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Sample records for auditory gap detection

  1. Rapid auditory learning of temporal gap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2016-07-01

    The rapid initial phase of training-induced improvement has been shown to reflect a genuine sensory change in perception. Several features of early and rapid learning, such as generalization and stability, remain to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that learning effects from brief training on a temporal gap detection task using spectrally similar narrowband noise markers defining the gap (within-channel task), transfer across ears, however, not across spectrally dissimilar markers (between-channel task). The learning effects associated with brief training on a gap detection task were found to be stable for at least a day. These initial findings have significant implications for characterizing early and rapid learning effects. PMID:27475211

  2. Impaired gap detection in juvenile microgyric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Ann M; Friedman, Jennifer T; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

    2004-09-17

    Previous research with adult animal models links the presence of cortical neuromigrational anomalies (i.e., microgyria similar to that found in brains of dyslexics) with rapid auditory processing (RAP) impairments. RAP impairments are in turn found in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and also in individuals with dyslexia. Gap detection, a simple measure of auditory temporal acuity, appears to be impaired in children with SLI but not in dyslexic adults, even though both groups exhibit impaired processing on more complex, rapid auditory tasks. In the current study, juvenile rats with bilateral microgyria, but not their adult counterparts, exhibited impaired detection of short duration silent gaps in white noise when compared to age-matched sham littermates. Results lend further support to: (1) an association between neuromigrational anomalies and RAP impairments; and (2) the validity of an animal model of RAP impairments associated with language disturbances in humans. Current results also support the view that auditory processing disturbances associated with cortical malformations may be evident early in development at a relatively "low" level (e.g., simple gap detection), but may require "higher-order" auditory discrimination tasks (e.g., tone sequences, phonemic discriminations) to be elicited later in life. PMID:15351496

  3. Dynamic faces speed up the onset of auditory cortical spiking responses during vocal detection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Chandramouli; Lemus, Luis; Asif A Ghazanfar

    2013-01-01

    We combine facial motion with voices to help us hear better, but the role that low-level sensory areas such as the auditory cortex may play in this process is unclear. We combined a vocalization detection task with auditory cortical physiology in monkeys to bridge this epistemic gap. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous assumptions and hypotheses, changes in firing rate had no clear relationship to the detection advantage that dynamic faces provided when listening for vocalizations. Instead...

  4. Across frequency processes involved in auditory detection of coloration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Kerketsos, P

    2008-01-01

    When an early wall reflection is added to a direct sound, a spectral modulation is introduced to the signal's power spectrum. This spectral modulation typically produces an auditory sensation of coloration or pitch. Throughout this study, auditory spectral-integration effects involved in coloration...... detection are investigated. Coloration detection thresholds were therefore measured as a function of reflection delay and stimulus bandwidth. In order to investigate the involved auditory mechanisms, an auditory model was employed that was conceptually similar to the peripheral weighting model [Yost, JASA...... filterbank was designed to approximate auditory filter-shapes measured by Oxenham and Shera [JARO, 2003, 541-554], derived from forward masking data. The results of the present study demonstrate that a “purely” spectrum-based model approach can successfully describe auditory coloration detection even at high...

  5. Noise-Induced Tinnitus Using Individualized Gap Detection Analysis and Its Relationship with Hyperacusis, Anxiety, and Spatial Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Pace; Jinsheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual ...

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of auditory change detection and change deafness in complex auditory scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Ahrens, Janina; Thorne, Jeremy; Weerda, Riklef; Klump, Georg; Debener, Stefan; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-15

    Change deafness describes the failure to perceive even intense changes within complex auditory input, if the listener does not attend to the changing sound. Remarkably, previous psychophysical data provide evidence that this effect occurs independently of successful stimulus encoding, indicating that undetected changes are processed to some extent in auditory cortex. Here we investigated cortical representations of detected and undetected auditory changes using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and a change deafness paradigm. We applied a one-shot change detection task, in which participants listened successively to three complex auditory scenes, each of them consisting of six simultaneously presented auditory streams. Listeners had to decide whether all scenes were identical or whether the pitch of one stream was changed between the last two presentations. Our data show significantly increased middle-latency Nb responses for both detected and undetected changes as compared to no-change trials. In contrast, only successfully detected changes were associated with a later mismatch response in auditory cortex, followed by increased N2, P3a and P3b responses, originating from hierarchically higher non-sensory brain regions. These results strengthen the view that undetected changes are successfully encoded at sensory level in auditory cortex, but fail to trigger later change-related cortical responses that lead to conscious perception of change. PMID:23466938

  7. Automatically detecting auditory P300 in several trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫少锋; 汤井田; 陈洪波

    2015-01-01

    A method was demonstrated based on Infomax independent component analysis (Infomax ICA) for automatically extracting auditory P300 signals within several trials. A signaling equilibrium algorithm was proposed to enhance the effectiveness of the Infomax ICA decomposition. After the mixed signal was decomposed by Infomax ICA, the independent component (IC) used in auditory P300 reconstruction was automatically chosen by using the standard deviation of the fixed temporal pattern. And the result of auditory P300 was reconstructed using the selected ICs. The experimental results show that the auditory P300 can be detected automatically within five trials. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the standard signal and the signal detected using the proposed method is significantly greater than that between the standard signal and the signal detected using the average method within five trials. The wave pattern result obtained using the proposed algorithm is better and more similar to the standard signal than that obtained by the average method for the same number of trials. Therefore, the proposed method can automatically detect the effective auditory P300 within several trials.

  8. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  9. A Sequential Detection Method for Late Auditory Evoked Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, U; Eysholdt, U; Weiss, S.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents a novel mechanism for detection of late auditory evoked potentials (AEP). AEPs, which are an important diagnostic tool to detect hearing deficiencies, are contained within the electroencephalogram (EEG) at a very low SNR. Our proposed automatic detection of AEPs is based on the Wavelet-Transform of EEG data for feature extraction. Several transform coefficients are then used for a classification by a neural network; its decisions on successive EEG segments are judged by a s...

  10. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory

  11. Gap prepulse inhibition of the auditory late response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yunseo; Ahn, Joong Woo; Kwon, Chiheon; Suh, Myung-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Hee Chan

    2015-11-01

    The gap-startle paradigm has been used as a behavioral method for tinnitus screening in animal studies. This study aimed to investigate gap prepulse inhibition (GPI) of the auditory late response (ALR) as the objective response of the gap-intense sound paradigm in humans. ALRs were recorded in response to gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound stimuli in 27 healthy subjects. The amplitudes of the baseline-to-peak (N1, P2, and N2) and the peak-to-peak (N1P2 and P2N2) were compared between two averaged ALRs. The variations in the inhibition ratios of N1P2 and P2N2 during the experiment were analyzed by increasing stimuli repetitions. The effect of stimulus parameter adjustments on GPI ratios was evaluated. No-gap-intense sound stimuli elicited greater peak amplitudes than gap-intense sound stimuli, and significant differences were found across all peaks. The overall mean inhibition ratios were significantly lower than 1.0, where the value 1.0 indicates that there were no differences between gap-intense and no-gap-intense sound responses. The initial decline in GPI ratios was shown in N1P2 and P2N2 complexes, and this reduction was nearly complete after 100 stimulus repetitions. Significant effects of gap length and interstimulus interval on GPI ratios were observed. We found significant inhibition of ALR peak amplitudes in performing the gap-intense sound paradigm in healthy subjects. The N1P2 complex represented GPI well in terms of suppression degree and test-retest reliability. Our findings offer practical information for the comparative study of healthy subjects and tinnitus patients using the gap-intense sound paradigm with the ALR. PMID:26272085

  12. Auditory size-deviant detection in adults and newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Háden, Gábor P.; Shtyrov, Yury; Patterson, Roy D.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Denham, Sue L.; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2010-01-01

    Auditory size perception refers to the ability to make accurate judgements of the size of a sound source based solely upon the sound emitted from the source. Electro-physiological and behavioural data were collected to test whether sound-source size parameters are detected from task-irrelevant sequences in adults and newborn infants. The mismatch negativity (MMN) obtained from adults indexed automatic detection of changes in size for voices, musical instruments and animal calls, regardless of whether the acoustic change indicated larger or smaller sources. Neonates detected changes in the size of a musical instrument. The data are consistent with the notion that auditory size-deviant detection in humans is an innate automatic process. This conclusion is compatible with the theory that the ability to assess the size of sound sources evolved because it provided selective advantage of being able to detect larger (more competent) suitors and larger (more dangerous) predators. PMID:19596043

  13. Fear conditioning facilitates rats gap detection measured by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dan; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2005-04-01

    A low-intensity acoustic event presented shortly before an intense startling sound can inhibit the acoustic startle reflex. This phenomenon is called prepulse inhibition (PPI), and is widely used as a model of sensorimotor gating in both humans and animals. Particularly, it has been used for evaluating the aging effect on the mouse's ability to detect a silent gap in otherwise continuous sounds. The present study extended this model to the emotional modulation of gap detection. The results show that a silent gap embedded in each of the two broadband noise sounds (55 dB SPL), which were delivered by two spatially separated loudspeakers, could inhibit the startle reflex that was induced by a loud sound presented from the third loudspeaker 50 ms after the gap. The inhibitory effect largely depended on the duration of the gap, with the mean duration threshold around 11 ms across 18 rats tested. Pairing the gap with foot shock in a temporally specific manner, but not in a temporally random manner, significantly reduced the duration threshold. Thus this study established a new animal behavioral model both for studying auditory temporal processing and for studying auditory signal-detection plasticity induced by emotional learning.

  14. Dissociation of Detection and Discrimination of Pure Tones following Bilateral Lesions of Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew R Dykstra; Christine K Koh; Braida, Louis D.; Tramo, Mark Jude

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual...

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Auditory Cortex Synaptic Structures and Gap-Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle Between Early Adolescence and Young Adulthood in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Caitlin E; Erickson, Susan L; Fish, Kenneth N; Thiels, Edda; Penzes, Peter; Sweet, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Cortical excitatory and inhibitory synapses are disrupted in schizophrenia, the symptoms of which often emerge during adolescence, when cortical excitatory synapses undergo pruning. In auditory cortex, a brain region implicated in schizophrenia, little is known about the development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses between early adolescence and young adulthood, and how these changes impact auditory cortex function. We used immunohistochemistry and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to quantify dendritic spines and GAD65-expressing inhibitory boutons in auditory cortex of early adolescent, late adolescent, and young adult mice. Numbers of spines decreased between early adolescence and young adulthood, during which time responses increased in an auditory cortex-dependent sensory task, silent gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI). Within-bouton GAD65 protein and GAD65-expressing bouton numbers decreased between late adolescence and young adulthood, a delay in onset relative to spine and gap-PPI changes. In mice lacking the spine protein kalirin, there were no significant changes in spine number, within-bouton GAD65 protein, or gap-PPI between adolescence and young adulthood. These results illustrate developmental changes in auditory cortex spines, inhibitory boutons, and auditory cortex function between adolescence and young adulthood, and provide insights into how disrupted adolescent neurodevelopment could contribute to auditory cortex synapse pathology and auditory impairments. PMID:25759333

  16. Non-Auditory Health Hazard Vulnerability to Noise Pollution: Assessing Public Awareness Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjir Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Dhaka, one of the top ten megacities in Asia and the capital of Bangladesh, the problem of noise related pollution is prevalent. In almost every part of Dhaka city, the levels of noise which are established by W.H.O. are regularly exceeded, thus prompting adverse health effects on its inhabitants. This sort of pollution is more acute in central portion of Dhaka than its periphery. Therefore, if the greater Dhaka is taken as a study area, the central’s problem may be underestimated. This study is prepared to find out the actual condition of auditory and non-auditory health effect of noise among roadside people and provide recommendation to ameliorate the same and consequently reduce noise level in Dhaka city as an effort to make Dhaka a better place to live in. The result shows that both auditory and non-auditory effects of noise are at alarming condition in all zones of the city.

  17. The effect of noise fluctuation and spectral bandwidth on gap detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph W; Buss, Emily; Ozmeral, Erol J; Grose, John H

    2016-04-01

    Experiment 1 investigated gap detection for random and low-fluctuation noise (LFN) markers as a function of bandwidth (25-1600 Hz), level [40 or 75 dB sound pressure level (SPL)], and center frequency (500-4000 Hz). Gap thresholds for random noise improved as bandwidth increased from 25 to 1600 Hz, but there were only minor effects related to center frequency and level. For narrow bandwidths, thresholds were lower for LFN than random markers; this difference extended to higher bandwidths at the higher center frequencies and was particularly large at high stimulus level. Effects of frequency and level were broadly consistent with the idea that peripheral filtering can increase fluctuation in the encoded LFN stimulus. Experiment 2 tested gap detection for 200-Hz-wide noise bands centered on 2000 Hz, using high-pass maskers to examine spread of excitation effects. Such effects were absent or minor for random noise markers and the 40-dB-SPL LFN markers. In contrast, some high-pass maskers substantially worsened performance for the 75-dB-SPL LFN markers. These results were consistent with an interpretation that relatively acute gap detection for the high-level LFN gap markers resulted from spread of excitation to higher-frequency auditory filters where the magnitude and phase characteristics of the LFN stimuli are better preserved. PMID:27106308

  18. Prestimulus frontal-parietal coherence predicts auditory detection performance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Herzog, Linnea; Salehi, Kia; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Wiest, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiology in primates has implicated long-range neural coherence as a potential mechanism for enhancing sensory detection. To test whether local synchronization and long-range neural coherence support detection performance in rats, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in frontal and parietal cortex while rats performed an auditory detection task. We observed significantly elevated power at multiple low frequencies (

  19. GLAST Deficiency in Mice Exacerbates Gap Detection Deficits in a Model of Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Vikhe Patil, Kim; Han, Chul; Fabella, Brian; Canlon, Barbara; Someya, Shinichi; Cederroth, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has been proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus-like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and 129sv) for pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in the presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, 129sv and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to obtain a greater dynamic range to assess tinnitus-like effects, we found that disruption of gap detection by salicylate was exacerbated across various intensities of a 32-kHz narrow band noise gap carrier in GLAST knockout (KO) mice when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) were performed to evaluate the effects on hearing functions. Salicylate caused greater auditory threshold shifts (near 15 dB) in GLAST KO mice than in WT mice across all tested frequencies, despite similarly reduced DPOAE. Despite these changes, inhibition using broad-band gap carriers and 32 kHz pre-pulses were not affected. Our study suggests that GLAST deficiency could become a useful experimental model to decipher the mechanisms underlying drug-induced tinnitus. Future studies addressing the neurological correlates of tinnitus in this model could provide additional insights into the

  20. Dissociation of detection and discrimination of pure tones following bilateral lesions of auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dykstra

    Full Text Available It is well known that damage to the peripheral auditory system causes deficits in tone detection as well as pitch and loudness perception across a wide range of frequencies. However, the extent to which to which the auditory cortex plays a critical role in these basic aspects of spectral processing, especially with regard to speech, music, and environmental sound perception, remains unclear. Recent experiments indicate that primary auditory cortex is necessary for the normally-high perceptual acuity exhibited by humans in pure-tone frequency discrimination. The present study assessed whether the auditory cortex plays a similar role in the intensity domain and contrasted its contribution to sensory versus discriminative aspects of intensity processing. We measured intensity thresholds for pure-tone detection and pure-tone loudness discrimination in a population of healthy adults and a middle-aged man with complete or near-complete lesions of the auditory cortex bilaterally. Detection thresholds in his left and right ears were 16 and 7 dB HL, respectively, within clinically-defined normal limits. In contrast, the intensity threshold for monaural loudness discrimination at 1 kHz was 6.5 ± 2.1 dB in the left ear and 6.5 ± 1.9 dB in the right ear at 40 dB sensation level, well above the means of the control population (left ear: 1.6 ± 0.22 dB; right ear: 1.7 ± 0.19 dB. The results indicate that auditory cortex lowers just-noticeable differences for loudness discrimination by approximately 5 dB but is not necessary for tone detection in quiet. Previous human and Old-world monkey experiments employing lesion-effect, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods to investigate the role of auditory cortex in intensity processing are reviewed.

  1. Prestimulus frontal-parietal coherence predicts auditory detection performance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Linnea; Salehi, Kia; Bohon, Kaitlin S.

    2014-01-01

    Electrophysiology in primates has implicated long-range neural coherence as a potential mechanism for enhancing sensory detection. To test whether local synchronization and long-range neural coherence support detection performance in rats, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in frontal and parietal cortex while rats performed an auditory detection task. We observed significantly elevated power at multiple low frequencies (motor state. PMID:24572093

  2. Detection Rates of Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials at Different Sensation Levels in Infants with Sensory/Neural Hearing Loss and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Chang, Hsiuwen; Ching, Teresa Y C; Hou, Sanna

    2016-02-01

    With the introduction of newborn hearing screening, infants are being diagnosed with hearing loss during the first few months of life. For infants with a sensory/neural hearing loss (SNHL), the audiogram can be estimated objectively using auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and hearing aids prescribed accordingly. However, for infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) due to the abnormal/absent ABR waveforms, alternative measures of auditory function are needed to assess the need for amplification and evaluate whether aided benefit has been achieved. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) are used to assess aided benefit in infants with hearing loss; however, there is insufficient information regarding the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. It is also not clear whether CAEP detection rates differ between infants with SNHL and infants with ANSD. This study involved retrospective collection of CAEP, hearing threshold, and hearing aid gain data to investigate the relationship between stimulus audibility and CAEP detection rates. The results demonstrate that increases in stimulus audibility result in an increase in detection rate. For the same range of sensation levels, there was no difference in the detection rates between infants with SNHL and ANSD. PMID:27587922

  3. Probability of detecting band-tailed pigeons during call-broadcast versus auditory surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, C.; Conway, C.J.; Hughes, K.M.; Devos, J.C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates of population trend for the interior subspecies of band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata fasciata) are not available because no standardized survey method exists for monitoring the interior subspecies. We evaluated 2 potential band-tailed pigeon survey methods (auditory and call-broadcast surveys) from 2002 to 2004 in 5 mountain ranges in southern Arizona, USA, and in mixed-conifer forest throughout the state. Both auditory and call-broadcast surveys produced low numbers of cooing pigeons detected per survey route (x?? ??? 0.67) and had relatively high temporal variance in average number of cooing pigeons detected during replicate surveys (CV ??? 161%). However, compared to auditory surveys, use of call-broadcast increased 1) the percentage of replicate surveys on which ???1 cooing pigeon was detected by an average of 16%, and 2) the number of cooing pigeons detected per survey route by an average of 29%, with this difference being greatest during the first 45 minutes of the morning survey period. Moreover, probability of detecting a cooing pigeon was 27% greater during call-broadcast (0.80) versus auditory (0.63) surveys. We found that cooing pigeons were most common in mixed-conifer forest in southern Arizona and density of male pigeons in mixed-conifer forest throughout the state averaged 0.004 (SE = 0.001) pigeons/ha. Our results are the first to show that call-broadcast increases the probability of detecting band-tailed pigeons (or any species of Columbidae) during surveys. Call-broadcast surveys may provide a useful method for monitoring populations of the interior subspecies of band-tailed pigeon in areas where other survey methods are inappropriate.

  4. Contingent capture of involuntary visual attention interferes with detection of auditory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarcR.Kamke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The involuntary capture of attention by salient visual stimuli can be influenced by the behavioral goals of an observer. For example, when searching for a target item, irrelevant items that possess the target-defining characteristic capture attention more strongly than items not possessing that feature. Such contingent capture involves a shift of spatial attention toward the item with the target-defining characteristic. It is not clear, however, if the associated decrements in performance for detecting the target item are entirely due to involuntary orienting of spatial attention. To investigate whether contingent capture also involves a non-spatial interference, adult observers were presented with streams of visual and auditory stimuli and were tasked with simultaneously monitoring for targets in each modality. Visual and auditory targets could be preceded by a lateralized visual distractor that either did, or did not, possess the target-defining feature (a specific color. In agreement with the contingent capture hypothesis, target-colored distractors interfered with visual detection performance (response time and accuracy more than distractors that did not possess the target color. Importantly, the same pattern of results was obtained for the auditory task: visual target-colored distractors interfered with sound detection. The decrement in auditory performance following a target-colored distractor suggests that contingent capture involves a source of processing interference in addition to that caused by a spatial shift of attention. Specifically, we argue that distractors possessing the target-defining characteristic enter a capacity-limited, serial stage of neural processing, which delays detection of subsequently presented stimuli regardless of the sensory modality.

  5. Auditory detection of non-speech and speech stimuli in noise: Native speech advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shuting; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Mingshuang; Dong, Qi; Liu, Chang

    2016-05-01

    Detection thresholds of Chinese vowels, Korean vowels, and a complex tone, with harmonic and noise carriers were measured in noise for Mandarin Chinese-native listeners. The harmonic index was calculated as the difference between detection thresholds of the stimuli with harmonic carriers and those with noise carriers. The harmonic index for Chinese vowels was significantly greater than that for Korean vowels and the complex tone. Moreover, native speech sounds were rated significantly more native-like than non-native speech and non-speech sounds. The results indicate that native speech has an advantage over other sounds in simple auditory tasks like sound detection. PMID:27250202

  6. Proposed mechanisms for coincidence detection in the auditory brainstem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršálek, Petr; Lánský, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2005), s. 445-451. ISSN 0340-1200 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400110401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuronal modeling * coincidence detection * hearing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2005

  7. Auditory Warnings for Electric Vehicles: Detectability in Normal-Vision and Visually-Impaired Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Parizet, Etienne; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Robart, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Electrical vehicles operating at low speed are often too quiet to be detected by pedestrians in time. In order to study the efficiency of additional auditory warning signals they might be equipped with, a sample of 100 sighted and 53 blind listeners was exposed to a virtual road-crossing scenario in which they had to detect whether an approaching vehicle came from the right or left. Nine warning signals, designed to differ in particular sound features such as FM, AM or the number of harmonics...

  8. The usefulness of three-dimensional helical CT for the detection of abnormalities of the auditory ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) helical CT for the detection of abnormalities of the auditory ossicles, 3D helical CT of the middle ear was performed in seven patients with hearing disorder. It revealed that 4 patients had congenital deficiency of the auditory ossicles, 2 patients with chronic otitis media had shortening of the incus and one patient with head injury had doubtful fracture of the incus. This study indicated that 3D helical CT of the middle ear can represent the auditory ossicles objectively and can offer detailed diagnosis. (author)

  9. The early component of middle latency auditory-evoked potentials in the process of deviance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfeng; Gong, Qin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate both the encoding mechanism and the process of deviance detection when deviant stimuli were presented in various patterns in an environment featuring repetitive sounds. In adults with normal hearing, middle latency responses were recorded within an oddball paradigm containing complex tones or speech sounds, wherein deviant stimuli featured different change patterns. For both complex tones and speech sounds, the Na and Pa components of middle latency responses showed an increase in the mean amplitude and a reduction in latency when comparing rare deviant stimuli with repetitive standard stimuli in a stimulation block. However, deviant stimuli with a rising frequency induced signals with smaller amplitudes than other deviant stimuli. The present findings indicate that deviant stimuli with different change patterns induce differing responses in the primary auditory cortex. In addition, the Pa components of speech sounds typically feature a longer latency and similar mean amplitude compared with complex tones, which suggests that the auditory system requires more complex processing for the analysis of speech sounds before processing in the auditory cortex. PMID:27203294

  10. The dynamic range paradox: a central auditory model of intensity change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J R Simpson

    Full Text Available In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness, and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10 using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10(-6. From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central

  11. The music of your emotions: neural substrates involved in detection of emotional correspondence between auditory and visual music actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Petrini

    Full Text Available In humans, emotions from music serve important communicative roles. Despite a growing interest in the neural basis of music perception, action and emotion, the majority of previous studies in this area have focused on the auditory aspects of music performances. Here we investigate how the brain processes the emotions elicited by audiovisual music performances. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, and in Experiment 1 we defined the areas responding to audiovisual (musician's movements with music, visual (musician's movements only, and auditory emotional (music only displays. Subsequently a region of interest analysis was performed to examine if any of the areas detected in Experiment 1 showed greater activation for emotionally mismatching performances (combining the musician's movements with mismatching emotional sound than for emotionally matching music performances (combining the musician's movements with matching emotional sound as presented in Experiment 2 to the same participants. The insula and the left thalamus were found to respond consistently to visual, auditory and audiovisual emotional information and to have increased activation for emotionally mismatching displays in comparison with emotionally matching displays. In contrast, the right thalamus was found to respond to audiovisual emotional displays and to have similar activation for emotionally matching and mismatching displays. These results suggest that the insula and left thalamus have an active role in detecting emotional correspondence between auditory and visual information during music performances, whereas the right thalamus has a different role.

  12. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2013-01-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD) problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed ou...

  13. Simulating electrical modulation detection thresholds using a biophysical model of the auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gabrielle E; Imennov, Nikita S; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2016-05-01

    Modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) assess listeners' sensitivity to changes in the temporal envelope of a signal and have been shown to strongly correlate with speech perception in cochlear implant users. MDTs are simulated with a stochastic model of a population of auditory nerve fibers that has been verified to accurately simulate a number of physiologically important temporal response properties. The procedure to estimate detection thresholds has previously been applied to stimulus discrimination tasks. The population model simulates the MDT-stimulus intensity relationship measured in cochlear implant users. The model also recreates the shape of the modulation transfer function and the relationship between MDTs and carrier rate. Discrimination based on fluctuations in synchronous firing activity predicts better performance at low carrier rates, but quantitative measures of modulation coding predict better neural representation of high carrier rate stimuli. Manipulating the number of fibers and a temporal integration parameter, the width of a sliding temporal integration window, varies properties of the MDTs, such as cutoff frequency and peak threshold. These results demonstrate the importance of using a multi-diameter fiber population in modeling the MDTs and demonstrate a wider applicability of this model to simulating behavioral performance in cochlear implant listeners. PMID:27250141

  14. Experimental analysis of the auditory detection process on avian point counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, T.R.; Alldredge, M.W.; Pollock, K.H.; Wettroth, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system for simulating the conditions of avian surveys in which birds are identified by sound. The system uses a laptop computer to control a set of amplified MP3 players placed at known locations around a survey point. The system can realistically simulate a known population of songbirds under a range of factors that affect detection probabilities. The goals of our research are to describe the sources and range of variability affecting point-count estimates and to find applications of sampling theory and methodologies that produce practical improvements in the quality of bird-census data. Initial experiments in an open field showed that, on average, observers tend to undercount birds on unlimited-radius counts, though the proportion of birds counted by individual observers ranged from 81% to 132% of the actual total. In contrast to the unlimited-radius counts, when data were truncated at a 50-m radius around the point, observers overestimated the total population by 17% to 122%. Results also illustrate how detection distances decline and identification errors increase with increasing levels of ambient noise. Overall, the proportion of birds heard by observers decreased by 28 ?? 4.7% under breezy conditions, 41 ?? 5.2% with the presence of additional background birds, and 42 ?? 3.4% with the addition of 10 dB of white noise. These findings illustrate some of the inherent difficulties in interpreting avian abundance estimates based on auditory detections, and why estimates that do not account for variations in detection probability will not withstand critical scrutiny. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  15. AN EFFICIENT PEAK VALLEY DETECTION BASED VAD ALGORITHM FOR ROBUST DETECTION OF SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice Activity Detection (VAD problem considers detecting the presence of speech in a noisy signal. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. In this research we are presenting a new technique for Voice Activity Detection (VAD in EEG collected brain stem speech evoked potentials data [7, 8, 9]. This one is spectral subtraction method in which we have developed our own mathematical formula for the peak valley detection (PVD of the frequency spectra to detect the voice activity [1]. The purpose of this research is to compare the performance of this SNR based PVD (SNRPVD method over Zero-Crossing rate detector [5] and statistical analysis based algorithms [10]. We have put into application of these three algorithms on these particular data sets of this experiment [7, 8, 9] and VAD is verified and compared the results of these three. MATLAB routines were developed on these particular methodologies. Finally we concluded that the method of SNRPVD surely performing better than the ZCR and statistical algorithms.

  16. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called “Biomusic,” maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a “whooshing” embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify “anxious” or “relaxed” states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., biofeedback systems for anxiety management.

  17. Acoustic tumour detection with early auditory evoked potentials and neuroradiological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 43 patients with surgically identified acoustic neuromas were tested. Results of early auditory evoked potentials (EAEP) and of neuroradiological methods were analysed. Abnormal EAEPs were observed in all patients. In 73% of the cases the EAEP indicated the retrocochlear site of the lesion; in 27%, however, the results did not localize the exact site of the lesion owing to a lack of waves I, II and III due to a pronounced hearing loss. Neuroradiological procedures provided an indication of the site and extent of the tumour. The number of true positives was 21 of 29 cases with polytomography of the petrous bone, 23 of 28 with computed tomography and in all cases when pontine angle cisternography and computed tomography combined with gas cisternography were performed. The EAEPs provide a screening-test for acoustic tumour detection at an early stage. Wave abnormalities indicative of a lesion at the acoustic nerve should lead to a neuroradiological investigation and are particularly valuable in cases with small intracanalicular tumours. (orig.)

  18. The Gap Detection Test : Can It Be Used to Diagnose Tinnitus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Başkent, Deniz; van Dijk, Pim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Animals with induced tinnitus showed difficulties in detecting silent gaps in sounds, suggesting that the tinnitus percept may be filling the gap. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of this approach to detect tinnitus in human patients. The authors first hyp

  19. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  20. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  1. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  2. ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS. OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

  3. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auditory Processing Disorders Auditory processing disorders (APDs) are referred to by many names: central auditory processing disorders , auditory perceptual disorders , and central auditory disorders . APDs ...

  4. From sounds to words: a neurocomputational model of adaptation, inhibition and memory processes in auditory change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, Max; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Most animals detect sudden changes in trains of repeated stimuli but only some can learn a wide range of sensory patterns and recognise them later, a skill crucial for the evolutionary success of higher mammals. Here we use a neural model mimicking the cortical anatomy of sensory and motor areas and their connections to explain brain activity indexing auditory change and memory access. Our simulations indicate that while neuronal adaptation and local inhibition of cortical activity can explain aspects of change detection as observed when a repeated unfamiliar sound changes in frequency, the brain dynamics elicited by auditory stimulation with well-known patterns (such as meaningful words) cannot be accounted for on the basis of adaptation and inhibition alone. Specifically, we show that the stronger brain responses observed to familiar stimuli in passive oddball tasks are best explained in terms of activation of memory circuits that emerged in the cortex during the learning of these stimuli. Such memory circuits, and the activation enhancement they entail, are absent for unfamiliar stimuli. The model illustrates how basic neurobiological mechanisms, including neuronal adaptation, lateral inhibition, and Hebbian learning, underlie neuronal assembly formation and dynamics, and differentially contribute to the brain's major change detection response, the mismatch negativity. PMID:20728545

  5. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...

  6. Auditory-nerve responses to varied inter-phase gap and phase duration of the electric pulse stimulus as predictors for neuronal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramekers, Dyan; Versnel, Huib; Strahl, Stefan B; Smeets, Emma M; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-04-01

    After severe hair cell loss, secondary degeneration of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) is observed-a gradual process that spans years in humans but only takes weeks in guinea pigs. Being the target for cochlear implants (CIs), the physiological state of the SGCs is important for the effectiveness of a CI. For assessment of the nerve's state, focus has generally been on its response threshold. Our goal was to add a more detailed characterization of SGC functionality. To this end, the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) was recorded in normal-hearing guinea pigs and guinea pigs that were deafened 2 or 6 weeks prior to the experiments. We evaluated changes in eCAP characteristics when the phase duration (PD) and inter-phase gap (IPG) of a biphasic current pulse were varied. We correlated the magnitude of these changes to quantified histological measures of neurodegeneration (SGC packing density and SGC size). The maximum eCAP amplitude, derived from the input-output function, decreased after deafening, and increased with both PD and IPG. The eCAP threshold did not change after deafening, and decreased with increasing PD and IPG. The dynamic range was wider for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. Excitability increased with IPG (steeper slope of the input-output function and lower stimulation level at the half-maximum eCAP amplitude), but to a lesser extent for the deafened animals than for normal-hearing controls. The latency was shorter for the 6-weeks-deaf animals than for the other two groups. For several of these eCAP characteristics, the effect size of IPG correlated well with histological measures of degeneration, whereas effect size of PD did not. These correlations depend on the use of high current levels, which could limit clinical application. Nevertheless, their potential of these correlations towards assessment of the condition of the auditory nerve may be of great benefit to clinical diagnostics and prognosis in cochlear

  7. Overriding auditory attentional capture

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-01-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when ...

  8. Sensitivity of cortical auditory evoked potential detection for hearing-impaired infants in response to short speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Van Dun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs are an emerging tool for hearing aid fitting evaluation in young children who cannot provide reliable behavioral feedback. It is therefore useful to determine the relationship between the sensation level of speech sounds and the detection sensitivity of CAEPs.

    Design and methods: Twenty-five sensorineurally hearing impaired infants with an age range of 8 to 30 months were tested once, 18 aided and 7 unaided. First, behavioral thresholds of speech stimuli /m/, /g/, and /t/ were determined using visual reinforcement orientation audiometry (VROA. Afterwards, the same speech stimuli were presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB SPL, and CAEP recordings were made. An automatic statistical detection paradigm was used for CAEP detection.

    Results: For sensation levels above 0, 10, and 20 dB respectively, detection sensitivities were equal to 72 ± 10, 75 ± 10, and 78 ± 12%. In 79% of the cases, automatic detection p-values became smaller when the sensation level was increased by 10 dB.

    Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the presence or absence of CAEPs can provide some indication of the audibility of a speech sound for infants with sensorineural hearing loss. The detection of a CAEP provides confidence, to a degree commensurate with the detection probability, that the infant is detecting that sound at the level presented. When testing infants where the audibility of speech sounds has not been established behaviorally, the lack of a cortical response indicates the possibility, but by no means a certainty, that the sensation level is 10 dB or less.

  9. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. PMID:25726291

  10. Detection of Perinatal Cytomegalovirus Infection and Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Belgian Infants by Measurement of Automated Auditory Brainstem Response▿

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeeck, Jannick; Van Kerschaver, Erwin; Wollants, Elke; Beuselinck, Kurt; Stappaerts, Luc; Van Ranst, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Since auditory disability causes serious problems in the development of speech and in the total development of a child, it is crucial to diagnose possible hearing impairment as soon as possible after birth. This study evaluates the neonatal hearing screening program in Flanders, Belgium. The auditory ability of 118,438 babies was tested using the automated auditory brainstem response. We selected 194 babies with indicative hearing impairment and 332 matched controls to investigate the associa...

  11. The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eGrassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age < 35, 26 young-old adults (65 ≤ age ≤75 and 28 old-old adults (age > 75 were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation explained a significant part of the variance observed in processing speed in older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition.

  12. Relationship between gap detection thresholds and loudness in cochlear implant users

    OpenAIRE

    Garadat, Soha N.; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    Gap detection threshold (GDT) is a commonly used measure of temporal acuity in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. This measure, like other measures of temporal acuity, shows considerable variation across subjects and also varies across stimulation sites within subjects. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether across-site variation in GDTs would be reduced or maintained with increased stimulation levels; (2) to determine whether across-site variation in GDTs at low stimulation leve...

  13. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious. PMID:27111996

  14. The auditory characteristics of children with inner auditory canal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yu; Xu, Lei; Li, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Luo, Jianfen; Wang, Mingming; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) in the children with inner auditory canal (IAC) stenosis is much higher than those without IAC stenosis, regardless of whether they have other inner ear anomalies. In addition, the auditory characteristics of ANSD with IAC stenosis are significantly different from those of ANSD without any middle and inner ear malformations. Objectives To describe the auditory characteristics in children with IAC stenosis as well as to examine whether the narrow inner auditory canal is associated with ANSD. Method A total of 21 children, with inner auditory canal stenosis, participated in this study. A series of auditory tests were measured. Meanwhile, a comparative study was conducted on the auditory characteristics of ANSD, based on whether the children were associated with isolated IAC stenosis. Results Wave V in the ABR was not observed in all the patients, while cochlear microphonic (CM) response was detected in 81.1% ears with stenotic IAC. Sixteen of 19 (84.2%) ears with isolated IAC stenosis had CM response present on auditory brainstem responses (ABR) waveforms. There was no significant difference in ANSD characteristics between the children with and without isolated IAC stenosis. PMID:26981851

  15. Experience-dependent learning of auditory temporal resolution: evidence from Carnatic-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2014-01-22

    Musical training and experience greatly enhance the cortical and subcortical processing of sounds, which may translate to superior auditory perceptual acuity. Auditory temporal resolution is a fundamental perceptual aspect that is critical for speech understanding in noise in listeners with normal hearing, auditory disorders, cochlear implants, and language disorders, yet very few studies have focused on music-induced learning of temporal resolution. This report demonstrates that Carnatic musical training and experience have a significant impact on temporal resolution assayed by gap detection thresholds. This experience-dependent learning in Carnatic-trained musicians exhibits the universal aspects of human perception and plasticity. The present work adds the perceptual component to a growing body of neurophysiological and imaging studies that suggest plasticity of the peripheral auditory system at the level of the brainstem. The present work may be intriguing to researchers and clinicians alike interested in devising cross-cultural training regimens to alleviate listening-in-noise difficulties. PMID:24264076

  16. Deficit of auditory temporal processing in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Tajik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory temporal processing reveals an important aspect of auditory performance, in which a deficit can prevent the child from speaking, language learning and reading. Temporal resolution, which is a subgroup of temporal processing, can be evaluated by gap-in-noise detection test. Regarding the relation of auditory temporal processing deficits and phonologic disorder of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia, the aim of this study was to evaluate these children with the gap-in-noise (GIN test.Methods: The gap-in-noise test was performed on 28 normal and 24 dyslexic-dysgraphic children, at the age of 11-12 years old. Mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers were compared between the groups.Results: The mean approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers of the right and left ear had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. The mean approximate threshold of children with dyslexia-dysgraphia (6.97 ms, SD=1.09 was significantly (p<0.001 more than that of the normal group (5.05 ms, SD=0.92. The mean related frequency of corrected answers (58.05, SD=4.98% was less than normal group (69.97, SD=7.16% (p<0.001.Conclusion: Abnormal temporal resolution was found in children with dyslexia-dysgraphia based on gap-in-noise test. While the brainstem and auditory cortex are responsible for auditory temporal processing, probably the structural and functional differences of these areas in normal and dyslexic-dysgraphic children lead to abnormal coding of auditory temporal information. As a result, auditory temporal processing is inevitable.

