased functional connectivity that binds tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity to auditory emotion-related areas via the PHC-sgACC connections resulting in a more depressive state even though the tinnitus intensity and tinnitus-related distress are not different from men. Comparing male tinnitus patients to a control group of males significant differences could be found for beta3 in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The PCC might be related to cognitive and memory-related aspects of the tinnitus percept. Our results propose that sex influences in tinnitus research cannot be ignored and should be taken into account in functional

  8. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  9. Adaptation Aftereffects in Vocal Emotion Perception Elicited by Expressive Faces and Voices

    OpenAIRE

    Verena G Skuk; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotions is often suggested to be multimodal in nature, and bimodal as compared to unimodal (auditory or visual) presentation of emotional stimuli can lead to superior emotion recognition. In previous studies, contrastive aftereffects in emotion perception caused by perceptual adaptation have been shown for faces and for auditory affective vocalization, when adaptors were of the same modality. By contrast, crossmodal aftereffects in the perception of emotional vocalizations ...

  10. Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: Perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology

    OpenAIRE

    M. Huss; Verney, J.P.; Fosker, Tim; Mead, N.; Goswami, U.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Rhythm organises musical events into patterns and forms, and rhythm perception in music is usually studied by using metrical tasks. Metrical structure also plays an organisational function in the phonology of language, via speech prosody, and there is evidence for rhythmic perceptual difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the accurate perception of musical metrical structure is related to basic auditory perception of rise time, and also t...

  11. The Perception of Time: Basic Research and Some Potential Links to the Study of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearden, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The article first discusses some recent work in time perception--in particular the distinction among prospective timing, retrospective timing, and passage of time judgments. The history and application of an "internal clock" model as an explanation of prospective timing performance is reviewed and contrasted with the different mechanisms needed…

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions about Fragile X Syndrome: Implications for Diagnosis, Intervention, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Brenda; Haas-Givler, Barbara; Simon, Elliott W.

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 439 professionals in the field of autism to assess their knowledge and perceptions about fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related issues. Almost half had worked with at least one child diagnosed with FXS, yet most lacked basic knowledge about the condition, underestimated its significance in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, and…

  13. University Students' Perceptions of a Holistic Care Course through Cooperative Learning: Implications for Instructors and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Peter Jen Der; Pan, Gloria Huey-Ming; Lee, Ching-Yieh; Chang, Shona Shih Hua

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of cooperative learning have been advocated in a wide range of educational contexts in higher education. There is, however, rare information on the contributions of holistic education courses on college students. Using grounded theory methods, this preliminary study was to explore participants' perceptions of a holistic care course…

  14. The Perception of Malaysian Architects towards the Implementation of Green Roofs: A Review of Practices, Methodologies and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir M.H. Md.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of green roofs or vegetated roof as a sustainable tool to mitigate the Urban Heat Island effect is relatively new in Malaysia. Although it has not been tested on an urban scale, many research findings have indicated that green roofs can contribute towards enhancing the environmental and aesthetical quality of the built environment. It was hypothesized that the low application of green roofs in the Malaysian construction industry is due to the lack of awareness, understanding and experience in its benefits especially among building practitioners. As a result, this research was initiated to determine the perception and understanding of Malaysian architects in green roofs implementation issues, as well as to identify their level of acceptance and readiness. This paper reviews practices and different research approaches in understanding the factors that influence architect’s perception towards the implementation of green roofs in the Malaysian construction industry. Architects were chosen as the only respondents due to their intensive involvement in the conceptualisation, planning, design and construction stage of a built environment project. Extensive literature review was conducted to explore past experiences in green roof implementation and to develop the theoretical framework for this research.

  15. Identification of organization values according to the perception of the employees of the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research was to identify the organizational values, according to the perception of employees of the Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN. The instrument used in this research was the 'Organization Values Questionnaire'. This survey contains a list with 38 values, each followed by a parenthetical explanation that clarifies its meaning. Respondents rated each value on a 6-point scale from, less important (0) to very important (6), in response to the question: How important is each values for the organizational life? This evaluation should be done in two levels of perception: REAL plan, and IDEAL plan. The population investigated was constituent by 1000 employees. The total of 553, i.e. 55.3%, questionnaires were turned back. As result, it was identified on REAL plan, values related to coefficient as EFFICIENCY, EFFICACY and MANAGEMENT. On IDEAL plan, they were related to EMPLOYEE VALORIZATION and INOVATION coefficient. As consequence, the institutional commitment is to form working groups, inside the Strategic Planning Revision, in order to elaborate the Core Values, based on the values identified on this research. (author)

  16. Presentation of dynamically overlapping auditory messages in user interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology and example implementation for the dynamic regulation of temporally overlapping auditory messages in computer-user interfaces. The regulation mechanism exists to schedule numerous overlapping auditory messages in such a way that each individual message remains perceptually distinct from all others. The method is based on the research conducted in the area of auditory scene analysis. While numerous applications have been engineered to present the user with temporally overlapped auditory output, they have generally been designed without any structured method of controlling the perceptual aspects of the sound. The method of scheduling temporally overlapping sounds has been extended to function in an environment where numerous applications can present sound independently of each other. The Centralized Audio Presentation System is a global regulation mechanism that controls all audio output requests made from all currently running applications. The notion of multimodal objects is explored in this system as well. Each audio request that represents a particular message can include numerous auditory representations, such as musical motives and voice. The Presentation System scheduling algorithm selects the best representation according to the current global auditory system state, and presents it to the user within the request constraints of priority and maximum acceptable latency. The perceptual conflicts between temporally overlapping audio messages are examined in depth through the Computational Auditory Scene Synthesizer. At the heart of this system is a heuristic-based auditory scene synthesis scheduling method. Different schedules of overlapped sounds are evaluated and assigned penalty scores. High scores represent presentations that include perceptual conflicts between over-lapping sounds. Low scores indicate fewer and less serious conflicts. A user study was conducted to validate that the perceptual difficulties predicted by

  17. Effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance using a helmet-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W T; Hettinger, L J; Cunningham, J A; Brickman, B J; Haas, M W; McKinley, R L

    1998-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of localized auditory information on visual target detection performance. Visual targets were presented on either a wide field-of-view dome display or a helmet-mounted display and were accompanied by either localized, nonlocalized, or no auditory information. The addition of localized auditory information resulted in significant increases in target detection performance and significant reductions in workload ratings as compared with conditions in which auditory information was either nonlocalized or absent. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of participants' head motions revealed that the addition of localized auditory information resulted in extremely efficient and consistent search strategies. Implications for the development and design of multisensory virtual environments are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of spatial auditory displays to augment visual information presented in helmet-mounted displays, thereby leading to increases in performance efficiency, reductions in physical and mental workload, and enhanced spatial awareness of objects in the environment.

  18. Multiple benefits of personal FM system use by children with auditory processing disorder (APD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kristin N; John, Andrew B; Kreisman, Nicole V; Hall, James W; Crandell, Carl C

    2009-01-01

    Children with auditory processing disorders (APD) were fitted with Phonak EduLink FM devices for home and classroom use. Baseline measures of the children with APD, prior to FM use, documented significantly lower speech-perception scores, evidence of decreased academic performance, and psychosocial problems in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. Repeated measures during the school year demonstrated speech-perception improvement in noisy classroom environments as well as significant academic and psychosocial benefits. Compared with the control group, the children with APD showed greater speech-perception advantage with FM technology. Notably, after prolonged FM use, even unaided (no FM device) speech-perception performance was improved in the children with APD, suggesting the possibility of fundamentally enhanced auditory system function. PMID:19925345

  19. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  20. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  1. Development of an audiovisual speech perception app for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Julia; Preston, Jonathan; Brancazio, Lawrence; D'angelo, Michael; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Perception of spoken language requires attention to acoustic as well as visible phonetic information. This article reviews the known differences in audiovisual speech perception in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and specifies the need for interventions that address this construct. Elements of an audiovisual training program are described. This researcher-developed program delivered via an iPad app presents natural speech in the context of increasing noise, but supported with a speaking face. Children are cued to attend to visible articulatory information to assist in perception of the spoken words. Data from four children with ASD ages 8-10 are presented showing that the children improved their performance on an untrained auditory speech-in-noise task.

  2. Auditory Neuropathy - A Case of Auditory Neuropathy after Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Mazaher Yazdi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory neuropathy is an hearing disorder in which peripheral hearing is normal, but the eighth nerve and brainstem are abnormal. By clinical definition, patient with this disorder have normal OAE, but exhibit an absent or severely abnormal ABR. Auditory neuropathy was first reported in the late 1970s as different methods could identify discrepancy between absent ABR and present hearing threshold. Speech understanding difficulties are worse than can be predicted from other tests of hearing function. Auditory neuropathy may also affect vestibular function. Case Report: This article presents electrophysiological and behavioral data from a case of auditory neuropathy in a child with normal hearing after bilirubinemia in a 5 years follow-up. Audiological findings demonstrate remarkable changes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Conclusion: auditory neuropathy may involve damage to the inner hair cells-specialized sensory cells in the inner ear that transmit information about sound through the nervous system to the brain. Other causes may include faulty connections between the inner hair cells and the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain or damage to the nerve itself. People with auditory neuropathy have OAEs response but absent ABR and hearing loss threshold that can be permanent, get worse or get better.

  3. Synchronization and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTierney

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel 2011, 2012, 2014. There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The precise auditory timing hypothesis predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills.

  4. Neural Representation of Concurrent Vowels in Macaque Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yonatan I; Micheyl, Christophe; Steinschneider, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception in real-world environments requires that the auditory system segregate competing voices that overlap in frequency and time into separate streams. Vowels are major constituents of speech and are comprised of frequencies (harmonics) that are integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency (F0). The pitch and identity of a vowel are determined by its F0 and spectral envelope (formant structure), respectively. When two spectrally overlapping vowels differing in F0 are presented concurrently, they can be readily perceived as two separate "auditory objects" with pitches at their respective F0s. A difference in pitch between two simultaneous vowels provides a powerful cue for their segregation, which in turn, facilitates their individual identification. The neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent vowels based on pitch differences are poorly understood. Here, we examine neural population responses in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) to single and double concurrent vowels (/a/ and /i/) that differ in F0 such that they are heard as two separate auditory objects with distinct pitches. We find that neural population responses in A1 can resolve, via a rate-place code, lower harmonics of both single and double concurrent vowels. Furthermore, we show that the formant structures, and hence the identities, of single vowels can be reliably recovered from the neural representation of double concurrent vowels. We conclude that A1 contains sufficient spectral information to enable concurrent vowel segregation and identification by downstream cortical areas.

  5. Auditory Neuropathy in Two Patients with Generalized Neuropathic Disorder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although it is not a new disorder, in recent times we have attained a greater understanding of auditory neuropathy (AN. In this type of hearing impairment, cochlear hair cells function but AN victims suffer from disordered neural transmission in the auditory pathway. The auditory neuropathy result profile often occurs as a part of that of the generalized neuropathic disorders, indicated in approximately 30-40% of all reported auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD cases, with approximately 80% of patients reporting symptom onset over the age of 15 years. In the present report, the results of audiologic tests (behavioral, physiologic and evoked potentials on two young patients with generalized neuropathy are discussed.Case report: Two brothers, 26 and 17 years old, presented with speech perception weakness and movement difficulties that started at 12 years of age and progressed as time passed. In their last examination, there was a moderate to severe flat audiogram in the older patient and mild low tone loss in the younger one. The major difficulty of the patients was severe speech perception impairment that was not compatible with their hearing thresholds. Paresthesia, sural muscle contraction and pain, and balance disorder were the first symptoms of the older brother. Now he can only move with crutches and his finger muscle tonicity has decreased remarkably, with marked fatigue after a short period of walking. Increasing movement difficulties were noted in his last visit. Visual neuropathy had been reported in repeated visual system examinations for the older brother, with similar, albeit less severe, symptoms in the younger brother.In the present study of these patients, behavioral investigations included pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination scoring. Physiologic studies consisted Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE and acoustic reflexes. Electrophysiologic auditory tests were also performed to determine

  6. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  8. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  9. Between location and place: A view of timbre through auditory models and sonopoietic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, John David

    1999-10-01

    The following work addresses problems of definitional vagueness surrounding timbre as well as reviewing previous research done in quantifying qualitative aspects of sound (e.g. speech pathology, psychology, psychophysics, voice conversion). In particular, the relationship between phase and timbre (monaural phase perception) is studied. Whereas previous research in monaural phase perception has only used synthetic stimuli, this study proposes a method of controlling the phase of instrumental tones. An auditory model of timbre is presented that demonstrates monaural phase effects similar to those exhibited by listeners. It is argued that a spectro-temporal auditory model, as opposed to a spectral (place code) model, must be used as the basis for a complete timbre model. McAulay and Quatieri's (1986) sinusoidal system provides a method for stimulus generation in which the phases, amplitudes, and frequencies of the spectral components can be individually controlled. Two types of stimuli were generated from instrumental tones-one with random quadratic phase (RQP) and another with measured cubic phase (MCP). The first of two pilot studies indicated that, as the fundamental frequency of the stimuli increases, the listener's ability to discriminate RQP from MCP decreases. The second pilot study demonstrated that a spectro-temporal auditory model can be used to predict monaural phase effects. As the fundamental frequency increased, the distance between the RQP and the MCP decreased. The concept of sonopoietic spaces is introduced in contrast to timbre spaces. Timbre spaces (e.g., produced by multidimensional scaling studies) are premised on generality. This generality comes from attempting to represent many listeners' pair-wise judgements of the similarity between musical tones. Sonopoietic space on the other hand is the space of listening constructed by a listener's interaction with a sonic event (e.g. natural sounds or musical compositions). Sonopoietic images articulate

  10. Pain perception in people with Down syndrome: a synthesis of clinical and experimental research

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eMcGuire; Ruth eDefrin

    2015-01-01

    People with an intellectual disability experience both acute and chronic pain with at least the same frequency as the general population. However, considerably less is known about the pain perception of people with Down syndrome. In this review paper, we evaluated the available clinical and experimental evidence. Some experimental studies of acute pain have indicated that pain threshold was higher than normal but only when using a reaction time method to measure pain sensitivity. However, whe...