  17. Superiority of visual (verbal) vs. auditory test presentation modality in a P300-based CIT: The Complex Trial Protocol for concealed autobiographical memory detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ward, Anne; Labkovsky, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This paper continues our efforts to determine which modality is best for presentation of stimuli in the P300-based concealed information test (CIT) called the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP). The first part of the CTP trial involves presentation of the key probe or irrelevant stimuli, and is followed by presentation of target (T) or non-target (NT). In Rosenfeld et al. (2015), probes and irrelevants regularly alternated modality over trials, but Ts and NTs were always visual. In the present study, (in both its experiments, EXP 1 and EXP 2), probes and irrelevants alternated modalities on successive trials, as before. In present EXP 1, Ts and NTs were always auditory, but in EXP 2, they were simultaneously auditory and visual. Probe P300 data were different in each study: In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) and EXP 2 here, the bootstrap-based detection rates based on probe-minus-irrelevant differences, significantly differed favoring visual probe and irrelevant presentation modality. In EXP 1 here, detection rates were the same for the two modalities. In Rosenfeld et al. (2015) there was no main effect of probe modality, visual vs. auditory on probe-minus-irrelevant P300 difference. There were such effects here in EXP 1 (p<0.08, effect size=0.19) and EXP 2 (p<0.02, effect size=0.31), favoring the visual modality. Probe P300 latencies were shorter for visual than for auditory stimuli in Rosenfeld et al. (2015), a trend specifically reversed in the present pair of studies. RT was faster for visual stimuli in the present studies. The T and NT modality appears to interact with probe/irrelevant modality, and the best protocol for detecting concealed information is with the 2015 study protocol or that of EXP 2, using visual stimulus presentation. PMID:27140728

  18. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... field differ in their opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. Some professionals report that hearing aids and personal listening devices such as frequency modulation (FM) systems are ...

  19. Neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in rats with noise-induced altered gap detection ability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Burianová, Jana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    -, - (2006), s. 170-170. [Symposium on Hearing Rehabilitation and Innovative Inner Ear Therapies. 18.09.2006-20.09.2006, Montpellier] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd NR8113; GA MŠk LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : GDT Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  20. Technology Gap Analysis for the Detection of Process Signatures Using Less Than Remote Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, John S.; Atkinson, David A.; Lind, Michael A.; Maughan, A. D.; Kelly, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Although remote sensing methods offer advantages for monitoring important illicit process activities, remote and stand-off technologies cannot successfully detect all important processes with the sensitivity and certainty that is desired. The main scope of the program is observables, with a primary focus on chemical signatures. A number of key process signatures elude remote or stand-off detection for a variety of reasons (e.g., heavy particulate emissions that do not propagate far enough for detection at stand-off distances, semi-volatile chemicals that do not tend to vaporize and remain in the environment near the source, etc.). Some of these compounds can provide persistent, process-specific information that is not available through remote techniques; however, the associated measurement technologies have their own set of advantages, disadvantages and technical challenges that may need to be overcome before additional signature data can be effectively and reliably exploited. The main objective of this report is to describe a process to identify high impact technology gaps for important less-than-remote detection applications. The subsequent analysis focuses on the technology development needed to enable exploitation of important process signatures. The evaluation process that was developed involves three interrelated and often conflicting requirements generation activities: • Identification of target signature chemicals with unique intelligence value and their associated attributes as mitigated by environmentally influenced fate and transport effects (i.e., what can you expect to actually find that has intelligence value, where do you need to look for it and what sensitivity and selectivity do you need to see it) • Identification of end-user deployment scenario possibilities and constraints with a focus on alternative detection requirements, timing issues, logistical consideration, and training requirements for a successful measurement • Identification of

  1. Overriding auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Polly; Lavie, Nilli

    2007-02-01

    Attentional capture by color singletons during shape search can be eliminated when the target is not a feature singleton (Bacon & Egeth, 1994). This suggests that a "singleton detection" search strategy must be adopted for attentional capture to occur. Here we find similar effects on auditory attentional capture. Irrelevant high-intensity singletons interfered with an auditory search task when the target itself was also a feature singleton. However, singleton interference was eliminated when the target was not a singleton (i.e., when nontargets were made heterogeneous, or when more than one target sound was presented). These results suggest that auditory attentional capture depends on the observer's attentional set, as does visual attentional capture. The suggestion that hearing might act as an early warning system that would always be tuned to unexpected unique stimuli must therefore be modified to accommodate these strategy-dependent capture effects. PMID:17557587

  2. Rugged gap reactor device for postcolumn fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H; Li, S F

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, the construction and performance of a rugged device for postcolumn derivatization in capillary electrophoresis (CE) are described. The device was based on a gap design, and a gap with a very small distance (derivatizing reagents into the reaction capillary was attributable to gravity flow. The concentration of derivatizing reagents can be controlled through manipulating the electroosmotic flow in the reaction capillary and the height of the liquid levels from the derivatizing reagents to the buffer reservoirs. The device has been applied in fluorescence detection of amino acids using a mixture of o-phthaldialdehyde/2-mercaptoethanol as derivatizing reagent. Theoretical plate numbers for 11 amino acids separated in a pH 9.5 borate buffer were obtained in the order of 40 000-250 000. The detection limit for glycine (S/N = 2) was found to be 6.7 × 10(-)(7) mol/L using a commercial HPLC fluorescence detector modified for CE. Free amino acids in a wine sample were also determined. Because the device is quite stable, we believe that it can be used routinely in analytical laboratories. PMID:21644687

  3. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  4. Automaticity and Primacy of Auditory Streaming: Concurrent Subjective and Objective Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Billig, Alexander J.; Robert P Carlyon

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used subjective and objective measures to study the automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming. Listeners heard sequences of “ABA–” triplets, where “A” and “B” were tones of different frequencies and “–” was a silent gap. Segregation was more frequently reported, and rhythmically deviant triplets less well detected, for a greater between-tone frequency separation and later in the sequence. In Experiment 1, performing a competing auditory task for the first part of the sequ...

  5. Reflecting on explanatory ability: A mechanism for detecting gaps in causal knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dan R; Murphy, Meredith P; Messer, Riley M

    2016-05-01

    People frequently overestimate their understanding-with a particularly large blind-spot for gaps in their causal knowledge. We introduce a metacognitive approach to reducing overestimation, termed reflecting on explanatory ability (REA), which is briefly thinking about how well one could explain something in a mechanistic, step-by-step, causally connected manner. Nine experiments demonstrated that engaging in REA just before estimating one's understanding substantially reduced overestimation. Moreover, REA reduced overestimation with nearly the same potency as generating full explanations, but did so 20 times faster (although only for high complexity objects). REA substantially reduced overestimation by inducing participants to quickly evaluate an object's inherent causal complexity (Experiments 4-7). REA reduced overestimation by also fostering step-by-step, causally connected processing (Experiments 2 and 3). Alternative explanations for REA's effects were ruled out including a general conservatism account (Experiments 4 and 5) and a covert explanation account (Experiment 8). REA's overestimation-reduction effect generalized beyond objects (Experiments 1-8) to sociopolitical policies (Experiment 9). REA efficiently detects gaps in our causal knowledge with implications for improving self-directed learning, enhancing self-insight into vocational and academic abilities, and even reducing extremist attitudes. PMID:26999047

  6. Prospects of antideuteron detection from dark matter annihilations or decays at AMS-02 and GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for cosmic antideuterons has been proposed as a promising method to indirectly detect dark matter, due to the very small background flux from spallations expected at the energies relevant to experiments. The antideuteron flux from dark matter annihilations or decays is, however, severely constrained by the non-observation of an excess in the antiproton-to-proton fraction measured by PAMELA. In this paper we calculate, for representative dark matter annihilation and decay channels, upper limits on the number of antideuteron events at AMS-02 and GAPS from requiring that the associated antiproton flux is in agreement with the PAMELA data. To this end, we first analyze in detail the formation of antideuterons in the coalescence model using an event-by-event Monte Carlo simulation and using data from various high energy experiments. We find that the resulting coalescence momentum shows a dependence on the underlying process and on the center of mass energy involved. Then, we calculate, using a diffusion model, the flux of antideuterons at the Earth from dark matter annihilations or decays. Our results indicate that, despite the various sources of uncertainty, the observation of an antideuteron flux at AMS-02 or GAPS from dark matter annihilations or decays will be challenging

  7. The music of your emotions: neural substrates involved in detection of emotional correspondence between auditory and visual music actions

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, K.; Crabbe, F.; Sheridan, C; Pollick, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    In humans, emotions from music serve important communicative roles. Despite a growing interest in the neural basis of music perception, action and emotion, the majority of previous studies in this area have focused on the auditory aspects of music performances. Here we investigate how the brain processes the emotions elicited by audiovisual music performances. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, and in Experiment 1 we defined the areas responding to audiovisual (music...

  8. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization and single point mutations in a nano-gap biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffino, R. L.; Mir, M.; Samitier, J.

    2014-03-01

    We describe a conductance-based biosensor that exploits DNA-mediated long-range electron transport for the label-free and direct electrical detection of DNA hybridization. This biosensor platform comprises an array of vertical nano-gap biosensors made of gold and fabricated through standard photolithography combined with focused ion beam lithography. The nano-gap walls are covalently modified with short, anti-symmetric thiolated DNA probes, which are terminated by 19 bases complementary to both the ends of a target DNA strand. The nano-gaps are separated by a distance of 50nm, which was adjusted to fit the length of the DNA target plus the DNA probes. The hybridization of the target DNA closes the gap circuit in a switch on/off fashion, in such a way that it is readily detected by an increase in the current after nano-gap closure. The nano-biosensor shows high specificity in the discrimination of base-pair mismatching and does not require signal indicators or enhancing molecules. The design of the biosensor platform is applicable for multiplexed detection in a straightforward manner. The platform is well-suited to mass production, point-of-care diagnostics, and wide-scale DNA analysis applications.

  9. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization and single point mutations in a nano-gap biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a conductance-based biosensor that exploits DNA-mediated long-range electron transport for the label-free and direct electrical detection of DNA hybridization. This biosensor platform comprises an array of vertical nano-gap biosensors made of gold and fabricated through standard photolithography combined with focused ion beam lithography. The nano-gap walls are covalently modified with short, anti-symmetric thiolated DNA probes, which are terminated by 19 bases complementary to both the ends of a target DNA strand. The nano-gaps are separated by a distance of 50nm, which was adjusted to fit the length of the DNA target plus the DNA probes. The hybridization of the target DNA closes the gap circuit in a switch on/off fashion, in such a way that it is readily detected by an increase in the current after nano-gap closure. The nano-biosensor shows high specificity in the discrimination of base-pair mismatching and does not require signal indicators or enhancing molecules. The design of the biosensor platform is applicable for multiplexed detection in a straightforward manner. The platform is well-suited to mass production, point-of-care diagnostics, and wide-scale DNA analysis applications. (paper)

  10. Individual differences in auditory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gary R; Watson, Charles S; Gygi, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Performance on 19 auditory discrimination and identification tasks was measured for 340 listeners with normal hearing. Test stimuli included single tones, sequences of tones, amplitude-modulated and rippled noise, temporal gaps, speech, and environmental sounds. Principal components analysis and structural equation modeling of the data support the existence of a general auditory ability and four specific auditory abilities. The specific abilities are (1) loudness and duration (overall energy) discrimination; (2) sensitivity to temporal envelope variation; (3) identification of highly familiar sounds (speech and nonspeech); and (4) discrimination of unfamiliar simple and complex spectral and temporal patterns. Examination of Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores for a large subset of the population revealed little or no association between general or specific auditory abilities and general intellectual ability. The findings provide a basis for research to further specify the nature of the auditory abilities. Of particular interest are results suggestive of a familiar sound recognition (FSR) ability, apparently specialized for sound recognition on the basis of limited or distorted information. This FSR ability is independent of normal variation in both spectral-temporal acuity and of general intellectual ability. PMID:17614500

  11. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  12. Study on Detection of Negative Corona Discharge Generated in Rod-Plane Air Gap by Using External Electrode Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.ICHIKAWA

    2007-01-01

    A detective method of a negative corona discharge by means of an external electrode is presented.The relationship between an area of the external electrode and a detected voltage waveform is examined experimentally.This experimental study is carried out with the use of a rod-plane air gap.The results obtained will be applicable to problems associated with silos,ducts,and high-voltage equipment.

  13. Effects of auditory training in individuals with high-frequency hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Beatriz Fernandes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a formal auditory training program on the behavioral, electrophysiological and subjective aspects of auditory function in individuals with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. METHOD: A prospective study of seven individuals aged 46 to 57 years with symmetric, moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging from 3 to 8 kHz was conducted. Evaluations of auditory processing (sound location, verbal and non-verbal sequential memory tests, the speech-in-noise test, the staggered spondaic word test, synthetic sentence identification with competitive ipsilateral and contralateral competitive messages, random gap detection and the standard duration test, auditory brainstem response and long-latency potentials and the administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were performed in a sound booth before and immediately after formal auditory training. RESULTS: All of the participants demonstrated abnormal pre-training long-latency characteristics (abnormal latency or absence of the P3 component and these abnormal characteristics were maintained in six of the seven individuals at the post-training evaluation. No significant differences were found between ears in the quantitative analysis of auditory brainstem responses or long-latency potentials. However, the subjects demonstrated improvements on all behavioral tests. For the questionnaire, the difference on the background noise subscale achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Auditory training in adults with high-frequency hearing loss led to improvements in figure-background hearing skills for verbal sounds, temporal ordination and resolution, and communication in noisy environments. Electrophysiological changes were also observed because, after the training, some long latency components that were absent pre-training were observed during the re-evaluation.

  14. Psychophysical and neural correlates of noised-induced tinnitus in animals: Intra- and inter-auditory and non-auditory brain structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinsheng; Luo, Hao; Pace, Edward; Li, Liang; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Tinnitus, a ringing in the ear or head without an external sound source, is a prevalent health problem. It is often associated with a number of limbic-associated disorders such as anxiety, sleep disturbance, and emotional distress. Thus, to investigate tinnitus, it is important to consider both auditory and non-auditory brain structures. This paper summarizes the psychophysical, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence found in rats or hamsters with behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Behaviorally, we tested for tinnitus using a conditioned suppression/avoidance paradigm, gap detection acoustic reflex behavioral paradigm, and our newly developed conditioned licking suppression paradigm. Our new tinnitus behavioral paradigm requires relatively short baseline training, examines frequency specification of tinnitus perception, and achieves sensitive tinnitus testing at an individual level. To test for tinnitus-related anxiety and cognitive impairment, we used the elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Our results showed that not all animals with tinnitus demonstrate anxiety and cognitive impairment. Immunocytochemically, we found that animals with tinnitus manifested increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) in both auditory and non-auditory structures. The manner in which FLI appeared suggests that lower brainstem structures may be involved in acute tinnitus whereas the midbrain and cortex are involved in more chronic tinnitus. Meanwhile, animals with tinnitus also manifested increased FLI in non-auditory brain structures that are involved in autonomic reactions, stress, arousal and attention. Electrophysiologically, we found that rats with tinnitus developed increased spontaneous firing in the auditory cortex (AC) and amygdala (AMG), as well as intra- and inter-AC and AMG neurosynchrony, which demonstrate that tinnitus may be actively produced and maintained by the interactions between the AC and AMG. PMID:26299842

  15. Fraud Detection and Audit Expectation Gap: Empirical Evidence from Iranian Bankers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Salehi; Zhila Azary

    2009-01-01

    Our focus in this study is to determine the expectation gap in auditor’s responsibility between auditors and bankers in Iran. In the view on the fact, the key factor in enhanced credibility is the perception of stakeholders that the external auditors judge to financial statements providing through the management. In recent years corporate scandals were happened, so third parties demand auditors should be as an honest judge. Third parties expect the auditors should have more responsibility to ...

  16. Auditory Efferent System Modulates Mosquito Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Marta; Seifert, Marvin; Spalthoff, Christian; Warren, Ben; Weiss, Lukas; Giraldo, Diego; Winkler, Margret; Pauls, Stephanie; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-08-01

    The performance of vertebrate ears is controlled by auditory efferents that originate in the brain and innervate the ear, synapsing onto hair cell somata and auditory afferent fibers [1-3]. Efferent activity can provide protection from noise and facilitate the detection and discrimination of sound by modulating mechanical amplification by hair cells and transmitter release as well as auditory afferent action potential firing [1-3]. Insect auditory organs are thought to lack efferent control [4-7], but when we inspected mosquito ears, we obtained evidence for its existence. Antibodies against synaptic proteins recognized rows of bouton-like puncta running along the dendrites and axons of mosquito auditory sensory neurons. Electron microscopy identified synaptic and non-synaptic sites of vesicle release, and some of the innervating fibers co-labeled with somata in the CNS. Octopamine, GABA, and serotonin were identified as efferent neurotransmitters or neuromodulators that affect auditory frequency tuning, mechanical amplification, and sound-evoked potentials. Mosquito brains thus modulate mosquito ears, extending the use of auditory efferent systems from vertebrates to invertebrates and adding new levels of complexity to mosquito sound detection and communication. PMID:27476597

  17. Metagenomics uncovers gaps in amplicon-based detection of microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A; Ivanova, Natalia N; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2016-01-01

    Our view of microbial diversity has expanded greatly over the past 40 years, primarily through the wide application of PCR-based surveys of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Yet significant gaps in knowledge remain due to well-recognized limitations of this method. Here, we systematically survey primer fidelity in SSU rRNA gene sequences recovered from over 6,000 assembled metagenomes sampled globally. Our findings show that approximately 10% of environmental microbial sequences might be missed from classical PCR-based SSU rRNA gene surveys, mostly members of the Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) and as yet uncharacterized Archaea. These results underscore the extent of uncharacterized microbial diversity and provide fruitful avenues for describing additional phylogenetic lineages. PMID:27572438

  18. Bridging the gap between detection and confirmation of B. anthracis in blood cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkey, Suzanna

    2015-01-01

    The spore forming bacterium, Bacillus anthracis is the aetiological agent of anthrax. The 2001 US anthrax letter attacks and the 2009‐2010 outbreak of injectional anthrax in the UK highlighted the importance of early detection and confirmation of this agent, both for patient outcome and forensic investigations. A reliable and consistent method was used in this study to safely simulate blood cultures with B. anthracis and used to determine the time to positive detection. This was performed...

  19. Auditory brain-stem responses in syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenhall, U; Roupe, G

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of auditory brain-stem electrical responses (BSER) provides an effective means of detecting lesions in the auditory pathways. In the present study the wave patterns were analysed in 11 patients with secondary or latent syphilis with no clinical symptoms referrable to the central nervous system and in two patients with congenital syphilis and general paralysis. Decreased amplitudes and prolonged latencies occurred frequently in patients with secondary and with advanced syphilis. This ...

  20. Effects of an Auditory Lateralization Training in Children Suspected to Central Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Yones; Moosavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Sadjedi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Central auditory processing disorder [(C)APD] refers to a deficit in auditory stimuli processing in nervous system that is not due to higher-order language or cognitive factors. One of the problems in children with (C)APD is spatial difficulties which have been overlooked despite their significance. Localization is an auditory ability to detect sound sources in space and can help to differentiate between the desired speech from other simultaneous sound sources. Aim of this research was investigating effects of an auditory lateralization training on speech perception in presence of noise/competing signals in children suspected to (C)APD. Subjects and Methods In this analytical interventional study, 60 children suspected to (C)APD were selected based on multiple auditory processing assessment subtests. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (mean age 9.07) and training groups (mean age 9.00). Training program consisted of detection and pointing to sound sources delivered with interaural time differences under headphones for 12 formal sessions (6 weeks). Spatial word recognition score (WRS) and monaural selective auditory attention test (mSAAT) were used to follow the auditory lateralization training effects. Results This study showed that in the training group, mSAAT score and spatial WRS in noise (p value≤0.001) improved significantly after the auditory lateralization training. Conclusions We used auditory lateralization training for 6 weeks and showed that auditory lateralization can improve speech understanding in noise significantly. The generalization of this results needs further researches.

  1. Tactile Gap Detection Deteriorates during Bimanual Symmetrical Movements under Mirror Visual Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H Bultitude

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that incongruence between signals for motor intention and sensory input can cause pain and other sensory abnormalities. This claim is supported by reports that moving in an environment of induced sensorimotor conflict leads to elevated pain and sensory symptoms in those with certain painful conditions. Similar procedures can lead to reports of anomalous sensations in healthy volunteers too. In the present study, we used mirror visual feedback to investigate the effects of sensorimotor incongruence on responses to stimuli that arise from sources external to the body, in particular, touch. Incongruence between the sensory and motor signals for the right arm was manipulated by having the participants make symmetrical or asymmetrical movements while watching a reflection of their left arm in a parasagittal mirror, or the left hand surface of a similarly positioned opaque board. In contrast to our prediction, sensitivity to the presence of gaps in tactile stimulation of the right forearm was not reduced when participants made asymmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback, as compared to when they made symmetrical or asymmetrical movements with no visual feedback. Instead, sensitivity was reduced when participants made symmetrical movements during mirror visual feedback relative to the other three conditions. We suggest that small discrepancies between sensory and motor information, as they occur during mirror visual feedback with symmetrical movements, can impair tactile processing. In contrast, asymmetrical movements with mirror visual feedback may not impact tactile processing because the larger discrepancies between sensory and motor information may prevent the integration of these sources of information. These results contrast with previous reports of anomalous sensations during exposure to both low and high sensorimotor conflict, but are nevertheless in agreement with a forward model interpretation of perceptual

  2. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BethanyPlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  3. A review of the generalization of auditory learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Beverly A.; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2008-01-01

    The ability to detect and discriminate attributes of sounds improves with practice. Determining how such auditory learning generalizes to stimuli and tasks that are not encountered during training can guide the development of training regimens used to improve hearing abilities in particular populations as well as provide insight into the neural mechanisms mediating auditory performance. Here we review the newly emerging literature on the generalization of auditory learning, focusing on behavi...

  4. Relationship between noise-induced hearing loss, enhanced amplitudes of cortical evoced responses and gap detection threshold changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybalko, Natalia; Grécová, Jolana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef

    -, - (2006), s. 161-161. [Symposium on Hearing Rehabilitation and Innovative Inner Ear Therapies. 18.09.2006-20.09.2006, Montpellier] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/04/1074; GA MZd NR8113; GA MŠk LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Auditory system * Acoustic trauma Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. ScanIndel: a hybrid framework for indel detection via gapped alignment, split reads and de novo assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rendong; Nelson, Andrew C; Henzler, Christine; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Silverstein, Kevin A T

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive identification of insertions/deletions (indels) across the full size spectrum from second generation sequencing is challenging due to the relatively short read length inherent in the technology. Different indel calling methods exist but are limited in detection to specific sizes with varying accuracy and resolution. We present ScanIndel, an integrated framework for detecting indels with multiple heuristics including gapped alignment, split reads and de novo assembly. Using simulation data, we demonstrate ScanIndel's superior sensitivity and specificity relative to several state-of-the-art indel callers across various coverage levels and indel sizes. ScanIndel yields higher predictive accuracy with lower computational cost compared with existing tools for both targeted resequencing data from tumor specimens and high coverage whole-genome sequencing data from the human NIST standard NA12878. Thus, we anticipate ScanIndel will improve indel analysis in both clinical and research settings. ScanIndel is implemented in Python, and is freely available for academic use at https://github.com/cauyrd/ScanIndel. PMID:26643039

  6. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features. PMID:22271265

  7. Testing an auditory illusion in frogs: Perceptual restoration or sensory bias?

    OpenAIRE

    Seeba, Folkert; Schwartz, Joshua J.; Bee, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The human auditory system perceptually restores short deleted segments of speech and other sounds (e.g. tones) when the resulting silent gaps are filled by a potential masking noise. When this phenomenon, known as ‘auditory induction’, occurs, listeners experience the illusion of hearing an ongoing sound continuing through the interrupting noise even though the perceived sound is not physically present. Such illusions suggest that a key function of the auditory system is to allow listeners to...

  8. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  9. On assessing the robustness of an input signal optimization algorithm for damage detection: the Info-Gap Decision Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stull C.J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Info-Gap Decision Theory (IGDT is here adopted to assess the robust- ness of a technique aimed at identifying the optimal excitation signal within a structural health monitoring (SHM procedure. Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, the ultimate goal of the mentioned technique is to improve the detectability of the damage increasing the difference between measurable outputs of the undamaged and damaged system. In particular, a 2 DOF mass-spring-damper system characterized by the presence of a nonlinear stiffness is considered. Uncertainty is introduced within the system under the form of deviations of its parameters (mass, stiffness, damping ratio… from their nominal values. Variations in the performance of the mentioned technique are then evaluated both in terms of changes in the estimated difference between the responses of the damaged and undamaged system and in terms of deviations of the identified optimal input signal from its nominal estimation. Finally, plots of the performances of the analyzed algorithm for different levels of uncertainty are obtained, showing which parameters are more sensitive to the presence of uncertainty and thus enabling a clear evaluation of its robustness.

  10. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  11. Auditory issues in handheld land mine detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vause, Nancy L.; Letowski, Tomasz R.; Ferguson, Larry G.; Mermagen, Timothy J.

    1999-08-01

    Most handled landmine detection systems use tones or other simple acoustic signals to provide detector information to the operator. Such signals are not necessarily the best carriers of information about the characteristics of hidden objects. To be effective, the auditory signals must present the information in a manner that the operator can comfortably and efficiently, the auditory signals must present the information in a manner that the operator can comfortably and efficiently interpret under stress and high mental load. The signals must also preserve their audibility and specific properties in various adverse acoustic environments. This paper will present several issues on optimizing the audio display interface between the operator and machine.

  12. Large cross-sectional study of presbycusis reveals rapid progressive decline in auditory temporal acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmeral, Erol J; Eddins, Ann C; Frisina, D Robert; Eddins, David A

    2016-07-01

    The auditory system relies on extraordinarily precise timing cues for the accurate perception of speech, music, and object identification. Epidemiological research has documented the age-related progressive decline in hearing sensitivity that is known to be a major health concern for the elderly. Although smaller investigations indicate that auditory temporal processing also declines with age, such measures have not been included in larger studies. Temporal gap detection thresholds (TGDTs; an index of auditory temporal resolution) measured in 1071 listeners (aged 18-98 years) were shown to decline at a minimum rate of 1.05 ms (15%) per decade. Age was a significant predictor of TGDT when controlling for audibility (partial correlation) and when restricting analyses to persons with normal-hearing sensitivity (n = 434). The TGDTs were significantly better for males (3.5 ms; 51%) than females when averaged across the life span. These results highlight the need for indices of temporal processing in diagnostics, as treatment targets, and as factors in models of aging. PMID:27255816

  13. Real-time attitude commanding to detect coverage gaps and generate high resolution point clouds for RSO shape characterization with a laser rangefinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper expands on previous studies by the authors into 3D imaging with a single-beam laser rangefinder (LRF) by implementing real-time attitude maneuvers of a chaser satellite flying in relative orbit around a resident space object (RSO). Point clouds generated with an LRF are much sparser than those generated with an imaging LIDAR, making it difficult to autonomously distinguish between gaps in coverage and truly empty space. Furthermore, if both the attitude and the shape of the target RSO are unknown, it is particularly difficult to register a collection of LRF strike points together and detect gaps in strike point coverage in realtime. This paper presents the incorporation of a narrow field of-view (NFOV) camera that detects the strike point on the RSO and supplements LRF distance measurements with image data. This data is used to generate attitude command profiles that efficiently fill LRF coverage gaps and generate high density point clouds, thus maximizing coverage of an unknown RSO. Results obtained so far point the way to a real-time implementation of the algorithm. A method to detect and close gaps in LRF strike point coverage is presented first. Coverage gap detection is achieved using Voronoi diagrams, where Voronoi cells are centered at the LRF strike points. A three-part algorithm is used that 1) creates a 3D panoramic map from “ stitched” NFOV camera images; 2) correlates the areas of sparse LRF coverage to the map; and 3) generates attitude commands to close the coverage gaps. The map provides a consistent and reliable method to register positions of strike points relative to each other and to the NFOV image of the RSO without a priori knowledge of the RSO attitude. Using this algorithm, gaps and sparse areas in LRF coverage are covered with strike points, allowing for the generation of a higher-resolution point cloud than that obtained with preprogrammed attitude profiles. Attitude maneuvers can now be designed on-line in real-ti- e such

  14. Action-related auditory ERP attenuation: Paradigms and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2015-11-11

    A number studies have shown that the auditory N1 event-related potential (ERP) is attenuated when elicited by self-induced or self-generated sounds. Because N1 is a correlate of auditory feature- and event-detection, it was generally assumed that N1-attenuation reflected the cancellation of auditory re-afference, enabled by the internal forward modeling of the predictable sensory consequences of the given action. Focusing on paradigms utilizing non-speech actions, the present review summarizes recent progress on action-related auditory attenuation. Following a critical analysis of the most widely used, contingent paradigm, two further hypotheses on the possible causes of action-related auditory ERP attenuation are presented. The attention hypotheses suggest that auditory ERP attenuation is brought about by a temporary division of attention between the action and the auditory stimulation. The pre-activation hypothesis suggests that the attenuation is caused by the activation of a sensory template during the initiation of the action, which interferes with the incoming stimulation. Although each hypothesis can account for a number of findings, none of them can accommodate the whole spectrum of results. It is suggested that a better understanding of auditory ERP attenuation phenomena could be achieved by systematic investigations of the types of actions, the degree of action-effect contingency, and the temporal characteristics of action-effect contingency representation-buildup and -deactivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25843932

  15. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  16. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  17. How an online survey on the treatment of allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) detected specialty-specific knowledge-gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée ES; Medina Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Lozano Sáenz, José

    2015-01-01

    Background To enhance the dissemination of the ARIA document (Allergic rhinitis (AR) and its impact on asthma) in Mexico, a Working Group composed of 35 specialists of 8 professional medical societies developed a transculturized ARIA México 2014 guideline. The ARIA guidelines use the GRADE system, which builds recommendations and suggestions around clinical questions (CQ). Methods As part of the dissemination strategy and to detect the physicians’ view and knowledge-gaps concerning the treatm...

  18. Resizing Auditory Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Heard through the ears of the Canadian composer and music teacher R. Murray Schafer the ideal auditory community had the shape of a village. Schafer’s work with the World Soundscape Project in the 70s represent an attempt to interpret contemporary environments through musical and auditory...... of sound as an active component in shaping urban environments. As urban conditions spreads globally, new scales, shapes and forms of communities appear and call for new distinctions and models in the study and representation of sonic environments. Particularly so, since urban environments...

  19. Experimental study of the application of micro-PIV on the flow characteristics detection of micro-gap rotational flow field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For a micro-gap rotational flow field with a large horizontal extent, tiny gap and fast flow velocity, the two-dimensional images shot by the micro-scale Particle ImageVelocimetry(Micro-PIV technique are not sufficient for the study of local or whole flow characteristics. In this paper, by establishing a test bench of a rotational flow field with the functions of driving, positioning, adjustment and sensing, all the local states of the micro-gap rotational flow field can be obtained by horizontally moving the rotating axis to observe point by point. While measuring some local flow fields, two-dimensional pictures are taken by adjusting the focusing height of the objective lens, and then superposed and interpolated according to their shooting order to obtain a quasi-three-dimensional distribution image of the local flow fields, thus obtaining the flow condition of the vertical section of the flow field. The position of the focusing plane and mutual distance are adjusted to realize the measurement of wall shear force in the flow field, providing a feasible reference method for detecting the rheological property of the gap flow field and the effect of surface drag reduction.

  20. Gap Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goodenough, Daniel A.; Paul, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junctions are aggregates of intercellular channels that permit direct cell–cell transfer of ions and small molecules. Initially described as low-resistance ion pathways joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions are found joining virtually all cells in solid tissues. Their long evolutionary history has permitted adaptation of gap-junctional intercellular communication to a variety of functions, with multiple regulatory mechanisms. Gap-junctional channels are composed of hex...

  1. Gap Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of ...

  2. Gaps-in-noise detection and gender identification from noise-vocoded vowel segments: Comparing performance of active musicians to non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donai, Jeremy J; Jennings, Mariah B

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated performance on a gender identification and temporal resolution task among active musicians and age-matched non-musicians. Brief duration (i.e., 50 and 100 ms) vowel segments produced by four adult male and four adult female speakers were spectro-temporally degraded using various parameters and presented to both groups for gender identification. Gap detection thresholds were measured using the gaps-in-noise (GIN) test. Contrary to the stated hypothesis, a significant difference in gender identification was not observed between the musician and non-musician listeners. A significant difference, however, was observed on the temporal resolution task, with the musician group achieving approximately 2 ms shorter gap detection thresholds on the GIN test compared to the non-musician counterparts. These results provide evidence supporting the potential benefits of musical training on temporal processing abilities, which have implications for the processing of speech in degraded listening environments and the enhanced processing of the fine-grained temporal aspects of the speech signal. The results also support the GIN test as an instrument sensitive to temporal processing differences among active musicians and non-musicians. PMID:27250197

  3. Detection of the eroding surface in the EDM process based on the current signal in the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinčič, Joško; Junkar, Mihael

    2015-01-01

    To achieve high removal rate and low electrode wear in sinking electrical discharge machining process (EDM), rough machining parameters have to be selected according to the size of the eroding surface. In general, the size ofthe eroding surface varies according to the depth of the machining. Thus, ithas to be determined on-line. This paper shows that the electric current signal in the gap depends on the size of the eroding surface. The significanceof the process attributes of the electric cur...

  4. Integration and segregation in auditory scene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Elyse S.

    2005-03-01

    Assessment of the neural correlates of auditory scene analysis, using an index of sound change detection that does not require the listener to attend to the sounds [a component of event-related brain potentials called the mismatch negativity (MMN)], has previously demonstrated that segregation processes can occur without attention focused on the sounds and that within-stream contextual factors influence how sound elements are integrated and represented in auditory memory. The current study investigated the relationship between the segregation and integration processes when they were called upon to function together. The pattern of MMN results showed that the integration of sound elements within a sound stream occurred after the segregation of sounds into independent streams and, further, that the individual streams were subject to contextual effects. These results are consistent with a view of auditory processing that suggests that the auditory scene is rapidly organized into distinct streams and the integration of sequential elements to perceptual units takes place on the already formed streams. This would allow for the flexibility required to identify changing within-stream sound patterns, needed to appreciate music or comprehend speech..

  5. Altered processing of acoustic stimuli during sleep: reduced auditory activation and visual deactivation detected by a combined fMRI/EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czisch, Michael; Wetter, Thomas C; Kaufmann, Christian; Pollmächer, Thomas; Holsboer, Florian; Auer, Dorothee P

    2002-05-01

    Although there is evidence that acoustic stimuli are processed differently during sleep and wakefulness, little is known about the underlying neuronal mechanisms. In the present study, the processing of an acoustic stimulus was investigated during different non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages using a combined EEG/fMRI approach in healthy human volunteers: A text stimulus was presented to sleep-deprived subjects prior to and after the onset of sleep, and single-slice silent fMRI were acquired. We found significantly different blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast responses during sleep compared to wakefulness. During NREM sleep stages 1 and 2 and during slow wave sleep (SWS) we observed reduced activation in the auditory cortex and a pronounced negative signal in the visual cortex and precuneus. Acoustic stimulation during sleep was accompanied by an increase in EEG frequency components in the low delta frequency range. Provided that neurovascular coupling is not altered during sleep, the negative transmodal BOLD response which is most pronounced during NREM sleep stages 1 and 2 reflects a deactivation predominantly in the visual cortex suggesting that this decrease in neuronal activity protects the brain from the arousing effects of external stimulation during sleep not only in the primary targeted sensory cortex but also in other brain regions. PMID:11969332

  6. Spatial auditory processing in pinnipeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marla M.

    Given the biological importance of sound for a variety of activities, pinnipeds must be able to obtain spatial information about their surroundings thorough acoustic input in the absence of other sensory cues. The three chapters of this dissertation address spatial auditory processing capabilities of pinnipeds in air given that these amphibious animals use acoustic signals for reproduction and survival on land. Two chapters are comparative lab-based studies that utilized psychophysical approaches conducted in an acoustic chamber. Chapter 1 addressed the frequency-dependent sound localization abilities at azimuth of three pinniped species (the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, and the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris). While performances of the sea lion and harbor seal were consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization, the elephant seal, a low-frequency hearing specialist, showed a decreased ability to localize the highest frequencies tested. In Chapter 2 spatial release from masking (SRM), which occurs when a signal and masker are spatially separated resulting in improvement in signal detectability relative to conditions in which they are co-located, was determined in a harbor seal and sea lion. Absolute and masked thresholds were measured at three frequencies and azimuths to determine the detection advantages afforded by this type of spatial auditory processing. Results showed that hearing sensitivity was enhanced by up to 19 and 12 dB in the harbor seal and sea lion, respectively, when the signal and masker were spatially separated. Chapter 3 was a field-based study that quantified both sender and receiver variables of the directional properties of male northern elephant seal calls produce within communication system that serves to delineate dominance status. This included measuring call directivity patterns, observing male-male vocally-mediated interactions, and an acoustic playback study

  7. Auditory Learning. Dimensions in Early Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmond, Naomi K.; Cicci, Regina

    The monograph discusses the psycho-physiological operations for processing of auditory information, the structure and function of the ear, the development of auditory processes from fetal responses through discrimination, language comprehension, auditory memory, and auditory processes related to written language. Disorders of auditory learning…

  8. Visual–auditory spatial processing in auditory cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer K.; King, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Neurons responsive to visual stimulation have now been described in the auditory cortex of various species, but their functions are largely unknown. Here we investigate the auditory and visual spatial sensitivity of neurons recorded in 5 different primary and non-primary auditory cortical areas of the ferret. We quantified the spatial tuning of neurons by measuring the responses to stimuli presented across a range of azimuthal positions and calculating the mutual information (MI) between the ...