  11. Medical students' perceptions and attitudes about family practice: A qualitative research synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Selva Olid Anna; Zurro Amando; Villa Josep; Hijar Antonio; Tuduri Xavier; Puime Ángel; Dalmau Gemma; Coello Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last decade medical students from most Western countries have shown little interest in family practice. Understanding the factors that influence medical students to choose family medicine is crucial. Objective To systematically review and synthesize published evidence about medical students’ attitudes and perceptions towards family practice. Methods A qualitative systematic review. The literature search was undertaken in July 2010 in PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative I...

  12. Exploring Perception of Indians about Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products: A Mixed Method Research

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Monika; Tewari, Abha; Grills, Nathan; Nazar, Gaurang P.; Sonrexa, Juhi; Gupta, Vinay K.; Moodie, Rob; Reddy, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 124), stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 and May 2012, Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favored by majority of participants (69%) and key stakeholders (92%). The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and...

  13. Does Perception of Corporate Culture Change in Time? An Empirical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahit Erdem KÖKER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental values and belief systems in a corporation show themselves as; norms, behaviours, symbols and compose the corporate culture. When corporate culture is undertaken in terms of business management, it is seen that corporations in different fields have studies directed to culture. In studies of education science and studies that cover educational orporations, corporate culture is named as school culture. Due to the reason that schools are educational corporations, they are a subject to studies of corporate culture. Studies directed to school culture cover the subjects such as; components of school culture, its’ dimensions, structural characteristics, importance of leadership, ect. This study is directed to displaying the changes in the perceptions about school culture of Ege University Faculty of Communication students along their studentship, which is a cultural component and a sub-culture of school culture. With this purpose, data have been collected from students for four years with the same question form. These students were in 1st grade during 2009-2010 academical year. While students are in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years, it was foreseen that there were going to be meaningful changes in their perceptions about the dimensions of corporate culture. And the direction of change in their perceptions of faculty culture has been detected in their last year.

  14. The role of modality : Auditory and visual distractors in Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, Emily M.; Morey, Candice C.; Morey, Richard D.; Eaves, Sharon D.; Shelton, Jill Talley; Lutfi-Proctor, Danielle A.

    2014-01-01

    As a commonly used measure of selective attention, it is important to understand the factors contributing to interference in the Stroop task. The current research examined distracting stimuli in the auditory and visual modalities to determine whether the use of auditory distractors would create addi

  15. High visual resolution matters in audiovisual speech perception, but only for some.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsius, Agnès; Wayne, Rachel V; Paré, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G

    2016-07-01

    The basis for individual differences in the degree to which visual speech input enhances comprehension of acoustically degraded speech is largely unknown. Previous research indicates that fine facial detail is not critical for visual enhancement when auditory information is available; however, these studies did not examine individual differences in ability to make use of fine facial detail in relation to audiovisual speech perception ability. Here, we compare participants based on their ability to benefit from visual speech information in the presence of an auditory signal degraded with noise, modulating the resolution of the visual signal through low-pass spatial frequency filtering and monitoring gaze behavior. Participants who benefited most from the addition of visual information (high visual gain) were more adversely affected by the removal of high spatial frequency information, compared to participants with low visual gain, for materials with both poor and rich contextual cues (i.e., words and sentences, respectively). Differences as a function of gaze behavior between participants with the highest and lowest visual gains were observed only for words, with participants with the highest visual gain fixating longer on the mouth region. Our results indicate that the individual variance in audiovisual speech in noise performance can be accounted for, in part, by better use of fine facial detail information extracted from the visual signal and increased fixation on mouth regions for short stimuli. Thus, for some, audiovisual speech perception may suffer when the visual input (in addition to the auditory signal) is less than perfect.

  16. An EMG Study of the Lip Muscles during Covert Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Lucile; Dohen, Marion; Polosan, Mircea; Perrier, Pascal; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: "Auditory verbal hallucinations" (AVHs) are speech perceptions in the absence of external stimulation. According to an influential theoretical account of AVHs in schizophrenia, a deficit in inner-speech monitoring may cause the patients' verbal thoughts to be perceived as external voices. The account is based on a…

  17. Asymmetry in primary auditory cortex activity in tinnitus patients and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, L. I.; de Kleine, E.; Willemsen, A. T. M.; van Dijk, P.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is a bothersome phantom sound percept and its neural correlates are not yet disentangled. Previously published papers, using [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have suggested an increased metabolism in the left primary auditory cortex in tinnitus patients. T

  18. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children with Reading Disabilities: Effect of Audiovisual Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuillet, Evelyne; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean; Thai-Van, Hung; Collet, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Reading disability is associated with phonological problems which might originate in auditory processing disorders. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: first, the perceptual skills of average-reading children and children with dyslexia were compared in a categorical perception task assessing the processing of a phonemic contrast based on…

  19. Contribution of auditory working memory to speech understanding in mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoduo Tao

    Full Text Available To investigate how auditory working memory relates to speech perception performance by Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI users.Auditory working memory and speech perception was measured in Mandarin-speaking CI and normal-hearing (NH participants. Working memory capacity was measured using forward digit span and backward digit span; working memory efficiency was measured using articulation rate. Speech perception was assessed with: (a word-in-sentence recognition in quiet, (b word-in-sentence recognition in speech-shaped steady noise at +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio, (c Chinese disyllable recognition in quiet, (d Chinese lexical tone recognition in quiet. Self-reported school rank was also collected regarding performance in schoolwork.There was large inter-subject variability in auditory working memory and speech performance for CI participants. Working memory and speech performance were significantly poorer for CI than for NH participants. All three working memory measures were strongly correlated with each other for both CI and NH participants. Partial correlation analyses were performed on the CI data while controlling for demographic variables. Working memory efficiency was significantly correlated only with sentence recognition in quiet when working memory capacity was partialled out. Working memory capacity was correlated with disyllable recognition and school rank when efficiency was partialled out. There was no correlation between working memory and lexical tone recognition in the present CI participants.Mandarin-speaking CI users experience significant deficits in auditory working memory and speech performance compared with NH listeners. The present data suggest that auditory working memory may contribute to CI users' difficulties in speech understanding. The present pattern of results with Mandarin-speaking CI users is consistent with previous auditory working memory studies with English-speaking CI users, suggesting that the lexical