  9. Cochlear implantation effect on deaf children with gap junction protein beta 2 gene mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ying; LIU Sha; WANG Su-ju; Li Shu-jing; LIANG Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Background The popularization and promotion of gene diagnosis technology makes it possible to detect deafness genes for children with congenital hearing impairment,and the proportion of gap junction protein beta 2 (GJB2) gene mutations in cochlear implant patients is 26.5% We did follow-up evaluation on auditory rehabilitation effect for all 31 deaf children with GJB2 gene mutation after cochlear implantation to provide a reference for such patients.Methods Application of “the genetic deafness gene chip detection kit” and “gene complete sequence analysis” were applied to conduct detection on common genetic deafness gene mutation hotspots of the hearing impaired children with cochlear implantation.To conduct auditory rehabilitation effect evaluation on all 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness after 3,6 and 12 months of the operation respectively.The single factor repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analysis whether there were significant difference among the results of initial consonant of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,the results of vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,and the results of two-syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation.Results The 235delC is the high-incidence mutational site in 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness,and the total detection rate is up to 90.3% (28/31).There were significant differences in the initial consonant and the vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition rate,and the two-syllable recognition rates at 3,6,and 12 months after the operation (P<0.01).Conclusion Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective measure for auditory reconstruction,enabling patients with GJB2 hereditary severe sensorineural deafness to achieve auditory speech recognition effectively.

  10. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (preceptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  11. The Effect of Short-Term Auditory Training on Speech in Noise Perception and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nathan; Purdy, Suzanne C; Sharma, Mridula; Giles, Ellen; Narne, Vijay

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether a short intensive psychophysical auditory training program is associated with speech perception benefits and changes in cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in adult cochlear implant (CI) users. Ten adult implant recipients trained approximately 7 hours on psychophysical tasks (Gap-in-Noise Detection, Frequency Discrimination, Spectral Rippled Noise [SRN], Iterated Rippled Noise, Temporal Modulation). Speech performance was assessed before and after training using Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT) words in quiet and in eight-speaker babble. CAEPs evoked by a natural speech stimulus /baba/ with varying syllable stress were assessed pre- and post-training, in quiet and in noise. SRN psychophysical thresholds showed a significant improvement (78% on average) over the training period, but performance on other psychophysical tasks did not change. LNT scores in noise improved significantly post-training by 11% on average compared with three pretraining baseline measures. N1P2 amplitude changed post-training for /baba/ in quiet (p = 0.005, visit 3 pretraining versus visit 4 post-training). CAEP changes did not correlate with behavioral measures. CI recipients' clinical records indicated a plateau in speech perception performance prior to participation in the study. A short period of intensive psychophysical training produced small but significant gains in speech perception in noise and spectral discrimination ability. There remain questions about the most appropriate type of training and the duration or dosage of training that provides the most robust outcomes for adults with CIs. PMID:27587925

  12. The Importance of Rapid Auditory Processing Abilities to Early Language Development: Evidence from Converging Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Benasich, April A.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Choudhury, Naseem; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to process two or more rapidly presented, successive, auditory stimuli is believed to underlie successful language acquisition. Likewise, deficits in rapid auditory processing of both verbal and nonverbal stimuli are characteristic of individuals with developmental language disorders such as Specific Language Impairment. Auditory processing abilities are well developed in infancy, and thus such deficits should be detectable in infants. In the studies presented here, converging met...

  13. Online contributions of auditory feedback to neural activity in avian song control circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Michael S. Brainard

    2008-01-01

    Birdsong, like human speech, relies critically on auditory feedback to provide information about the quality of vocalizations. Although the importance of auditory feedback to vocal learning is well established, whether and how feedback signals influence vocal premotor circuitry has remained obscure. Previous studies in singing birds have not detected changes to vocal premotor activity following perturbations of auditory feedback, leading to the hypothesis that contributions of feedback to voc...

  14. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nielzen, Soren

    2010-01-01

    Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward...

  15. A Psychophysical Imaging Method Evidencing Auditory Cue Extraction during Speech Perception: A Group Analysis of Auditory Classification Images : Auditory Classification Images

    OpenAIRE

    Varnet, Léo; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Serniclaes, Willy; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a large consensus regarding the involvement of specific acoustic cues in speech perception, the precise mechanisms underlying the transformation from continuous acoustical properties into discrete perceptual units remains undetermined. This gap in knowledge is partially due to the lack of a turnkey solution for isolating critical speech cues from natural stimuli. In this paper, we describe a psychoacoustic imaging method known as the Auditory Classification Image technique t...

  16. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  17. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basner, M.; Babisch, W.; Davis, A.; Brink, M.; Clark, C.; Janssen, S.A.; Stansfeld, S.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health eff ects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mec

  18. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  19. Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, T. Aran; Hanlon, Roger T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    extinguished at all frequencies if (1) water temperatures were less than 8°C, (2) statocysts were ablated, or (3) recording electrodes were placed in locations other than near the statocysts. Both the AEP response characteristics and the range of responses suggest that squid detect sound similarly to most fish......Although hearing has been described for many underwater species, there is much debate regarding if and how cephalopods detect sound. Here we quantify the acoustic sensitivity of the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) using near-field acoustic and shaker-generated acceleration stimuli. Sound field......, with the statocyst acting as an accelerometer through which squid detect the particle motion component of a sound field. The modality and frequency range indicate that squid probably detect acoustic particle motion stimuli from both predators and prey as well as low-frequency environmental sound signatures that may...

  20. The Effects of Auditory Selective Attention on Contralateral Suppression of Stimulus-Frequency Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: To date, the function of auditory efferent system remains unclear. There is evidence that medial olivocochlear bundle receives descending input from the cortex. In this study, the effect of auditory selective attention on stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE was analyzed to investigate the modification of peripheral auditory system by auditory cortex activity in frequency specific mode.Methods: Thirty-six normal hearing adult subjects with their age ranging from 18 to 30 years (mean age: 21.9 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Contralateral suppression of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions was recorded in the right ear at 2 KHz. In order to eliminate the auditory attention, subjects were instructed to read a text. Besides, in order to evaluate the effect of auditory attention on contralateral suppression, subjects were instructed to detect target tones in background noise at 1000, 2000, and 4000 KHz.Results: A significant increase at contralateral suppression of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions was observed in auditory selective attention conditions (p≤0.001. The largest magnitude of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions suppression was seen at 2 KHz.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the activities of medial olivocochlear bundle enhanced by contralateral auditory selective attention increase the magnitude of stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions suppression. In fact, these results provided evidence for influence of auditory cortex on the peripheral auditory system via corticofugal pathways in a frequency specific way.

  1. Experience-based auditory predictions modulate brain activity to silence as do real sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Chouiter, Leila; Tzovara, Athina; Dieguez, Sebastian; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Magezi, David; De Lucia, Marzia; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between stimuli's acoustic features and experience-based internal models of the environment enable listeners to compensate for the disruptions in auditory streams that are regularly encountered in noisy environments. However, whether auditory gaps are filled in predictively or restored a posteriori remains unclear. The current lack of positive statistical evidence that internal models can actually shape brain activity as would real sounds precludes accepting predictive accou...

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR morphometry of the central auditory pathway and auditory cortex in aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Škoch, A.; Balogová, Zuzana; Tintěra, J.; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Syka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 260, FEB 28 (2014), s. 87-97. ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1872; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR GA13-23940S Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) Prvouk-P27/LF1/1 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : presbycusis * aging * auditory cortex Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.357, year: 2014

  3. Hypermnesia using auditory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J

    1992-07-01

    The author investigated whether hypermnesia would occur with auditory input. In addition, the author examined the effects of subjects' knowledge that they would later be asked to recall the stimuli. Two groups of 26 subjects each were given three successive recall trials after they listened to an audiotape of 59 high-imagery nouns. The subjects in the uninformed group were not told that they would later be asked to remember the words; those in the informed group were. Hypermnesia was evident, but only in the uninformed group. PMID:1447564

  4. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  5. Direct detection of scattered light gaps in the transitional disk around HD 97048 with VLT/SPHERE

    CERN Document Server

    Ginski, C; Pinilla, P; Dominik, C; Boccaletti, A; de Boer, J; Benisty, M; Biller, B; Feldt, M; Garufi, A; Keller, C U; Kenworthy, M; Maire, A L; Ménard, F; Mesa, D; Milli, J; Min, M; Pinte, C; Quanz, S P; van Boekel, R; Bonnefoy, M; Chauvin, G; Desidera, S; Gratton, R; Girard, J H V; Keppler, M; Kopytova, T; Lagrange, A -M; Langlois, M; Rouan, D; Vigan, A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the well known circumstellar disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 97048 with high angular resolution to reveal undetected structures in the disk, which may be indicative of disk evolutionary processes such as planet formation. We used the IRDIS near-IR subsystem of the extreme adaptive optics imager SPHERE at the ESO/VLT to study the scattered light from the circumstellar disk via high resolution polarimetry and angular differential imaging. We imaged the disk in unprecedented detail and revealed four ring-like brightness enhancements and corresponding gaps in the scattered light from the disk surface with radii between 39 au and 341 au. We derived the inclination and position angle as well as the height of the scattering surface of the disk from our observational data. We found that the surface height profile can be described by a single power law up to a separation ~270 au. Using the surface height profile we measured the scattering phase function of the disk and found that it is well consistent ...

  6. Auditory change detection in schizophrenia: sources of activity, related neuropsychological function and symptoms in patients with a first episode in adolescence, and patients 14 years after an adolescent illness-onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachsse Jan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The event-related brain response mismatch negativity (MMN registers changes in auditory stimulation with temporal lobe sources reflecting short-term echoic memory and frontal sources a deviance-induced switch in processing. Impairment, controversially present at the onset of schizophrenia, develops rapidly and can remain independent of clinical improvement. We examined the characteristics of the scalp-recorded MMN and related these to tests of short-term memory and set-shifting. We assessed whether the equivalent dipole sources are affected already at illness-onset in adolescence and how these features differ after a 14-year course following an adolescent onset. The strength, latency, orientation and location of frontal and temporal lobe sources of MMN activity early and late in the course of adolescent-onset schizophrenia are analysed and illustrated. Methods MMN, a measure of auditory change-detection, was elicited by short deviant tones in a 3-tone oddball-presentation and recorded from 32 scalp electrodes. Four dipole sources were placed following hypothesis-led calculations using brain electrical source analysis on brain atlas and MR-images. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered. We compared 28 adolescent patients with a first episode of schizophrenia and 18 patients 14 years after diagnosis in adolescence with two age-matched control groups from the community (n = 22 and 18, respectively. Results MMN peaked earlier in the younger than the older subjects. The amplitude was reduced in patients, especially the younger group, and was here associated with negative symptoms and slow set-shifting. In first-episode patients the temporal lobe sources were more ventral than in controls, while the left cingular and right inferior-mid frontal sources were more caudal. In the older patients the left temporal locus remained ventral (developmental stasis, the right temporal locus extended more antero

  7. The Perception of Auditory Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Simon; Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  8. A lateralized auditory evoked potential elicited when auditory objects are defined by spatial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew; Govenlock, Stanley W; Tata, Matthew S

    2011-02-01

    Scene analysis involves the process of segmenting a field of overlapping objects from each other and from the background. It is a fundamental stage of perception in both vision and hearing. The auditory system encodes complex cues that allow listeners to find boundaries between sequential objects, even when no gap of silence exists between them. In this sense, object perception in hearing is similar to perceiving visual objects defined by isoluminant color, motion or binocular disparity. Motion is one such cue: when a moving sound abruptly disappears from one location and instantly reappears somewhere else, the listener perceives two sequential auditory objects. Smooth reversals of motion direction do not produce this segmentation. We investigated the brain electrical responses evoked by this spatial segmentation cue and compared them to the familiar auditory evoked potential elicited by sound onsets. Segmentation events evoke a pattern of negative and positive deflections that are unlike those evoked by onsets. We identified a negative component in the waveform - the Lateralized Object-Related Negativity - generated by the hemisphere contralateral to the side on which the new sound appears. The relationship between this component and similar components found in related paradigms is considered. PMID:21056097

  9. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  10. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J;

    2011-01-01

    order of subthreshold VSD maps was reduced in layer IV and even further degraded in layer II/III. Therefore, the precision of AI topography varies according to the source and layer of the mapping signal. Our findings further bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detailed...... cellular study of auditory thalamocortical circuit organization and plasticity in the genetically tractable mouse model....

  11. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  12. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  13. Automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming: Concurrent subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Alexander J; Carlyon, Robert P

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments used subjective and objective measures to study the automaticity and primacy of auditory streaming. Listeners heard sequences of "ABA-" triplets, where "A" and "B" were tones of different frequencies and "-" was a silent gap. Segregation was more frequently reported, and rhythmically deviant triplets less well detected, for a greater between-tone frequency separation and later in the sequence. In Experiment 1, performing a competing auditory task for the first part of the sequence led to a reduction in subsequent streaming compared to when the tones were attended throughout. This is consistent with focused attention promoting streaming, and/or with attention switches resetting it. However, the proportion of segregated reports increased more rapidly following a switch than at the start of a sequence, indicating that some streaming occurred automatically. Modeling ruled out a simple "covert attention" account of this finding. Experiment 2 required listeners to perform subjective and objective tasks concurrently. It revealed superior performance during integrated compared to segregated reports, beyond that explained by the codependence of the two measures on stimulus parameters. We argue that listeners have limited access to low-level stimulus representations once perceptual organization has occurred, and that subjective and objective streaming measures partly index the same processes. PMID:26414168

  14. Acoustic trauma-induced auditory cortex enhancement and tinnitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Laundrie; Wei Sun

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggests that noise-induced cochlear damage may lead to hyperexcitability in the central auditory system (CAS) which may give rise to tinnitus. However, the correlation between the onset of the neurophysiological changes in the CAS and the onset of tinnitus has not been well studied. To investigate this relationship, chronic electrodes were implanted into the auditory cortex (AC) and sound evoked activities were measured from awake rats before and after noise exposure. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was used to assess the degree of noise-induced hearing loss. Tinnitus was evaluated by measuring gap-induced prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI). Rats were exposed monaurally to a high-intensity narrowband noise centered at 12 kHz at a level of 120 dB SPL for 1 h. After the noise exposure, all the rats developed either permanent (>2 weeks) or temporary (<3 days) hearing loss in the exposed ear(s). The AC amplitudes increased significantly 4 h after the noise exposure. Most of the exposed rats also showed decreased gap-PPI. The post-exposure AC enhancement showed a positive correlation with the amount of hearing loss. The onset of tinnitus-like behavior was happened after the onset of AC enhancement.

  15. Central auditory masking by an illusory tone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Plack

    Full Text Available Many natural sounds fluctuate over time. The detectability of sounds in a sequence can be reduced by prior stimulation in a process known as forward masking. Forward masking is thought to reflect neural adaptation or neural persistence in the auditory nervous system, but it has been unclear where in the auditory pathway this processing occurs. To address this issue, the present study used a "Huggins pitch" stimulus, the perceptual effects of which depend on central auditory processing. Huggins pitch is an illusory tonal sensation produced when the same noise is presented to the two ears except for a narrow frequency band that is different (decorrelated between the ears. The pitch sensation depends on the combination of the inputs to the two ears, a process that first occurs at the level of the superior olivary complex in the brainstem. Here it is shown that a Huggins pitch stimulus produces more forward masking in the frequency region of the decorrelation than a noise stimulus identical to the Huggins-pitch stimulus except with perfect correlation between the ears. This stimulus has a peripheral neural representation that is identical to that of the Huggins-pitch stimulus. The results show that processing in, or central to, the superior olivary complex can contribute to forward masking in human listeners.

  16. A Psychophysical Imaging Method Evidencing Auditory Cue Extraction during Speech Perception: A Group Analysis of Auditory Classification Images

    OpenAIRE

    Varnet, Léo; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Serniclaes, Willy; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is a large consensus regarding the involvement of specific acoustic cues in speech perception, the precise mechanisms underlying the transformation from continuous acoustical properties into discrete perceptual units remains undetermined. This gap in knowledge is partially due to the lack of a turnkey solution for isolating critical speech cues from natural stimuli. In this paper, we describe a psychoacoustic imaging method known as the Auditory Classification Image technique t...

  17. Highest achievable detection range for SPR based sensors using gallium phosphide (GaP) as a substrate: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajneesh K.; Mishra, Akhilesh K.

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we have theoretically modelled a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensing chip utilizing a prism made up of gallium phosphidee. It has been found in the study that a large range of refractive index starting from the gaseous medium to highly concentrated liquids can be sensed by using a single chip in the visible region of the spectrum. The variation of the sensitivity as well as detection accuracy with sensing region refractive index has been analyzed in detail. The large value of the sensitivity along with the large dynamic range is the advantageous feature of the present sensing probe.

  18. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH)

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the p...

  19. Spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han Chin; Bergles, Dwight E

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity is a common feature of sensory systems during early development. This sensory-independent neuronal activity has been implicated in promoting their survival and maturation, as well as growth and refinement of their projections to yield circuits that can rapidly extract information about the external world. Periodic bursts of action potentials occur in auditory neurons of mammals before hearing onset. This activity is induced by inner hair cells (IHCs) within the developing cochlea, which establish functional connections with spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) several weeks before they are capable of detecting external sounds. During this pre-hearing period, IHCs fire periodic bursts of Ca(2+) action potentials that excite SGNs, triggering brief but intense periods of activity that pass through auditory centers of the brain. Although spontaneous activity requires input from IHCs, there is ongoing debate about whether IHCs are intrinsically active and their firing periodically interrupted by external inhibitory input (IHC-inhibition model), or are intrinsically silent and their firing periodically promoted by an external excitatory stimulus (IHC-excitation model). There is accumulating evidence that inner supporting cells in Kölliker's organ spontaneously release ATP during this time, which can induce bursts of Ca(2+) spikes in IHCs that recapitulate many features of auditory neuron activity observed in vivo. Nevertheless, the role of supporting cells in this process remains to be established in vivo. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for generating IHC activity in the developing cochlea will help reveal how these events contribute to the maturation of nascent auditory circuits. PMID:25296716

  20. GAP Analysis Program (GAP) Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification of...

  1. Auditory perspective taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Effective communication with a mobile robot using speech is a difficult problem even when you can control the auditory scene. Robot self-noise or ego noise, echoes and reverberation, and human interference are all common sources of decreased intelligibility. Moreover, in real-world settings, these problems are routinely aggravated by a variety of sources of background noise. Military scenarios can be punctuated by high decibel noise from materiel and weaponry that would easily overwhelm a robot's normal speaking volume. Moreover, in nonmilitary settings, fans, computers, alarms, and transportation noise can cause enough interference to make a traditional speech interface unusable. This work presents and evaluates a prototype robotic interface that uses perspective taking to estimate the effectiveness of its own speech presentation and takes steps to improve intelligibility for human listeners. PMID:23096077

  2. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  3. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    OpenAIRE

    Monica eGori; Tiziana eVercillo; Giulio eSandini; David eBurr

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds b...

  4. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  5. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

    OpenAIRE

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-aud...

  6. Electrophysiological and psychophysical asymmetries in sensitivity to interaural correlation gaps and implications for binaural integration time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddemann, Helge; Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Brief deviations of interaural correlation (IAC) can provide valuable cues for detection, segregation and localization of acoustic signals. This study investigated the processing of such "binaural gaps" in continuously running noise (100-2000 Hz), in comparison to silent "monaural gaps", by measuring late auditory evoked potentials (LAEPs) and perceptual thresholds with novel, iteratively optimized stimuli. Mean perceptual binaural gap duration thresholds exhibited a major asymmetry: they were substantially shorter for uncorrelated gaps in correlated and anticorrelated reference noise (1.75 ms and 4.1 ms) than for correlated and anticorrelated gaps in uncorrelated reference noise (26.5 ms and 39.0 ms). The thresholds also showed a minor asymmetry: they were shorter in the positive than in the negative IAC range. The mean behavioral threshold for monaural gaps was 5.5 ms. For all five gap types, the amplitude of LAEP components N1 and P2 increased linearly with the logarithm of gap duration. While perceptual and electrophysiological thresholds matched for monaural gaps, LAEP thresholds were about twice as long as perceptual thresholds for uncorrelated gaps, but half as long for correlated and anticorrelated gaps. Nevertheless, LAEP thresholds showed the same asymmetries as perceptual thresholds. For gap durations below 30 ms, LAEPs were dominated by the processing of the leading edge of a gap. For longer gap durations, in contrast, both the leading and the lagging edge of a gap contributed to the evoked response. Formulae for the equivalent rectangular duration (ERD) of the binaural system's temporal window were derived for three common window shapes. The psychophysical ERD was 68 ms for diotic and about 40 ms for anti- and uncorrelated noise. After a nonlinear Z-transform of the stimulus IAC prior to temporal integration, ERDs were about 10 ms for reference correlations of ±1 and 80 ms for uncorrelated reference. Hence, a physiologically motivated

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free publications Find organizations Related Topics Auditory Neuropathy Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children Dysphagia Quick ... NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders 31 Center Drive, MSC ...

  8. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and school. A positive, realistic attitude and healthy self-esteem in a child with APD can work wonders. And kids with APD can go on to ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Auditory Processing Disorder Special ...

  9. Teste GIN: detecção de gap em crianças com desvio fonológico Noise test: gap detection in children with phonological deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feltre Assis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a resolução temporal: detecção de gaps em crianças com desvios fonológicos por meio do teste GIN e relacionar o grau do desvio fonológico com desempenho no teste GIN. MÉTODO: 6 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, 5 meninos e 1 menina, com idade entre 10 e 11 anos, com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico, em atendimento na clínica-escola do curso de Fonoaudiologia da FEAD de Belo Horizonte/MG, todos com ausência de perda auditiva e problemas neurológicos e/ou cognitivos. Os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste GIN, em intensidade de 50dB acima do limiar. RESULTADOS: das 06 crianças avaliadas, 5 (83,33% encontram-se alteradas e apenas 1 (16,67% obteve valores dentro do padrão de normalidade. Apesar da pequena amostra, viu-se que 83,33% das crianças com desvio fonológico tiveram limiares do GIN aquém do esperado para faixa etária. Porém não foi possível estabelecer uma relação direta entre grau de classificação do desvio fonológico e o baixo desempenho obtido no teste GIN, no qual apenas 1 criança com desvio médio moderado apresentou pior desempenho no teste GIN. CONCLUSÃO: crianças com desvio fonológico podem apresentar alteração no processamento temporal.PURPOSE: to investigate the temporal resolution, as for: gaps detection in children with phonological deviation through noise test and related with the degree of phonological performance in noise test. METHOD: 6 patients of both genders, five boys and one girl, aged between 10 and 11 year-old with phonological disorder' diagnosis in attendance at the school clinic of the Speech Therapy course (FEAD Belo Horizonte / MG, all with no hearing loss and no neurological and / or cognitive problems. The subjects underwent the GIN test at intensity of 50dB above the threshold. RESULTS: from the 6 evaluated children, 5 (83.33% had abnormal responses at gin test and only one (16.67% had values within the normal range. Despite the small sample, it was

  10. Teste GIN: detecção de gap em crianças com desvio fonológico Noise test: gap detection in children with phonological deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Feltre Assis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a resolução temporal: detecção de gaps em crianças com desvios fonológicos por meio do teste GIN e relacionar o grau do desvio fonológico com desempenho no teste GIN. MÉTODO: 6 indivíduos, de ambos os gêneros, 5 meninos e 1 menina, com idade entre 10 e 11 anos, com diagnóstico de desvio fonológico, em atendimento na clínica-escola do curso de Fonoaudiologia da FEAD de Belo Horizonte/MG, todos com ausência de perda auditiva e problemas neurológicos e/ou cognitivos. Os participantes foram submetidos ao Teste GIN, em intensidade de 50dB acima do limiar. RESULTADOS: das 06 crianças avaliadas, 5 (83,33% encontram-se alteradas e apenas 1 (16,67% obteve valores dentro do padrão de normalidade. Apesar da pequena amostra, viu-se que 83,33% das crianças com desvio fonológico tiveram limiares do GIN aquém do esperado para faixa etária. Porém não foi possível estabelecer uma relação direta entre grau de classificação do desvio fonológico e o baixo desempenho obtido no teste GIN, no qual apenas 1 criança com desvio médio moderado apresentou pior desempenho no teste GIN. CONCLUSÃO: crianças com desvio fonológico podem apresentar alteração no processamento temporal.PURPOSE: to investigate the temporal resolution, as for: gaps detection in children with phonological deviation through noise test and related with the degree of phonological performance in noise test. METHOD: 6 patients of both genders, five boys and one girl, aged between 10 and 11 year-old with phonological disorder' diagnosis in attendance at the school clinic of the Speech Therapy course (FEAD Belo Horizonte / MG, all with no hearing loss and no neurological and / or cognitive problems. The subjects underwent the GIN test at intensity of 50dB above the threshold. RESULTS: from the 6 evaluated children, 5 (83.33% had abnormal responses at gin test and only one (16.67% had values within the normal range. Despite the small sample, it was

  11. Auditory performance in an open sound field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluitt, Kim F.; Letowski, Tomasz; Mermagen, Timothy

    2003-04-01

    Detection and recognition of acoustic sources in an open field are important elements of situational awareness on the battlefield. They are affected by many technical and environmental conditions such as type of sound, distance to a sound source, terrain configuration, meteorological conditions, hearing capabilities of the listener, level of background noise, and the listener's familiarity with the sound source. A limited body of knowledge about auditory perception of sources located over long distances makes it difficult to develop models predicting auditory behavior on the battlefield. The purpose of the present study was to determine the listener's abilities to detect, recognize, localize, and estimate distances to sound sources from 25 to 800 m from the listing position. Data were also collected for meteorological conditions (wind direction and strength, temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity) and background noise level for each experimental trial. Forty subjects (men and women, ages 18 to 25) participated in the study. Nine types of sounds were presented from six loudspeakers in random order; each series was presented four times. Partial results indicate that both detection and recognition declined at distances greater than approximately 200 m and distance estimation was grossly underestimated by listeners. Specific results will be presented.

  12. On the comparison of VR-responses, as performance measures in prospective memory, with auditory P300 responses in MCI detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanas, Ioannis; Laskaris, Nikos; Tsolaki, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general spatial navigation task or an executive function (EF) virtual action planning. There has been only one previous work with virtual reality and the use of a virtual action planning supermarket for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. The authors of that study examined the feasibility and the validity of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S) for the diagnosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and found that the VAP-S is a viable tool to assess EF deficits. In our study we employed the in-house platform of virtual action planning museum (VAP-M) and a sample of 25 MCI and 25 controls, in order to investigate deficits in spatial navigation, prospective memory and executive function. In addition, we used the morphology of late components in event-related potential (ERP) responses, as a marker for cognitive dysfunction. The related measurements were fed to a common classification scheme facilitating the direct comparison of both approaches. Our results indicate that both the VAP-M and ERP averages were able to differentiate between healthy elders and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and agree with the findings of the virtual action planning supermarket (VAP-S). The sensitivity (specificity) was 100% (98%) for the VAP-M data and 87%(90%) for the ERP responses. Considering that ERPs have proven to advance the early detection and diagnosis of "presymptomatic AD", the suggested VAP-M platform appears as an appealing alternative. PMID:22954847

  13. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  14. Activation of auditory white matter tracts as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Yakunina, Natalia; Nam, Eui-Cheol [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Su [Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University, Neuroscience Research Institute, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kangwon National University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect activation in brain white matter (WM) is controversial. In particular, studies on the functional activation of WM tracts in the central auditory system are scarce. We utilized fMRI to assess and characterize the entire auditory WM pathway under robust experimental conditions involving the acquisition of a large number of functional volumes, the application of broadband auditory stimuli of high intensity, and the use of sparse temporal sampling to avoid scanner noise effects and increase signal-to-noise ratio. Nineteen healthy volunteers were subjected to broadband white noise in a block paradigm; each run had four sound-on/off alternations and was repeated nine times for each subject. Sparse sampling (TR = 8 s) was used. In addition to traditional gray matter (GM) auditory center activation, WM activation was detected in the isthmus and midbody of the corpus callosum (CC), tapetum, auditory radiation, lateral lemniscus, and decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncles. At the individual level, 13 of 19 subjects (68 %) had CC activation. Callosal WM exhibited a temporal delay of approximately 8 s in response to the stimulation compared with GM. These findings suggest that direct evaluation of the entire functional network of the central auditory system may be possible using fMRI, which may aid in understanding the neurophysiological basis of the central auditory system and in developing treatment strategies for various central auditory disorders. (orig.)

  15. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks. PMID:26886505

  16. Listener orientation and spatial judgments of elevated auditory percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Anthony J.

    How do listener head rotations affect auditory perception of elevation? This investi-. gation addresses this in the hopes that perceptual judgments of elevated auditory. percepts may be more thoroughly understood in terms of dynamic listening cues. engendered by listener head rotations and that this phenomenon can be psychophys-. ically and computationally modeled. Two listening tests were conducted and a. psychophysical model was constructed to this end. The frst listening test prompted. listeners to detect an elevated auditory event produced by a virtual noise source. orbiting the median plane via 24-channel ambisonic spatialization. Head rotations. were tracked using computer vision algorithms facilitated by camera tracking. The. data were used to construct a dichotomous criteria model using factorial binary. logistic regression model. The second auditory test investigated the validity of the. historically supported frequency dependence of auditory elevation perception using. narrow-band noise for continuous and brief stimuli with fxed and free-head rotation. conditions. The data were used to construct a multinomial logistic regression model. to predict categorical judgments of above, below, and behind. Finally, in light. of the psychophysical data found from the above studies, a functional model of. elevation perception for point sources along the cone of confusion was constructed. using physiologically-inspired signal processing methods along with top-down pro-. cessing utilizing principles of memory and orientation. The model is evaluated using. white noise bursts for 42 subjects' head-related transfer functions. The investigation. concludes with study limitations, possible implications, and speculation on future. research trajectories.

  17. Psychology of auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Andrew; Holt, Lori

    2011-09-01

    Audition is often treated as a 'secondary' sensory system behind vision in the study of cognitive science. In this review, we focus on three seemingly simple perceptual tasks to demonstrate the complexity of perceptual-cognitive processing involved in everyday audition. After providing a short overview of the characteristics of sound and their neural encoding, we present a description of the perceptual task of segregating multiple sound events that are mixed together in the signal reaching the ears. Then, we discuss the ability to localize the sound source in the environment. Finally, we provide some data and theory on how listeners categorize complex sounds, such as speech. In particular, we present research on how listeners weigh multiple acoustic cues in making a categorization decision. One conclusion of this review is that it is time for auditory cognitive science to be developed to match what has been done in vision in order for us to better understand how humans communicate with speech and music. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 479-489 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.123 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26302301

  18. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  19. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Babisch, Wolfgang; Davis, Adrian; Brink, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Janssen, Sabine; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2014-04-12

    Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in noise-induced hair-cell and nerve damage has substantially increased, and preventive and therapeutic drugs will probably become available within 10 years. Evidence of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24183105

  20. Effects of metal/Ge contact and surface passivation on direct band gap light emission and detection for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekura, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Wang, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Direct band gap electroluminescence (EL) and light detection were studied at room temperature for n-type bulk germanium (Ge) by using fin-type asymmetric lateral metal/Ge/metal diodes. HfGe/Ge and PtGe/Ge contacts were used for injecting holes. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation and physical vapor deposition bilayer passivation (BLP) methods were employed for passivating the surface of the active region. A high EL intensity and a low dark current intensity were observed for the sample with PtGe/Ge contact and BLP, owing to the small/large barrier height of holes/electrons for PtGe/Ge contact, respectively, and the low density of interface states for the active region with BLP. The local-heating-induced redshift of the EL peak for the sample with PtGe/Ge contact is smaller than that for the sample with HfGe/Ge contact, owing to the lower parasitic resistance of PtGe/Ge contact. The diode with PtGe/Ge contact and BLP shows an on/off ratio of ∼104 and a responsivity of 0.70 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 56.0% under a wavelength of 1.55 µm.

  1. Neural Correlates of an Auditory Afterimage in Primary Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Noreña, A. J.; Eggermont, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Zwicker tone (ZT) is defined as an auditory negative afterimage, perceived after the presentation of an appropriate inducer. Typically, a notched noise (NN) with a notch width of 1/2 octave induces a ZT with a pitch falling in the frequency range of the notch. The aim of the present study was to find potential neural correlates of the ZT in the primary auditory cortex of ketamine-anesthetized cats. Responses of multiunits were recorded simultaneously with two 8-electrode arrays during 1 s...

  2. Age-related changes in calbindin and calretinin immunoreactivity in the central auditory system of the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2012), s. 497-506. ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : central auditory structures * calcium-binding proteins * central auditory structures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.911, year: 2012

  3. Formation and disruption of tonotopy in a large-scale model of the auditory cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomková, M.; Tomek, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Zelenka, Ondřej; Syka, Josef; Brom, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2015), s. 131-153. ISSN 0929-5313 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory cortex * large-scale model * spiking neuron * oscillation * STDP * tonotopy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.739, year: 2014

  4. The response properties of neurons in different fields of the auditory cortex in the rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Burianová, Jana; Syka, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, February (2013), s. 51-59. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory cortex * fequency representation * axon terminals Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.848, year: 2013

  5. Metabolic changes in the auditory cortex in presbycusis demonstrated by MR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, Oliver; Balogová, Zuzana; Dezortová, M.; Wagnerová, D.; Hájek, M.; Syka, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 8 (2013), s. 795-800. ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1872 Grant ostatní: GA MZd(CZ) 00023001IKEM Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Presbycusis * Auditory cortex * MR spectroscopy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.529, year: 2013

  6. Cooling of the auditory cortex modifies neuronal activity in the inferior colliculus in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelář, Jiří; Šuta, Daniel; Lindovský, Jiří; Bureš, Zbyněk; Pysaněnko, Kateryna; Chumak, Tetyana; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 332, feb (2016), s. 7-16. ISSN 0378-5955 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : auditory cortex * cooling * cortical inactivation * efferent system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  7. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  8. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    David ePérez-González; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the s...

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberalesso Paulo Breno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is extremely common in contemporary society, and is considered to be a frequent cause of behavioral disorders, mood, alertness, and cognitive performance. Although the impacts of sleep deprivation have been studied extensively in various experimental paradigms, very few studies have addressed the impact of sleep deprivation on central auditory processing (CAP. Therefore, we examined the impact of sleep deprivation on CAP, for which there is sparse information. In the present study, thirty healthy adult volunteers (17 females and 13 males, aged 30.75 ± 7.14 years were subjected to a pure tone audiometry test, a speech recognition threshold test, a speech recognition task, the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSWT, and the Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT. Baseline (BSL performance was compared to performance after 24 hours of being sleep deprived (24hSD using the Student’s t test. Results Mean RGDT score was elevated in the 24hSD condition (8.0 ± 2.9 ms relative to the BSL condition for the whole cohort (6.4 ± 2.8 ms; p = 0.0005, for males (p = 0.0066, and for females (p = 0.0208. Sleep deprivation reduced SSWT scores for the whole cohort in both ears [(right: BSL, 98.4 % ± 1.8 % vs. SD, 94.2 % ± 6.3 %. p = 0.0005(left: BSL, 96.7 % ± 3.1 % vs. SD, 92.1 % ± 6.1 %, p  Conclusion Sleep deprivation impairs RGDT and SSWT performance. These findings confirm that sleep deprivation has central effects that may impair performance in other areas of life.

  10. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Berti

    2013-01-01

    Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechani...

  11. Experimental study of the application of micro-PIV on the flow characteristics detection of micro-gap rotational flow field

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Tang; Chunze Wang; Yupeng Shi; Xiaohao Wang

    2015-01-01

    For a micro-gap rotational flow field with a large horizontal extent, tiny gap and fast flow velocity, the two-dimensional images shot by the micro-scale Particle ImageVelocimetry(Micro-PIV) technique are not sufficient for the study of local or whole flow characteristics. In this paper, by establishing a test bench of a rotational flow field with the functions of driving, positioning, adjustment and sensing, all the local states of the micro-gap rotational flow field can be obtained by horiz...

  12. Auditory processing abilities in children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavarghazalani, Bahare; Farahani, Farhad; Emadi, Maryam; Hosseni Dastgerdi, Zahra

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion The study results indicate that children with a history of otitis media with effusion (OME) suffer from auditory processing disorder to some degree. The findings support the hypothesis that fluctuating hearing loss may affect central auditory processing during critical periods. Objectives Evidence suggests that prolonged OME in children can result in an auditory processing disorder, presumably because hearing has been disrupted during an important developmental period. A lack of auditory stimulation leads to the abnormal development of the hearing pathways in the brain. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OME on binaural auditory function and auditory temporal processing. Method In the present study, the dichotic digit test (DDT) was used for binaural hearing, and the gap in noise (GIN) test was used to evaluate temporal hearing processing. Results The average values of GIN differed significantly between children with a history of OME and normal controls (p < 0.001). The mean values of the DDT score were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.002). PMID:26881324

  13. Animal models of spontaneous activity in the healthy and impaired auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos J Eggermont

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous neural activity in the auditory nerve fibers and in auditory cortex in healthy animals is discussed with respect to the question: Is spontaneous activity noise or information carrier? The studies reviewed suggest strongly that spontaneous activity is a carrier of information. Subsequently, I review the numerous findings in the impaired auditory system, particularly with reference to noise trauma and tinnitus. Here the common assumption is that tinnitus reflects increased noise in the auditory system that among others affects temporal processing and interferes with the gap-startle reflex, which is frequently used as a behavioral assay for tinnitus. It is, however, more likely that the increased spontaneous activity in tinnitus, firing rate as well as neural synchrony, carries information that shapes the activity of downstream structures, including non-auditory ones, and leading to the tinnitus percept. The main drivers of that process are bursting and synchronous firing, which facilitates transfer of activity across synapses, and allows formation of auditory objects, such as tinnitus

  14. [The auditory pathway: levels of integration of information and principal neurotransmitters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Poblano, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we studied the central auditory pathway (CAP) from an anatomical, physiological and neurochemical standpoint, from the inner ear, brainstem, thalamus to the temporal auditory cortex. The characteristics of the spiral ganglion of Corti, auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex, including the auditory efferent pathway, are given. CAP is described as the electrical impulses, travelling through axons, allowing ions to enter a neuron and vesicles with neurotransmitters (NT) and then released into synaptic space. The NT changes the functioning of the cells; when attached to specific receptors on the next nerve cell, NT-receiver union causes input of ions through Gap sites, resulting in a postsynaptic potential that is spread over all CAP. In addition, the effects of the NT are not limited to the transmission, but as trophic agents that promote the formation of new neural networks. Even the anatomy, physiology, neurochemical aspects, and the different types of synapses are not fully understood to comprehend the organization of the CAP, but remain under investigation because of the relevance for the treatment of various central auditory disorders. PMID:25275847

  15. Neural basis of the time window for subjective motor-auditory integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Toida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal contiguity between an action and corresponding auditory feedback is crucial to the perception of self-generated sound. However, the neural mechanisms underlying motor–auditory temporal integration are unclear. Here, we conducted four experiments with an oddball paradigm to examine the specific event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by delayed auditory feedback for a self-generated action. The first experiment confirmed that a pitch-deviant auditory stimulus elicits mismatch negativity (MMN and P300, both when it is generated passively and by the participant’s action. In our second and third experiments, we investigated the ERP components elicited by delayed auditory feedback of for a self-generated action. We found that delayed auditory feedback elicited an enhancement of P2 (enhanced-P2 and a N300 component, which were apparently different from the MMN and P300 components observed in the first experiment. We further investigated the sensitivity of the enhanced-P2 and N300 to delay length in our fourth experiment. Strikingly, the amplitude of the N300 increased as a function of the delay length. Additionally, the N300 amplitude was significantly correlated with the conscious detection of the delay (the 50% detection point was around 200 ms, and hence reduction in the feeling of authorship of the sound (the sense of agency. In contrast, the enhanced-P2 was most prominent in short-delay (≤ 200 ms conditions and diminished in long-delay conditions. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms are employed for the processing of temporally-deviant and pitch-deviant auditory feedback. Additionally, the temporal window for subjective motor–auditory integration is likely about 200 ms, as indicated by these auditory ERP components.

  16. Evaluation of Auditory Brain Stems Evoked Response in Newborns With Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia in Mashhad, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Okhravi, Tooba; Tarvij Eslami, Saeedeh; Hushyar Ahmadi, Ali; Nassirian, Hossain; Najibpour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of sensorneural hearing loss in children. Objectives: We aimed to detect the neurotoxic effects of pathologic hyperbilirubinemia on brain stem and auditory tract by auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) which could predict early effects of hyperbilirubinemia. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was performed on newborns with pathologic hyperbilirubinemia. The inclusion criteria were healthy term and near term (35 - 37 weeks) newbor...

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the ascending stages of the auditory system in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jan-Peter; Lüpke, Matthias; Dziallas, Peter; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Seifert, Hermann; Nolte, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique able to localize neural activity in the brain by detecting associated changes in blood flow. It is an essential tool for studying human functional neuroanatomy including the auditory system. There are only a few studies, however, using fMRI to study canine brain functions. In the current study ten anesthetized dogs were scanned during auditory stimulation. Two functional sequences, each in combination with a suitable stimu...

  18. Connecting the ear to the brain: molecular mechanisms of auditory circuit assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Appler, Jessica M; Goodrich, Lisa V.

    2011-01-01

    Our sense of hearing depends on precisely organized circuits that allow us to sense, perceive, and respond to complex sounds in our environment, from music and language to simple warning signals. Auditory processing begins in the cochlea of the inner ear, where sounds are detected by sensory hair cells and then transmitted to the central nervous system by spiral ganglion neurons, which faithfully preserve the frequency, intensity, and timing of each stimulus. During the assembly of auditory c...

  19. Synchronization and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTierney

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel 2011, 2012, 2014. There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The precise auditory timing hypothesis predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills.

  20. Brainstem auditory evoked potential abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharat Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus represents a syndrome complex in which multiple organ systems, including the central nervous system, are affected. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the changes in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 126 diabetic males, aged 35-50 years, and 106 age-matched, healthy male volunteers. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials were recorded and the results were analyzed statistically using student′s unpaired t-test. The data consisted of wave latencies I, II, III, IV, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V, separately for both ears. Results: The latency of wave IV was significantly delayed only in the right ear, while the latency of waves III, V and interpeak latencies III-V, I-V showed a significant delay bilaterally in diabetic males. However, no significant difference was found between diabetic and control subjects as regards to the latency of wave IV unilaterally in the left ear and the latencies of waves I, II and interpeak latency I-III bilaterally. Conclusion: Diabetes patients have an early involvement of central auditory pathway, which can be detected with fair accuracy with auditory evoked potential studies.

  1. On Optimality in Auditory Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study limits for the detection and estimation of weak sinusoidal signals in the primary part of the mammalian auditory system using a stochastic Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) model and an action-reaction model for synaptic plasticity. Our overall model covers the chain from a hair cell to a point just after the synaptic connection with a cell in the cochlear nucleus. The information processing performance of the system is evaluated using so called phi-divergences from statistics which quantify a dissimilarity between probability measures and are intimately related to a number of fundamental limits in statistics and information theory (IT). We show that there exists a set of parameters that can optimize several important phi-divergences simultaneously and that this set corresponds to a constant quiescent firing rate (QFR) of the spiral ganglion neuron. The optimal value of the QFR is frequency dependent but is essentially independent of the amplitude of the signal (for small amplitudes). Consequently, optimal proce...

  2. Processing of spatial sounds in human auditory cortex during visual, discrimination and 2-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TeemuRinne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous imaging studies on the brain mechanisms of spatial hearing have mainly focused on sounds varying in the horizontal plane. In this study, we compared activations in human auditory cortex (AC and adjacent inferior parietal lobule (IPL to sounds varying in horizontal location, distance, or space (i.e., different rooms. In order to investigate both stimulus-dependent and task-dependent activations, these sounds were presented during visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, and auditory 2-back memory tasks. Consistent with previous studies, activations in AC were modulated by the auditory tasks. During both auditory and visual tasks, activations in AC were stronger to sounds varying in horizontal location than along other feature dimensions. However, in IPL, this enhancement was detected only during auditory tasks. Based on these results, we argue that IPL is not primarily involved in stimulus-level spatial analysis but that it may represent such information for more general processing when relevant to an active auditory task.

  3. Resolução temporal auditiva em idosos Auditory temporal resolution in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Duarte Liporaci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processamento auditivo em idosos por meio do teste de resolução temporal Gaps in Noise e verificar se a presença de perda auditiva influencia no desempenho nesse teste. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco ouvintes idosos, entre 60 e 79 anos, foram avaliados por meio do teste Gaps In Noise. Para seleção da amostra foram realizados: anamnese, mini-exame do estado mental e avaliação audiológica básica. Os participantes foram alocados e estudados em um grupo único e posteriormente divididos em três grupos segundo os resultados audiométricos nas frequências de 500 Hz, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 6 kHz. Assim, classificou-se o G1 com audição normal, o G2 com perda auditiva de grau leve e o G3 com perda auditiva de grau moderado. RESULTADOS: Em toda a amostra, as médias de limiar de detecção de gap e de porcentagem de acertos foram de 8,1 ms e 52,6% para a orelha direita e de 8,2 ms e 52,2% para a orelha esquerda. No G1, estas medidas foram de 7,3 ms e 57,6% para a orelha direita e de 7,7 ms e 55,8% para a orelha esquerda. No G2, estas medidas foram de 8,2 ms e 52,5% para a orelha direita e de 7,9 ms e 53,2% para a orelha esquerda. No G3, estas medidas foram de 9,2 ms e 45,2% para as orelhas direita e esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de perda auditiva elevou os limiares de detecção de gap e diminuiu a porcentagem de acertos no teste Gaps In Noise.PURPOSE: To assess the auditory processing of elderly patients using the temporal resolution Gaps-in-Noise test, and to verify if the presence of hearing loss influences the performance on this test. METHODS: Sixty-five elderly listeners, with ages between 60 and 79 years, were assessed with the Gaps-in-Noise test. To meet the inclusion criteria, the following procedures were carried out: anamnesis, mini-mental state examination, and basic audiological evaluation. The participants were allocated and studied as a group, and then were divided into three groups, according to audiometric results

  4. Conceptual priming for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Aline; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Besson, Mireille

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted using both behavioral and Event-Related brain Potentials methods to examine conceptual priming effects for realistic auditory scenes and for auditory words. Prime and target sounds were presented in four stimulus combinations: Sound-Sound, Word-Sound, Sound-Word and Word-Word. Within each combination, targets were conceptually related to the prime, unrelated or ambiguous. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the primes and targets fit together (explicit task) and in Experiment 2 they had to decide whether the target was typical or ambiguous (implicit task). In both experiments and in the four stimulus combinations, reaction times and/or error rates were longer/higher and the N400 component was larger to ambiguous targets than to conceptually related targets, thereby pointing to a common conceptual system for processing auditory scenes and linguistic stimuli in both explicit and implicit tasks. However, fine-grained analyses also revealed some differences between experiments and conditions in scalp topography and duration of the priming effects possibly reflecting differences in the integration of perceptual and cognitive attributes of linguistic and nonlinguistic sounds. These results have clear implications for the building-up of virtual environments that need to convey meaning without words. PMID:24378910

  5. Age-related improvements in auditory temporal resolution in reading-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautus, Michael J; Setchell, Gregory J; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2003-02-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia show impairments in processing that require precise timing of sensory events. Here, we show that in a test of auditory temporal acuity (a gap-detection task) children ages 6-9 years with dyslexia exhibited a significant deficit relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, this deficit was not observed in groups of older reading-impaired individuals (ages 10-11 years; 12-13 years) or in adults (ages 23-25 years). It appears, therefore, that early temporal resolution deficits in those with reading impairments may significantly ameliorate over time. However, the occurrence of an early deficit in temporal acuity may be antecedent to other language-related perceptual problems (particularly those related to phonological processing) that persist after the primary deficit has resolved. This result suggests that if remedial interventions targeted at temporal resolution deficits are to be effective, the early detection of the deficit and early application of the remedial programme is especially critical. PMID:12625375

  6. THE 0.5-2.22 {mu}m SCATTERED LIGHT SPECTRUM OF THE DISK AROUND TW Hya: DETECTION OF A PARTIALLY FILLED DISK GAP AT 80 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Weinberger, Alycia J. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schneider, Glenn [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present a 0.5-2.2 {mu}m scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. We investigate the morphology of the disk at distances >40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths, and identify the presence of a depression in surface brightness at {approx}80 AU that could be caused by a gap in the disk. Additionally, we quantify the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. Our analysis shows that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue over the observed wavelengths. We model the disk as a steady {alpha}-disk with an ad hoc gap structure. The thermal properties of the disk are self-consistently calculated using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that uses ray tracing to model the heating of the disk interior and scattered light images. We find a good fit to the data over a wide range of distances from the star if we use a model disk with a partially filled gap of 30% depth at 80 AU and with a self-similar truncation knee at 100 AU. The origin of the gap is unclear, but it could arise from a transition in the nature of the disk's dust composition or the presence of a planetary companion. Based on scalings to previous hydrodynamic simulations of gap-opening criteria for embedded proto-planets, we estimate that a planetary companion forming the gap could have a mass between 6 and 28 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  7. Psychophysiological responses to auditory change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Lorraine; Sears, David; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive characterization of autonomic and somatic responding within the auditory domain is currently lacking. We studied whether simple types of auditory change that occur frequently during music listening could elicit measurable changes in heart rate, skin conductance, respiration rate, and facial motor activity. Participants heard a rhythmically isochronous sequence consisting of a repeated standard tone, followed by a repeated target tone that changed in pitch, timbre, duration, intensity, or tempo, or that deviated momentarily from rhythmic isochrony. Changes in all parameters produced increases in heart rate. Skin conductance response magnitude was affected by changes in timbre, intensity, and tempo. Respiratory rate was sensitive to deviations from isochrony. Our findings suggest that music researchers interpreting physiological responses as emotional indices should consider acoustic factors that may influence physiology in the absence of induced emotions. PMID:26927928

  8. Auditory distraction and serial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D M; Hughes, Rob; Macken, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    One mental activity that is very vulnerable to auditory distraction is serial recall. This review of the contemporary findings relating to serial recall charts the key determinants of distraction. It is evident that there is one form of distraction that is a joint product of the cognitive characteristics of the task and of the obligatory cognitive processing of the sound. For sequences of sound, distraction appears to be an ineluctable product of similarity-of-process, specifically, the seria...

  9. Auditory learning: a developmental method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilu; Weng, Juyang; Hwang, Wey-Shiuan

    2005-05-01

    Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an array of challenging technical issues. As an application, experimental results on a real robot, self-organizing, autonomous, incremental learner (SAIL), are presented with emphasis on its audition perception and audition-related action generation. In particular, the SAIL robot conducts the auditory learning from unsegmented and unlabeled speech streams without any prior knowledge about the auditory signals, such as the designated language or the phoneme models. Neither available before learning starts are the actions that the robot is expected to perform. SAIL learns the auditory commands and the desired actions from physical contacts with the environment including the trainers. PMID:15940990

  10. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  11. Neural plasticity expressed in central auditory structures with and without tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E Roberts

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory training therapies for tinnitus are based on the assumption that, notwithstanding neural changes related to tinnitus, auditory training can alter the response properties of neurons in auditory pathways. To address this question, we investigated whether brain changes induced by sensory training in tinnitus sufferers and measured by EEG are similar to those induced in age and hearing loss matched individuals without tinnitus trained on the same auditory task. Auditory training was given using a 5 kHz 40-Hz amplitude-modulated sound that was in the tinnitus frequency region of the tinnitus subjects and enabled extraction of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR and P2 transient response known to localize to primary and nonprimary auditory cortex, respectively. P2 amplitude increased with training equally in participants with tinnitus and in control subjects, suggesting normal remodeling of nonprimary auditory regions in tinnitus. However, training-induced changes in the ASSR differed between the tinnitus and control groups. In controls ASSR phase advanced toward the stimulus waveform by about ten degrees over training, in agreement with previous results obtained in young normal hearing individuals. However, ASSR phase did not change significantly with training in the tinnitus group, although some participants showed phase shifts resembling controls. On the other hand, ASSR amplitude increased with training in the tinnitus group, whereas in controls this response (which is difficult to remodel in young normal hearing subjects did not change with training. These results suggest that neural changes related to tinnitus altered how neural plasticity was expressed in the region of primary but not nonprimary auditory cortex. Auditory training did not reduce tinnitus loudness although a small effect on the tinnitus spectrum was detected.

  12. Electrostimulation mapping of comprehension of auditory and visual words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Miskin, Krasimir; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Sacko, Oumar; Réhault, Emilie; Tanova, Rositsa; Démonet, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    In order to spare functional areas during the removal of brain tumours, electrical stimulation mapping was used in 90 patients (77 in the left hemisphere and 13 in the right; 2754 cortical sites tested). Language functions were studied with a special focus on comprehension of auditory and visual words and the semantic system. In addition to naming, patients were asked to perform pointing tasks from auditory and visual stimuli (using sets of 4 different images controlled for familiarity), and also auditory object (sound recognition) and Token test tasks. Ninety-two auditory comprehension interference sites were observed. We found that the process of auditory comprehension involved a few, fine-grained, sub-centimetre cortical territories. Early stages of speech comprehension seem to relate to two posterior regions in the left superior temporal gyrus. Downstream lexical-semantic speech processing and sound analysis involved 2 pathways, along the anterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, and posteriorly around the supramarginal and middle temporal gyri. Electrostimulation experimentally dissociated perceptual consciousness attached to speech comprehension. The initial word discrimination process can be considered as an "automatic" stage, the attention feedback not being impaired by stimulation as would be the case at the lexical-semantic stage. Multimodal organization of the superior temporal gyrus was also detected since some neurones could be involved in comprehension of visual material and naming. These findings demonstrate a fine graded, sub-centimetre, cortical representation of speech comprehension processing mainly in the left superior temporal gyrus and are in line with those described in dual stream models of language comprehension processing. PMID:26332785

  13. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    K. Raja Kumar; P. Seetha Ramaiah

    2010-01-01

    The Auditory Prosthesis (AP) is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP) and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP) consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant...

  14. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor E Valenti; Guida, Heraldo L.; Frizzo, Ana C F; Cardoso, Ana C. V.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Luiz Carlos de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation bet...

  15. Behavioural and neural correlates of auditory attention

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Katherine Leonie

    2005-01-01

    The auditory attention skills of alterting, orienting, and executive control were assessed using behavioural and neuroimaging techniques. Initially, an auditory analgue of the visual attention network test (ANT) (FAN, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz, & Posner, 2002) was created and tested alongside the visual ANT in a group of 40 healthy subjects. The results from this study showed similarities between auditory and visual spatial orienting. An fMRI study was conducted to investigate whether the simil...

  16. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia : A quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Costafreda, Sergi G.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre; Allen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies demonstrate grey matter volume (GMV) deficits in schizophrenia. This method is also applied for detecting associations between specific psychotic symptoms and brain structure, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). However, due to differing

  17. Temporal asymmetries in auditory coding and perception reflect multi-layered nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux, Thomas; Kempf, Alexandre; Daret, Aurélie; Ponsot, Emmanuel; Bathellier, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Sound recognition relies not only on spectral cues, but also on temporal cues, as demonstrated by the profound impact of time reversals on perception of common sounds. To address the coding principles underlying such auditory asymmetries, we recorded a large sample of auditory cortex neurons using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, while playing sounds ramping up or down in intensity. We observed clear asymmetries in cortical population responses, including stronger cortical activity for up-ramping sounds, which matches perceptual saliency assessments in mice and previous measures in humans. Analysis of cortical activity patterns revealed that auditory cortex implements a map of spatially clustered neuronal ensembles, detecting specific combinations of spectral and intensity modulation features. Comparing different models, we show that cortical responses result from multi-layered nonlinearities, which, contrary to standard receptive field models of auditory cortex function, build divergent representations of sounds with similar spectral content, but different temporal structure. PMID:27580932

  18. Effects of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Auditory Performance in Children with Attention and Auditory Processing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Kim L.; Katz, Jack; Keller, Warren D.

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on auditory processing in 32 children with both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and central auditory processing (CAP) disorder. Analyses revealed that Ritalin did not have a significant effect on any of the central auditory processing measures, although…

  19. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Mossbridge

    Full Text Available Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements, it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment.

  20. Seeing the song: left auditory structures may track auditory-visual dynamic alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it is not well known what sensory mechanisms generally track ongoing auditory-visual synchrony for non-speech signals in a complex auditory-visual environment. To begin to address this question, we used music and visual displays that varied in the dynamics of multiple features (e.g., auditory loudness and pitch; visual luminance, color, size, motion, and organization) across multiple time scales. Auditory activity (monitored using auditory steady-state responses, ASSR) was selectively reduced in the left hemisphere when the music and dynamic visual displays were temporally misaligned. Importantly, ASSR was not affected when attentional engagement with the music was reduced, or when visual displays presented dynamics clearly dissimilar to the music. These results appear to suggest that left-lateralized auditory mechanisms are sensitive to auditory-visual temporal alignment, but perhaps only when the dynamics of auditory and visual streams are similar. These mechanisms may contribute to correct auditory-visual binding in a busy sensory environment. PMID:24194873

  1. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii cortico-(collicular-olivocochlear and (iii cortico-(collicular-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the olivocochlear reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on cochlear nucleus, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed.

  2. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate that blocking ongoing auditory-cortex activity with pharmacological and physical methods modulates the amplitude of cochlear potentials. In addition, auditory-cortex microstimulation independently modulates cochlear sensitivity and the strength of the OC reflex. In this mini-review, anatomical and physiological evidence supporting the presence of a functional efferent network from the auditory cortex to the cochlear receptor is presented. Special emphasis is given to the corticofugal effects on initial auditory processing, that is, on CN, auditory nerve and cochlear responses. A working model of three parallel pathways from the auditory cortex to the cochlea and auditory nerve is proposed. PMID:26483647

  3. Auditory-Verbal Comprehension Development of 2-5 Year Old Normal Persian Speaking Children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Understanding and defining developmental norms of auditory comprehension is a necessity for detecting auditory-verbal comprehension impairments in children. We hereby investigated lexical auditory development of Persian (Farsi speaking children.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, auditory comprehension of four 2-5 year old normal children of adult’s child-directed utterance at available nurseries was observed by researchers primarily to gain a great number of comprehendible words for the children of the same age. The words were classified into nouns, verbs and adjectives. Auditory-verbal comprehension task items were also considered in 2 sections of subordinates and superordinates auditory comprehension. Colored pictures were provided for each item. Thirty 2-5 year old normal children were randomly selected from nurseries all over Tehran. Children were tested by this task and subsequently, mean of their correct response were analyzed. Results: The findings revealed that there is a high positive correlation between auditory-verbal comprehension and age (r=0.804, p=0.001. Comparing children in 3 age groups of 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 year old, showed that subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension of the former group is significantly lower (p0.05, while the difference between subordinate and superordinate auditory comprehension was significant in all age groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: Auditory-verbal comprehension develop much faster at lower than older ages and there is no prominent difference between word linguistic classes including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Slower development of superordinate auditory comprehension implies semantic hierarchical evolution of words.

  4. Auditory profile and high resolution CT scan in autism spectrum disorders children with auditory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Elsaeid M; Zaghloul, Hesham S

    2013-08-01

    Autism is the third most common developmental disorder, following mental retardationand cerebral palsy. ASD children have been described more often as beingpreoccupied with or agitated by noise. The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence and clinical significance of semicircular canal dehiscence detected on CTimages in ASD children with intolerance to loud sounds in an attempt to find ananatomical correlate with hyperacusis.14 ASD children with auditory hypersensitivity and 15 ASD children without auditoryhypersensitivity as control group age and gender matched were submitted to historytaking, otological examination, tympanometry and acoustic reflex thresholdmeasurement. ABR was done to validate normal peripheral hearing and integrity ofauditory brain stem pathway. High resolution CT scan petrous and temporal boneimaging was performed to all participated children. All participants had normal hearingsensitivity in ABR testing. Absolute ABR peak waves of I and III showed no statisticallysignificant difference between the two groups, while absolute wave V peak andinterpeak latencies I-V and III-V were shorter in duration in study group whencompared to the control group. CT scans revealed SSCD in 4 out of 14 of the studygroup (29%), the dehiscence was bilateral in one patient and unilateral in threepatients. None of control group showed SSCD. In conclusion, we have reportedevidence that apparent hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli (short conduction time in ABR) despite the normal physiological measures in ASD children with auditoryhypersensitivity can provide a clinical clue of a possible SSCD. PMID:23580033

  5. Auditory hallucinations suppressed by etizolam in a patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, F; Mazzoli, M; Rossi, E

    1993-10-01

    A patient presented with a 15 year history of schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations. Though unresponsive to prolonged trials of neuroleptics, the auditory hallucinations disappeared with etizolam. PMID:7902201

  6. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  7. Classification of Underwater Target Echoes Based on Auditory Perception Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiukun Li; Xiangxia Meng; Hang Liu; Mingye Liu

    2014-01-01

    In underwater target detection, the bottom reverberation has some of the same properties as the target echo, which has a great impact on the performance. It is essential to study the difference between target echo and reverberation. In this paper, based on the unique advantage of human listening ability on objects distinction, the Gammatone filter is taken as the auditory model. In addition, time-frequency perception features and auditory spectral features are extracted for active sonar target echo and bottom reverberation separation. The features of the experimental data have good concentration characteristics in the same class and have a large amount of differences between different classes, which shows that this method can effectively distinguish between the target echo and reverberation.

  8. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  9. Auditory brainstem response in dolphins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway, S. H.; Bullock, T H; Carder, D.A.; Seeley, R L; Woods, D.; Galambos, R

    1981-01-01

    We recorded the auditory brainstem response (ABR) in four dolphins (Tursiops truncatus and Delphinus delphis). The ABR evoked by clicks consists of seven waves within 10 msec; two waves often contain dual peaks. The main waves can be identified with those of humans and laboratory mammals; in spite of a much longer path, the latencies of the peaks are almost identical to those of the rat. The dolphin ABR waves increase in latency as the intensity of a sound decreases by only 4 microseconds/dec...

  10. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  11. Direct Viewing of Dyslexics' Compensatory Strategies in Speech in Noise Using Auditory Classification Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnet, Léo; Meunier, Fanny; Trollé, Gwendoline; Hoen, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of dyslexic children exhibit a phonological deficit, particularly noticeable in phonemic identification or discrimination tasks. The gap in performance between dyslexic and normotypical listeners appears to decrease into adulthood, suggesting that some individuals with dyslexia develop compensatory strategies. Some dyslexic adults however remain impaired in more challenging listening situations such as in the presence of background noise. This paper addresses the question of the compensatory strategies employed, using the recently developed Auditory Classification Image (ACI) methodology. The results of 18 dyslexics taking part in a phoneme categorization task in noise were compared with those of 18 normotypical age-matched controls. By fitting a penalized Generalized Linear Model on the data of each participant, we obtained his/her ACI, a map of the time-frequency regions he/she relied on to perform the task. Even though dyslexics performed significantly less well than controls, we were unable to detect a robust difference between the mean ACIs of the two groups. This is partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in listening strategies among a subgroup of 7 low-performing dyslexics, as confirmed by a complementary analysis. When excluding these participants to restrict our comparison to the 11 dyslexics performing as well as their average-reading peers, we found a significant difference in the F3 onset of the first syllable, and a tendency of difference on the F4 onset, suggesting that these listeners can compensate for their deficit by relying upon additional allophonic cues. PMID:27100662

  12. Direct Viewing of Dyslexics’ Compensatory Strategies in Speech in Noise Using Auditory Classification Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnet, Léo; Meunier, Fanny; Trollé, Gwendoline; Hoen, Michel

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of dyslexic children exhibit a phonological deficit, particularly noticeable in phonemic identification or discrimination tasks. The gap in performance between dyslexic and normotypical listeners appears to decrease into adulthood, suggesting that some individuals with dyslexia develop compensatory strategies. Some dyslexic adults however remain impaired in more challenging listening situations such as in the presence of background noise. This paper addresses the question of the compensatory strategies employed, using the recently developed Auditory Classification Image (ACI) methodology. The results of 18 dyslexics taking part in a phoneme categorization task in noise were compared with those of 18 normotypical age-matched controls. By fitting a penalized Generalized Linear Model on the data of each participant, we obtained his/her ACI, a map of the time-frequency regions he/she relied on to perform the task. Even though dyslexics performed significantly less well than controls, we were unable to detect a robust difference between the mean ACIs of the two groups. This is partly due to the considerable heterogeneity in listening strategies among a subgroup of 7 low-performing dyslexics, as confirmed by a complementary analysis. When excluding these participants to restrict our comparison to the 11 dyslexics performing as well as their average-reading peers, we found a significant difference in the F3 onset of the first syllable, and a tendency of difference on the F4 onset, suggesting that these listeners can compensate for their deficit by relying upon additional allophonic cues. PMID:27100662

  13. Hearing aid fitting results in a case of a patient with auditory neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell´Aringa, Ana Helena Bannwart

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Auditory Neuropathy is described recently as a hearing loss characterized by the preservation of outer hair cells and absence of auditory brainstem responses. Objective: To present a case report of hearing aid fitting in a patient with Auditory Neuropathy. Case Report: S.A.P., male, 32 years old, sought the Otorhinolaryngology Service after five years of Guillain-Barré syndrome, complaining of progressive and bilateral tinnitus auditory loss in both ears. The audiological evaluation resulted in: severe sensorioneural hearing deficiency with bilateral irregular configuration; speech recognition rate of 0% and speech detection rate in 35dB in both ears; type A tympanometric curve and absent ipsilateral, bilateral and contralateral reflexes; absence of waves and presence of cochlear microphonics in both ears in the auditory evoked potential and present bilateral distortion product-evoked otoacoustic emissions. The speech perception test was performed with polysyllabic words and lip reading, and presented 44% of hit with hearing aid and 12% without it. Final Comments: Despite the differences in the process of hearing aid habilitation and rehabilitation, we conclude that sound amplification brought benefits to the patient with auditory neuropathy.

  14. Validity and rater reliability of Persian version of the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Salary Majd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory-perceptual assessment of voice a main approach in the diagnosis and therapy improvement of voice disorders. Despite, there are few Iranian studies about auditory-perceptual assessment of voice. The aim of present study was development and determination of validity and rater reliability of Persian version of the Consensus Auditory Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE -V.Methods: The qualitative content validity was detected by collecting 10 questionnaires from 9 experienced speech and language pathologists and a linguist. For reliability purposes, the voice samples of 40 dysphonic (neurogenic, functional with and without laryngeal lesions adults (20-45 years of age and 10 normal healthy speakers were recorded. The samples included sustain of vowels and reading the 6 sentences of Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice called the ATSHA.Results: The qualitative content validity was proved for developed Persian version of the consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice. Cronbach’s alpha was high (0.95. Intra-rater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.86 for overall severity to 0.42 for pitch; inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.85 for overall severity to 0.32 for pitch (p<0.05.Conclusion: The ATSHA can be used as a valid and reliable Persian scale for auditory perceptual assessment of voice in adults.

  15. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality. PMID:25368587

  16. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLATE ON AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AMPLITWDE FROM THE AUDITORY CORTEX AND AUDITORY BRAINSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Sawka; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus has often been studied using salicylate in animal models as they are capable of inducing tempo-rary hearing loss and tinnitus. Studies have recently observed enhancement of auditory evoked responses of the auditory cortex (AC) post salicylate treatment which is also shown to be related to tinnitus like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to observe if enhancements of the AC post salicylate treatment are also present at structures in the brainstem. Four male Sprague Dawley rats with AC implanted electrodes were tested for both AC and auditory brainstem response (ABR) recordings pre and post 250 mg/kg intraperitone-al injections of salicylate. The responses were recorded as the peak to trough amplitudes of P1-N1 (AC), ABR wave V, and ABR waveⅡ. AC responses resulted in statistically significant enhancement of ampli-tude at 2 hours post salicylate with 90 dB stimuli tone bursts of 4, 8, 12, and 20 kHz. Wave V of ABR re-sponses at 90 dB resulted in a statistically significant reduction of amplitude 2 hours post salicylate and a mean decrease of amplitude of 31%for 16 kHz. WaveⅡamplitudes at 2 hours post treatment were signifi-cantly reduced for 4, 12, and 20 kHz stimuli at 90 dB SPL. Our results suggest that the enhancement chang-es of the AC related to salicylate induced tinnitus are generated superior to the level of the inferior colliculus and may originate in the AC.

  18. Large-Scale Analysis of Auditory Segregation Behavior Crowdsourced via a Smartphone App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The human auditory system is adept at detecting sound sources of interest from a complex mixture of several other simultaneous sounds. The ability to selectively attend to the speech of one speaker whilst ignoring other speakers and background noise is of vital biological significance-the capacity to make sense of complex 'auditory scenes' is significantly impaired in aging populations as well as those with hearing loss. We investigated this problem by designing a synthetic signal, termed the 'stochastic figure-ground' stimulus that captures essential aspects of complex sounds in the natural environment. Previously, we showed that under controlled laboratory conditions, young listeners sampled from the university subject pool (n = 10) performed very well in detecting targets embedded in the stochastic figure-ground signal. Here, we presented a modified version of this cocktail party paradigm as a 'game' featured in a smartphone app (The Great Brain Experiment) and obtained data from a large population with diverse demographical patterns (n = 5148). Despite differences in paradigms and experimental settings, the observed target-detection performance by users of the app was robust and consistent with our previous results from the psychophysical study. Our results highlight the potential use of smartphone apps in capturing robust large-scale auditory behavioral data from normal healthy volunteers, which can also be extended to study auditory deficits in clinical populations with hearing impairments and central auditory disorders. PMID:27096165

  19. Hearing Mechanisms and Noise Metrics Related to Auditory Masking in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branstetter, Brian K; Bakhtiari, Kimberly L; Trickey, Jennifer S; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Odontocete cetaceans are acoustic specialists that depend on sound to hunt, forage, navigate, detect predators, and communicate. Auditory masking from natural and anthropogenic sound sources may adversely affect these fitness-related capabilities. The ability to detect a tone in a broad range of natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise was tested with bottlenose dolphins using a psychophysical, band-widening procedure. Diverging masking patterns were found for noise bandwidths greater than the width of an auditory filter. Despite different noise types having equal-pressure spectral-density levels (95 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz), masked detection threshold differences were as large as 22 dB. Consecutive experiments indicated that noise types with increased levels of amplitude modulation resulted in comodulation masking release due to within-channel and across-channel auditory mechanisms. The degree to which noise types were comodulated (comodulation index) was assessed by calculating the magnitude-squared coherence between the temporal envelope from an auditory filter centered on the signal and temporal envelopes from flanking filters. Statistical models indicate that masked thresholds in a variety of noise types, at a variety of levels, can be explained with metrics related to the comodulation index in addition to the pressure spectral-density level of noise. This study suggests that predicting auditory masking from ocean noise sources depends on both spectral and temporal properties of the noise. PMID:26610950

  20. Large-Scale Analysis of Auditory Segregation Behavior Crowdsourced via a Smartphone App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    The human auditory system is adept at detecting sound sources of interest from a complex mixture of several other simultaneous sounds. The ability to selectively attend to the speech of one speaker whilst ignoring other speakers and background noise is of vital biological significance—the capacity to make sense of complex ‘auditory scenes’ is significantly impaired in aging populations as well as those with hearing loss. We investigated this problem by designing a synthetic signal, termed the ‘stochastic figure-ground’ stimulus that captures essential aspects of complex sounds in the natural environment. Previously, we showed that under controlled laboratory conditions, young listeners sampled from the university subject pool (n = 10) performed very well in detecting targets embedded in the stochastic figure-ground signal. Here, we presented a modified version of this cocktail party paradigm as a ‘game’ featured in a smartphone app (The Great Brain Experiment) and obtained data from a large population with diverse demographical patterns (n = 5148). Despite differences in paradigms and experimental settings, the observed target-detection performance by users of the app was robust and consistent with our previous results from the psychophysical study. Our results highlight the potential use of smartphone apps in capturing robust large-scale auditory behavioral data from normal healthy volunteers, which can also be extended to study auditory deficits in clinical populations with hearing impairments and central auditory disorders. PMID:27096165

  1. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, H. P.; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 1 (2016), s. 617-629. ISSN 1863-2653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/11/J005; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1347; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : noise exposure * critical period * central auditory system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.618, year: 2014

  2. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation. PMID:21413843

  3. The 0.5-2.22-micron Scattered Light Spectrum of the Disk Around TW Hya: Detection of a Partially Filled Disk Gap at 80 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Debes, J H; Weinberger, A J; Roberge, A; Schneider, G

    2013-01-01

    We present a 0.5-2.2 micron scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved HST STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. We investigate the morphology of the disk at distances > 40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths, and identify the presence of a depression in surface brightness at ~80 AU that could be caused by a gap in the disk. Additionally, we quantify the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. Our analysis shows that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue over the observed wavelengths. We model the disk as a steady alpha-disk with an ad hoc gap structure. The thermal properties of the disk are self-consistently calculated using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that uses ray-tracing to model the heating of the disk interior and scattered light images. We find a good fit to the data over a wide range of distances from the star...

  4. Omnidirectional Measurements of Angle-Resolved Heat Capacity for Complete Detection of Superconducting Gap Structure in the Heavy-Fermion Antiferromagnet UPd_{2}Al_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusei; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Tsutsumi, Yasumasa; Nomoto, Takuya; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Machida, Kazushige; Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai

    2016-07-15

    Quasiparticle excitations in UPd_{2}Al_{3} were studied by means of heat-capacity (C) measurements under rotating magnetic fields using a high-quality single crystal. The field dependence shows C(H)∝H^{1/2}-like behavior at low temperatures for both two hexagonal crystal axes, i.e., H∥[0001] (c axis) and H∥[112[over ¯]0] (a axis), suggesting the presence of nodal quasiparticle excitations from heavy bands. At low temperatures, the polar-angle (θ) dependence of C exhibits a maximum along H∥[0001] with a twofold symmetric oscillation below 0.5 T, and an unusual shoulder or hump anomaly has been found around 30°-60° from the c axis in C(θ) at intermediate fields (1≲μ_{0}H≲2  T). These behaviors in UPd_{2}Al_{3} purely come from the superconducting nodal quasiparticle excitations, and can be successfully reproduced by theoretical calculations assuming the gap symmetry with a horizontal linear line node. We demonstrate the whole angle-resolved heat-capacity measurements done here as a novel spectroscopic method for nodal gap determination, which can be applied to other exotic superconductors. PMID:27472129

  5. Between the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    McDevitt, Mary Jean

    2009-01-01

    The reveal is an important architectural element. In many buildings, reveals define transitions between dissimilar materials, textures, finishes or planes. A reveal can also be thought of as a gap. Webster's dictionary defines a gap as "an opening made by breaking or parting." Often the word "gap" is associated with a deficiency or failure, but a gap similar to a reveal, can be intentional and essential to the success of a building. The visually impaired experience a "gap" with the sight...