  20. Auditory Neural Prostheses – A Window to the Future

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    Mohan Kameshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies to affect children world-over. The incidence of congenital hearing loss is more pronounced in developing countries like the Indian sub-continent, especially with the problems of consanguinity. Hearing loss is a double tragedy, as it leads to not only deafness but also language deprivation. However, hearing loss is the only truly remediable handicap, due to remarkable advances in biomedical engineering and surgical techniques. Auditory neural prostheses help to augment or restore hearing by integration of an external circuitry with the peripheral hearing apparatus and the central circuitry of the brain. A cochlear implant (CI is a surgically implantable device that helps restore hearing in patients with severe-profound hearing loss, unresponsive to amplification by conventional hearing aids. CIs are electronic devices designed to detect mechanical sound energy and convert it into electrical signals that can be delivered to the coch­lear nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells of the coch­lea. The only true prerequisite is an intact auditory nerve. The emphasis is on implantation as early as possible to maximize speech understanding and perception. Bilateral CI has significant benefits which include improved speech perception in noisy environments and improved sound localization. Presently, the indications for CI have widened and these expanded indications for implantation are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing, and special etiologies of deafness. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS / hybrid device is designed for individuals with binaural low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI is a safe and effective means of hearing rehabilitation in patients with retrocochlear disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 or congenital cochlear nerve aplasia, wherein the cochlear nerve is damaged

  1. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    auditory hallucinations. Women, people who use mobile phones, and those experiencing more distress, were reportedly more open to using Facebook as a support and/or therapeutic tool in the future. Conclusions Facebook advertisements can be used to recruit research participants who experience auditory hallucinations quickly and in a cost-effective manner. Most (58%) Web-based respondents are open to Facebook-based support and treatment and are willing to describe their subjective experiences with auditory hallucinations. PMID:27302017

  2. Audiovisual Perception of Congruent and Incongruent Dutch Front Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenier, Bea; Duyne, Jurriaan Y.; Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Baskent, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory perception of vowels in background noise is enhanced when combined with visually perceived speech features. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the influence of visual cues on vowel perception extends to incongruent vowels, in a manner similar to the McGurk effect observed with consonants. Method:…

  3. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.

  4. The impact of educational level on performance on auditory processing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F.B. Murphy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor years of schooling was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills.

  5. Examining the Long-Term Impact of Collaborative Action Research on Teacher Identity and Practice: The Perceptions of K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on teacher perceptions of the long-term impacts of engaging in collaborative action research on professional identity and practice. This qualitative, phenomenological study focused on understanding the lived experiences of 10 teachers before, during, and after engaging in action research. Each teacher was interviewed before…

  6. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  7. Sensory perception in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus: a model organism for space research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrochano, Luis M.

    2016-07-01

    Fungi use signals from the environment to regulate growth, development, and metabolism. The growth of the fruiting bodies, sporangiophores, of Phycomyces blakesleeanus is governed by several environmental signals, including light, gravity, touch, wind, and the presence of nearby objects. These signals allow sporangiophore growth towards open air for efficient spore dispersal. The sporangiophores of Phycomyces are giant isolated cells that can reach several cm in length. The large size of the sporangiophores facilitates genetic screens for tropic mutants, and the sexual cycle allows the genetic analysis of tropic mutations. The availability of the Phycomyces genome sequence and a collection of SNPs allow gene identification by genome mapping and gene sequencing. In addition, the size of the sporangiophore facilitates physiological analysis of tropic growth using computerized tracking devices. These experimental approaches will help to understand the mechanisms of sensory perception and how cell growth is regulated by environmental signals. The perception of light by Phycomyces has been investigated in most detail. Most fungi use proteins similar to WC-1 and WC-2 from Neurospora crassa for sensing blue light. In N. crassa and other fungi these two proteins form a photoreceptor and transcription factor complex that binds to the promoters of light-regulated genes to activate transcription. Phycomyces have multiple wc genes and two of them encode a photoreceptor complex composed of MadA and MadB that is required for all responses to light. The tropic response to gravity is much slower than to light, and require the presence of floating lipid globules and protein crystals that may be part of the gravity sensory system. Light and gravity interact to modify the direction of growth of the sporangiophore but the mechanisms that allow the coordination of a single response to different environmental signals remain to be defined. The giant sporangiophore of Phycomyces is an

  8. Auditory Verbal Cues Alter the Perceived Flavor of Beverages and Ease of Swallowing: A Psychometric and Electrophysiological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant’s anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.

  9. (Central Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media

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    Leticia Reis Borges

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze auditory processing test results in children suffering from otitis media in their first five years of age, considering their age. Furthermore, to classify central auditory processing test findings regarding the hearing skills evaluated. METHODS: A total of 109 students between 8 and 12 years old were divided into three groups. The control group consisted of 40 students from public school without a history of otitis media. Experimental group I consisted of 39 students from public schools and experimental group II consisted of 30 students from private schools; students in both groups suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years of age and underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes. The individuals underwent complete audiological evaluation and assessment by Auditory Processing tests. RESULTS: The left ear showed significantly worse performance when compared to the right ear in the dichotic digits test and pitch pattern sequence test. The students from the experimental groups showed worse performance when compared to the control group in the dichotic digits test and gaps-in-noise. Children from experimental group I had significantly lower results on the dichotic digits and gaps-in-noise tests compared with experimental group II. The hearing skills that were altered were temporal resolution and figure-ground perception. CONCLUSION: Children who suffered from secretory otitis media in their first five years and who underwent surgery for placement of bilateral ventilation tubes showed worse performance in auditory abilities, and children from public schools had worse results on auditory processing tests compared with students from private schools.

  10. Visibility of speech articulation enhances auditory phonetic convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, James W; Rosenblum, Lawrence D

    2016-01-01

    Talkers automatically imitate aspects of perceived speech, a phenomenon known as phonetic convergence. Talkers have previously been found to converge to auditory and visual speech information. Furthermore, talkers converge more to the speech of a conversational partner who is seen and heard, relative to one who is just heard (Dias & Rosenblum Perception, 40, 1457-1466, 2011). A question raised by this finding is what visual information facilitates the enhancement effect. In the following experiments, we investigated the possible contributions of visible speech articulation to visual enhancement of phonetic convergence within the noninteractive context of a shadowing task. In Experiment 1, we examined the influence of the visibility of a talker on phonetic convergence when shadowing auditory speech either in the clear or in low-level auditory noise. The results suggest that visual speech can compensate for convergence that is reduced by auditory noise masking. Experiment 2 further established the visibility of articulatory mouth movements as being important to the visual enhancement of phonetic convergence. Furthermore, the word frequency and phonological neighborhood density characteristics of the words shadowed were found to significantly predict phonetic convergence in both experiments. Consistent with previous findings (e.g., Goldinger Psychological Review, 105, 251-279, 1998), phonetic convergence was greater when shadowing low-frequency words. Convergence was also found to be greater for low-density words, contrasting with previous predictions of the effect of phonological neighborhood density on auditory phonetic convergence (e.g., Pardo, Jordan, Mallari, Scanlon, & Lewandowski Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 183-195, 2013). Implications of the results for a gestural account of phonetic convergence are discussed. PMID:26358471