  6. A Comparison of Three Auditory Discrimination-Perception Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenke, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between scores of 52 third graders on three measures of auditory discrimination: Wepman's Auditory Discrimination Test, the Goldman-Fristoe Woodcock (GFW) Test of Auditory Discrimination, and the Kimmell-Wahl Screening Test of Auditory Perception (STAP). (CL)

  7. Rapid context-based identification of target sounds in an auditory scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Marissa L.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2015-01-01

    To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. While it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff (2014) recently reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented, auditory scene. They reported an early, differential, bilateral activation (beginning ~60 ms) between feature-deviating Target stimuli and physically equivalent feature-deviating Nontargets, reflecting a rapid Target-detection process. This was followed shortly later (~130 ms) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, reflecting the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the Target sound and paralleling attentional-shifting processes widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the early, bilateral, Target-selective effect to better understand its nature and functional role. Participants listened to midline-presented sounds that included Target and Nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a template for the Target that utilizes its feature deviancy within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover, individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this effect was larger for subjects with faster response times. The findings support the hypothesis that our auditory attentional systems can implement and utilize a context-based relational template for a Target sound, making use of additional auditory information in the environment when needing to rapidly detect a relevant sound. PMID:25848684

  8. Investigating the role of visual and auditory search in reading and developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eLallier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that auditory and visual sequential processing deficits contribute to phonological disorders in developmental dyslexia. As an alternative explanation to a phonological deficit as the proximal cause for reading disorders, the visual attention span hypothesis (VA Span suggests that difficulties in processing visual elements simultaneously lead to dyslexia, regardless of the presence of a phonological disorder. In this study, we assessed whether deficits in processing simultaneously displayed visual or auditory elements is linked to dyslexia associated with a VA Span impairment. Sixteen children with developmental dyslexia and 16 age-matched skilled readers were assessed on visual and auditory search tasks. Participants were asked to detect a target presented simultaneously with 3, 9 or 15 distracters. In the visual modality, target detection was slower in the dyslexic children than in the control group on a serial search condition only: the intercepts (but not the slopes of the search functions were higher in the dyslexic group than in the control group. In the auditory modality, although no group difference was observed, search performance was influenced by the number of distracters in the control group only. Within the dyslexic group, not only poor visual search (high reaction times and intercepts but also low auditory search performance (d´ strongly correlated with poor irregular word reading accuracy. Moreover, both visual and auditory search performance was associated with the VA Span abilities of dyslexic participants but not with their phonological skills. The present data suggests that some visual mechanisms engaged in serial search contribute to reading and orthographic knowledge via VA Span skills regardless of phonological skills. The present results further open the question of the role of auditory simultaneous processing in reading as well as its link with VA Span skills.

  9. Idea Gaps, Object Gaps, and Trust Gaps in Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.

    1995-01-01

    Growth theory emphasizes capital accumulation and technological change or, as Romer [1993] describes them, idea gaps and object gaps. This paper makes the case for a third and final crucial element: trust. Trust has both direct effects on the process of economic development, especially in facilitating increased exchange, and indirect effects through its influence on incentives to investment in human and physical capital (objects) and to the acquisition and processing of knowledge (ideas). Int...

  10. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow during auditory cognitive tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the relation between auditory cognitive function and regional brain activation, we measured the changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) during the 'odd-ball' paradigm in ten normal healthy volunteers. The subjects underwent 3 tasks, twice for each, while the evoked potential was recorded. In these tasks, the auditory stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB from the earphones. Task A: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to only hear. Task B: the stimulus was a series of tones with 1000 Hz only, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a tone. Task C: the stimulus was a series of pure tones delivered every 1.5 sec binaurally at 75 dB with a frequency of 1000 Hz (non-target) in 80% and 2000 Hz (target) in 20% at random, and the subject was instructed to push the button on detecting a target tone. The event related potential (P300) was observed in task C (Pz: 334.3±19.6 msec). At each task, the CBF was measured using PET with i.v. injection of 1.5 GBq of O-15 water. The changes in CBF associated with auditory cognition was evaluated by the difference between the CBF images in task C and B. Localized increase was observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (in all subjects), the bilateral associate auditory cortex, the prefrontal cortex and the parietal cortex. The latter three areas had a large individual variation in the location of foci. These results suggested the role of those cortical areas in auditory cognition. The anterior cingulate was most activated (15.0±2.24% of global CBF). This region was not activated in the condition of task B minus task A. The anterior cingulate is a part of Papez's circuit that is related to memory and other higher cortical function. These results suggested that this area may play an important role in cognition as well as in attention. (author)

  11. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope for future clinical studies

  12. Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony in Biotinidase Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghini, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a disorder inherited autosomal recessively showing evidence of hearing loss and optic atrophy in addition to seizures, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the present study, a 2-year-old boy with Biotinidase deficiency is presented in which clinical symptoms have been reported with auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). In this case, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions showed bilaterally normal responses representing normal function of outer hair cells. In contrast, acoustic reflex test showed absent reflexes bilaterally, and visual reinforcement audiometry and auditory brainstem responses indicated severe to profound hearing loss in both ears. These results suggest AN/AD in patients with Biotinidase deficiency. PMID:27144235

  13. Functional Neurochemistry of the Auditory System

    OpenAIRE

    Nourollah Agha Ebrahimi

    1993-01-01

    Functional Neurochemistry is one of the fields of studies in the auditory system which has had an outstanding development in the recent years. Many of the findings in the mentioned field had led not only the basic auditory researches but also the clinicians to new points of view in audiology.Here, we are aimed at discussing the latest investigations in the Functional Neurochemistry of the auditory system and have focused this review mainly on the researches which will arise flashes of hope f...

  14. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  15. Physiological Measures of Auditory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Riedel, Helmut; Mauermann, Manfred; Uppenkamp, Stefan

    When acoustic signals enter the ears, they pass several processing stages of various complexities before they will be perceived. The auditory pathway can be separated into structures dealing with sound transmission in air (i.e. the outer ear, ear canal, and the vibration of tympanic membrane), structures dealing with the transformation of sound pressure waves into mechanical vibrations of the inner ear fluids (i.e. the tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, and the oval window), structures carrying mechanical vibrations in the fluid-filled inner ear (i.e. the cochlea with basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, and hair cells), structures that transform mechanical oscillations into a neural code, and finally several stages of neural processing in the brain along the pathway from the brainstem to the cortex.

  16. Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Jung

    Full Text Available Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs, reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.

  17. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  18. Seeing the Song: Left Auditory Structures May Track Auditory-Visual Dynamic Alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Mossbridge, Julia A.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Auditory and visual signals generated by a single source tend to be temporally correlated, such as the synchronous sounds of footsteps and the limb movements of a walker. Continuous tracking and comparison of the dynamics of auditory-visual streams is thus useful for the perceptual binding of information arising from a common source. Although language-related mechanisms have been implicated in the tracking of speech-related auditory-visual signals (e.g., speech sounds and lip movements), it i...

  19. AUDITORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY: DOES IT PROVIDE EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PROCESSING IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX?

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Dexter R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen substantial changes in our view of the nature of the processing carried out in auditory cortex. Some processing of a cognitive nature, previously attributed to higher order “association” areas, is now considered to take place in auditory cortex itself. One argument adduced in support of this view is the evidence indicating a remarkable degree of plasticity in the auditory cortex of adult animals. Such plasticity has been demonstrated in a wide range of paradigms, i...

  20. Auditory place theory and frequency difference limen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jialu

    2006-01-01

    It has been a barrier that the place code is far too coarse a mechanism to account for the finest frequency difference limen for place theory of hearing since it was proposed in 19th century. A place correlation model, which takes the energy distribution of a pure tone in neighboring bands of auditory filters into full account, was presented in this paper. The model based on the place theory and some experimental results of the psychophysical tuning curves of hearing can explain the finest difference limen for frequency (about 0.02 or 0.3% at 1000 Hz)easily. Using a standard 1/3 octave filter bank of which the relationship between the frequency of a input pure tone apart from the centre frequency of K-th filter band, △f, and the output intensity difference between K-th and (K + 1)-th filters, △E, was established in order to show the fine frequency detection ability of the filter bank. This model can also be used to abstract the fundamental frequency of speech and to measure the frequency of pure tone precisely.

  1. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken W.

    2005-04-01

    In many everyday listening environments, speech communication involves the integration of both acoustic and visual speech cues. This is especially true in noisy and reverberant environments where the speech signal is highly degraded, or when the listener has a hearing impairment. Understanding the mechanisms involved in auditory-visual integration is a primary interest of this work. Of particular interest is whether listeners are able to allocate their attention to various frequency regions of the speech signal differently under auditory-visual conditions and auditory-alone conditions. For auditory speech recognition, the most important frequency regions tend to be around 1500-3000 Hz, corresponding roughly to important acoustic cues for place of articulation. The purpose of this study is to determine the most important frequency region under auditory-visual speech conditions. Frequency band-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions were obtained by having subjects identify speech tokens under conditions where the speech-to-noise ratio of different parts of the speech spectrum is independently and randomly varied on every trial. Point biserial correlations were computed for each separate spectral region and the normalized correlations are interpreted as weights indicating the importance of each region. Relations among frequency-importance functions for auditory and auditory-visual conditions will be discussed.

  2. Auditory Neural Prostheses – A Window to the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kameshwaran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies to affect children world-over. The incidence of congenital hearing loss is more pronounced in developing countries like the Indian sub-continent, especially with the problems of consanguinity. Hearing loss is a double tragedy, as it leads to not only deafness but also language deprivation. However, hearing loss is the only truly remediable handicap, due to remarkable advances in biomedical engineering and surgical techniques. Auditory neural prostheses help to augment or restore hearing by integration of an external circuitry with the peripheral hearing apparatus and the central circuitry of the brain. A cochlear implant (CI is a surgically implantable device that helps restore hearing in patients with severe-profound hearing loss, unresponsive to amplification by conventional hearing aids. CIs are electronic devices designed to detect mechanical sound energy and convert it into electrical signals that can be delivered to the coch­lear nerve, bypassing the damaged hair cells of the coch­lea. The only true prerequisite is an intact auditory nerve. The emphasis is on implantation as early as possible to maximize speech understanding and perception. Bilateral CI has significant benefits which include improved speech perception in noisy environments and improved sound localization. Presently, the indications for CI have widened and these expanded indications for implantation are related to age, additional handicaps, residual hearing, and special etiologies of deafness. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS / hybrid device is designed for individuals with binaural low-frequency hearing and severe-to-profound high-frequency hearing loss. Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI is a safe and effective means of hearing rehabilitation in patients with retrocochlear disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 or congenital cochlear nerve aplasia, wherein the cochlear nerve is damaged

  3. In search of an auditory engram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that monkeys may be unable to place representations of auditory stimuli into a long-term store and thus question whether the monkey's cerebral memory mechanisms in audition are intrinsically different from those in other sensory modalities. Furthermore, it raises the possibility that language is unique to humans not only because it depends on speech but also because it requires long-term auditory memory. PMID:15967995

  4. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  5. Auditory filters at low-frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Prediction and assessment of low-frequency noise problems requires information about the auditory filter characteristics at low-frequencies. Unfortunately, data at low-frequencies is scarce and practically no results have been published for frequencies below 100 Hz. Extrapolation of ERB results...... from previous studies suggests the filter bandwidth keeps decreasing below 100 Hz, although at a relatively lower rate than at higher frequencies. Main characteristics of the auditory filter were studied from below 100 Hz up to 1000 Hz. Center frequencies evaluated were 50, 63, 125, 250, 500, and 1000......-ear transfer function), the asymmetry of the auditory filter changed from steeper high-frequency slopes at 1000 Hz to steeper low-frequency slopes below 100 Hz. Increasing steepness at low-frequencies of the middle-ear high-pass filter is thought to cause this effect. The dynamic range of the auditory filter...

  6. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  7. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArjenAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  8. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  9. A tunnel and a traffic jam: How transition disks maintain a detectable warm dust component despite the presence of a large planet-carved gap

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, Paola; Birnstiel, Tilman; Benisty, Myriam; Dominik, Carsten; Dullemond, Cornelis P

    2016-01-01

    We combined hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with dust evolution models that include coagulation and fragmentation of dust grains over a large range of radii and derived observational properties using radiative transfer calculations. We studied the role of the snow line in the survival of the inner disk of transition disks. Inside the snow line, the lack of ice mantles in dust particles decreases the sticking efficiency between grains. As a consequence, particles fragment at lower collision velocities than in regions beyond the snow line. This effect allows small particles to be maintained for up to a few Myrs within the first astronomical unit. These particles are closely coupled to the gas and do not drift significantly with respect to the gas. For lower mass planets (1$M_{\\rm{Jup}}$), the pre-transition appearance can be maintained even longer because dust still trickles through the gap created by the planet, moves invisibly and quickly in the form of relatively large grains through t...

  10. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Delano, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body (MGB), inferior colliculus (IC), cochlear nucleus (CN) and superior olivary complex (SOC) reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear (OC) fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular; (ii) cortico-(collicular)-OC; and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-CN pathways. Recent experiments demonstr...

  11. Corticofugal modulation of peripheral auditory responses

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Hinckley Delano

    2015-01-01

    The auditory efferent system originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the medial geniculate body, inferior colliculus, cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex reaching the cochlea through olivocochlear fibers. This unique neuronal network is organized in several afferent-efferent feedback loops including: the (i) colliculo-thalamic-cortico-collicular, (ii) cortico-(collicular)-olivocochlear and (iii) cortico-(collicular)-cochlear nucleus pathways. Recent experiments demonstrate...

  12. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  13. Music perception, pitch, and the auditory system

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Josh H.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of music depends on many culture-specific factors, but is also constrained by properties of the auditory system. This has been best characterized for those aspects of music that involve pitch. Pitch sequences are heard in terms of relative, as well as absolute, pitch. Pitch combinations give rise to emergent properties not present in the component notes. In this review we discuss the basic auditory mechanisms contributing to these and other perceptual effects in music.

  14. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between ...

  15. Assessing the development gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sinitsina, Irina; Chubrik, Alexander; Denisova, Irina; Dubrovskiy, Vladimir; Kartseva, Marina; Makenbaeva, Irina; Rokicka, Magdalena; Tokmazishvili, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Current report aims to identify major existing gaps in the four socio-economic dimensions (economic, human, environmental, and institutional) and to reveal those gaps which could potentially hinder social and economic integration of neighbor states with the EU. To achieve this, the authors aim to assess the existing trends in the size of the gaps across countries and problem areas, taking into consideration the specific origin of the gap between EU15/EU12, on the one hand, and FSU republics, ...

  16. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  17. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  18. Educational Testing of an Auditory Display of Mars Gamma Ray Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Pompea, S. M.; Prather, E. E.; Slater, T. F.; Boynton, W. V.; Enos, H. L.; Quinn, M.

    2003-12-01

    A unique, alternative educational and public outreach product was created to investigate the use and effectiveness of auditory displays in science education. The product, which allows students to both visualize and hear seasonal variations in data detected by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, consists of an animation of false-color maps of hydrogen concentrations on Mars along with a musical presentation, or sonification, of the same data. Learners can access this data using the visual false-color animation, the auditory false-pitch sonification, or both. Central to the development of this product is the question of its educational effectiveness and implementation. During the spring 2003 semester, three sections of an introductory astronomy course, each with ˜100 non-science undergraduates, were presented with one of three different exposures to GRS hydrogen data: one auditory, one visual, and one both auditory and visual. Student achievement data was collected through use of multiple-choice and open-ended surveys administered before, immediately following, and three and six weeks following the experiment. It was found that the three student groups performed equally well in their ability to perceive and interpret the data presented. Additionally, student groups exposed to the auditory display reported a higher interest and engagement level than the student group exposed to the visual data alone. Based upon this preliminary testing,we have made improvements to both the educational product and our evaluation protocol. This fall, we will conduct further testing with ˜100 additional students, half receiving auditory data and half receiving visual data, and we will conduct interviews with individual students as they interface with the auditory display. Through this process, we hope to further assess both learning and engagement gains associated with alternative and multi-modal representations of scientific data that extend beyond

  19. Antideuteron Sensitivity for the GAPS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aramaki, T; Boggs, S E; von Doetinchem, P; Fuke, H; Mognet, S I; Ong, R A; Perez, K; Zweerink, J

    2015-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) is a novel approach for indirect dark matter searches that exploits cosmic antiparticles, especially antideuterons. The GAPS antideuteron measurement utilizes distinctive detection methods using atomic X-rays and charged particles from the decay of exotic atoms as well as the timing and stopping range of the incoming particle, which together provide excellent antideuteron identification. Prior to the future balloon experiment, an accelerator test and a prototype flight were successfully conducted in 2005 and 2012 respectively, in order to verify the GAPS detection concept. This paper describes how the sensitivity of GAPS to antideuterons was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation along with the atomic cascade model and the Intra-Nuclear Cascade model. The sensitivity for the GAPS antideuteron search obtained using this method is 2.0 $\\times 10^{-6}$ [m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$sr$^{-1}$(GeV/$n$)$^{-1}$] for the proposed long duration balloon program (LDB, 35 days $\\times$ 3...

  20. Auditory Habituation in the Fetus and Neonate: An fMEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenssinger, Jana; Matuz, Tamara; Schleger, Franziska; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Goelz, Rangmar; Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Birbaumer, Niels; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Habituation--the most basic form of learning--is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An…

  1. Studying Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Hearing and Auditory Scene Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceptual detection of near-threshold auditory events may depend on the relative timing of the event and ongoing brain oscillations. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), a non-invasive and silent brain stimulation technique, can entrain co

  2. A loudspeaker-based room auralization system for auditory perception research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    system provides a flexible research platform for conducting auditory experiments with normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and aided hearing-impaired listeners in a fully controlled and realistic environment. This includes measures of basic auditory function (e.g., signal detection, distance perception) and...... measures of speech intelligibility. A battery of objective tests (e.g., reverberation time, clarity, interaural correlation coefficient) and subjective tests (e.g., speech reception thresholds) is presented that demonstrates the applicability of the LoRA system....

  3. Age differences in visual-auditory self-motion perception during a simulated driving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRamkhalawansingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that visual-auditory cue integration may change as a function of age such that integration is heightened among older adults. Our goal was to determine whether these changes in multisensory integration are also observed in the context of self-motion perception under realistic task constraints. Thus, we developed a simulated driving paradigm in which we provided older and younger adults with visual motion cues (i.e. optic flow and systematically manipulated the presence or absence of congruent auditory cues to self-motion (i.e. engine, tire, and wind sounds. Results demonstrated that the presence or absence of congruent auditory input had different effects on older and younger adults. Both age groups demonstrated a reduction in speed variability when auditory cues were present compared to when they were absent, but older adults demonstrated a proportionally greater reduction in speed variability under combined sensory conditions. These results are consistent with evidence indicating that multisensory integration is heightened in older adults. Importantly, this study is the first to provide evidence to suggest that age differences in multisensory integration may generalize from simple stimulus detection tasks to the integration of the more complex and dynamic visual and auditory cues that are experienced during self-motion.

  4. Neuronal connectivity and interactions between the auditory and limbic systems. Effects of noise and tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Kari Suzanne; Canlon, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic experience such as sound, noise, or absence of sound induces structural or functional changes in the central auditory system but can also affect limbic regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. The amygdala is particularly sensitive to sound with valence or meaning, such as vocalizations, crying or music. The amygdala plays a central role in auditory fear conditioning, regulation of the acoustic startle response and can modulate auditory cortex plasticity. A stressful acoustic stimulus, such as noise, causes amygdala-mediated release of stress hormones via the HPA-axis, which may have negative effects on health, as well as on the central nervous system. On the contrary, short-term exposure to stress hormones elicits positive effects such as hearing protection. The hippocampus can affect auditory processing by adding a temporal dimension, as well as being able to mediate novelty detection via theta wave phase-locking. Noise exposure affects hippocampal neurogenesis and LTP in a manner that affects structural plasticity, learning and memory. Tinnitus, typically induced by hearing malfunctions, is associated with emotional stress, depression and anatomical changes of the hippocampus. In turn, the limbic system may play a role in the generation as well as the suppression of tinnitus indicating that the limbic system may be essential for tinnitus treatment. A further understanding of auditory-limbic interactions will contribute to future treatment strategies of tinnitus and noise trauma. PMID:22440225

  5. Biocompatibility and preliminary clinical application of HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shai-hong; WANG Guo-hui; ZHAO Yan-zhong; QI You-fei; ZHOU Ke-chao; HUANG Su-ping; LI Zhi-you; HUANG Bai-yun

    2006-01-01

    The biocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite/high density polyethtlene(HA/HDPE) nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle was evaluated, the percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 incubated with extraction of the HA/HDPE nanocomposites, titanium materials of clinical application as the control. Both of them were implanted in the animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out, and the preliminary clinical trials about HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicles were also carried out. The statistical analysis show that there are no statistically significant differences between HA/HDPE test groups and control groups (P>0.05), which demonstrates that the HA/HDPE nanocomposites synthetic auditory ossicle has a good biocompatibility and clinical application outlook.

  6. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  7. External auditory canal carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External auditory canal (EAC) carcinomas are relatively rare conditions lack on established treatment strategy. We analyzed a treatment modalities and outcome in 32 cases of EAC squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1980 and 2008. Subjects-17 men and 15 women ranging from 33 to 92 years old (average: 66) were divided by Arriaga's tumor staging into 12 T1, 5 T2, 6 T3, and 9 T4. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100% for T1, T2, 44% for T3, and 33% for T4. In contrast to 100% 5-year survival for T1+T2 cancer, the 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer was 37% with high recurrence due to positive surgical margins. The first 22 years of the 29 years surveyed, we performed surgery mainly, and irradiation or chemotherapy was selected for early disease or cases with positive surgical margins as postoperative therapy. During the 22-years, 5-year survival with T3+T4 cancer was 20%. After we started superselective intra-arterial (IA) rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy in 2003, we achieved negative surgical margins for advanced disease, and 5-year survival for T3+T4 cancer rise to 80%. (author)

  8. Efficacy of auditory training in elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Albuquerque Morais

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory training (AT  has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test-retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term auditory training (acoustically controlled auditory training - ACAT in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with APD received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 - E1 consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group [ACG (n=8] underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group [PCG (n=8] did not receive any intervention. After 12 weeks, the subjects were  revaluated (evaluation 2 - E2. Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12 weeks (8 training sessions, they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3. There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6=0,.6 p=0.92, λ de Wilks=0.65] or P300 [F(8.7=2.11, p=0.17, λ de Wilks=0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test-retest. A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3 for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27=0.18, p=0.94, λ de Wilks=0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  9. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  10. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians' encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies), and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies). Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning) or performing without sound (motor learning); following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall). During either Learning (Experiment 1) or Recall (Experiment 2), pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced) and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals) were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists' pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2). Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1): Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2): Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the presence of

  11. Acoustic Shadows: An Auditory Exploration of the Sense of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dufour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of auditory detection of the movements of silent objects in noisy environments. The approach to studying and exploring this phenomenon is primarily based on the framework of the ecology of perception defined by James Gibson (Gibson, 1979 in the sense that it focuses on the direct auditory perception of events, or “structured energy that specifies properties of the environment” (Michaels & Carello, 1981 P. 157. The goal of this study is triple: -Theoretical; for various reasons, this kind of acoustic situations has not been extensively studied by traditional acoustics and psychoacoustics, therefore, this project demonstrates and supports the pertinence of the Ecology of Perception for the description and explanation of such complex phenomena. -Practical; like echolocation, perception of acoustic shadows can be improved by practice, this project intends to contribute to the acknowledgment of this way of listening and to help individuals placed in noisy environments without the support of vision acquiring a detailed detection of the movements occurring in these environments. -Artistic; this project explores a new artistic expression based on the creation and exploration of complex multisensory environments. Acoustic Shadows, a multimedia interactive composition is being developed on the premises of the ecological approach to perception. The last dimension of this project is meant to be a contribution to the sonic representation of space in films and in computer generated virtual environments by producing simulations of acoustic shadows.

  12. Introduction to detection systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Presentation of the information processing pipleline for detection including discussing of various issues and the use of mathematical modeling. A simple example of detection a signal in noise illustrated that simple modeling outperforms human visual and auditory perception. Particiants are going to...

  13. Auditory Model Identification Using REVCOR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Bouafif

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory models are very useful in many applications such as speech coding and compression, cochlea prosthesis, and audio watermarking. In this paper we will develop a new auditory model based on the REVCOR method. This technique is based on the estimation of the impulse response of a suitable filter characterizing the auditory neuron and the cochlea. The first step of our study is focused on the development of a mathematical model based on the gammachirp system. This model is then programmed, implemented and simulated under Matlab. The obtained results are compared with the experimental values (REVCOR experiments for the validation and a better optimization of the model parameters. Two objective criteria are used in order to optimize the audio model estimation which are the SNR (signal to noise ratio and the MQE (mean quadratic error. The simulation results demonstrated that for the auditory model, only a reduced number of channels are excited (from 3 to 6. This result is very interesting for auditory implants because only significant channels will be stimulated. Besides, this simplifies the electronic implementation and medical intervention.

  14. Effects of Caffeine on Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleheh Soleimanian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Blocking of the adenosine receptor in central nervous system by caffeine can lead to increasing the level of neurotransmitters like glutamate. As the adenosine receptors are present in almost all brain areas like central auditory pathway, it seems caffeine can change conduction in this way. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on latency and amplitude of auditory brainstem response(ABR.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 43 normal 18-25 years old male students were participated. The subjects consumed 0, 2 and 3 mg/kg BW caffeine in three different sessions. Auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and 30 minute after caffeine consumption. The results were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxone test to assess the effects of caffeine on auditory brainstem response.Results: Compared to control group the latencies of waves III,V and I-V interpeak interval of the cases decreased significantly after 2 and 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption. Wave I latency significantly decreased after 3mg/kg BW caffeine consumption(p<0.01. Conclusion: Increasing of the glutamate level resulted from the adenosine receptor blocking brings about changes in conduction in the central auditory pathway.

  15. Asymmetric transfer of auditory perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SygalAmitay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual skills can improve dramatically even with minimal practice. A major and practical benefit of learning, however, is in transferring the improvement on the trained task to untrained tasks or stimuli, yet the mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. Reduction of internal noise has been proposed as a mechanism of perceptual learning, and while we have evidence that frequency discrimination (FD learning is due to a reduction of internal noise, the source of that noise was not determined. In this study, we examined whether reducing the noise associated with neural phase locking to tones can explain the observed improvement in behavioural thresholds. We compared FD training between two tone durations (15 and 100 ms that straddled the temporal integration window of auditory nerve fibers upon which computational modeling of phase locking noise was based. Training on short tones resulted in improved FD on probe tests of both the long and short tones. Training on long tones resulted in improvement only on the long tones. Simulations of FD learning, based on the computational model and on signal detection theory, were compared with the behavioral FD data. We found that improved fidelity of phase locking accurately predicted transfer of learning from short to long tones, but also predicted transfer from long to short tones. The observed lack of transfer from long to short tones suggests the involvement of a second mechanism. Training may have increased the temporal integration window which could not transfer because integration time for the short tone is limited by its duration. Current learning models assume complex relationships between neural populations that represent the trained stimuli. In contrast, we propose that training-induced enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio offers a parsimonious explanation of learning and transfer that easily accounts for asymmetric transfer of learning.

  16. The effect of background music in auditory health persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In auditory health persuasion, threatening information regarding health is communicated by voice only. One relevant context of auditory persuasion is the addition of background music. There are different mechanisms through which background music might influence persuasion, for example through mood (

  17. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  18. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  19. Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: evidence from masking and auditory attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Ashley, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that cognitive functions, such as attention and memory, drive perception by tuning sensory mechanisms to relevant acoustic features. Long-term musical experience also modulates lower-level auditory function, although the mechanisms by which this occurs remain uncertain. In order to tease apart the mechanisms that drive perceptual enhancements in musicians, we posed the question: do well-developed cognitive abilities fine-tune auditory perception in a top-down fashion? We administered a standardized battery of perceptual and cognitive tests to adult musicians and non-musicians, including tasks either more or less susceptible to cognitive control (e.g., backward versus simultaneous masking) and more or less dependent on auditory or visual processing (e.g., auditory versus visual attention). Outcomes indicate lower perceptual thresholds in musicians specifically for auditory tasks that relate with cognitive abilities, such as backward masking and auditory attention. These enhancements were observed in the absence of group differences for the simultaneous masking and visual attention tasks. Our results suggest that long-term musical practice strengthens cognitive functions and that these functions benefit auditory skills. Musical training bolsters higher-level mechanisms that, when impaired, relate to language and literacy deficits. Thus, musical training may serve to lessen the impact of these deficits by strengthening the corticofugal system for hearing. PMID:20018234

  20. The influence of aging on the number of neurons and levels of non-phosporylated neurofilament proteins in the central auditory system of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buriánová, Jana; Ouda, Ladislav; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, Mar 11 (2015), s. 27. ISSN 1663-4365 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : SMI-32 * neurofilaments * number of neurons * aging * auditory system Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 4.000, year: 2014

  1. What determines auditory distraction? On the roles of local auditory changes and expectation violations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    Full Text Available Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1 and speech distractors (Experiment 2. Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3, indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4. Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes.

  2. What Determines Auditory Distraction? On the Roles of Local Auditory Changes and Expectation Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P.; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Both the acoustic variability of a distractor sequence and the degree to which it violates expectations are important determinants of auditory distraction. In four experiments we examined the relative contribution of local auditory changes on the one hand and expectation violations on the other hand in the disruption of serial recall by irrelevant sound. We present evidence for a greater disruption by auditory sequences ending in unexpected steady state distractor repetitions compared to auditory sequences with expected changing state endings even though the former contained fewer local changes. This effect was demonstrated with piano melodies (Experiment 1) and speech distractors (Experiment 2). Furthermore, it was replicated when the expectation violation occurred after the encoding of the target items (Experiment 3), indicating that the items' maintenance in short-term memory was disrupted by attentional capture and not their encoding. This seems to be primarily due to the violation of a model of the specific auditory distractor sequences because the effect vanishes and even reverses when the experiment provides no opportunity to build up a specific neural model about the distractor sequence (Experiment 4). Nevertheless, the violation of abstract long-term knowledge about auditory regularities seems to cause a small and transient capture effect: Disruption decreased markedly over the course of the experiments indicating that participants habituated to the unexpected distractor repetitions across trials. The overall pattern of results adds to the growing literature that the degree to which auditory distractors violate situation-specific expectations is a more important determinant of auditory distraction than the degree to which a distractor sequence contains local auditory changes. PMID:24400081

  3. Applied research in auditory data representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysinger, Steve P.

    1990-08-01

    A class of data displays, characterized generally as Auditory Data Representation, is described and motivated. This type of data representation takes advantage of the tremendous pattern recognition capability of the human auditory channel. Audible displays offer an alternative means of conveying quantitative data to the analyst to facilitate information extraction, and are successfully used alone and in conjunction with visual displays. The Auditory Data Representation literature is reviewed, along with elements of the allied fields of investigation, Psychoacoustics and Musical Perception. A methodology for applied research in this field, based upon the well-developed discipline of psychophysics, is elaborated using a recent experiment as a case study. This method permits objective estimation of a data representation technique by comparing it to alternative displays for the pattern recognition task at hand. The psychophysical threshold of signal to noise level, for constant pattern recognition performance, is the measure of display effectiveness.

  4. Cooperative dynamics in auditory brain response

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Liu, L C; Ioannides, A A

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous estimates of the activity in the left and right auditory cortex of five normal human subjects were extracted from Multichannel Magnetoencephalography recordings. Left, right and binaural stimulation were used, in separate runs, for each subject. The resulting time-series of left and right auditory cortex activity were analysed using the concept of mutual information. The analysis constitutes an objective method to address the nature of inter-hemispheric correlations in response to auditory stimulations. The results provide a clear evidence for the occurrence of such correlations mediated by a direct information transport, with clear laterality effects: as a rule, the contralateral hemisphere leads by 10-20ms, as can be seen in the average signal. The strength of the inter-hemispheric coupling, which cannot be extracted from the average data, is found to be highly variable from subject to subject, but remarkably stable for each subject.

  5. A Circuit for Motor Cortical Modulation of Auditory Cortical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M.; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory corti...

  6. Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Skilled performers such as athletes or musicians can improve their performance by imagining the actions or sensory outcomes associated with their skill. Performers vary widely in their auditory and motor imagery abilities, and these individual differences influence sensorimotor learning. It is unknown whether imagery abilities influence both memory encoding and retrieval. We examined how auditory and motor imagery abilities influence musicians’ encoding (during Learning, as they practiced novel melodies, and retrieval (during Recall of those melodies. Pianists learned melodies by listening without performing (auditory learning or performing without sound (motor learning; following Learning, pianists performed the melodies from memory with auditory feedback (Recall. During either Learning (Experiment 1 or Recall (Experiment 2, pianists experienced either auditory interference, motor interference, or no interference. Pitch accuracy (percentage of correct pitches produced and temporal regularity (variability of quarter-note interonset intervals were measured at Recall. Independent tests measured auditory and motor imagery skills. Pianists’ pitch accuracy was higher following auditory learning than following motor learning and lower in motor interference conditions (Experiments 1 and 2. Both auditory and motor imagery skills improved pitch accuracy overall. Auditory imagery skills modulated pitch accuracy encoding (Experiment 1: Higher auditory imagery skill corresponded to higher pitch accuracy following auditory learning with auditory or motor interference, and following motor learning with motor or no interference. These findings suggest that auditory imagery abilities decrease vulnerability to interference and compensate for missing auditory feedback at encoding. Auditory imagery skills also influenced temporal regularity at retrieval (Experiment 2: Higher auditory imagery skill predicted greater temporal regularity during Recall in the

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Hannah L.; Jennifer L. Agustus; Johanna C. Goll; Downey, Laura E; Mummery, Catherine J.; Jonathan M Schott; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Jason D Warren

    2015-01-01

    Auditory scene analysis is a demanding computational process that is performed automatically and efficiently by the healthy brain but vulnerable to the neurodegenerative pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Here we assessed the functional neuroanatomy of auditory scene analysis in Alzheimer's disease using the well-known ‘cocktail party effect’ as a model paradigm whereby stored templates for auditory objects (e.g., hearing one's spoken name) are used to segregate auditory ‘foreground’ and ‘back...

  8. Behavioral correlates of auditory streaming in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Christison-Lagay, Kate L.; Cohen, Yale E.

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual representations of auditory stimuli (i.e., sounds) are derived from the auditory system’s ability to segregate and group the spectral, temporal, and spatial features of auditory stimuli—a process called “auditory scene analysis”. Psychophysical studies have identified several of the principles and mechanisms that underlie a listener’s ability to segregate and group acoustic stimuli. One important psychophysical task that has illuminated many of these principles and mechanisms is th...

  9. Auditory ERP response to successive stimuli in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ao; Peter, Varghese; Burnham, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Auditory Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are useful for understanding early auditory development among infants, as it allows the collection of a relatively large amount of data in a short time. So far, studies that have investigated development in auditory ERPs in infancy have mainly used single sounds as stimuli. Yet in real life, infants must decode successive rather than single acoustic events. In the present study, we tested 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old infants’ auditory ERPs to m...

  10. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  11. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  12. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel

    A loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) has been developed to provide a realistic versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room reverberation. The VAE allows a full control of...... the acoustic scenario in order to systematically study the auditory processing of reverberant sounds. It is based on the ODEON software, which is state-of-the-art software for room acoustic simulations developed at Acoustic Technology, DTU. First, a MATLAB interface to the ODEON software has been...

  13. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  14. AN EVALUATION OF AUDITORY LEARNING IN FILIAL IMPRINTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, JJ; VANKAMPEN, HS

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of auditory learning in filial imprinting in precocial birds are reviewed. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the addition of an auditory stimulus improves following of a visual stimulus. This paper evaluates whether there is genuine auditory imprinting, i.e. the formation o

  15. Auditory Stream Biasing in Children with Reading Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Tialee; Balaban, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Reading impairments have previously been associated with auditory processing differences. We examined "auditory stream biasing", a global aspect of auditory temporal processing. Children with reading impairments, control children and adults heard a 10 s long stream-bias-inducing sound sequence (a repeating 1000 Hz tone) and a test sequence (eight…

  16. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented as a...... gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  17. Binaural processing by the gecko auditory periphery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tang, Ye Zhong; Carr, Catherine E

    2011-01-01

    Tokay gecko with neurophysiological recordings from the auditory nerve. Laser vibrometry shows that their ear is a two-input system with approximately unity interaural transmission gain at the peak frequency (around 1.6 kHz). Median interaural delays are 260 μs, almost three times larger than predicted...... from gecko head size, suggesting interaural transmission may be boosted by resonances in the large, open mouth cavity (Vossen et al., 2010). Auditory nerve recordings are sensitive to both interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD), reflecting the acoustical interactions...

  18. Visual Task Demands and the Auditory Mismatch Negativity: An Empirical Study and a Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Stefan; Szychowska, Malina; Nilsson, Mats E.