  11. Multi-sensory integration in brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Koehler, Seth D; Shore, Susan E

    2012-11-16

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of a physical sound stimulus. It is thought to arise from aberrant neural activity within central auditory pathways that may be influenced by multiple brain centers, including the somatosensory system. Auditory-somatosensory (bimodal) integration occurs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), where electrical activation of somatosensory regions alters pyramidal cell spike timing and rates of sound stimuli. Moreover, in conditions of tinnitus, bimodal integration in DCN is enhanced, producing greater spontaneous and sound-driven neural activity, which are neural correlates of tinnitus. In primary auditory cortex (A1), a similar auditory-somatosensory integration has been described in the normal system (Lakatos et al., 2007), where sub-threshold multisensory modulation may be a direct reflection of subcortical multisensory responses (Tyll et al., 2011). The present work utilized simultaneous recordings from both DCN and A1 to directly compare bimodal integration across these separate brain stations of the intact auditory pathway. Four-shank, 32-channel electrodes were placed in DCN and A1 to simultaneously record tone-evoked unit activity in the presence and absence of spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5) electrical activation. Bimodal stimulation led to long-lasting facilitation or suppression of single and multi-unit responses to subsequent sound in both DCN and A1. Immediate (bimodal response) and long-lasting (bimodal plasticity) effects of Sp5-tone stimulation were facilitation or suppression of tone-evoked firing rates in DCN and A1 at all Sp5-tone pairing intervals (10, 20, and 40 ms), and greater suppression at 20 ms pairing-intervals for single unit responses. Understanding the complex relationships between DCN and A1 bimodal processing in the normal animal provides the basis for studying its disruption in hearing loss and tinnitus models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tinnitus Neuroscience

  12. Rise Time Perception and Detection of Syllable Stress in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Victoria; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perception of syllable stress has not been widely studied in developmental dyslexia, despite strong evidence for auditory rhythmic perceptual difficulties. Here we investigate the hypothesis that perception of sound rise time is related to the perception of syllable stress in adults with developmental dyslexia. Methods: A…

  13. A Research on the Determination of Brand Personality Perception of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin AYSEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with getting strength of producers and increasing of competition, the necessity of the differentiation of products also has increased. This necessity has created brand utility and thanks to the studies on brands, new concepts are added to literature. In this paper brand personality which is one of these concepts was examined. Additionally branding of universities and the brand personalities of universities which are perceived by university students were searched. Another subject of this study is whether some nationalist attitudes which are known as consumer ethnocentrism impact on brand personality perceptions of the students. Available studies show that ethnocentrism affect on consumer purchasing behavior. The fact that patriotic and nationalist tendencies of the students also in the education field may be determining in their adopting a brand personality towards universities and choosing a school is the point of origin of the study. As a result of this study that the brand personalities perceived by the students of the state and private universities aren’t different each other, there isn’t any noteworthy difference between the students of the state and private universities regarding ethnocentric tendencies impact on university preferences and the ethnocentric tendencies of students have influence on the brand personality perceptions towards the state and private universities are determined.

  14. Relating Academics' Ways of Integrating Research and Teaching to Their Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; van Driel, Jan H.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser, Anthonya; Verloop, Nico

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of studies has been carried out regarding the way academics view the research-teaching nexus, while other studies have focused on the students' experience of research-intensive environments. This study links these two research streams, and describes how 12 staff members in a faculty of humanities integrate research into their…

  15. Information Literacy and High School Seniors: Perceptions of the Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Cindy; Yutzey, Susan; Piazza, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To better understand how high school students apply their information literacy skills when conducting research and how these students carry out research projects, researchers asked a group of 289 high school seniors to complete an information literacy survey related to the research process. In addition, approximately ten percent of these students…

  16. A Questionnaire to Capture Students' Perceptions of Research Integration in Their Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; van Driel, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Using a variety of research approaches and instruments, previous research has revealed what university students tend to see as benefits and disadvantages of the integration of research in teaching. In the present study, a questionnaire was developed on the basis of categorizations of the research-teaching nexus in the literature. The aim of the…

  17. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  18. A survey of chiropractors practicing in Germany: practice characteristics, professional reading habits, and attitudes and perceptions toward research

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    Hondras Maria A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, a survey conducted by the European Chiropractor's Union among member countries reported that "there appears to be little interest in research among chiropractors in Germany." However, no research has tested this statement. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes and perceptions of practicing chiropractors in Germany regarding research, to look at their reading and research habits, and to gather demographic and practice data. Methods A questionnaire was developed and distributed among participants at a seminar held by the German Chiropractors' Association in 2005. The questionnaire was mailed to any members of the association who did not attend the seminar. Results A total of 49 (72% of 68 distributed questionnaires were returned. Forty-five (92% respondents stated they would support research efforts in Germany and 15 (31% declared interest in participating in practiced based research. An average of three hours per week were reportedly spent reading scientific literature by 44 (85% respondents. However, few journals listed by respondents were peer-reviewed and indexed; most were newsletters of chiropractic organizations or free publications. Most participants agreed on the importance of research for the profession, but when asked about the most pressing issue for chiropractic in Germany, legislation and recognition of the profession were the dominant themes. Conclusion The results of this survey show that there is a general interest in supporting and participating in research activities among chiropractors practicing in Germany. Next steps could consist of educating practitioners about the resources available to read and interpret the scientific literature and thus further the understanding of research.

  19. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  20. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems.

  1. Auditory presentation and synchronization in Adobe Flash and HTML5/JavaScript Web experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Stian; Stewart, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Substantial recent research has examined the accuracy of presentation durations and response time measurements for visually presented stimuli in Web-based experiments, with a general conclusion that accuracy is acceptable for most kinds of experiments. However, many areas of behavioral research use auditory stimuli instead of, or in addition to, visual stimuli. Much less is known about auditory accuracy using standard Web-based testing procedures. We used a millisecond-accurate Black Box Toolkit to measure the actual durations of auditory stimuli and the synchronization of auditory and visual presentation onsets. We examined the distribution of timings for 100 presentations of auditory and visual stimuli across two computers with difference specs, three commonly used browsers, and code written in either Adobe Flash or JavaScript. We also examined different coding options for attempting to synchronize the auditory and visual onsets. Overall, we found that auditory durations were very consistent, but that the lags between visual and auditory onsets varied substantially across browsers and computer systems. PMID:27421976

  2. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  3. Auditory rhythmic cueing in movement rehabilitation: findings and possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Moving to music is intuitive and spontaneous, and music is widely used to support movement, most commonly during exercise. Auditory cues are increasingly also used in the rehabilitation of disordered movement, by aligning actions to sounds such as a metronome or music. Here, the effect of rhythmic auditory cueing on movement is discussed and representative findings of cued movement rehabilitation are considered for several movement disorders, specifically post-stroke motor impairment, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. There are multiple explanations for the efficacy of cued movement practice. Potentially relevant, non-mutually exclusive mechanisms include the acceleration of learning; qualitatively different motor learning owing to an auditory context; effects of increased temporal skills through rhythmic practices and motivational aspects of musical rhythm. Further considerations of rehabilitation paradigm efficacy focus on specific movement disorders, intervention methods and complexity of the auditory cues. Although clinical interventions using rhythmic auditory cueing do not show consistently positive results, it is argued that internal mechanisms of temporal prediction and tracking are crucial, and further research may inform rehabilitation practice to increase intervention efficacy. PMID:25385780

  4. Neuromagnetic evidence for early auditory restoration of fundamental pitch.

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    Philip J Monahan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the time course of how listeners reconstruct a missing fundamental component in an auditory stimulus remains elusive. We report MEG evidence that the missing fundamental component of a complex auditory stimulus is recovered in auditory cortex within 100 ms post stimulus onset. METHODOLOGY: Two outside tones of four-tone complex stimuli were held constant (1200 Hz and 2400 Hz, while two inside tones were systematically modulated (between 1300 Hz and 2300 Hz, such that the restored fundamental (also knows as "virtual pitch" changed from 100 Hz to 600 Hz. Constructing the auditory stimuli in this manner controls for a number of spectral properties known to modulate the neuromagnetic signal. The tone complex stimuli only diverged on the value of the missing fundamental component. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the M100 latencies of these tone complexes to the M100 latencies elicited by their respective pure tone (spectral pitch counterparts. The M100 latencies for the tone complexes matched their pure sinusoid counterparts, while also replicating the M100 temporal latency response curve found in previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that listeners are reconstructing the inferred pitch by roughly 100 ms after stimulus onset and are consistent with previous electrophysiological research suggesting that the inferential pitch is perceived in early auditory cortex.

  5. The effects of noise vocoding on speech quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2014-03-01

    Speech perception depends on access to spectral and temporal acoustic cues. Temporal cues include slowly varying amplitude changes (i.e. temporal envelope, TE) and quickly varying amplitude changes associated with the center frequency of the auditory filter (i.e. temporal fine structure, TFS). This study quantifies the effects of TFS randomization through noise vocoding on the perception of speech quality by parametrically varying the amount of original TFS available above 1500Hz. The two research aims were: 1) to establish the role of TFS in quality perception, and 2) to determine if the role of TFS in quality perception differs between subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. Ratings were obtained from 20 subjects (10 with normal hearing and 10 with hearing loss) using an 11-point quality scale. Stimuli were processed in three different ways: 1) A 32-channel noise-excited vocoder with random envelope fluctuations in the noise carrier, 2) a 32-channel noise-excited vocoder with the noise-carrier envelope smoothed, and 3) removal of high-frequency bands. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in babble noise at 18dB and 12dB signal-to-noise ratios. TFS randomization had a measurable detrimental effect on quality ratings for speech in quiet and a smaller effect for speech in background babble. Subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss provided similar quality ratings for noise-vocoded speech. PMID:24333929

  6. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  7. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  8. Auditory-Visual Coordination in the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Harry; MacDonald, John

    1978-01-01

    Outlines two competing hypotheses concerning the nature of inter-modal sensory development. Research on auditory-visual coordination in young human infants is reviewed. It is concluded that the data support the notion of ontogenetic development being a process of intergration between sensory systems that are initially relatively independent.…

  9. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture-to-perception

  10. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  11. Toward a sustainable faucet design: effects of sound and vision on perception of running water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golan, Aidai; Fenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    People form their judgments of everyday phenomena based on multisensory information. This study investigates the relative impact of visual and auditory information on the perception of running tap water. Two visual and two auditory stimuli were combined to create four different combinations of high

  12. Lecturers' Perception of Strategies for Enhancing Business Education Research in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, James

    2013-01-01

    Business education programme seems to have been faced with inadequate qualitative research in tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study therefore, assessed the strategies for enhancing Business Education research. Two research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. A 66 item questionnaire was administered to 164 colleges of education and…

  13. Gender Differences on Research: The Perceptions and Use of Academic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, the increasing pressure over higher education institutions to promote alternative non-state funding sources has lead to an increasing importance given to research and, more specifically to applied research. The notion that women dedicate less time to research may be seen in the new context, as a prominent threat for women to…

  14. Children as Subjects in Nutrition Research: A Retrospective Look at Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…

  15. Face configuration affects speech perception: Evidence from a McGurk mismatch negativity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen; Andersen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    as demonstrated by the Thatcher illusion in which the orientation of the eyes and mouth with respect to the face is inverted (Thatcherization). This gives the face a grotesque appearance but this is only seen when the face is upright. Thatcherization can likewise disrupt visual speech perception but only when...... the face is upright indicating that facial configuration can be important for visual speech perception. This effect can propagate to auditory speech perception through audiovisual integration so that Thatcherization disrupts the McGurk illusion in which visual speech perception alters perception...... of an incongruent acoustic phoneme. This is known as the McThatcher effect. Here we show that the McThatcher effect is reflected in the McGurk mismatch negativity (MMN). The MMN is an event-related potential elicited by a change in auditory perception. The McGurk-MMN can be elicited by a change in auditory...

  16. Hearing aid fitting results in a case of a patient with auditory neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell´Aringa, Ana Helena Bannwart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Auditory Neuropathy is described recently as a hearing loss characterized by the preservation of outer hair cells and absence of auditory brainstem responses. Objective: To present a case report of hearing aid fitting in a patient with Auditory Neuropathy. Case Report: S.A.P., male, 32 years old, sought the Otorhinolaryngology Service after five years of Guillain-Barré syndrome, complaining of progressive and bilateral tinnitus auditory loss in both ears. The audiological evaluation resulted in: severe sensorioneural hearing deficiency with bilateral irregular configuration; speech recognition rate of 0% and speech detection rate in 35dB in both ears; type A tympanometric curve and absent ipsilateral, bilateral and contralateral reflexes; absence of waves and presence of cochlear microphonics in both ears in the auditory evoked potential and present bilateral distortion product-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The speech perception test was performed with polysyllabic words and lip reading, and presented 44% of hit with hearing aid and 12% without it. Final Comments: Despite the differences in the process of hearing aid habilitation and rehabilitation, we conclude that sound amplification brought benefits to the patient with auditory neuropathy.