    2016-01-01

    Because the auditory system is particularly useful in monitoring the environment, previous research has examined whether task-irrelevant, auditory distracters are processed even if subjects focus their attention on visual stimuli. This research suggests that attentionally demanding visual tasks decrease the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) to simultaneously presented auditory distractors. Because a recent behavioral study found that high visual perceptual load decreased detection sensitivity of simultaneous tones, we used a similar task (n = 28) to determine if high visual perceptual load would reduce the auditory MMN. Results suggested that perceptual load did not decrease the MMN. At face value, these nonsignificant findings may suggest that effects of perceptual load on the MMN are smaller than those of other demanding visual tasks. If so, effect sizes should differ systematically between the present and previous studies. We conducted a selective meta-analysis of published studies in which the MMN was derived from the EEG, the visual task demands were continuous and varied between high and low within the same task, and the task-irrelevant tones were presented in a typical oddball paradigm simultaneously with the visual stimuli. Because the meta-analysis suggested that the present (null) findings did not differ systematically from previous findings, the available evidence was combined. Results of this meta-analysis confirmed that demanding visual tasks reduce the MMN to auditory distracters. However, because the meta-analysis was based on small studies and because of the risk for publication biases, future studies should be preregistered with large samples (n > 150) to provide confirmatory evidence for the results of the present meta-analysis. These future studies should also use control conditions that reduce confounding effects of neural adaptation, and use load manipulations that are defined independently from their effects on the MMN. PMID:26741815

  19. The effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly C.

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of auditory memory load on intensity resolution in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to two groups of listeners without PD. Methods: Nineteen individuals with Parkinson's disease, ten healthy age- and hearing-matched adults, and ten healthy young adults were studied. All listeners participated in two intensity discrimination tasks differing in auditory memory load; a lower memory load, 4IAX task and a higher memory load, ABX task. Intensity discrimination performance was assessed using a bias-free measurement of signal detectability known as d' (d-prime). Listeners further participated in a continuous loudness scaling task where they were instructed to rate the loudness level of each signal intensity using a computerized 150mm visual analogue scale. Results: Group discrimination functions indicated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity (d') across tasks for the individuals with PD, as compared to the older and younger controls. No significant effect of aging on intensity discrimination was observed for either task. All three listeners groups demonstrated significantly lower intensity discrimination sensitivity for the higher auditory memory load, ABX task, compared to the lower auditory memory load, 4IAX task. Furthermore, a significant effect of aging was identified for the loudness scaling condition. The younger controls were found to rate most stimuli along the continuum as significantly louder than the older controls and the individuals with PD. Conclusions: The persons with PD showed evidence of impaired auditory perception for intensity information, as compared to the older and younger controls. The significant effect of aging on loudness perception may indicate peripheral and/or central auditory involvement.

  20. Different auditory feedback control for echolocation and communication in horseshoe bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    Full Text Available Auditory feedback from the animal's own voice is essential during bat echolocation: to optimize signal detection, bats continuously adjust various call parameters in response to changing echo signals. Auditory feedback seems also necessary for controlling many bat communication calls, although it remains unclear how auditory feedback control differs in echolocation and communication. We tackled this question by analyzing echolocation and communication in greater horseshoe bats, whose echolocation pulses are dominated by a constant frequency component that matches the frequency range they hear best. To maintain echoes within this "auditory fovea", horseshoe bats constantly adjust their echolocation call frequency depending on the frequency of the returning echo signal. This Doppler-shift compensation (DSC behavior represents one of the most precise forms of sensory-motor feedback known. We examined the variability of echolocation pulses emitted at rest (resting frequencies, RFs and one type of communication signal which resembles an echolocation pulse but is much shorter (short constant frequency communication calls, SCFs and produced only during social interactions. We found that while RFs varied from day to day, corroborating earlier studies in other constant frequency bats, SCF-frequencies remained unchanged. In addition, RFs overlapped for some bats whereas SCF-frequencies were always distinctly different. This indicates that auditory feedback during echolocation changed with varying RFs but remained constant or may have been absent during emission of SCF calls for communication. This fundamentally different feedback mechanism for echolocation and communication may have enabled these bats to use SCF calls for individual recognition whereas they adjusted RF calls to accommodate the daily shifts of their auditory fovea.

  1. Antideuteron sensitivity for the GAPS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, T.; Hailey, C. J.; Boggs, S. E.; von Doetinchem, P.; Fuke, H.; Mognet, S. I.; Ong, R. A.; Perez, K.; Zweerink, J.

    2016-02-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) is a novel approach for indirect dark matter searches that exploits cosmic antiparticles, especially antideuterons. The GAPS antideuteron measurement utilizes distinctive detection methods using atomic X-rays and charged particles from the decay of exotic atoms as well as the timing and stopping range of the incoming particle, which together provide excellent antideuteron identification. Prior to the future balloon experiment, an accelerator test and a prototype flight were successfully conducted in 2005 and 2012 respectively, in order to verify the GAPS detection concept. This paper describes how the sensitivity of GAPS to antideuterons was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation along with the atomic cascade model and the Intra-Nuclear Cascade model. The sensitivity for the GAPS antideuteron search obtained using this method is 2.0 ×10-6 [m-2s-1sr-1(GeV/n)-1] for the proposed long duration balloon program (LDB, 35 days × 3 flights), indicating that GAPS has a strong potential to probe a wide variety of dark matter annihilation and decay models through antideuteron measurements. GAPS is proposed to fly from Antarctica in the austral summer of 2019-2020.

  2. Auditory evoked fields measured noninvasively with small-animal MEG reveal rapid repetition suppression in the guinea pig

    OpenAIRE

    Christianson, G. B.; Chait, M; De CheveignÉ, A.; Linden, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    In animal models, single-neuron response properties such as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) have been described as possible precursors to the mismatch negativity (MMN), a human brain response to stimulus change. Here, we attempt to bridge the gap between human and animal studies by characterising responses to changes in the frequency of repeated tone series in the anaesthetised guinea pig using small-animal magnetoencephalography (MEG). We show that: (1) auditory evoked fields (AEFs) quali...

  3. Lecture recording system in anatomy: possible benefit to auditory learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacro, Thierry R H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ariail, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    The literature reports that using Learning Recording Systems (LRS) is usually well received by students but that the pedagogical value of LRS in academic settings remains somewhat unclear. The primary aim of the current study is to document students' perceptions, actual pattern of usage, and impact of use of LRS on students' grade in a dental gross and neuroanatomy course. Other aims are to determine if students' learning preference correlated with final grades and to see if other factors like gender, age, overall academic score on the Dental Aptitude Test (DAT), lecture levels of difficulty, type of lecture, category of lecture, or teaching faculty could explain the impact, if any, of the use of LRS on the course final grade. No significant correlation was detected between the final grades and the variables studied except for a significant but modest correlation between final grades and the number of times the students accessed the lecture recordings (r=0.33 with P=0.01). Also, after adjusting for gender, age, learning style, and academic DAT, a significant interaction between auditory and average usage time was found for final grade (P=0.03). Students who classified themselves as auditory and who used the LRS on average for fewer than 10 minutes per access, scored an average final grade of 16.43 % higher than the nonauditory students using the LRS for the same amount of time per access. Based on these findings, implications for teaching are discussed and recommendations for use of LRS are proposed. PMID:23508921

  4. Vision of tongue movements bias auditory speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Berry, Jeffrey James; Fadiga, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Audiovisual speech perception is likely based on the association between auditory and visual information into stable audiovisual maps. Conflicting audiovisual inputs generate perceptual illusions such as the McGurk effect. Audiovisual mismatch effects could be either driven by the detection of violations in the standard audiovisual statistics or via the sensorimotor reconstruction of the distal articulatory event that generated the audiovisual ambiguity. In order to disambiguate between the two hypotheses we exploit the fact that the tongue is hidden to vision. For this reason, tongue movement encoding can solely be learned via speech production but not via others׳ speech perception alone. Here we asked participants to identify speech sounds while matching or mismatching visual representations of tongue movements which were shown. Vision of congruent tongue movements facilitated auditory speech identification with respect to incongruent trials. This result suggests that direct visual experience of an articulator movement is not necessary for the generation of audiovisual mismatch effects. Furthermore, we suggest that audiovisual integration in speech may benefit from speech production learning. PMID:25172391

  5. Evidence for auditory localization ability in the turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, M L

    1981-10-01

    Evidence is presented that the semiaquatic turtle Chrysemys scripta and the terrestrial turtle Terrapene carolina major can detect the direction of a tone within their sensitive area of hearing. It is further suggested that not only can these species respond behaviorally to sound without extensive manipulation but can use limited hearing in a problem-solving situation of maze learning. Adult emydid turtles (5 C. scripta, 3 T. carolina) learned a Y-maze with a 500-c/s signal to an invisible open goal box to avoid bright light. All animals performed above chance levels, but it required over 240 trials on the average to reach 60%-correct performance. Computations suggest that binaural cues used by mammals would not be adequately encoded by the primitive auditory systems of the species studied. It is further suggested that these turtles use bone conduction by coupling their ears to the substrate to hear vibrations in the immediate area. This would appear to be a carryover from the ancient reptile stem stock. The poor middle-ear impedance system relegates air-borne sound processing to be a somewhat insensitive limited low-pass system, depending heavily on monaural cues derived from head scanning. vocal output in these species appears to be spectrally imbalanced with their auditory sensitivity. The role of species-specific vocal signalling is unclear from the present data. PMID:7186502

  6. Brainstem auditory evoked potential testing in Dalmatian dogs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.P. Palumbo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain stem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP is an electrophysiologic test that detects and records the electrical activity in the auditory system from cochlea to midbrain, generated after an acoustic stimulus applied to the external ear. The aim of this study is to obtain normative data for BAEP in Dalmatian dogs in order to apply this to the evaluation of deafness and other neurologic disorders. BAEP were recorded from 30 Dalmatian dogs for a normative Brazilian study. Mean latencies for waves I, III, and V were 1.14 (±0.09, 2.62 (±0.10, and 3.46 (±0.14 ms, respectively. Mean inter-peak latencies for I-III, III-V, and I-V intervals were 1.48 (±0.17, 0.84 (±0.12, and 2.31 (±0.18 ms, respectively. Unilateral abnormalities were found in 16.7% of animals and bilateral deafness was seen in one dog. The normative data obtained in this paper is compatible with other published data. As far as we know this is the first report of deafness occurrence in Dalmatian dogs in Brazil.

  7. Comparison of videonasoendoscopy and auditory-perceptual evaluation of speech in individuals with cleft lip/palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paniagua, Lauren Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The velopharyngeal sphincter (VPS is a muscle belt located between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx. Investigations of velopharyngeal function should include an auditory-perceptual evaluation and at least 1 instrument-based evaluation such as videonasoendoscopy. Aim:To compare the findings of auditory-perceptual evaluation (hypernasality and videonasoendoscopy (gap size in individuals with cleft lip/palate. Method: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study assessing 49 subjects, of both sexes, with cleft lip/palate followed up at the Otorhinolaryngology Service and the Speech Therapy outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA. The results from the auditory-perceptual evaluation and the videonasoendoscopy test were compared with respect to the VPS gap size. Results: Subjects with moderate/severe hypernasality had more severe velopharyngeal closure impairment than those with a less severe condition. The interaction between hypernasality severity and the presence of other speech disorders (p = 0.035, whether compensatory and/or obligatory, increased the likelihood of having a moderate-to-large gap in the velopharyngeal closure. Conclusions: We observed an association between the findings of these 2 evaluation methods.

  8. The behavioral impact of auditory and visual oddball distracters in a visual and auditory categorization tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Leiva

    2011-01-01

    Past cross-modal oddball studies have shown that participants respond slower to visual targets following the presentation of an unexpected change in a stream of auditory distracters. In the present study we examined the extent to which this novelty distraction may transcend the sensory distinction between distracter and target. In separate blocks of trials, participants categorized digits presented auditorily or visually in the face of visual or auditory standard and oddball distracters. The ...

  9. Reading adn Auditory-Visual Equivalences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    1971-01-01

    A retarded boy, unable to read orally or with comprehension, was taught to match spoken to printed words and was then capable of reading comprehension (matching printed words to picture) and oral reading (naming printed words aloud), demonstrating that certain learned auditory-visual equivalences are sufficient prerequisites for reading…

  10. The Goldilocks Effect in Infant Auditory Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Infants must learn about many cognitive domains (e.g., language, music) from auditory statistics, yet capacity limits on their cognitive resources restrict the quantity that they can encode. Previous research has established that infants can attend to only a subset of available acoustic input. Yet few previous studies have directly examined infant…

  11. Development of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raja Kumar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Auditory Prosthesis (AP is an electronic device that can provide hearing sensations to people who are profoundly deaf by stimulating the auditory nerve via an array of electrodes with an electric current allowing them to understand the speech. The AP system consists of two hardware functional units such as Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and Receiver Stimulator. The prototype model of Receiver Stimulator for Auditory Prosthesis (RSAP consists of Speech Data Decoder, DAC, ADC, constant current generator, electrode selection logic, switch matrix and simulated electrode resistance array. The laboratory model of speech processor is designed to implement the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS speech processing algorithm which generates the information required for electrode stimulation based on the speech / audio data. Speech Data Decoder receives the encoded speech data via an inductive RF transcutaneous link from speech processor. Twelve channels of auditory Prosthesis with selectable eight electrodes for stimulation of simulated electrode resistance array are used for testing. The RSAP is validated by using the test data generated by the laboratory prototype of speech processor. The experimental results are obtained from specific speech/sound tests using a high-speed data acquisition system and found satisfactory.

  12. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  13. Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    In the present review, we summarize the most recent findings and current views about the structural and functional basis of human brain lateralization in the auditory modality. Main emphasis is given to hemodynamic and electromagnetic data of healthy adult participants with regard to music- vs. speech-sound encoding. Moreover, a selective set of behavioral dichotic-listening (DL) results and clinical findings (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia) are included. It is shown that human brain has a strong predisposition to process speech sounds in the left and music sounds in the right auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. Up to great extent, an auditory area located at the posterior end of the temporal lobe (called planum temporale [PT]) underlies this functional asymmetry. However, the predisposition is not bound to informational sound content but to rapid temporal information more common in speech than in music sounds. Finally, we obtain evidence for the vulnerability of the functional specialization of sound processing. These altered forms of lateralization may be caused by top-down and bottom-up effects inter- and intraindividually In other words, relatively small changes in acoustic sound features or in their familiarity may modify the degree in which the left vs. right auditory areas contribute to sound encoding. PMID:14629926

  14. Self-affirmation in auditory persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Persuasive health information can be presented through an auditory channel. Curiously enough, the effect of voice cues in health persuasion has hardly been studied. Research concerning visual persuasive messages showed that self-affirmation results in a more open-minded reaction to threatening infor

  15. Late Maturation of Auditory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Wright, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Adults can improve their performance on many perceptual tasks with training, but when does the response to training become mature? To investigate this question, we trained 11-year-olds, 14-year-olds and adults on a basic auditory task (temporal-interval discrimination) using a multiple-session training regimen known to be effective for adults. The…

  16. Affective priming with auditory speech stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Degner

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In

  17. Auditory confrontation naming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Bakker, Arnold; Maroof, David Aaron

    2010-11-01

    Naming is a fundamental aspect of language and is virtually always assessed with visual confrontation tests. Tests of the ability to name objects by their characteristic sounds would be particularly useful in the assessment of visually impaired patients, and may be particularly sensitive in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We developed an auditory naming task, requiring the identification of the source of environmental sounds (i.e., animal calls, musical instruments, vehicles) and multiple-choice recognition of those not identified. In two separate studies mild-to-moderate AD patients performed more poorly than cognitively normal elderly on the auditory naming task. This task was also more difficult than two versions of a comparable visual naming task, and correlated more highly with Mini-Mental State Exam score. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable, although ROC analysis revealed auditory naming to be slightly less successful than visual confrontation naming in discriminating AD patients from normal participants. Nonetheless, our auditory naming task may prove useful in research and clinical practice, especially with visually impaired patients. PMID:20981630

  18. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  19. 40 Hz auditory steady state response to linguistic features of stimuli during auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Yan, Zheng; Gao, Xiao-rong

    2013-10-01

    The auditory steady state response (ASSR) may reflect activity from different regions of the brain, depending on the modulation frequency used. In general, responses induced by low rates (≤40 Hz) emanate mostly from central structures of the brain, and responses from high rates (≥80 Hz) emanate mostly from the peripheral auditory nerve or brainstem structures. Besides, it was reported that the gamma band ASSR (30-90 Hz) played an important role in working memory, speech understanding and recognition. This paper investigated the 40 Hz ASSR evoked by modulated speech and reversed speech. The speech was Chinese phrase voice, and the noise-like reversed speech was obtained by temporally reversing the speech. Both auditory stimuli were modulated with a frequency of 40 Hz. Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with hallucination symptom participated in the experiment. Results showed reduction in left auditory cortex response when healthy subjects listened to the reversed speech compared with the speech. In contrast, when the patients who experienced auditory hallucinations listened to the reversed speech, the auditory cortex of left hemispheric responded more actively. The ASSR results were consistent with the behavior results of patients. Therefore, the gamma band ASSR is expected to be helpful for rapid and objective diagnosis of hallucination in clinic. PMID:24142731

  20. Spectrotemporal resolution tradeoff in auditory processing as revealed by human auditory brainstem responses and psychophysical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Syed Khaja, Ameenuddin

    2014-06-20

    Auditory filter theory dictates a physiological compromise between frequency and temporal resolution of cochlear signal processing. We examined neurophysiological correlates of these spectrotemporal tradeoffs in the human auditory system using auditory evoked brain potentials and psychophysical responses. Temporal resolution was assessed using scalp-recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by paired clicks. The inter-click interval (ICI) between successive pulses was parameterized from 0.7 to 25 ms to map ABR amplitude recovery as a function of stimulus spacing. Behavioral frequency difference limens (FDLs) and auditory filter selectivity (Q10 of psychophysical tuning curves) were obtained to assess relations between behavioral spectral acuity and electrophysiological estimates of temporal resolvability. Neural responses increased monotonically in amplitude with increasing ICI, ranging from total suppression (0.7 ms) to full recovery (25 ms) with a temporal resolution of ∼3-4 ms. ABR temporal thresholds were correlated with behavioral Q10 (frequency selectivity) but not FDLs (frequency discrimination); no correspondence was observed between Q10 and FDLs. Results suggest that finer frequency selectivity, but not discrimination, is associated with poorer temporal resolution. The inverse relation between ABR recovery and perceptual frequency tuning demonstrates a time-frequency tradeoff between the temporal and spectral resolving power of the human auditory system. PMID:24793771

  1. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians' subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model in which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in human auditory function. PMID:23988583

  2. McGurk illusion recalibrates subsequent auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttke, Claudia S; Ekman, Matthias; van Gerven, Marcel A J; de Lange, Floris P

    2016-01-01

    Visual information can alter auditory perception. This is clearly illustrated by the well-known McGurk illusion, where an auditory/aba/ and a visual /aga/ are merged to the percept of 'ada'. It is less clear however whether such a change in perception may recalibrate subsequent perception. Here we asked whether the altered auditory perception due to the McGurk illusion affects subsequent auditory perception, i.e. whether this process of fusion may cause a recalibration of the auditory boundaries between phonemes. Participants categorized auditory and audiovisual speech stimuli as /aba/, /ada/ or /aga/ while activity patterns in their auditory cortices were recorded using fMRI. Interestingly, following a McGurk illusion, an auditory /aba/ was more often misperceived as 'ada'. Furthermore, we observed a neural counterpart of this recalibration in the early auditory cortex. When the auditory input /aba/ was perceived as 'ada', activity patterns bore stronger resemblance to activity patterns elicited by /ada/ sounds than when they were correctly perceived as /aba/. Our results suggest that upon experiencing the McGurk illusion, the brain shifts the neural representation of an /aba/ sound towards /ada/, culminating in a recalibration in perception of subsequent auditory input. PMID:27611960

  3. Detonation propagation in narrow gaps with various configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monwar, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ishii, K.; Tsuboi, T.

    2007-08-01

    In general all detonation waves have cellular structure formed by the trajectory of the triple points. This paper aims to investigate experimentally the propagation of detonation in narrow gaps for hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures in terms of various gap heights and gap widths. The gap of total length 1500 mm was constructed by three pair of stainless plates, each of them was 500 mm in length, which were inserted in a detonation tube. The gap heights were varied from 1.2 mm to 3.0 mm while the gap widths were varied from 10 mm to 40 mm. Various argon dilution rates were tested in the present experiments to change the size of cellular structure. Attempts have been made by means of reaction front velocity, shock front velocity, and smoked foil to record variations of cellular structure inside the gaps. A combination probe composed of a pressure and an ion probe detected the arrival of the shock and the reaction front individually at one measurement point. Experimental results show that the number of the triple points contained in detonation front decreases with decrease in the gap heights and gap widths, which lead to larger cellular structures. For mixtures with low detonability, cell size is affected by a certain gap width although conversely cell size is almost independent of gap width. From the present result it was found that detonation propagation inside the gaps is strongly governed by the gap height and effects of gap width is dependent on detonability of mixtures.

  4. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  5. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Income distribution has become one of the people's main concerns in China where more than 30years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap.But narrowing down the rich-poor disparity will prove to be no easy task.Wei Zhong,a researcher with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,elaborated on the origins and trends of China's widening income gap,and discussed solutions to curb the gap,in a recent article.Edited excerpts follow:

  6. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, W K., Jamie Morgan.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  7. Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhakar C Kotak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx. One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh, processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of GABA-A receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely labeled axons and terminals were observed in the PRh. Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the auditory cortex.

  8. The Essential Complexity of Auditory Receptive Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Ivar L; Liénard, Jean; David, Stephen V

    2015-12-01

    Encoding properties of sensory neurons are commonly modeled using linear finite impulse response (FIR) filters. For the auditory system, the FIR filter is instantiated in the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF), often in the framework of the generalized linear model. Despite widespread use of the FIR STRF, numerous formulations for linear filters are possible that require many fewer parameters, potentially permitting more efficient and accurate model estimates. To explore these alternative STRF architectures, we recorded single-unit neural activity from auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of natural sound stimuli. We compared performance of > 1000 linear STRF architectures, evaluating their ability to predict neural responses to a novel natural stimulus. Many were able to outperform the FIR filter. Two basic constraints on the architecture lead to the improved performance: (1) factorization of the STRF matrix into a small number of spectral and temporal filters and (2) low-dimensional parameterization of the factorized filters. The best parameterized model was able to outperform the full FIR filter in both primary and secondary auditory cortex, despite requiring fewer than 30 parameters, about 10% of the number required by the FIR filter. After accounting for noise from finite data sampling, these STRFs were able to explain an average of 40% of A1 response variance. The simpler models permitted more straightforward interpretation of sensory tuning properties. They also showed greater benefit from incorporating nonlinear terms, such as short term plasticity, that provide theoretical advances over the linear model. Architectures that minimize parameter count while maintaining maximum predictive power provide insight into the essential degrees of freedom governing auditory cortical function. They also maximize statistical power available for characterizing additional nonlinear properties that limit current auditory models. PMID:26683490

  9. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  10. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Income distribution has become one of the people’s main concerns in China where more than 30 years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap. But narrowing down the

  11. Tail gap grouting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolymbas, D.; Maehr, M.; Herle, Ivo

    Torino: Associazione Georisorse e Ambiente , 2002, s. -. [International Conference ACUUS 2002. Torino (IT), 14.11.2002-16.11.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : tunnel construction, tail gap, grouting Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  12. Gaps in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  13. Photonic band gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented

  14. Modulatory Effects of Attention on Lateral Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Engell

    Full Text Available Reduced neural processing of a tone is observed when it is presented after a sound whose spectral range closely frames the frequency of the tone. This observation might be explained by the mechanism of lateral inhibition (LI due to inhibitory interneurons in the auditory system. So far, several characteristics of bottom up influences on LI have been identified, while the influence of top-down processes such as directed attention on LI has not been investigated. Hence, the study at hand aims at investigating the modulatory effects of focused attention on LI in the human auditory cortex. In the magnetoencephalograph, we present two types of masking sounds (white noise vs. withe noise passing through a notch filter centered at a specific frequency, followed by a test tone with a frequency corresponding to the center-frequency of the notch filter. Simultaneously, subjects were presented with visual input on a screen. To modulate the focus of attention, subjects were instructed to concentrate either on the auditory input or the visual stimuli. More specific, on one half of the trials, subjects were instructed to detect small deviations in loudness in the masking sounds while on the other half of the trials subjects were asked to detect target stimuli on the screen. The results revealed a reduction in neural activation due to LI, which was larger during auditory compared to visual focused attention. Attentional modulations of LI were observed in two post-N1m time intervals. These findings underline the robustness of reduced neural activation due to LI in the auditory cortex and point towards the important role of attention on the modulation of this mechanism in more evaluative processing stages.

  15. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    1996-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  16. Gap polariton solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbach, A V; Skryabin, D V

    2009-01-01

    We report the existence, and study mobility and interactions of gap polariton solitons in a microcavity with a periodic potential, where the light field is strongly coupled to excitons. Gap solitons are formed due to the interplay between the repulsive exciton-exciton interaction and cavity dispersion. The analysis is carried out in an analytical form, using the coupled-mode (CM) approximation, and also by means of numerical methods.

  17. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  18. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam*

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  19. How does the extraction of local and global auditory regularities vary with context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Marti

    Full Text Available How does the human brain extract regularities from its environment? There is evidence that short range or 'local' regularities (within seconds are automatically detected by the brain while long range or 'global' regularities (over tens of seconds or more require conscious awareness. In the present experiment, we asked whether participants' attention was needed to acquire such auditory regularities, to detect their violation or both. We designed a paradigm in which participants listened to predictable sounds. Subjects could be distracted by a visual task at two moments: when they were first exposed to a regularity or when they detected violations of this regularity. MEG recordings revealed that early brain responses (100-130 ms to violations of short range regularities were unaffected by visual distraction and driven essentially by local transitional probabilities. Based on global workspace theory and prior results, we expected that visual distraction would eliminate the long range global effect, but unexpectedly, we found the contrary, i.e. late brain responses (300-600 ms to violations of long range regularities on audio-visual trials but not on auditory only trials. Further analyses showed that, in fact, visual distraction was incomplete and that auditory and visual stimuli interfered in both directions. Our results show that conscious, attentive subjects can learn the long range dependencies present in auditory stimuli even while performing a visual task on synchronous visual stimuli. Furthermore, they acquire a complex regularity and end up making different predictions for the very same stimulus depending on the context (i.e. absence or presence of visual stimuli. These results suggest that while short-range regularity detection is driven by local transitional probabilities between stimuli, the human brain detects and stores long-range regularities in a highly flexible, context dependent manner.

  20. Performance on tests of central auditory processing by individuals exposed to high-intensity blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six blast-exposed patients and twenty-nine non-blast-exposed control subjects were tested on a battery of behavioral and electrophysiological tests that have been shown to be sensitive to central auditory processing deficits. Abnormal performance among the blast-exposed patients was assessed with reference to normative values established as the mean performance on each test by the control subjects plus or minus two standard deviations. Blast-exposed patients performed abnormally at rates significantly above that which would occur by chance on three of the behavioral tests of central auditory processing: the Gaps-In-Noise, Masking Level Difference, and Staggered Spondaic Words tests. The proportion of blast-exposed patients performing abnormally on a speech-in-noise test (Quick Speech-In-Noise was also significantly above that expected by chance. These results suggest that, for some patients, blast exposure may lead to difficulties with hearing in complex auditory environments, even when peripheral hearing sensitivity is near normal limits.

  1. Sex differences and endocrine regulation of auditory-evoked, neural responses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Woolley, Sarah M N; Kwong-Brown, Ursula; Kelley, Darcy B

    2016-01-01

    Mating depends on the accurate detection of signals that convey species identity and reproductive state. In African clawed frogs, Xenopus, this information is conveyed by vocal signals that differ in temporal patterns and spectral features between sexes and across species. We characterized spectral sensitivity using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), commonly known as the auditory brainstem response, in males and females of four Xenopus species. In female X. amieti, X. petersii, and X. laevis, peripheral auditory sensitivity to their species own dyad-two, species-specific dominant frequencies in the male advertisement call-is enhanced relative to males. Males were most sensitive to lower frequencies including those in the male-directed release calls. Frequency sensitivity was influenced by endocrine state; ovariectomized females had male-like auditory tuning while dihydrotestosterone-treated, ovariectomized females maintained female-like tuning. Thus, adult, female Xenopus demonstrate an endocrine-dependent sensitivity to the spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls that could facilitate mating. Xenopus AEPs resemble those of other species in stimulus and level dependence, and in sensitivity to anesthetic (MS222). AEPs were correlated with body size and sex within some species. A frequency following response, probably encoded by the amphibian papilla, might facilitate dyad source localization via interaural time differences. PMID:26572136

  2. Auditory and visual sustained attention in children with speech sound disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F B Murphy

    Full Text Available Although research has demonstrated that children with specific language impairment (SLI and reading disorder (RD exhibit sustained attention deficits, no study has investigated sustained attention in children with speech sound disorder (SSD. Given the overlap of symptoms, such as phonological memory deficits, between these different language disorders (i.e., SLI, SSD and RD and the relationships between working memory, attention and language processing, it is worthwhile to investigate whether deficits in sustained attention also occur in children with SSD. A total of 55 children (18 diagnosed with SSD (8.11 ± 1.231 and 37 typically developing children (8.76 ± 1.461 were invited to participate in this study. Auditory and visual sustained-attention tasks were applied. Children with SSD performed worse on these tasks; they committed a greater number of auditory false alarms and exhibited a significant decline in performance over the course of the auditory detection task. The extent to which performance is related to auditory perceptual difficulties and probable working memory deficits is discussed. Further studies are needed to better understand the specific nature of these deficits and their clinical implications.

  3. Investigating Verbal and Visual Auditory Learning After Conformal Radiation Therapy for Childhood Ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether children with localized ependymoma experience a decline in verbal or visual-auditory learning after conformal radiation therapy (CRT). The secondary objective was to investigate the impact of age and select clinical factors on learning before and after treatment. Methods and Materials: Learning in a sample of 71 patients with localized ependymoma was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-C) and the Visual-Auditory Learning Test (VAL). Learning measures were administered before CRT, at 6 months, and then yearly for a total of 5 years. Results: There was no significant decline on measures of verbal or visual-auditory learning after CRT; however, younger age, more surgeries, and cerebrospinal fluid shunting did predict lower scores at baseline. There were significant longitudinal effects (improved learning scores after treatment) among older children on the CVLT-C and children that did not receive pre-CRT chemotherapy on the VAL. Conclusion: There was no evidence of global decline in learning after CRT in children with localized ependymoma. Several important implications from the findings include the following: (1) identification of and differentiation among variables with transient vs. long-term effects on learning, (2) demonstration that children treated with chemotherapy before CRT had greater risk of adverse visual-auditory learning performance, and (3) establishment of baseline and serial assessment as critical in ascertaining necessary sensitivity and specificity for the detection of modest effects.

  4. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  5. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners...... who had been recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955

  7. Subthreshold outward currents enhance temporal integration in auditory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirskis, Gytis; Dodla, Ramana; Rinzel, John

    2003-11-01

    Many auditory neurons possess low-threshold potassium currents ( I(KLT)) that enhance their responsiveness to rapid and coincident inputs. We present recordings from gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons in vitro and modeling results that illustrate how I(KLT) improves the detection of brief signals, of weak signals in noise, and of the coincidence of signals (as needed for sound localization). We quantify the enhancing effect of I(KLT) on temporal processing with several measures: signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), reverse correlation or spike-triggered averaging of input currents, and interaural time difference (ITD) tuning curves. To characterize how I(KLT), which activates below spike threshold, influences a neuron's voltage rise toward threshold, i.e., how it filters the inputs, we focus first on the response to weak and noisy signals. Cells and models were stimulated with a computer-generated steady barrage of random inputs, mimicking weak synaptic conductance transients (the "noise"), together with a larger but still subthreshold postsynaptic conductance, EPSG (the "signal"). Reduction of I(KLT) decreased the SNR, mainly due to an increase in spontaneous firing (more "false positive"). The spike-triggered reverse correlation indicated that I(KLT) shortened the integration time for spike generation. I(KLT) also heightened the model's timing selectivity for coincidence detection of simulated binaural inputs. Further, ITD tuning is shifted in favor of a slope code rather than a place code by precise and rapid inhibition onto MSO cells (Brand et al. 2002). In several ways, low-threshold outward currents are seen to shape integration of weak and strong signals in auditory neurons. PMID:14669013

  8. Right cerebral hemisphere and central auditory processing in children with developmental dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina C. Murphy-Ruiz; Yolanda R. Penaloza-Lopez; Felipe Garcia-Pedroza; Adrian Poblano

    2013-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that if the right hemisphere auditory processing abilities can be altered in children with developmental dyslexia (DD), we can detect dysfunction using specific tests. Method We performed an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. We studied 20 right-handed children with DD and 20 healthy right-handed control subjects (CS). Children in both groups were age, gender, and school-grade matched. Focusing on the right hemisphere’s contribution, we utilized tests to...

  9. Continued Maturation of the Click-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Emily; White-Schwoch, Travis; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Background Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are a valuable tool for probing auditory system function and development. Although it has long been thought that the human auditory brainstem is fully mature by age 2 yr, recent evidence indicates a prolonged developmental trajectory. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of ABR maturation in a preschool population and fill a gap in the knowledge of development. Research Design Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the effect of age on absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes (waves I, III, V) of the click-evoked ABR. Study Sample A total of 71 preschoolers (ages 3.12–4.99 yr) participated in the study. All had normal peripheral auditory function and IQ. Data Collection and Analysis ABRs to a rarefaction click stimulus presented at 31/sec and 80 dB SPL (73 dB nHL) were recorded monaurally using clinically-standard recording and filtering procedures while the participant sat watching a movie. Absolute latencies, interwave latencies, and amplitudes were then correlated to age. Results Developmental changes were restricted to absolute latencies. Wave V latency decreased significantly with age, whereas wave I and III latencies remained stable, even in this restricted age range. Conclusions The ABR does not remain static after age 2 yr, as seen by a systematic decrease in wave V latency between ages 3 and 5 yr. This finding suggests that the human brainstem has a continued developmental time course during the preschool years. Latency changes in the age 3–5 yr range should be considered when using ABRs as a metric of hearing health. PMID:25597458

  10. Shaping the aging brain: Role of auditory input patterns in the emergence of auditory cortical impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishna Soraya Kamal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related impairments in the primary auditory cortex (A1 include poor tuning selectivity, neural desynchronization and degraded responses to low-probability sounds. These changes have been largely attributed to reduced inhibition in the aged brain, and are thought to contribute to substantial hearing impairment in both humans and animals. Since many of these changes can be partially reversed with auditory training, it has been speculated that they might not be purely degenerative, but might rather represent negative plastic adjustments to noisy or distorted auditory signals reaching the brain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of exposing young adult rats to 8 weeks of low-grade broadband noise on several aspects of A1 function and structure. We then characterized the same A1 elements in aging rats for comparison. We found that the impact of noise exposure on A1 tuning selectivity, temporal processing of auditory signal and responses to oddball tones was almost indistinguishable from the effect of natural aging. Moreover, noise exposure resulted in a reduction in the population of parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons and cortical myelin as previously documented in the aged group. Most of these changes reversed after returning the rats to a quiet environment. These results support the hypothesis that age-related changes in A1 have a strong activity-dependent component and indicate that the presence or absence of clear auditory input patterns might be a key factor in sustaining adult A1 function.

  11. Hyperactive auditory processing in Williams syndrome: Evidence from auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Omer; Avni, Chen; Attias, Josef; Frisch, Amos; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Green, Tamar; Weizman, Abraham; Gothelf, Doron

    2015-06-01

    The neurophysiologic aberrations underlying the auditory hypersensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS) are not well defined. The P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and mismatch negativity (MMN) response were investigated in 18 participants with WS, and the results were compared with those of 18 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) controls. Results revealed significantly higher amplitudes of both the P1-N1-P2 obligatory complex and the MMN response in the WS participants than in the TD controls. The P1-N1-P2 complex showed an age-dependent reduction in the TD but not in the WS participants. Moreover, high P1-N1-P2 complex was associated with low verbal comprehension scores in WS. This investigation demonstrates that central auditory processing is hyperactive in WS. The increase in auditory brain responses of both the obligatory complex and MMN response suggests aberrant processes of auditory encoding and discrimination in WS. Results also imply that auditory processing may be subjected to a delayed or diverse maturation and may affect the development of high cognitive functioning in WS. PMID:25603839

  12. Implicit temporal expectation attenuates auditory attentional blink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Shen

    Full Text Available Attentional blink (AB describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20% that the probe would occur at the +2 or +8 position following target presentation. Participants showed a significant AB, which was reduced with the increased probe probability at the +2 position. The probe probability effect was paralleled by an increase in P3b amplitude elicited by the probe. The results suggest that implicit temporal attention orienting can facilitate short-term consolidation of the probe and attenuate auditory AB.

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  14. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  15. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  16. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  17. The Effect of Delayed Auditory Feedback on Activity in the Temporal Lobe while Speaking: A Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaso, Hideki; Eisner, Frank; Wise, Richard J. S.; Scott, Sophie K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback is a technique that can improve fluency in stutterers, while disrupting fluency in many nonstuttering individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the neural basis for the detection of and compensation for such a delay, and the effects of increases in the delay duration. Method: Positron emission…

  18. Encoding frequency contrast in primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Brian J.; Scott, Brian H.; Semple, Malcolm N.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in amplitude and frequency jointly determine much of the communicative significance of complex acoustic signals, including human speech. We have previously described responses of neurons in the core auditory cortex of awake rhesus macaques to sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) signals. Here we report a complementary study of sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM) in the same neurons. Responses to SFM were analogous to SAM responses in that changes in multiple parameters defining SFM...

  19. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  20. Auditory plasticity and speech motor learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sazzad M.; Ostry, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Is plasticity in sensory and motor systems linked? Here, in the context of speech motor learning and perception, we test the idea sensory function is modified by motor learning and, in particular, that speech motor learning affects a speaker's auditory map. We assessed speech motor learning by using a robotic device that displaced the jaw and selectively altered somatosensory feedback during speech. We found that with practice speakers progressively corrected for the mechanical perturbation a...

  1. Inhibition in the Human Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Inui; Kei Nakagawa; Makoto Nishihara; Eishi Motomura; Ryusuke Kakigi

    2016-01-01

    Despite their indispensable roles in sensory processing, little is known about inhibitory interneurons in humans. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials cannot be recorded non-invasively, at least in a pure form, in humans. We herein sought to clarify whether prepulse inhibition (PPI) in the auditory cortex reflected inhibition via interneurons using magnetoencephalography. An abrupt increase in sound pressure by 10 dB in a continuous sound was used to evoke the test response, and PPI was observe...

  2. Idealized computational models for auditory receptive fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lindeberg

    Full Text Available We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC and primary auditory cortex (A1 of mammals.

  3. Implicit Temporal Expectation Attenuates Auditory Attentional Blink

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Dawei; Alain, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Attentional blink (AB) describes a phenomenon whereby correct identification of a first target impairs the processing of a second target (i.e., probe) nearby in time. Evidence suggests that explicit attention orienting in the time domain can attenuate the AB. Here, we used scalp-recorded, event-related potentials to examine whether auditory AB is also sensitive to implicit temporal attention orienting. Expectations were set up implicitly by varying the probability (i.e., 80% or 20%) that the ...

  4. Low Power Adder Based Auditory Filter Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cochlea devices are powered up with the help of batteries and they should possess long working life to avoid replacing of devices at regular interval of years. Hence the devices with low power consumptions are required. In cochlea devices there are numerous filters, each responsible for frequency variant signals, which helps in identifying speech signals of different audible range. In this paper, multiplierless lookup table (LUT) based auditory filter is implemented. Power aware adder archite...

  5. Adult age effects in auditory statistical learning

    OpenAIRE

    Neger, T.M.; Rietveld, A.C.M.; Janse, E.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical learning plays a key role in language processing, e.g., for speech segmentation. Older adults have been reported to show less statistical learning on the basis of visual input than younger adults. Given age-related changes in perception and cognition, we investigated whether statistical learning is also impaired in the auditory modality in older compared to younger adults and whether individual learning ability is associated with measures of perceptual (i.e., hearing sensitivity) ...

  6. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Chr.Hansen; MarcusT.Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic e...

  7. Bridging a cultural gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-09-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes—aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics—is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a potential bridging programme, this paper aims at demonstrating that the gap can be bridged, by presenting an ongoing modular bridging programme especially designed for the diverse types of student populations in teachers training colleges. We also present here some innovative teaching and assessment methods that were judged essential for the success of these programmes—focusing mainly on the "Questionnaire Based Instruction Method". Finally we suggest directions of follow up and research.

  8. Erraticity of rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of rapidity gaps is proposed as a measure of the spatial pattern of an event. When the event multiplicity is low, the gaps between neighboring particles carry far more information about an event than multiplicity spikes, which may occur very rarely. Two moments of the gap distribution are suggested for characterizing an event. The fluctuations of those moments from event to event are then quantified by an entropy-like measure, which serves to describe erraticity. We use ECOMB to simulate the exclusive rapidity distribution of each event, from which the erraticity measures are calculated. The dependences of those measures on the order q of the moments provide single-parameter characterizations of erraticity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Orekhova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs and magnetic fields (ERFs may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response - automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN, and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component, - found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, ‘sensory gating’ studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions.

  10. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  11. BALDEY: A database of auditory lexical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In an auditory lexical decision experiment, 5541 spoken content words and pseudowords were presented to 20 native speakers of Dutch. The words vary in phonological make-up and in number of syllables and stress pattern, and are further representative of the native Dutch vocabulary in that most are morphologically complex, comprising two stems or one stem plus derivational and inflectional suffixes, with inflections representing both regular and irregular paradigms; the pseudowords were matched in these respects to the real words. The BALDEY ("biggest auditory lexical decision experiment yet") data file includes response times and accuracy rates, with for each item morphological information plus phonological and acoustic information derived from automatic phonemic segmentation of the stimuli. Two initial analyses illustrate how this data set can be used. First, we discuss several measures of the point at which a word has no further neighbours and compare the degree to which each measure predicts our lexical decision response outcomes. Second, we investigate how well four different measures of frequency of occurrence (from written corpora, spoken corpora, subtitles, and frequency ratings by 75 participants) predict the same outcomes. These analyses motivate general conclusions about the auditory lexical decision task. The (publicly available) BALDEY database lends itself to many further analyses. PMID:25397865

  12. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Moore, David R; Guiraud, Jeanne; Molloy, Katharine; Yan, Ting-Ting; Amitay, Sygal

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM). First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience. PMID:26799068

  13. The effects of auditory enrichment on gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that auditory enrichment can reduce stereotypic behaviors in captive animals. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of three different types of auditory enrichment-naturalistic sounds, classical music, and rock music-in reducing stereotypic behavior displayed by Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three gorillas (one adult male, two adult females) were observed at the Buffalo Zoo for a total of 24 hr per music trial. A control observation period, during which no sounds were presented, was also included. Each music trial consisted of a total of three weeks with a 1-week control period in between each music type. The results reveal a decrease in stereotypic behaviors from the control period to naturalistic sounds. The naturalistic sounds also affected patterns of several other behaviors including locomotion. In contrast, stereotypy increased in the presence of classical and rock music. These results suggest that auditory enrichment, which is not commonly used in zoos in a systematic way, can be easily utilized by keepers to help decrease stereotypic behavior, but the nature of the stimulus, as well as the differential responses of individual animals, need to be considered. PMID:24715297

  14. Hierarchical processing of auditory objects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhbinder Kumar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the computational architecture used by the brain during the analysis of the spectral envelope of sounds, an important acoustic feature for defining auditory objects. Dynamic causal modelling and Bayesian model selection were used to evaluate a family of 16 network models explaining functional magnetic resonance imaging responses in the right temporal lobe during spectral envelope analysis. The models encode different hypotheses about the effective connectivity between Heschl's Gyrus (HG, containing the primary auditory cortex, planum temporale (PT, and superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the modulation of that coupling during spectral envelope analysis. In particular, we aimed to determine whether information processing during spectral envelope analysis takes place in a serial or parallel fashion. The analysis provides strong support for a serial architecture with connections from HG to PT and from PT to STS and an increase of the HG to PT connection during spectral envelope analysis. The work supports a computational model of auditory object processing, based on the abstraction of spectro-temporal "templates" in the PT before further analysis of the abstracted form in anterior temporal lobe areas.

  15. The influence of visual information on auditory processing in individuals with congenital amusia: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao T; Sun, Yanan; Johnson, Blake W; Thompson, William F

    2016-07-15

    While most normal hearing individuals can readily use prosodic information in spoken language to interpret the moods and feelings of conversational partners, people with congenital amusia report that they often rely more on facial expressions and gestures, a strategy that may compensate for deficits in auditory processing. In this investigation, we used EEG to examine the extent to which individuals with congenital amusia draw upon visual information when making auditory or audio-visual judgments. Event-related potentials (ERP) were elicited by a change in pitch (up or down) between two sequential tones paired with a change in spatial position (up or down) between two visually presented dots. The change in dot position was either congruent or incongruent with the change in pitch. Participants were asked to judge (1) the direction of pitch change while ignoring the visual information (AV implicit task), and (2) whether the auditory and visual changes were congruent (AV explicit task). In the AV implicit task, amusic participants performed significantly worse in the incongruent condition than control participants. ERPs showed an enhanced N2-P3 response to incongruent AV pairings for control participants, but not for amusic participants. However when participants were explicitly directed to detect AV congruency, both groups exhibited enhanced N2-P3 responses to incongruent AV pairings. These findings indicate that amusics are capable of extracting information from both modalities in an AV task, but are biased to rely on visual information when it is available, presumably because they have learned that auditory information is unreliable. We conclude that amusic individuals implicitly draw upon visual information when judging auditory information, even though they have the capacity to explicitly recognize conflicts between these two sensory channels. PMID:27132045

  16. Multi-Scale Entrainment of Coupled Neuronal Oscillations in Primary Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M N; Barczak, A; Ross, D; McGinnis, T; Schroeder, C E; Lakatos, P

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations) of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1) entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale) quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale) rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function. PMID:26696866

  17. Multi-scale entrainment of coupled neuronal oscillations in primary auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Noelle O'Connell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies demonstrate that when the frequency of rhythmic tone sequences or streams is task relevant, ongoing excitability fluctuations (oscillations of neuronal ensembles in primary auditory cortex (A1 entrain to stimulation in a frequency dependent way that sharpens frequency tuning. The phase distribution across A1 neuronal ensembles at time points when attended stimuli are predicted to occur reflects the focus of attention along the spectral attribute of auditory stimuli. This study examined how neuronal activity is modulated if only the temporal features of rhythmic stimulus streams are relevant. We presented macaques with auditory clicks arranged in 33 Hz (gamma timescale quintets, repeated at a 1.6 Hz (delta timescale rate. Such multi-scale, hierarchically organized temporal structure is characteristic of vocalizations and other natural stimuli. Monkeys were required to detect and respond to deviations in the temporal pattern of gamma quintets. As expected, engagement in the auditory task resulted in the multi-scale entrainment of delta- and gamma-band neuronal oscillations across all of A1. Surprisingly, however, the phase-alignment, and thus, the physiological impact of entrainment differed across the tonotopic map in A1. In the region of 11-16 kHz representation, entrainment most often aligned high excitability oscillatory phases with task-relevant events in the input stream and thus resulted in response enhancement. In the remainder of the A1 sites, entrainment generally resulted in response suppression. Our data indicate that the suppressive effects were due to low excitability phase delta oscillatory entrainment and the phase amplitude coupling of delta and gamma oscillations. Regardless of the phase or frequency, entrainment appeared stronger in left A1, indicative of the hemispheric lateralization of auditory function.

  18. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare;

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  19. Perspectives on the design of musical auditory interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Leplatre, G.; Brewster, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of music as a communication medium in auditory human-computer interfaces. So far, psychoacoustics has had a great influence on the development of auditory interfaces, directly and through music cognition. We suggest that a better understanding of the processes involved in the perception of actual musical excerpts should allow musical auditory interface designers to exploit the communicative potential of music. In this respect, we argue that the real advantage of...

  20. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    OpenAIRE

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory...

  1. The Impact of Maternal Smoking on Fast Auditory Brainstem Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Carroll, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in auditory processing have been posited as one of the underlying neurodevelopmental consequences of maternal smoking during pregnancy that leads to later language and reading deficits. Fast auditory brainstem responses were used to assess differences in the sensory processing of auditory stimuli among infants with varying degrees of prenatal cigarette exposure. Maternal report of consumption of cigarettes and blood samples were collected in the hospital to assess exposure levels and...

  2. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  3. Time course of dynamic range adaptation in the auditory nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Bo; Wang, Grace I.; Dean, Isabel; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Auditory adaptation to sound-level statistics occurs as early as in the auditory nerve (AN), the first stage of neural auditory processing. In addition to firing rate adaptation characterized by a rate decrement dependent on previous spike activity, AN fibers show dynamic range adaptation, which is characterized by a shift of the rate-level function or dynamic range toward the most frequently occurring levels in a dynamic stimulus, thereby improving the precision of coding of the most common ...

  4. Auditory hair cell precursors immortalized from the mammalian inner ear.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivolta, M.N.; Grix, N; Lawlor, P.; Ashmore, J. F.; Jagger, D J; Holley, M C

    1998-01-01

    Mammalian auditory hair cells are few in number, experimentally inaccessible, and do not proliferate postnatally or in vitro. Immortal cell lines with the potential to differentiate into auditory hair cells would substantially facilitate auditory research, drug development, and the isolation of critical molecules involved in hair cell biology. We have established two conditionally immortal cell lines that express at least five characteristic hair cell markers. These markers are the transcript...

  5. Fundamental deficits of auditory perception in Wernicke’s aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Holly; Grube, Manon; Lambon Ralph, Matthew; Griffiths, Timothy; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This work investigates the nature of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke’s aphasia, by examining the relationship between deficits in auditory processing of fundamental, non-verbal acoustic stimuli and auditory comprehension. Wernicke’s aphasia, a condition resulting in severely disrupted auditory comprehension, primarily occurs following a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) to the left temporo-parietal cortex. Whilst damage to posterior superior temporal areas is associated wit...

  6. Speech Perception Within an Auditory Cognitive Science Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of the acoustic speech signal pose many significant challenges for listeners. Although perceiving speech begins with auditory processing, investigation of speech perception has progressed mostly independently of study of the auditory system. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that cross-fertilization between the two areas of research can be productive. We briefly describe research bridging the study of general auditory processing and speech perception, show...

  7. Top-down modulation of the auditory steady-state response in a task-switch paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Müller

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention is an important mechanism for top-down selection of the vast amount of auditory information our perceptual system is exposed to. In the present study, the impact of attention on auditory steady-state responses - previously shown to be generated in primary auditory regions - was investigated. This issue is still a matter of debate and recent findings point to a complex pattern of attentional effects on the aSSR. The present study aimed at shedding light on the involvement of ipsilateral and contralateral activations to the attended sound taking into account hemispheric differences and a possible dependency on modulation frequency. In aid of this, a dichotic listening experiment was designed using amplitude-modulated tones that were presented to the left and right ear simultaneously. Participants had to detect target tones in a cued ear while their brain activity was assessed using MEG. Thereby, a modulation of the aSSR by attention could be revealed, interestingly restricted to the left hemisphere and 20 Hz responses: Contralateral activations were enhanced while ipsilateral activations turned out to be reduced. Thus, our findings support and extend recent findings, showing that auditory attention can influence the aSSR, but only under specific circumstances and in a complex pattern regarding the different effects for ipsilateral and contralateral activations.

  8. Auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena in a patient with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michael; Attarian, Hrayr; Raizer, Jeffrey; Kumthekar, Priya; Macken, Micheal P; Schuele, Stephan U; Gerard, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Limbic encephalitis involving anti-voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-LE) has become increasingly recognised, with seizures and psychotic features, such as hallucinations being typical clinical manifestations. Though the literature supports auditory hallucinations as ictal phenomena, there are no reported cases of these hallucinations correlating with electrographic seizure for this disease entity. Early recognition of auditory hallucinations as seizures could alter treatment and subsequently affect short-term outcomes in these patients. We report the case of a patient with auditory hallucinations and progressive cognitive decline, as well as serological evidence of VGKC antibodies, in whom ictal hallucinations were identified by continuous video-EEG monitoring. This case highlights the subtlety of this entity, in both clinical and electrographic detection. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:24571022

  9. Monitoramento auditivo na ototoxidade Auditory monitoring in ototoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cassia Bornia Jacob

    2006-12-01

    pertaining literature analysis identified two procedures often used worldwide for the early detection of auditory lesions induced by ototoxic pharmaceutical drugs: high-frequency audiometry and evoked otoacoustic emissions. Both allow early identification of hearing disorders before changes are seen in conventional pure-tone audiometry and, consequently, before speech understanding is compromised. CONCLUSION: we suggest a hearing monitoring protocol, considering the patient’s capability to respond to behavioral tests and monitoring timing (first test/follow up. For cancer patients, hearing monitoring should be performed in the patient’s treatment venue.

  10. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this...... paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the...

  11. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this...... paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the...

  12. Multisensory Interactions between Auditory and Haptic Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja; Menz, Mareike M; R�der, Brigitte; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2013-01-01

    and haptic object features activate cortical regions that host unified conceptual object representations. The left fusiform gyrus (FG) and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) showed increased activation during crossmodal matching of semantically congruent but not incongruent object stimuli. In...... the FG, this effect was found for haptic-to-auditory and auditory-to-haptic matching, whereas the pSTS only displayed a crossmodal matching effect for congruent auditory targets. Auditory and somatosensory association cortices showed increased activity during crossmodal object matching which was...

  13. Extrinsic sound stimulations and development of periphery auditory synapses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Hou; Shiming Yang; Ke Liu

    2015-01-01

    The development of auditory synapses is a key process for the maturation of hearing function. However, it is still on debate regarding whether the development of auditory synapses is dominated by acquired sound stimulations. In this review, we summarize relevant publications in recent decades to address this issue. Most reported data suggest that extrinsic sound stimulations do affect, but not govern the development of periphery auditory synapses. Overall, periphery auditory synapses develop and mature according to its intrinsic mechanism to build up the synaptic connections between sensory neurons and/or interneurons.

  14. Evaluation of peripheral compression and auditory nerve fiber intensity coding using auditory steady-state responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Encina Llamas, Gerard; M. Harte, James; Epp, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    . Evaluation of these properties provides information about the health state of the system. It has been shown that a loss of outer hair cells leads to a reduction in peripheral compression. It has also recently been shown in animal studies that noise over-exposure, producing temporary threshold shifts, can......The compressive nonlinearity of the auditory system is assumed to be an epiphenomenon of a healthy cochlea and, particularly, of outer-hair cell function. Another ability of the healthy auditory system is to enable communication in acoustical environments with high-level background noises...

  15. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK mark...

  16. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  17. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  18. Expected gaps between prime numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gaps between consecutive prime numbers directly through Eratosthenes sieve. Using elementary methods, we identify a recursive relation for these gaps and for specific sequences of consecutive gaps, known as constellations. Using this recursion we can estimate the numbers of a gap or of a constellation that occur between a prime and its square. This recursion also has explicit implications for open questions about gaps between prime numbers, including three questions posed by Erd\\...

  19. EVALUATION OF AUDITORY & BRAINSTEM RESPONSES IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIC INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Jaundice is a common finding in neonates affecting 70% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. So the objective of this study is to evaluate auditory and brainstem responses in hyper bilirubinemic infants and to see if there is any statistically significant increase in latencies of wave I and V waves. To initiate rehabilitative procedure as early in life as possible a screening method to detect auditory disabilities in hyper bilirubinemic infants is of great importance. So the present study is done to know the incidence of hearing loss in hyper bilirubinemic infants & to evaluate the waves I and V in those subjects. METHODS: 45 Infants with hyper bilirubinemia>12mg% & with no other risk factor who visited pediatric OPD of Bapuji Child Health Centre were evaluated using RMS EMG. EP MARK –II machine. Latencies of Waves I and V and interpeak latency of I-V were recorded. RESULTS: On one sample t-test, latency of wave I and IPL I-V were significantly increased (p-value <0.001, latency of V was prolonged which was statistically significant (p-value <0.01. Hearing impairment in the affected infants and complete deafness where none of the waves were recorded signify that it is a risk factor for deafness. CONCLUSION: Since hyper bilirubinemia is a risk factor for hearing impairment, their hearing screening by BERA at the earliest will help in their earliest initiation of rehabilitation when the brain is sensitive to the development of speech & language.

  20. The acute effects of alcohol on auditory thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Maaytah Mohammed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little knowledge about alcohol-induced hearing loss. Alcohol consumption and tolerance to loud noise is a well observed phenomenon as seen in the Western world where parties get noisier by the hour as the evening matures. This leads to increase in the referrals to the "hearing aid clinic" and the diagnosis of "cocktail party deafness" which may not necessarily be only due to presbyacusis or noise-induced hearing loss. Methods 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this trial which took place in a controlled acoustic environment. Each of the individuals was required to consume a pre-set amount of alcohol and the hearing was tested (using full pure tone audiogram pre- and post- alcohol consumption over a broad range of 6 frequencies. Volunteers who achieve a minimum breath alcohol threshold level of 30 u/l had to have second audiogram testing. All the volunteers underwent timed psychometric and visuo-spatial skills tests to detect the effect of alcohol on the decision-making and psychomotor co-ordination. Results Our results showed that there was a positive association between increasing breath alcohol concentration and the magnitude of the increase in hearing threshold for most hearing frequencies. This was calculated by using the Pearson Regression Coefficient Ratio which was up to 0.6 for hearing at 1000 Hz. Over 90% of subjects had raised auditory thresholds in three or more frequencies; this was more marked in the lower frequencies. Conclusion Alcohol specifically blunts lower frequencies affecting the mostly 1000 Hz, which is the most crucial frequency for speech discrimination. In conclusion alcohol does appear to affect auditory thresholds with some frequencies being more affected than others.

  1. Personal Computer Based Clinical Programming Software for Auditory Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Prostheses (AP are widely used electronic devices for patients suffering with severe to profound senosorineural deafness by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve using an electrode array surgically placed in the inner ear. AP mainly contains external Body Worn Speech Processor (BWSP and internal Implantable Receiver Stimulator (IRS. BWSP receives an external sound or speech and generates encoded speech data bits for transmission to IRS via radio frequency transcutaneous link for excitation of electrode array. After surgical placement electrode array in the inner ear, BWSP should be fine tuned to achieve the 80-100% speech reception abilities of patient by an audiologist. Problem statement: Basic objective of this research was to develop a simple personal computer based user friendly hardware and software interface to fine tune the BWSP to achieve the best possible speech reception abilities of each individual patient. Approach: Tuning process involved several tasks such as identifying the active electrode contacts, determination of detection and pain thresholds of each active electrode and loads these values into BWSP by reprogramming the BWSP. This study contracted with development of easy and simple user friendly hardware and software interface for audiologist to perform post operation tuning procedures. A microcontroller based impedance telemetry with bidirectional RF transceiver was developed as a hardware interface between PC and IRS. The clinical programming software was developed using VB.NET 2008 to perform the post-operative tuning procedures such as (i impedance measurement, (ii fitting to determine the threshold and comfort levels for each active electrodes and (iii reprogramming the speech processor. Results: Simple hardware and software interfaces for audiologist were constructed and tested with laboratory model BWSP and IRS using simulated resistance electrode array. All the functional aspects were tested and results

  2. The Role of Auditory and Kinaesthetic Feedback Mechanisms on Phonatory Stability in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rathna Kumar, S. B.; Azeem, Suhail; Choudhary, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, S. G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in phonatory control. When auditory feedback is disrupted, various changes are observed in vocal motor control. Vocal intensity and fundamental frequency (F0) levels tend to increase in response to auditory masking. Because of the close reflexive links between the auditory and phonatory systems, it is likely that phonatory stability may be disrupted when auditory feedback is disrupted or altered. However, studies on phonatory stability under auditory ...

  3. Detecting anxiety and defensiveness from visual and auditory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, J A; Harrigan, K M; Sale, B A; Rosenthal, R

    1996-09-01

    Defensive individuals have been shown to differ from nondefensive individuals on a number of physiological and behavioral measures. We report two studies on observers' inferences of defensiveness, and the contribution of communication channels in the inference of defensiveness. Observers judged high and low state anxious segments of high and low trait anxious defensive and nondefensive individuals. Accurate assessments were made of (a) defensiveness, (b) state anxiety, and (c) trait anxiety: Individuals with higher levels of each variable were perceived as more anxious compared with the lower level. Effects for defensiveness and state anxiety were greater in audio-only segments, while effects for trait anxiety were greater in video-only segments. Inferences of defensiveness were greater at higher levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety. Low trait anxious defensive individuals were perceived as more anxious than the true low trait anxious. Results for defensiveness and trait anxiety were replicated in Study 2, and observers' perceptions of state anxiety matched individuals' self-reports: Defensive individuals with maximal differences between high and low state anxiety were seen as more anxious in high state anxiety, while defensive individuals with minimal differences between high and low state anxiety were regarded as less anxious in high state anxiety. PMID:8776883

  4. The Effect of Objective Room Acoustic Parameters on Auditory Steady-State Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Rodriguez, Valentina; M. Harte, James; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Verification that Hearing Aids (HA) have been fitted correctly in pre-lingual infants and hard-to-test adults is an important emerging application in technical audiology. These test subjects are unable to undergo reliable behavioral testing, so an objective method is required. Auditory steady-state...... responses (ASSR), recorded in a sound field is a promising technology to verify the hearing aid fitting. The test involves the presentation of the auditory stimuli via a loudspeaker, unlike the usual procedure of delivering via insert earphones. Room reverberation clearly may significantly affect the...... features of the stimulus important for eliciting a strong electrophysiological response, and thus complicate its detection. This study investigates the effect of different room acoustic conditions on recorded ASSRs via an auralisation approach using insert earphones. Fifteen normal-hearing listeners were...

  5. Early changes of auditory brain stem evoked response after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S.K.; Wei, W.I.; Sham, J.S.T.; Choy, D.T.K.; Hui, Y. (Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong))

    1992-10-01

    A prospective study of the effect of radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma on hearing was carried out on 49 patients who had pure tone, impedance audiometry and auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR) recordings before, immediately, three, six and 12 months after radiotherapy. Fourteen patients complained of intermittent tinnitus after radiotherapy. We found that 11 initially normal ears of nine patients developed a middle ear effusion, three to six months after radiotherapy. There was mixed sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment after radiotherapy. Persistent impairment of ABR was detected immediately after completion of radiotherapy. The waves I-III and I-V interpeak latency intervals were significantly prolonged one year after radiotherapy. The study shows that radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma impairs hearing by acting on the middle ear, the cochlea and the brain stem auditory pathway. (Author).

  6. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization. PMID:19965094

  7. Auditory Processing Disorder and Auditory/Language Interventions: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Marc E.; Richard, Gail J.; Geffner, Donna; Kamhi, Alan G.; Medwetsky, Larry; Paul, Diane; Ross-Swain, Deborah; Wallach, Geraldine P.; Frymark, Tobi; Schooling, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this systematic review, the peer-reviewed literature on the efficacy of interventions for school-age children with auditory processing disorder (APD) is critically evaluated. Method: Searches of 28 electronic databases yielded 25 studies for analysis. These studies were categorized by research phase (e.g., exploratory, efficacy) and…

  8. An auditory-periphery model of the effects of acoustic trauma on auditory nerve responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Ian C.; Sachs, Murray B.; Young, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic trauma degrades the auditory nerve's tonotopic representation of acoustic stimuli. Recent physiological studies have quantified the degradation in responses to the vowel eh and have investigated amplification schemes designed to restore a more correct tonotopic representation than is achieved with conventional hearing aids. However, it is difficult from the data to quantify how much different aspects of the cochlear pathology contribute to the impaired responses. Furthermore, extensive experimental testing of potential hearing aids is infeasible. Here, both of these concerns are addressed by developing models of the normal and impaired auditory peripheries that are tested against a wide range of physiological data. The effects of both outer and inner hair cell status on model predictions of the vowel data were investigated. The modeling results indicate that impairment of both outer and inner hair cells contribute to degradation in the tonotopic representation of the formant frequencies in the auditory nerve. Additionally, the model is able to predict the effects of frequency-shaping amplification on auditory nerve responses, indicating the model's potential suitability for more rapid development and testing of hearing aid schemes.

  9. Deterministic multidimensional nonuniform gap sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Born from empirical observations in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional NMR data relating to gaps between sampled points, the Poisson-gap sampling method has enjoyed widespread use in biomolecular NMR. While the majority of nonuniform sampling schemes are fully randomly drawn from probability densities that vary over a Nyquist grid, the Poisson-gap scheme employs constrained random deviates to minimize the gaps between sampled grid points. We describe a deterministic gap sampling method, based on the average behavior of Poisson-gap sampling, which performs comparably to its random counterpart with the additional benefit of completely deterministic behavior. We also introduce a general algorithm for multidimensional nonuniform sampling based on a gap equation, and apply it to yield a deterministic sampling scheme that combines burst-mode sampling features with those of Poisson-gap schemes. Finally, we derive a relationship between stochastic gap equations and the expectation value of their sampling probability densities.

  10. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  11. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  12. Beyond the gap

    OpenAIRE

    Büger, Christian; Villumsen, Trine

    2015-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has cultivated the idea of a gap between the theory and the practice/praxis of IR. This division into two different spheres of knowledge is related to the predominant objectivist conception of science in IR, where the scientist is said to be observing reality from a distance without affecting it. Poststructuralists have denied that this distinction is meaningful and have even argued that it is dangerous to be oblivious to the structuring effects science may have o...

  13. Mind the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, KIRK R.; Peel, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent analysis has demonstrated a remarkably consistent, nonlinear relationship between estimated inhaled dose of combustion particles measured as PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) and cardiovascular disease mortality over several orders of magnitude of dose—from cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and ambient air pollution exposure. Objectives Here we discuss the implications of this relationship and point out the gaps in our...

  14. BRIDGING SERVICE QUALITY GAPS

    OpenAIRE

    BARKATH UNISSA

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Service quality gaps is one of the foremost areas of concern for amarketer. Service marketing is inherently different from product or goods marketing.Services are distinctively characterized by their intangible, heterogeneous, inseparableand perishable nature. The importance of the service sector in today's world is a verywidely accepted and renowned idea. “We are already experiencing a service society“services do have some basic characteristics which make them fundamentally diff...

  15. Gapped Ferromagnetic Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, D.; J. H. Wei; Xie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically design a graphene-based all-organic ferromagnetic semiconductor by terminating zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with organic magnets. A large spin-split gap with 100% spin polarized density of states near the Fermi energy is obtained, which is of potential application in spin transistors. The interplays among electron, spin and lattice degrees of freedom are studied using the first-principles calculations combined with fundamental model analysis. All of the calculations co...

  16. A critical period for auditory thalamocortical connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Polley, Daniel B; Hensch, Takao K

    2011-01-01

    connectivity by in vivo recordings and day-by-day voltage-sensitive dye imaging in an acute brain slice preparation. Passive tone-rearing modified response strength and topography in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) during a brief, 3-d window, but did not alter tonotopic maps in the thalamus. Gene......-targeted deletion of a forebrain-specific cell-adhesion molecule (Icam5) accelerated plasticity in this critical period. Consistent with its normal role of slowing spinogenesis, loss of Icam5 induced precocious stubby spine maturation on pyramidal cell dendrites in neocortical layer 4 (L4), identifying a primary...

  17. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  18. From ear to hand: the role of the auditory-motor loop in pointing to an auditory source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Eric O.; Babayan, Bénédicte M.; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; Noisternig, Markus; Warusfel, Olivier; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Hanneton, Sylvain; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the nature of the neural mechanisms involved in goal-directed movements tend to concentrate on the role of vision. We present here an attempt to address the mechanisms whereby an auditory input is transformed into a motor command. The spatial and temporal organization of hand movements were studied in normal human subjects as they pointed toward unseen auditory targets located in a horizontal plane in front of them. Positions and movements of the hand were measured by a six infrared camera tracking system. In one condition, we assessed the role of auditory information about target position in correcting the trajectory of the hand. To accomplish this, the duration of the target presentation was varied. In another condition, subjects received continuous auditory feedback of their hand movement while pointing to the auditory targets. Online auditory control of the direction of pointing movements was assessed by evaluating how subjects reacted to shifts in heard hand position. Localization errors were exacerbated by short duration of target presentation but not modified by auditory feedback of hand position. Long duration of target presentation gave rise to a higher level of accuracy and was accompanied by early automatic head orienting movements consistently related to target direction. These results highlight the efficiency of auditory feedback processing in online motor control and suggest that the auditory system takes advantages of dynamic changes of the acoustic cues due to changes in head orientation in order to process online motor control. How to design an informative acoustic feedback needs to be carefully studied to demonstrate that auditory feedback of the hand could assist the monitoring of movements directed at objects in auditory space. PMID:23626532

  19. Auditory Processing Theories of Language Disorders: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide information that will assist readers in understanding and interpreting research literature on the role of auditory processing in communication disorders. Method: A narrative review was used to summarize and synthesize the literature on auditory processing deficits in children with auditory…

  20. A Time-Frequency Auditory Model Using Wavelet Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A time-frequency auditory model is presented. The model uses the wavelet packet analysis as the preprocessor. The auditory filters are modelled by the rounded exponential filters, and the excitation is smoothed by a window function. By comparing time-frequency excitation patterns it is shown that...

  1. Auditory Processing Learning Disability, Suicidal Ideation, and Transformational Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Frank S.; Yocum, Russell G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this personal experience as a narrative investigation is to describe how an auditory processing learning disability exacerbated--and how spirituality and religiosity relieved--suicidal ideation, through the lived experiences of an individual born and raised in the United States. The study addresses: (a) how an auditory processing…

  2. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a bas

  3. Modeling auditory evoked brainstem responses to transient stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch; Dau, Torsten; Harte, James;

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative model is presented that describes the formation of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to tone pulses, clicks and rising chirps as a function of stimulation level. The model computes the convolution of the instantaneous discharge rates using the “humanized” nonlinear auditory-nerve ...

  4. Enhanced Generalization of Auditory Conditioned Fear in Juvenile Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Wataru; Pan, Bing-Xing; Yang, Chao; Thakur, Siddarth; Morozov, Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Increased emotionality is a characteristic of human adolescence, but its animal models are limited. Here we report that generalization of auditory conditioned fear between a conditional stimulus (CS+) and a novel auditory stimulus is stronger in 4-5-wk-old mice (juveniles) than in their 9-10-wk-old counterparts (adults), whereas nonassociative…

  5. Impact of Educational Level on Performance on Auditory Processing Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Rabelo, Camila M; Silagi, Marcela L; Mansur, Letícia L; Schochat, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that a higher level of education is associated with better performance on cognitive tests among middle-aged and elderly people. However, the effects of education on auditory processing skills have not yet been evaluated. Previous demonstrations of sensory-cognitive interactions in the aging process indicate the potential importance of this topic. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of middle-aged and elderly people with different levels of formal education on auditory processing tests. A total of 177 adults with no evidence of cognitive, psychological or neurological conditions took part in the research. The participants completed a series of auditory assessments, including dichotic digit, frequency pattern and speech-in-noise tests. A working memory test was also performed to investigate the extent to which auditory processing and cognitive performance were associated. The results demonstrated positive but weak correlations between years of schooling and performance on all of the tests applied. The factor "years of schooling" was also one of the best predictors of frequency pattern and speech-in-noise test performance. Additionally, performance on the working memory, frequency pattern and dichotic digit tests was also correlated, suggesting that the influence of educational level on auditory processing performance might be associated with the cognitive demand of the auditory processing tests rather than auditory sensory aspects itself. Longitudinal research is required to investigate the causal relationship between educational level and auditory processing skills. PMID:27013958

  6. Tinnitus intensity dependent gamma oscillations of the contralateral auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa van der Loo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-pulsatile tinnitus is considered a subjective auditory phantom phenomenon present in 10 to 15% of the population. Tinnitus as a phantom phenomenon is related to hyperactivity and reorganization of the auditory cortex. Magnetoencephalography studies demonstrate a correlation between gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and the presence of tinnitus. The present study aims to investigate the relation between objective gamma-band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex and subjective tinnitus loudness scores. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In unilateral tinnitus patients (N = 15; 10 right, 5 left source analysis of resting state electroencephalographic gamma band oscillations shows a strong positive correlation with Visual Analogue Scale loudness scores in the contralateral auditory cortex (max r = 0.73, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Auditory phantom percepts thus show similar sound level dependent activation of the contralateral auditory cortex as observed in normal audition. In view of recent consciousness models and tinnitus network models these results suggest tinnitus loudness is coded by gamma band activity in the contralateral auditory cortex but might not, by itself, be responsible for tinnitus perception.

  7. Diagnosis of Auditory Perceptual Disorders in Previously Undiagnosed Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, Jon M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four adult patients who presented to a number of hospital services with complaints related to difficulty in hearing, understanding, remembering, or writing were examined for auditory perceptual disorders. Results support the desirability of examining auditory perceptual abilities in adults even though the tools available are designed…

  8. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials in Unsuccessful Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munivrana, Boska; Mildner, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In some cochlear implant users, success is not achieved in spite of optimal clinical factors (including age at implantation, duration of rehabilitation and post-implant hearing level), which may be attributed to disorders at higher levels of the auditory pathway. We used cortical auditory evoked potentials to investigate the ability to perceive…

  9. TRIMETHYLTIN EFFECTS ON AUDITORY FUNCTION AND COCHLEAR MORPHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMT is neurotoxicant known to alter auditory function. he present study was designed to compare TNT-induced auditory dysfunction using behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical techniques. dult male long Evans hooded rats (n=9-l2/group) were acutely exposed to saline, 3, 5...

  10. Effect of Auditory Interference on Memory of Haptic Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anater, Paul F.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of auditory interference on the processing of haptic information by 61 visually impaired students (8 to 20 years old) was the focus of the research described in this article. It was assumed that as the auditory interference approximated the verbalized activity of the haptic task, accuracy of recall would decline. (Author)

  11. Deactivation of the Parahippocampal Gyrus Preceding Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Goekoop, Rutger; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Activation in a network of language-related regions has been reported during auditory verbal hallucinations. It remains unclear, however, how this activation is triggered. Identifying brain regions that show significant signal changes preceding auditory hallucinations might reveal the ori

  12. Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Jason T.; Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The chicken auditory brainstem is a well-established model system that has been widely used to study the anatomy and physiology of auditory processing at discreet periods of development 1-4 as well as mechanisms for temporal coding in the central nervous system 5-7.

  13. SUBORDINATE GAPS IN MANDARIN CHINESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of subordinate gaps in Mandarin Chinese casts doubt on analyses built on canonical coordinate gapping. We observe that the minimality of contrastive focus and the type of subordinate clause determine the acceptability of a missing gap in subordinate structure. Along this vein, we propose that a semantic-based deletion account can be used to interpret gapping in Mandarin. Such account relies on two violable constraints, AvoidF and Focus condition on gapping (Schwarzchild 1999, Merchant 2001 to compute the acceptability of a gap.