  17. Animal models of spontaneous activity in the healthy and impaired auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous neural activity in the auditory nerve fibers and in auditory cortex in healthy animals is discussed with respect to the question: Is spontaneous activity noise or information carrier? The studies reviewed suggest strongly that spontaneous activity is a carrier of information. Subsequently, I review the numerous findings in the impaired auditory system, particularly with reference to noise trauma and tinnitus. Here the common assumption is that tinnitus reflects increased noise in the auditory system that among others affects temporal processing and interferes with the gap-startle reflex, which is frequently used as a behavioral assay for tinnitus. It is, however, more likely that the increased spontaneous activity in tinnitus, firing rate as well as neural synchrony, carries information that shapes the activity of downstream structures, including non-auditory ones, and leading to the tinnitus percept. The main drivers of that process are bursting and synchronous firing, which facilitates transfer of activity across synapses, and allows formation of auditory objects, such as tinnitus

  18. Evaluating the Perceptual and Pathophysiological Consequences of Auditory Deprivation in Early Postnatal Life: A Comparison of Basic and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Whitton, Jonathon P.; Polley, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research in visual system development have shown that degraded or imbalanced visual inputs can induce a long-lasting visual impairment called amblyopia. In the auditory domain, it is well established that inducing a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in young laboratory animals is associated with a panoply of central auditory system irregularities, ranging from cellular morphology to behavior. Human auditory deprivation, in the form of otitis media (OM), is tremendous...

  19. Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: sound evidence for an encoding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions. PMID:12699143

  20. Relating auditory attributes of multichannel sound to preference and to physical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Sound reproduced by multichannel systems is affected by many factors giving rise to various sensations, or auditory attributes. Relating specific attributes to overall preference and to physical measures of the sound field provides valuable information for a better understanding of the parameters...... within and between musical program materials, allowing for a careful generalization regarding the perception of spatial audio reproduction. Finally, a set of objective measures is derived from analysis of the sound field at the listening position in an attempt to predict the auditory attributes....

  1. A qualitative study of international marketing and purchasing (IMP) researchers' perceptions of 'managerial relevance'

    OpenAIRE

    Ankers, Paul; Brennan, R.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of new knowledge is the primary goal of the academic research community, including researchers into interaction and networks in business markets. There are other stakeholders besides marketing practitioners who have a legitimate interest in the efforts of business academics. Nevertheless, many business-to-business researchers feel an affinity for the managerial community, within which many of them have either worked, or plied their trade as consultants, or both. Accordingly, they...

  2. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement. PMID:26132703

  3. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  4. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  5. Perception of mobbing during the study: results of a national quantitative research among Slovenian midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Došler, Anita Jug; Skubic, Metka; Mivšek, Ana Polona

    2014-09-01

    Mobbing, defined as sustained harassment among workers, in particular towards subordinates, merits investigation. This study aims to investigate Slovenian midwifery students' (2nd and 3rd year students of midwifery at the Faculty for Health Studies Ljubljana; the single educational institution for midwives in Slovenia) perception of mobbing, since management of acceptable behavioural interrelationships in midwifery profession forms already during the study, through professional socialization. Descriptive and causal-nonexperimental method with questionnaire was used. Basic descriptive statistics and measures for calculating statistical significance were carried out with SPSS 20.0 software version. All necessary ethical measures were taken into the consideration during the study to protect participants. The re- sults revealed that several participants experienced mobbing during the study (82.3%); 58.8% of them during their practical training and 23.5% from midwifery teachers. Students are often anxious and nervous in face of clinical settings (60.8%) or before faculty commitments (exams, presentations etc.) (41.2%). A lot of them (40.4%) estimate that mobbing affected their health. They did not show effective strategies to solve relationship problems. According to the findings, everyone involved in midwifery education, but above all students, should be provided with more knowledge and skills on successful management of conflict situations. PMID:25507371

  6. Music Perception as a Topic of Cognitive Psychology = Bilişsel Psikolojinin Bir Konusu Olarak Müzik Algısı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı ASLAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Music perception has a long and distinguished history as a topic of psychological research because music requires a mental activity in humans. As a complex human activity, music perception is naturally an area of interest especially to cognitive psychology. Cognitive studies suggest that listener’s experience of a particular musical sequence is driven and at the same time constrained by the sounds registered by auditory mechanisms but also processed by available mental resources. This assumption indicates that researchers must take into account certain inherent limitations and capabilities of the listener. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss possible cognitive processes underlying music perception. The steps taken towards this purpose will be describing the structure of music and discussing the way that this structure is perceived by human cognition.

  7. Concepts and Perceptions of Democracy and Governance beyond the Nation State: Qualitative Research in Education for European Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Eis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The empirical research presented in this paper focuses on concepts and perceptions of European politics and citizenship which are expressed by students and teachers in secondary schools. The qualitative study is based on semi-standardized interviews, written surveys, and classroom research (video transcripts, observation records. The results suggest that many young people are amenable towards transnational patterns of identity and they tend to combine pragmatic-optimistic expectations with European Union citizenship. Many of the students interviewed seem willing to adapt themselves to a larger European environment. However, many of the teachers voiced ambivalent notions while expressing veiled scepticism, although they rarely expressed open criticism based on their own fears towards political developments in a unified Europe. The classroom research shows that in the examined civic education lessons, the everyday concepts of students are seldom questioned and sparsely developed towards social-science-based explanatory models. Sometimes even misleading concepts are enforced in classroom interaction instead of being clarified by the development of adequate categories and models.

  8. The effects of auditory contrast tuning upon speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel J Killian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have previously identified neurons tuned to spectral contrast of wideband sounds in auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys. Because additive noise alters the spectral contrast of speech, contrast-tuned neurons, if present in human auditory cortex, may aid in extracting speech from noise. Given that this cortical function may be underdeveloped in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss, incorporating biologically-inspired algorithms into external signal processing devices could provide speech enhancement benefits to cochlear implantees. In this study we first constructed a computational signal processing algorithm to mimic auditory cortex contrast tuning. We then manipulated the shape of contrast channels and evaluated the intelligibility of reconstructed noisy speech using a metric to predict cochlear implant user perception. Candidate speech enhancement strategies were then tested in cochlear implantees with a hearing-in-noise test. Accentuation of intermediate contrast values or all contrast values improved computed intelligibility. Cochlear implant subjects showed significant improvement in noisy speech intelligibility with a contrast shaping procedure.