  14. Overview of Central Auditory Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcherson, Samuel R; Nagaraj, Naveen K; Kennett, Sarah E W; Levisee, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Although there are many reported age-related declines in the human body, the notion that a central auditory processing deficit exists in older adults has not always been clear. Hearing loss and both structural and functional central nervous system changes with advancing age are contributors to how we listen, hear, and process auditory information. Even older adults with normal or near normal hearing sensitivity may exhibit age-related central auditory processing deficits as measured behaviorally and/or electrophysiologically. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of assessment and rehabilitative approaches for central auditory processing deficits in older adults. It is hoped that the outcome of the information presented here will help clinicians with older adult patients who do not exhibit the typical auditory processing behaviors exhibited by others at the same age and with comparable hearing sensitivity all in the absence of other health-related conditions. PMID:27516715

  15. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denlinger, Jonathan; Clack, Jules A.; Allen, James W.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Poirier, Derek M.; Olson, Cliff G.; Sarrao, John L.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2002-08-01

    Complementary angle-resolved photoemission and bulk-sensitive k-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of divalent hexaborides reveal a >1 eV X-point gap between the valence and conduction bands, in contradiction to the band overlap assumed in several models of their novel ferromagnetism. This semiconducting gap implies that carriers detected in transport measurements arise from defects, and the measured location of the bulk Fermi level at the bottom of the conduction band implicates boron vacancies as the origin of the excess electrons. The measured band structure and X-point gap in CaB6 additionally provide a stringent test case for proper inclusion of many-body effects in quasi-particle band calculations.

  16. GapBlaster—A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer. PMID:27171416

  17. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  18. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer. PMID:27171416

  19. Monkey׳s short-term auditory memory nearly abolished by combined removal of the rostral superior temporal gyrus and rhinal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jonathan B; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2016-06-01

    While monkeys easily acquire the rules for performing visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample, a method for testing recognition memory, they have extraordinary difficulty acquiring a similar rule in audition. Another striking difference between the modalities is that whereas bilateral ablation of the rhinal cortex (RhC) leads to profound impairment in visual and tactile recognition, the same lesion has no detectable effect on auditory recognition memory (Fritz et al., 2005). In our previous study, a mild impairment in auditory memory was obtained following bilateral ablation of the entire medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the RhC, and an equally mild effect was observed after bilateral ablation of the auditory cortical areas in the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG). In order to test the hypothesis that each of these mild impairments was due to partial disconnection of acoustic input to a common target (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex), in the current study we examined the effects of a more complete auditory disconnection of this common target by combining the removals of both the rSTG and the MTL. We found that the combined lesion led to forgetting thresholds (performance at 75% accuracy) that fell precipitously from the normal retention duration of ~30 to 40s to a duration of ~1 to 2s, thus nearly abolishing auditory recognition memory, and leaving behind only a residual echoic memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26707975

  20. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Molholm

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  1. Computational characterization of visually-induced auditory spatial adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Wozny

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research investigating the principles governing human perception has provided increasing evidence for probabilistic inference in human perception. For example, human auditory and visual localization judgments closely resemble that of a Bayesian causal inference observer, where the underlying causal structure of the stimuli are inferred based on both the available sensory evidence and prior knowledge. However, most previous studies have focused on characterization of perceptual inference within a static environment, and therefore, little is known about how this inference process changes when observers are exposed to a new environment. In this study we aimed to computationally characterize the change in auditory spatial perception induced by repeated auditory-visual spatial conflict, known as the Ventriloquist Aftereffect. In theory, this change could reflect a shift in the auditory sensory representations (i.e., shift in auditory likelihood distribution, a decrease in the precision of the auditory estimates (i.e., increase in spread of likelihood distribution, a shift in the auditory bias (i.e., shift in prior distribution, or an increase/decrease in strength of the auditory bias (i.e., the spread of prior distribution, or a combination of these. By quantitatively estimating the parameters of the perceptual process for each individual observer using a Bayesian causal inference model, we found that the shift in the perceived locations after exposure was associated with a shift in the mean of the auditory likelihood functions in the direction of the experienced visual offset. The results suggest that repeated exposure to a fixed auditory-visual discrepancy is attributed by the nervous system to sensory representation error and as a result, the sensory map of space is recalibrated to correct the error.

  2. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Berding

    Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation. The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals Auditory and Frontal Cortical Regions Involved with Speech Perception and Loudness Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berding, Georg; Wilke, Florian; Rode, Thilo; Haense, Cathleen; Joseph, Gert; Meyer, Geerd J; Mamach, Martin; Lenarz, Minoo; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Lenarz, Thomas; Lim, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of hearing loss with auditory implants. However, there are still many implanted patients that experience hearing deficiencies, such as limited speech understanding or vanishing perception with continuous stimulation (i.e., abnormal loudness adaptation). The present study aims to identify specific patterns of cerebral cortex activity involved with such deficiencies. We performed O-15-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients implanted with electrodes within the cochlea, brainstem, or midbrain to investigate the pattern of cortical activation in response to speech or continuous multi-tone stimuli directly inputted into the implant processor that then delivered electrical patterns through those electrodes. Statistical parametric mapping was performed on a single subject basis. Better speech understanding was correlated with a larger extent of bilateral auditory cortex activation. In contrast to speech, the continuous multi-tone stimulus elicited mainly unilateral auditory cortical activity in which greater loudness adaptation corresponded to weaker activation and even deactivation. Interestingly, greater loudness adaptation was correlated with stronger activity within the ventral prefrontal cortex, which could be up-regulated to suppress the irrelevant or aberrant signals into the auditory cortex. The ability to detect these specific cortical patterns and differences across patients and stimuli demonstrates the potential for using PET to diagnose auditory function or dysfunction in implant patients, which in turn could guide the development of appropriate stimulation strategies for improving hearing rehabilitation. Beyond hearing restoration, our study also reveals a potential role of the frontal cortex in suppressing irrelevant or aberrant activity within the auditory cortex, and thus may be relevant for understanding and treating tinnitus. PMID:26046763

  5. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus;

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements. The mi...

  6. Auditory Preferences of Young Children with and without Hearing Loss for Meaningful Auditory-Visual Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both…

  7. Organization of the auditory brainstem in a lizard, Gekko gecko. I. Auditory nerve, cochlear nuclei, and superior olivary nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y. Z.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Carr, C. E.

    2012-01-01

    We used tract tracing to reveal the connections of the auditory brainstem in the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). The auditory nerve has two divisions, a rostroventrally directed projection of mid- to high best-frequency fibers to the nucleus angularis (NA) and a more dorsal and caudal projection of low...

  8. Modification of computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) for noise-robust acoustic feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minseok

    While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system

  9. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. 1. To determine which areas of the cerebral cortex are activated stimulating the left ear with pure tones, and what type of stimulation occurs (eg. excitatory or inhibitory) in these different areas. 2. To use this information as an initial step to develop a normal functional data base for future studies. 3. To try to determine if there is a biological substrate to the process of recalling previous auditory perceptions and if possible, suggest a locus for auditory memory. Method. Brain perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluation was conducted: 1-2) Using auditory stimulation with pure tones in 4 volunteers with normal hearing. 3) In a patient with bilateral profound hearing loss who had auditory perception of previous musical experiences; while injected with Tc99m HMPAO while she was having the sensation of hearing a well known melody. Results. Both in the patient with auditory hallucinations and the normal controls -stimulated with pure tones- there was a statistically significant increase in perfusion in Brodmann's area 39, more intense on the right side (right to left p < 0.05). With a lesser intensity there was activation in the adjacent area 40 and there was intense activation also in the executive frontal cortex areas 6, 8, 9, and 10 of Brodmann. There was also activation of area 7 of Brodmann; an audio-visual association area; more marked on the right side in the patient and the normal stimulated controls. In the subcortical structures there was also marked activation in the patient with hallucinations in both lentiform nuclei, thalamus and caudate nuclei also more intense in the right hemisphere, 5, 4.7 and 4.2 S.D. above the mean respectively and 5, 3.3, and 3 S.D. above the normal mean in the left hemisphere respectively. Similar findings were observed in normal controls. Conclusions. After auditory stimulation with pure tones in the left ear of normal female volunteers, there is bilateral activation of area 39

  10. Neuroglobin Expression in the Mammalian Auditory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Banica, Ovidiu; Elgurt, Mirra; Mitz, Stephanie; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Riemann, Randolf; Hill, Marco; Jaquish, Dawn V; Koehrn, Fred J; Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas; Woolf, Nigel K

    2016-04-01

    The energy-yielding pathways that provide the large amounts of metabolic energy required by inner ear sensorineural cells are poorly understood. Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a neuron-specific hemoprotein of the globin family, which is suggested to be involved in oxidative energy metabolism. Here, we present quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and Western blot evidence that neuroglobin is highly expressed in the mouse and rat cochlea. For primary cochlea neurons, Ngb expression is limited to the subpopulation of type I spiral ganglion cells, those which innervate inner hair cells, while the subpopulation of type II spiral ganglion cells which innervate the outer hair cells do not express Ngb. We further investigated Ngb distribution in rat, mouse, and human auditory brainstem centers, and found that the cochlear nuclei and superior olivary complex (SOC) also express considerable amounts of Ngb. Notably, the majority of olivocochlear neurons, those which provide efferent innervation of outer hair cells as identified by neuronal tract tracing, were Ngb-immunoreactive. We also observed that neuroglobin in the SOC frequently co-localized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme responsible for nitric oxide production. Our findings suggest that neuroglobin is well positioned to play an important physiologic role in the oxygen homeostasis of the peripheral and central auditory nervous system, and provides the first evidence that Ngb signal differentiates the central projections of the inner and outer hair cells. PMID:25636685

  11. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. PMID:26302716

  12. Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairments: Are there Deficits in Frequency Discrimination, Temporal Auditory Processing or General Auditory Processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Nickisch, Andreas; Massinger, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Specific language impairment (SLI) is believed to be associated with nonverbal auditory (NVA) deficits. It remains unclear, however, whether children with SLI show deficits in auditory time processing, time processing in general, frequency discrimination (FD), or NVA processing in general. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven children (aged 8-11) with SLI and 27 control children (CG), matched for age and gender, were retrospectively compared with regard to their performance on ...

  13. The Infrastructure Gap and Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andres; Dan Biller; Jordan Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an economic logic for underpinning decentralization in the infrastructure sectors. It starts by detailing the definition of the infrastructure gap and the methodologies to calculate it. It provides some global trends for developing countries in terms of the gap and briefly discusses financing possibilities for developing countries to address the gap. Then it turns to the discussion of the link between the infrastructure gap and decentralization, providing a typology infras...

  14. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d1, . . . , dm) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d1, . . . , dm}. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  15. Gap Opening in 3D: Single Planet Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Giant planets can clear deep gaps when embedded in 2D (razor-thin) viscous circumstellar disks. We show by direct simulation that giant planets are just as capable of carving out gaps in 3D. Surface density maps are similar between 2D and 3D, even in detail. In particular, the scaling $\\Sigma_{\\rm gap} \\propto q^{-2}$ of gap surface density with planet mass, derived from a global "zero-dimensional" balance of Lindblad and viscous torques, applies equally well to results obtained at higher dimensions. Our 3D simulations reveal extensive, near-sonic, meridional flows both inside and outside the gaps; these large-scale circulations might bear on disk compositional gradients, in dust or other chemical species. At high planet mass, gap edges are mildly Rayleigh unstable and intermittently shed streams of material into the gap - less so in 3D than in 2D.

  16. Nerve growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the mesencephalon and diencephalon, as well as visual- and auditory-related nervous tissues, in a macaque model of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qihui Luo; Wentao Liu; Jingyao Chen; Mingshu Wang; Wen Zeng; Zhengli Chen; Anchun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The present study detected distribution and expression of nerve growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the mesencephalon and diencephalon, as well as visual- and auditory-related nervous tissues, in a macaque model of type 2 diabetes using immunohistochemistry. Results showed that nerve growth factor expression decreased, but inducible nitric oxide synthase expression increased, in the mesencephalon and diencephalon, as well as visual- and auditory- related nervous tissues. These results suggested that nerve growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase play an important role in regulating the development of diabetic visual- and auditory-related diseases.

  17. Using an auditory sensory substitution device to augment vision: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas D; Margolis, Aaron; Ward, Jamie

    2015-03-01

    Sensory substitution devices convert information normally associated with one sense into another sense (e.g. converting vision into sound). This is often done to compensate for an impaired sense. The present research uses a multimodal approach in which both natural vision and sound-from-vision ('soundscapes') are simultaneously presented. Although there is a systematic correspondence between what is seen and what is heard, we introduce a local discrepancy between the signals (the presence of a target object that is heard but not seen) that the participant is required to locate. In addition to behavioural responses, the participants' gaze is monitored with eye-tracking. Although the target object is only presented in the auditory channel, behavioural performance is enhanced when visual information relating to the non-target background is presented. In this instance, vision may be used to generate predictions about the soundscape that enhances the ability to detect the hidden auditory object. The eye-tracking data reveal that participants look for longer in the quadrant containing the auditory target even when they subsequently judge it to be located elsewhere. As such, eye movements generated by soundscapes reveal the knowledge of the target location that does not necessarily correspond to the actual judgment made. The results provide a proof of principle that multimodal sensory substitution may be of benefit to visually impaired people with some residual vision and, in normally sighted participants, for guiding search within complex scenes. PMID:25511162

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of the inferior colliculus and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preterm and low-birth-weight infants have an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) are an effective method to detect subtle deficits in impulse conduction in the auditory pathway. Abnormalities on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been shown to be associated with perinatal white-matter injury and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) has been reported in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. To evaluate the possibility of a correlation between BAEP and DTI of the inferior colliculus in preterm infants. DTI at term age and BAEP measurements were performed on all very-low-birth-weight or very preterm study infants (n=56). FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the inferior colliculus were measured from the DTI. Shorter BAEP wave I, III, and V latencies and I-III and I-V intervals and higher wave V amplitude correlated with higher FA of the inferior colliculus. The association between the DTI findings of the inferior colliculus and BAEP responses suggests that DTI can be used to assess the integrity of the auditory pathway in preterm infants. (orig.)

  19. Ontogenetic Change in the Auditory Conditioned Stimulus Pathway for Eyeblink Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John H.; Campolattaro, Matthew M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the neural mechanisms underlying the ontogenetic emergence of auditory eyeblink conditioning. Previous studies found that the medial auditory thalamus is necessary for eyeblink conditioning with an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) in adult rats. In experiment 1, stimulation of the medial auditory thalamus was used as a…

  20. The Role of Auditory Cues in the Spatial Knowledge of Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Kimon; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The study presented here sought to explore the role of auditory cues in the spatial knowledge of blind individuals by examining the relation between the perceived auditory cues and the landscape of a given area and by investigating how blind individuals use auditory cues to create cognitive maps. The findings reveal that several auditory cues…

  1. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  2. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  3. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan; Chen; Hui; Ma; Danlu; Bu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap.Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  4. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  5. [Auditory hallucinations in lesions of the brain stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, J; Decroix, J P; Masson, C

    1987-01-01

    Since the publication by Jean Lhermitte in 1922 of his paper on hallucinosis, the peduncular type has been described as a purely visual phenomenon. However, limited brain stem lesions can give rise to analogous manifestations in the auditory field. Five cases of auditory hallucinosis are reviewed, the first four resulting from a lesion of tegmentum of pons responsible for contralateral hemi-anesthesia and homolateral facial palsy with paralysis of laterality. Central type hypoacusis and a severe disorder of localization of sounds revealed a lesion of trapezoid body. The fifth case resulted from a peduncular lesion in region supplied by superior cerebellar artery, the auditory deficit being related to a lesion of inferior corpus quadrigeminum. In one patient, the auditory hallucinosis was followed by a period of visual hallucinations and oneiric delusions. Both auditory and visual hallucinosis can be related to hypnagogic hallucinations. Dream mechanisms (the geniculo-occipital spikes system) escape from normal inhibitory control exerted by the raphe nuclei. Auditory deafferentation could predispose to auditory hallucinosis. PMID:3629075

  6. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  7. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopic imaging of stimulus-related hemodynamic responses on the neonatal auditory cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilahti, Kalle; Nissila, Ilkka; Makela, Riikka; Noponen, Tommi; Lipiainen, Lauri; Gavrielides, Nasia; Kajava, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta; Merilainen, Pekka; Katila, Toivo

    2005-04-01

    We have used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study hemodynamic auditory evoked responses on 7 full-term neonates. Measurements were done simultaneously above both auditory cortices to study the distribution of speech and music processing between hemispheres using a 16-channel frequency-domain instrument. The stimulation consisted of 5-second samples of music and speech with a 25-second silent interval. In response to stimulation, a significant increase in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([HbO2]) was detected in 6 out of 7 subjects. The strongest responses in [HbO2] were seen near the measurement location above the ear on both hemispheres. The mean latency of the maximum responses was 9.42+/-1.51 s. On the left hemisphere (LH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response to the music stimuli was 0.76+/- 0.38 μ M (mean+/-std.) and to the speech stimuli 1.00+/- 0.45 μ+/- μM. On the right hemisphere (RH), the maximum amplitude of the average [HbO2] response was 1.29+/- 0.85 μM to the music stimuli and 1.23+/- 0.93 μM to the speech stimuli. The results indicate that auditory information is processed on both auditory cortices, but LH is more concentrated to process speech than music information. No significant differences in the locations and the latencies of the maximum responses relative to the stimulus type were found.

  9. Cochlear Responses and Auditory Brainstem Response Functions in Adults with Auditory Neuropathy/ Dys-Synchrony and Individuals with Normal Hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Physiologic measures of cochlear and auditory nerve function may be of assis¬tance in distinguishing between hearing disorders due primarily to auditory nerve impairment from those due primarily to cochlear hair cells dysfunction. The goal of present study was to measure of co-chlear responses (otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response in some adults with auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony and subjects with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: Patients were 16 adults (32 ears in age range of 14-30 years with auditory neu¬ropathy/ dys-synchrony and 16 individuals in age range of 16-30 years from both sexes. The results of transient otoacoustic emissions, cochlear microphonics and auditory brainstem response measures were compared in both groups and the effects of age, sex, ear and degree of hearing loss were studied. Results: The pure-tone average was 48.1 dB HL in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony group and the fre¬quency of low tone loss and flat audiograms were higher among other audiogram's shapes. Transient oto¬acoustic emissions were shown in all auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony people except two cases and its average was near in both studied groups. The latency and amplitude of the biggest reversed co-chlear microphonics response were higher in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients than control peo¬ple significantly. The correlation between cochlear microphonics amplitude and degree of hearing loss was not significant, and age had significant effect in some cochlear microphonics measures. Audi-tory brainstem response had no response in auditory neuropathy/dys-synchrony patients even with low stim¬uli rates. Conclusion: In adults with speech understanding worsen than predicted from the degree of hearing loss that suspect to auditory neuropathy/ dys-synchrony, the frequency of low tone loss and flat audiograms are higher. Usually auditory brainstem response is absent in

  10. Air pollution is associated with brainstem auditory nuclei pathology and delayed brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; D’Angiulli, Amedeo; Kulesza, Randy J.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Osnaya, Norma; Romero, Lina; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane M.; Avila-Ramirez, Jose; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; González-González, Luis Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We assessed brainstem inflammation in children exposed to air pollutants by comparing brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and blood inflammatory markers in children age 96.3± 8.5 months from highly polluted (n=34) versus a low polluted city (n=17). The brainstems of nine children with accidental deaths were also examined. Children from the highly polluted environment had significant delays in wave III (t(50)=17.038; p

  11. Psychophysical and Neural Correlates of Auditory Attraction and Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kristopher Jakob

    This study explores the psychophysical and neural processes associated with the perception of sounds as either pleasant or aversive. The underlying psychophysical theory is based on auditory scene analysis, the process through which listeners parse auditory signals into individual acoustic sources. The first experiment tests and confirms that a self-rated pleasantness continuum reliably exists for 20 various stimuli (r = .48). In addition, the pleasantness continuum correlated with the physical acoustic characteristics of consonance/dissonance (r = .78), which can facilitate auditory parsing processes. The second experiment uses an fMRI block design to test blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes elicited by a subset of 5 exemplar stimuli chosen from Experiment 1 that are evenly distributed over the pleasantness continuum. Specifically, it tests and confirms that the pleasantness continuum produces systematic changes in brain activity for unpleasant acoustic stimuli beyond what occurs with pleasant auditory stimuli. Results revealed that the combination of two positively and two negatively valenced experimental sounds compared to one neutral baseline control elicited BOLD increases in the primary auditory cortex, specifically the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex; the latter being consistent with a frontal decision-making process common in identification tasks. The negatively-valenced stimuli yielded additional BOLD increases in the left insula, which typically indicates processing of visceral emotions. The positively-valenced stimuli did not yield any significant BOLD activation, consistent with consonant, harmonic stimuli being the prototypical acoustic pattern of auditory objects that is optimal for auditory scene analysis. Both the psychophysical findings of Experiment 1 and the neural processing findings of Experiment 2 support that consonance is an important dimension of sound that is processed in a manner that aids

  12. Continuity of visual and auditory rhythms influences sensorimotor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Varlet

    Full Text Available People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.

  13. Cortical oscillations in auditory perception and speech: evidence for two temporal windows in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan eLuo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds, including vocal communication sounds, contain critical information at multiple time scales. Two essential temporal modulation rates in speech have been argued to be in the low gamma band (~20-80 ms duration information and the theta band (~150-300 ms, corresponding to segmental and syllabic modulation rates, respectively. On one hypothesis, auditory cortex implements temporal integration using time constants closely related to these values. The neural correlates of a proposed dual temporal window mechanism in human auditory cortex remain poorly understood. We recorded MEG responses from participants listening to non-speech auditory stimuli with different temporal structures, created by concatenating frequency-modulated segments of varied segment durations. We show that these non-speech stimuli with temporal structure matching speech-relevant scales (~25 ms and ~200 ms elicit reliable phase tracking in the corresponding associated oscillatory frequencies (low gamma and theta bands. In contrast, stimuli with non-matching temporal structure do not. Furthermore, the topography of theta band phase tracking shows rightward lateralization while gamma band phase tracking occurs bilaterally. The results support the hypothesis that there exists multi-time resolution processing in cortex on discontinuous scales and provide evidence for an asymmetric organization of temporal analysis (asymmetrical sampling in time, AST. The data argue for a macroscopic-level neural mechanism underlying multi-time resolution processing: the sliding and resetting of intrinsic temporal windows on privileged time scales.

  14. Music perception: information flow within the human auditory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Concha, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Information processing of all acoustic stimuli involves temporal lobe regions referred to as auditory cortices, which receive direct afferents from the auditory thalamus. However, the perception of music (as well as speech or spoken language) is a complex process that also involves secondary and association cortices that conform a large functional network. Using different analytical techniques and stimulation paradigms, several studies have shown that certain areas are particularly sensitive to specific acoustic characteristics inherent to music (e.g., rhythm). This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of the auditory cortices, and highlights specific experiments that suggest the existence of distinct cortical networks for the perception of music and speech. PMID:25358716

  15. Auditory pitch imagery and its relationship to musical synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Nadine; Keller, Peter E

    2009-07-01

    Musical ensemble performance requires precise coordination of action. To play in synchrony, ensemble musicians presumably anticipate the sounds that will be produced by their co-performers. These predictions may be based on auditory images in working memory. This study examined the contribution of auditory imagery abilities to sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) in 20 musicians. The acuity of single-tone pitch images was measured by an adjustment method and by adaptive threshold estimation. Different types of finger tapping tasks were administered to assess SMS. Auditory imagery and SMS abilities were found to be positively correlated with one another and with musical experience. PMID:19673794

  16. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people. PMID:20481341

  17. Effects of auditory enhancement on the loudness of masker and target components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningyuan; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Auditory enhancement refers to the observation that the salience of one spectral region (the "signal") of a broadband sound can be enhanced and can "pop out" from the remainder of the sound (the "masker") if it is preceded by the broadband sound without the signal. The present study investigated auditory enhancement as an effective change in loudness, to determine whether it reflects a change in the loudness of the signal, the masker, or both. In the first experiment, the 500-ms precursor, an inharmonic complex with logarithmically spaced components, was followed after a 50-ms gap by the 100-ms signal or masker alone, the loudness of which was compared with that of the same signal or masker presented 2 s later. In the second experiment, the loudness of the signal embedded in the masker was assessed with and without a precursor using the same method, as was the loudness of the entire signal-plus-masker complex. The results suggest that the precursor does not affect the loudness of the signal or the masker alone, but enhances the loudness of the signal in the presence of the masker, while leaving the loudness of the surrounding masker unaffected. The results are consistent with an explanation based on "adaptation of inhibition" [Viemeister and Bacon (1982). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, 1502-1507]. PMID:26805025

  18. An analysis of auditory alphabet confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M E

    1989-04-01

    The present study, using the nonhierarchical overlapping clustering algorithm MAPCLUS to fit the Shepard-Arabie (1979) ADCLUS model, attempted to derive a set of features that would accurately describe the auditory alphabet confusions present in the data matrices of Conrad (1964) and Hull (1973). Separate nine-cluster solutions accounted for 80% and 89% of the variance in the matrices, respectively. The clusters revealed that the most frequently confused letter names contained common vowels and phonetically similar consonants. Further analyses using INDCLUS, an individual differences extension of the MAPCLUS algorithm and ADCLUS model, indicated that while the patterns of errors in the two matrices were remarkably similar, some differences were also apparent. These differences reflected the differing amounts of background noise present in the two studies. PMID:2710632

  19. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    MEASURE: Recurrence rate. RESULTS: Half of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. Thirteen of the patients had stage I tumor (65%), 2 had stage II (10%), 2 had stage III (10%), and 3 had stage IV tumor (15%). Twelve patients were cured. All patients with stage I or II cancers were cured except 1 with...... adenoid cystic carcinoma. No patients with stage III or IV cancer were cured. All recurrences developed in patients with incompletely resected tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome was related to the stage of disease, suggesting that the Pittsburgh staging system is useful also in patients with non......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000...

  20. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music. PMID:22524351

  1. Biomedical Simulation Models of Human Auditory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicak, Mehmet M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed acoustic engineering models that explore noise propagation mechanisms associated with noise attenuation and transmission paths created when using hearing protectors such as earplugs and headsets in high noise environments. Biomedical finite element (FE) models are developed based on volume Computed Tomography scan data which provides explicit external ear, ear canal, middle ear ossicular bones and cochlea geometry. Results from these studies have enabled a greater understanding of hearing protector to flesh dynamics as well as prioritizing noise propagation mechanisms. Prioritization of noise mechanisms can form an essential framework for exploration of new design principles and methods in both earplug and earcup applications. These models are currently being used in development of a novel hearing protection evaluation system that can provide experimentally correlated psychoacoustic noise attenuation. Moreover, these FE models can be used to simulate the effects of blast related impulse noise on human auditory mechanisms and brain tissue.

  2. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Chr. eHansen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty - a property of listeners’ prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure.Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex. Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty. We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty. Finally, we simulate listeners’ perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature.The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music.

  3. Auditory lateralisation deficits in neglect patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Alma; Clément, Sylvain; Senouci, Latifa; Pontzeele, Sylvain; Martin, Yves; Moroni, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Although visual deficits due to unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have been frequently described in the literature, fewer studies have been interested in directional hearing impairment in USN. The aim of this study was to explore sound lateralisation deficits in USN. Using a paradigm inspired by Tanaka et al. (1999), interaural time differences (ITD) were presented over headphones to give the illusion of a leftward or a rightward movement of sound. Participants were asked to respond "right" and "left" as soon as possible to indicate whether they heard the sound moving to the right or to the left side of the auditory space. We additionally adopted a single-case method to analyse the performance of 15 patients with right-hemisphere (RH) stroke and added two additional measures to underline sound lateralisation on the left side and on the right side. We included 15 patients with RH stoke (5 with a severe USN, 5 with a mild USN and 5 without USN) and 11 healthy age-matched participants. We expected to replicate findings of abnormal sound lateralisation in USN. However, although a sound lateralisation deficit was observed in USN, two different deficit profiles were identified. Namely, patients with a severe USN seemed to have left sound lateralisation impairment whereas patients with a mild USN seemed to be more influenced by a systematic bias in auditory representation with respect to body meridian axis (egocentric deviation). This latter profile was unexpected as sounds were manipulated with ITD and, thus, would not be perceived as coming from an external source of the head. Future studies should use this paradigm in order to better understand these two distinct profiles. PMID:27018451

  4. Plasticidade do sistema auditivo Auditory system plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina L. C. Féres

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O sistema sensorial auditivo tem sido alvo de estudos sobre sua capacidade de desenvolver respostas plásticas a diferentes tipos de lesão. Fenômenos regenerativos se fazem observar no segmento periférico do sistema, com a constatação da neogênese de células ciliadas em aves, em alguns casos acompanhada de recuperação funcional comprovada eletrofisiologicamente. Alterações em estruturas centrais da via auditiva, secundárias a uma lesão do órgão periférico, têm sido freqüentemente relatadas, significando uma provável resposta plástica à perturbação do sinal aferente. Exemplo extremo dessas alterações é encontrado em roedores que desenvolvem, secundariamente à indução de perda auditiva parcial, comportamento motor anômalo em resposta ao som intenso, denominado epilepsia audiogênica. Os autores fazem uma revisão sobre o assunto.The auditory system has been subject of studies that evaluated its capability to develop plastic responses to different kinds of lesions. Regeneration has been observed in the peripheral portions of the system, with neogenesis of the hair cells in avian, sometimes followed by functional rehabilitation as confirmed by electrophysiological testing. The occurrence of central auditory pathway disorders, secondary to peripheral damage, has been frequently noticed, probably due to a plastic reaction to the lack of afferent signal. A great example of these alterations is found in rodents that develop anomalous motor response to loud sounds, secondary to induced partial deafness, named audiogenic seizures. The authors presented a review about the theme.

  5. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PMID:24098923

  6. Predictive uncertainty in auditory sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Niels Chr; Pearce, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of auditory expectation have focused on the expectedness perceived by listeners retrospectively in response to events. In contrast, this research examines predictive uncertainty-a property of listeners' prospective state of expectation prior to the onset of an event. We examine the information-theoretic concept of Shannon entropy as a model of predictive uncertainty in music cognition. This is motivated by the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, which proposes that schematic expectations reflect probabilistic relationships between sensory events learned implicitly through exposure. Using probability estimates from an unsupervised, variable-order Markov model, 12 melodic contexts high in entropy and 12 melodic contexts low in entropy were selected from two musical repertoires differing in structural complexity (simple and complex). Musicians and non-musicians listened to the stimuli and provided explicit judgments of perceived uncertainty (explicit uncertainty). We also examined an indirect measure of uncertainty computed as the entropy of expectedness distributions obtained using a classical probe-tone paradigm where listeners rated the perceived expectedness of the final note in a melodic sequence (inferred uncertainty). Finally, we simulate listeners' perception of expectedness and uncertainty using computational models of auditory expectation. A detailed model comparison indicates which model parameters maximize fit to the data and how they compare to existing models in the literature. The results show that listeners experience greater uncertainty in high-entropy musical contexts than low-entropy contexts. This effect is particularly apparent for inferred uncertainty and is stronger in musicians than non-musicians. Consistent with the Statistical Learning Hypothesis, the results suggest that increased domain-relevant training is associated with an increasingly accurate cognitive model of probabilistic structure in music. PMID:25295018

  7. The GAP-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, B; Boiano, A; Catalanotti, S; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Di Meo, P; Longo, G; Vanzanella, A; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Fiorillo, G

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  8. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  9. Temporal structure and complexity affect audio-visual correspondence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task re...

  10. Temporal structure and complexity affect audio-visual correspondence detection

    OpenAIRE

    Denison, Rachel N.; Jon eDriver; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task re...

  11. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task re...

  12. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  13. Listenmee and Listenmee smartphone application: synchronizing walking to rhythmic auditory cues to improve gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Higuera, Carlos Andres Escalante; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Albicker, Ulrich; Martinez, Jairo Alberto Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Evidence supports the use of rhythmic external auditory signals to improve gait in PD patients (Arias & Cudeiro, 2008; Kenyon & Thaut, 2000; McIntosh, Rice & Thaut, 1994; McIntosh et al., 1997; Morris, Iansek, & Matyas, 1994; Thaut, McIntosh, & Rice, 1997; Suteerawattananon, Morris, Etnyre, Jankovic, & Protas , 2004; Willems, Nieuwboer, Chavert, & Desloovere, 2006). However, few prototypes are available for daily use, and to our knowledge, none utilize a smartphone application allowing individualized sounds and cadence. Therefore, we analyzed the effects on gait of Listenmee®, an intelligent glasses system with a portable auditory device, and present its smartphone application, the Listenmee app®, offering over 100 different sounds and an adjustable metronome to individualize the cueing rate as well as its smartwatch with accelerometer to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, track calorie count, sleep patterns, steps count and daily distances. The present study included patients with idiopathic PD presented gait disturbances including freezing. Auditory rhythmic cues were delivered through Listenmee®. Performance was analyzed in a motion and gait analysis laboratory. The results revealed significant improvements in gait performance over three major dependent variables: walking speed in 38.1%, cadence in 28.1% and stride length in 44.5%. Our findings suggest that auditory cueing through Listenmee® may significantly enhance gait performance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role and maximize the benefits of these portable devices. PMID:25215623

  14. Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification

    OpenAIRE

    Lidestam, Björn; Moradi, Shahram; Pettersson, Rasmus; Ricklefs, Theodor

    2014-01-01

    The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n = 20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identific...

  15. Sistema auditivo eferente: efeito no processamento auditivo Efferent auditory system: its effect on auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Acaui Ribeiro Burguetti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O processamento da informação sonora depende da integridade das vias auditivas aferentes e eferentes. O sistema auditivo eferente pode ser avaliado por meio dos reflexos acústicos e da supressão das emissões otoacústicas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a atividade do sistema auditivo eferente, por meio da supressão das emissões otoacústicas (EOA e da sensibilização do reflexo acústico no distúrbio de processamento auditivo. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo: 50 crianças com alteração de processamento auditivo (grupo estudo e 38 sem esta alteração (grupo controle, avaliadas por meio das EOA na ausência e presença de ruído contralateral e da pesquisa dos limiares do reflexo acústico na ausência e presença de estímulo facilitador contralateral. RESULTADOS: O valor médio da supressão das EOA foi de até 1,50 dB para o grupo controle e de até 1,26 dB para o grupo estudo. O valor médio da sensibilização dos reflexos foi de até 14,60 dB para o grupo estudo e de até 15,21 dB para o grupo controle. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as respostas dos grupos controle e estudo em ambos os procedimentos. CONCLUSÃO: O grupo estudo apresentou valores reduzidos na supressão das EOA e valores aumentados na sensibilização do reflexo acústico, em relação ao grupo controle.Auditory processing depends on afferent and efferent auditory pathways integrity. The efferent auditory system may be assessed in humans by two non-invasive and objective methods: acoustic reflex and otoacoustic emissions suppression. AIM: Analyze the efferent auditory system activity by otoacoustic emission suppression and acoustic reflex sensitization in human subjects with auditory processing disorders. METHOD: Prospective study: fifty children with auditory processing disorders (study group and thirty-eight children without auditory processing disorders (control group were evaluated using otoacoustic emission with and without

  16. Music and the auditory brain: where is the connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel eNelken

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound processing by the auditory system is understood in unprecedented details, even compared with sensory coding in the visual system. Nevertheless, we don't understand yet the way in which some of the simplest perceptual properties of sounds are coded in neuronal activity. This poses serious difficulties for linking neuronal responses in the auditory system and music processing, since music operates on abstract representations of sounds. Paradoxically, although perceptual representations of sounds most probably occur high in auditory system or even beyond it, neuronal responses are strongly affected by the temporal organization of sound streams even in subcortical stations. Thus, to the extent that music is organized sound, it is the organization, rather than the sound, which is represented first in the auditory brain.

  17. Retinoic Acid Stimulates Regeneration of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Philippe P.; Malgrange, Brigitte; Staecker, Hinrich; Moonen, Gustave; van de Water, Thomas R.

    1993-04-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the loss of auditory hair cells is thought to be irreversible in mammals. This study provides evidence that retinoic acid can stimulate the regeneration in vitro of mammalian auditory hair cells in ototoxic-poisoned organ of Corti explants in the rat. In contrast, treatment with retinoic acid does not stimulate the formation of extra hair cells in control cultures of Corti's organ. Retinoic acid-stimulated hair cell regeneration can be blocked by cytosine arabinoside, which suggests that a period of mitosis is required for the regeneration of auditory hair cells in this system. These results provide hope for a recovery of hearing function in mammals after auditory hair cell damage.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions ADPEAF autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features Enable Javascript to view the ... Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  19. Statistical representation of sound textures in the impaired auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    Many challenges exist when it comes to understanding and compensating for hearing impairment. Traditional methods, such as pure tone audiometry and speech intelligibility tests, offer insight into the deficiencies of a hearingimpaired listener, but can only partially reveal the mechanisms that...... underlie the hearing loss. An alternative approach is to investigate the statistical representation of sounds for hearing-impaired listeners along the auditory pathway. Using models of the auditory periphery and sound synthesis, we aimed to probe hearing impaired perception for sound textures – temporally...... homogenous sounds such as rain, birds, or fire. It has been suggested that sound texture perception is mediated by time-averaged statistics measured from early auditory representations (McDermott et al., 2013). Changes to early auditory processing, such as broader “peripheral” filters or reduced compression...

  20. Vocoder analysis based on properties of the human auditory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, B.; Tierney, J.

    1983-12-01

    When a person listens to speech corrupted by noise or other adverse environmental factors, speech intelligibility may be impaired slightly or not at all. The same corrupted speech, after being vocoded, often causes drastic intelligibility loss. The loss is due to the fact that the human peripheral auditory system is a superior signal processor to that of the vocoder. This report is based on the premise that a vocoder analyzer that better resembles the peripheral auditory system would function in a superior manner to present-day vocoders. Topics include reviews of speech enhancement techniques, perceptual analysis of diagnostic rhyme test data, a brief description of the peripheral auditory system and an outline of proposed psychophysical tests. The final section is devoted to a discussion of some preliminary work on computer simulation of an auditory model.