  9. The Effects of Auditory Contrast Tuning upon Speech Intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Nathan J; Watkins, Paul V; Davidson, Lisa S; Barbour, Dennis L

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified neurons tuned to spectral contrast of wideband sounds in auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys. Because additive noise alters the spectral contrast of speech, contrast-tuned neurons, if present in human auditory cortex, may aid in extracting speech from noise. Given that this cortical function may be underdeveloped in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss, incorporating biologically-inspired algorithms into external signal processing devices could provide speech enhancement benefits to cochlear implantees. In this study we first constructed a computational signal processing algorithm to mimic auditory cortex contrast tuning. We then manipulated the shape of contrast channels and evaluated the intelligibility of reconstructed noisy speech using a metric to predict cochlear implant user perception. Candidate speech enhancement strategies were then tested in cochlear implantees with a hearing-in-noise test. Accentuation of intermediate contrast values or all contrast values improved computed intelligibility. Cochlear implant subjects showed significant improvement in noisy speech intelligibility with a contrast shaping procedure. PMID:27555826

  10. Temporal Integration of Auditory Stimulation and Binocular Disparity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies using visual objects defined by luminance have reported that the auditory event must be presented 30 to 40 ms after the visual stimulus to perceive audiovisual synchrony. In the present study, we used visual objects defined only by their binocular disparity. We measured the optimal latency between visual and auditory stimuli for the perception of synchrony using a method introduced by Moutoussis & Zeki (1997. Visual stimuli were defined either by luminance and disparity or by disparity only. They moved either back and forth between 6 and 12 arcmin or from left to right at a constant disparity of 9 arcmin. This visual modulation was presented together with an amplitude-modulated 500 Hz tone. Both modulations were sinusoidal (frequency: 0.7 Hz. We found no difference between 2D and 3D motion for luminance stimuli: a 40 ms auditory lag was necessary for perceived synchrony. Surprisingly, even though stereopsis is often thought to be slow, we found a similar optimal latency in the disparity 3D motion condition (55 ms. However, when participants had to judge simultaneity for disparity 2D motion stimuli, it led to larger latencies (170 ms, suggesting that stereo motion detectors are poorly suited to track 2D motion.

  11. Can an Educational Intervention, Specifically Theatre in Education, Influence Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes to Cultural and Religious Diversity? A Socio-Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukounaras-Liagis, Marios

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary thinking seems to be particularly interested in the investigation of the role of culture in socio-political life. This article presents aspects of a research project, undertaken in Greece, looking into whether a cultural product can foster intercultural communication and influence young people's perceptions of and attitudes to…

  12. Integrity of the Marriage and Family Therapy Research Literature: Perceptions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Gregory W.; Whiting, Jason B.; Matern, Brianne; Fife, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, and other violations of research integrity across the sciences are on the increase. Joining with other disciplines to actively protect the integrity of the marriage and family therapy (MFT) research literature is of utmost importance to both the discipline and the future of the profession. To…

  13. Examining the Implications of Learner and Supervisor Perceptions of Undergraduate Dissertation Research in Business and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A concern to ensure that the distinctive quality of teaching and learning in higher education is sustained and recognised has recently reinvigorated debate about the links between research and teaching. Currently, that debate focuses on substantiating research-teaching links and confirming broad frameworks for categorising associated academic…

  14. Imagined and Emerging Career Patterns: Perceptions of Doctoral Students and Research Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Lynn; Turner, Gill

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, research staff positions rather than lectureships are the reality for social sciences PhD graduates wishing academic work. Within this context, our longitudinal study examined how social science doctoral students and research staff in two UK universities imagined their futures in and out of academia. The variation over time in how…

  15. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  16. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C.; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. Methods A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. Results 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers “(strongly) agreed” that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. Conclusions The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on

  17. In/dependent Collaborations: Perceptions and Experiences of African Scientists in Transnational HIV Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi Okwaro, Ferdinand; Geissler, P W

    2015-12-01

    This article examines collaboration in transnational medical research from the viewpoint of African scientists working in partnerships with northern counterparts. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV laboratory of an East African state university, with additional data from interviews with scientists working in related research institutions. Collaboration is today the preferred framework for the mechanisms by which northern institutions support research in the south. The concept signals a shift away from the legacy of unequal (post-) colonial power relations, although, amid persisting inequalities, the rhetorical emphasis on equality might actually hinder critical engagement with conflicts of interest and injustice. To collaborate, African scientists engage various strategies: They establish a qualified but flexible, non-permanent workforce, diversify collaborators and research areas, source complementary funding to assemble infrastructures, and maintain prospective research populations to attract transnational clinical trials. Through this labor of collaboration, they sustain their institutions under prevailing conditions of scarcity.

  18. Do clinicians decide relying primarily on Bayesians principles or on Gestalt perception? Some pearls and pitfalls of Gestalt perception in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Clinical judgment is a foundation of medical practice and lies at the heart of a physician's knowledge, expertise and skill. Although clinical judgment is an active part of all medical fields, thus including diagnosis and therapy, communication and decision making, it is still poorly defined. It can be considered a synthesis of intuition (mainly based on Gestalt principles) and an analytical approach. Gestalt perception finds its rationale in the evidence that perception of any given object or experience exhibits intrinsic qualities that cannot be completely reduced to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory components. Thus, perceptions are not constructed in a "bottom-up" fashion from such elements, but are instead globally perceived, in a more "top-down" fashion. Gestalt perception, if cautiously and carefully combined with structured (techno)logical tools, would permit one to defoliate the often too-many-branches built diagnostic trees, and help physicians to better develop their competency. On the other hand, the practice of evidence-based medicine lies in the integration of individual clinical expertise and judgment with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. This article is aimed at providing some general concepts about Gestalt perception, and to discuss some aspects of clinical practice potentially influenced by this approach. PMID:24610565

  19. Do clinicians decide relying primarily on Bayesians principles or on Gestalt perception? Some pearls and pitfalls of Gestalt perception in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Clinical judgment is a foundation of medical practice and lies at the heart of a physician's knowledge, expertise and skill. Although clinical judgment is an active part of all medical fields, thus including diagnosis and therapy, communication and decision making, it is still poorly defined. It can be considered a synthesis of intuition (mainly based on Gestalt principles) and an analytical approach. Gestalt perception finds its rationale in the evidence that perception of any given object or experience exhibits intrinsic qualities that cannot be completely reduced to visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, or gustatory components. Thus, perceptions are not constructed in a "bottom-up" fashion from such elements, but are instead globally perceived, in a more "top-down" fashion. Gestalt perception, if cautiously and carefully combined with structured (techno)logical tools, would permit one to defoliate the often too-many-branches built diagnostic trees, and help physicians to better develop their competency. On the other hand, the practice of evidence-based medicine lies in the integration of individual clinical expertise and judgment with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. This article is aimed at providing some general concepts about Gestalt perception, and to discuss some aspects of clinical practice potentially influenced by this approach.

  20. A nationwide postal survey on the perception of Malaysian public healthcare providers on family medicine specialists' (PERMFAMS) clinical performance, professional attitudes and research visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Yasin, Mazapuspavina Md; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Rashid, Mohd-Radzniwan A; Hamzah, Zuhra; Ismail, Mastura; Ali, Norsiah; Bashah, Baizury; Mohd-Salleh, Noridah

    2015-01-01

    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication.